Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Visna: Demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep caused by the VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS. It is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.Pneumonia, Progressive Interstitial, of Sheep: Chronic respiratory disease caused by the VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS. It was formerly believed to be identical with jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE) but is now recognized as a separate entity.Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.Visna-maedi virus: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).Lentiviruses, Ovine-Caprine: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in sheep and goats.Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Equine Infectious Anemia: Viral disease of horses caused by the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV; INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS, EQUINE). It is characterized by intermittent fever, weakness, and anemia. Chronic infection consists of acute episodes with remissions.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Lentiviruses, Primate: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce immunodeficiencies in primates, including humans.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Lentiviruses, Bovine: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in cattle.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Puma: A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising one species, Puma concolor. It is a large, long-tailed, feline of uniform color. The names puma, cougar, and mountain lion are used interchangeably for this species. There are more than 20 subspecies.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Cercopithecus: A genus of Old World monkeys found in Africa although some species have been introduced into the West Indies. This genus is composed of at least twenty species: C. AETHIOPS, C. ascanius, C. campbelli, C. cephus, C. denti, C. diana, C. dryas, C. erythrogaster, C. erythrotis, C. hamlyni, C. lhoesti, C. mitis, C. mona, C. neglectus, C. nictitans, C. petaurista, C. pogonias, C. preussi, C. salongo, and C. wolfi.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lions: Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Lentiviruses, Feline: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in cats.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genes, env: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Lemur: A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Immunodeficiency Virus, Bovine: The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Gene Products, pol: Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Genes, tat: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the protein responsible for trans-activation of transcription (tat) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Retroviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.DNA Virus InfectionsVirus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Genes, rev: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Ross River virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
There are multiple steps involved in the infection and replication of a Lentivirus in a host cell. In the first step the virus ... Lentivirus are a family of viruses that are responsible for notable diseases like HIV. The Lentivirus is unique in that it has ... To do this scientists use the Lentivirus' mechanisms of infection to achieve a desired outcome to gene therapy. To understand ... Because the virus has been adapted to lose most of its genome, the virus becomes safer and more effective in transplanting the ...
... was due to the cross-species infections of humans by lentiviruses of primate origin. A careful analysis of the high degree of ... Her thesis specifically focused on the bovine leukemia virus, which is closely related to the human tumor virus HTLV-1. After ... After a fellow researcher, Mikulas Popovic, successfully cultured and isolated the virus, Hahn and Shaw cloned the virus's ... which showed a much lower SIVcpz infection rate in contrast to other naturally occurring SIV infections. This finding indicated ...
"Tropism of sheep lentiviruses for monocytes: susceptibility to infection and virus gene expression increase during maturation ... Visna virus (also known as visna-maedi virus, maedi-visna virus and ovine lentivirus) from the genus Lentivirus and subfamily ... The visna virus genome resembles that of other lentiviruses, in terms of the gene functions that are present. Visna virus is ... Visna Maedi virus (VMV) belongs to the small ruminant lentivirus group (SRLV). In general, SRLVs enter the cell through the ...
Current research may suggest that equine foamy virus serves as a cofactor in the contraction of equine lentivirus infection. ... Like other foamy viruses, infection with equine foamy virus is lifelong, yet the natural hosts do not display any pathological ... Additionally, these viruses have been identified in animals that most often carry lentiviruses. The name foamy virus can be ... Equine foamy virus (EFV) is a single-stranded RNA-RT virus and a member of the genus Spumavirus, which is otherwise known as ...
... pushed the origin of SIV-like lentivirus infections in primates back to at least 14 Ma, the last time there was intermingling ... gibbon-ape leukemia virus, simian foamy virus, simian sarcoma virus related viruses also cause disease in other mammals: sheep ... immunodeficiency viruses are a species of retrovirus in the Primate group of genus Lentivirus along with the human viruses HIV- ... Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are retroviruses that cause persistent infections in at least 45 species of African non- ...
The best known lentivirus is the Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV, which causes AIDS. Lentiviruses are also hosted in apes, ... Lentiviral infection has advantages over other gene-therapy methods including high-efficiency infection of dividing and non- ... Lentiviruses can become endogenous (ERV), integrating their genome into the host germline genome, so that the virus is ... Visna virus "What is Lentivirus?". News-Medical.net. Retrieved 2015-11-30. Cockrell, Adam S.; Kafri, Tal (2007-07-01). "Gene ...
... is a human cellular protein which inhibits retrovirus infection by preventing the diffusion of virus particles after ... Another primate lentivirus, SIV, also, counteracts tetherin by their removal from the plasma membrane. KSHV protein K5 also ... For some viruses, such as Dengue virus, tetherin inhibits the budding of virions as well as cell-to-cell transmission of the ... Sendai virus proteins HN and F direct tethrin to endosomes or proteasome for degradation. CHIKV protein nsP1 interacts with ...
Genus Lentivirus; type species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1; others include Simian, Feline immunodeficiency viruses ... Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus infections are treated with biologics, including the only ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ...
Genus Lentivirus; type species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1; others include Simian, Feline immunodeficiency viruses ... Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus infections are treated with biologics, including the only ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ...
For example, some protect against infection with related viruses. In some mammal groups, including higher primates, retroviral ... Bornaviridae and Circoviridae families of viruses, and 12 million years for the Lentivirus genus of the Retroviridae family. ... Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Murine leukemia virus (MLV), and xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) ... An endogenous viral element (EVE) is a DNA sequence derived from a virus, and present within the germline of a non-viral ...
The initial stages of these infections mimic infection with natural viruses and lead to expression of the genes transferred and ... in the case of lentivirus/retrovirus vectors) insertion of the DNA to be transferred into the cellular genome. However, since ... these infections do not generate new viruses (the viruses are "replication-deficient"). Resistance to antibiotic drugs.[ ... If bacteriophages undertake the lytic cycle of infection upon entering a bacterium, the virus will take control of the cell's ...
... dengue virus and West Nile virus), filoviruses (Marburg virus and Ebola virus) coronaviruses (SARS coronavirus) and lentivirus ... IFITM proteins also are able to inhibit several other enveloped viruses infection that belong to different virus families. ... "The IFITM proteins mediate cellular resistance to influenza A H1N1 virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus". Cell. 139 (7): ... Knockout IFITM3 increased influenza virus A replication and overexpression IFITM3 inhibits influenza virus A replication. In ...
The human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) are two species of Lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and ... This article is about the virus. For the infection caused by the virus, see HIV/AIDS. For other uses, see HIV (disambiguation). ... "AIDS virus" redirects here. For the computer virus, see AIDS (computer virus). ... The HIV virus can remain dormant in the human body for up to ten years after primary infection; during this period the virus ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that has two major species, HIV-1 which causes the majority of the epidemic ... HIV infection was first described in 1981 in San Francisco and New York City. In 1985, HIV was identified as the causative ... Then the virus binds to the chemokine coreceptors CXCR4 or CCR5, resulting in conformational changes in the envelope proteins. ... There are several steps in the HIV life cycle that may be interfered with, thus stopping the replication of the virus. A very ...
Some viruses are used as vectors for gene therapy. Virus vectors have been developed that mediate stable genetic modification ... Lentiviruses and Macrophages: Molecular and Cellular Interactions. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-60-8. CS1 maint: ... Infection, Genetics and Evolution volume 57, pages 8-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2017.10.024 Kennedy, S; Oswald, N ( ... The complete DNA sequence of the Epstein-Barr virus was completed in 1984. Bluetongue virus (BTV) has been in the forefront of ...
Such a virus can efficiently infect cells but, once the infection has taken place, requires a helper virus to provide the ... which raises concerns for possible applications of lentiviruses in gene therapy. However, studies have shown that lentivirus ... Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small virus that infects humans and some other primate species. AAV is not currently known to ... The viral receptor can be modified to target the virus to a specific kind of cell. Viruses modified in this manner are said to ...
Other common signs include recurring respiratory tract infections. Opportunistic infections may be caused by bacteria, viruses ... Lentiviruses are transmitted as single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA viruses. Upon entry into the target cell, the ... the presence of co-infections; and the particular strain (or strains) of the virus involved. Tuberculosis co-infection is one ... is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following initial infection, a ...
Chlamydophila felis Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a retrovirus not a cancer. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lentivirus ... Timely vaccination can reduce the risk and severity of an infection. The most commonly recommended viruses to vaccinate cats ... An infectious disease is caused by the presence of pathogenic organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites (either ... Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper respiratory infection of cats caused by feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1). Feline ...
Antigen analysis on select Florida panther populations has shown evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus and puma lentivirus ... consistently positive results for the presence of infection is difficult to find. In the 2002-2003 capture season, feline ... Miller, D.L.; Taylor, Rotstein; Pough, Barr (April 2006). "Feline Immunodeficiency Virus and Puma Lentivirus in Florida ... The virus is lethal, and its presence has resulted in efforts to inoculate the population. While no new cases have been ...
... and many popular lentiviral vectors have either a human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) or equine infectious anemia virus ( ... Retinal gene therapy using lentivirus vectors may be a way to treat a wider range of genetic disorders in the retina because of ... Other work by researchers suggests interferon may play an important role in preventing successful infection of the target cell ... The body has multiple methods of targeting and ridding itself of any cells infected with the lentivirus, all of them falling ...
Stonos, N; Wootton, SK; Karrow, N (22 August 2014). "Immunogenetics of small ruminant lentiviral infections". Viruses. 6 (8): ... is a viral disease of goats caused by a lentivirus called caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. The disease is found worldwide ... Infection is life-long, and it may be years before signs of the disease occur. The reason for the long (and variable) period of ... Blood testing goats for CAE virus before moving them into a new herd will prevent the spread of the disease. There is no known ...
... (FIV) is a lentivirus that affects cats worldwide. From 2.5% up to 4.4% of cats worldwide are ... and/or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and the associated symptoms of lymphocytopenia, opportunistic infection, anemia, ... FIV differs taxonomically from two other feline retroviruses, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline foamy virus (FFV), and is ... "Occurrence of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats", Ciência Rural, 38 (8): 2245, doi:10.1590/S0103- ...
How the SIV virus would have transformed into HIV after infection of the hunter or bushmeat handler from the ape/monkey is ... the said lemurs later developed immunity to the virus strain and survived an era when the lentivirus was widespread among other ... Upon retesting David Carr's tissues, he found no sign of the virus. One of the earliest documented HIV-1 infections was ... The virus was later named lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) and a sample was sent to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ...
Later analyses showed that the virus strain was a Nef-deleted variant. A Nef-deleted virus vaccine has not been tried in humans ... Lentiviruses such as HIV-1 have acquired proteins such as Nef which perform a wide array of functions including the ... Since the activation state of the infected cell plays an important role in the success rate of HIV-1 infection, it is important ... These include Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV). Nef localizes primarily ...
Thus far, the lentiviruses used have been primate viruses that may possess the potential to cause disease in humans. As a non- ... When looking at prevalence of BIV infection, it was found that BIV is more prevalent in the southern United States and most ... Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) is a retrovirus belonging to the Lentivirus genus. It is similar to the human ... The virus matures after proteolytic processing by the viral protease (PR). The virus is then ready to infect another cell and ...
... herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly ... acute HIV infection - Acute HIV Infection and Early Diseases Research Program (AIEDRP) - ADAP - ADC - adenopathy - adherence - ... Langerhans cells - LAS - lentivirus - lesion - leukocytes - leukocytosis - leukopenia - leukoplakia - LFT - LIP - lipid - ... human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV- ...
Non-neutralizing antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus enhance early stages of infection in macrophages, but do ... T1 - Modulation of lentivirus replication by antibodies. Non-neutralizing antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus ... Modulation of lentivirus replication by antibodies. Non-neutralizing antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus enhance ... Non-neutralizing antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus enhance early stages of infection in macrophages, but do ...
feline leukemia virus synonyms, feline leukemia virus pronunciation, feline leukemia virus translation, English dictionary ... definition of feline leukemia virus. n. Abbr. FeLV A retrovirus that primarily affects cats, is transmitted through saliva, and ... feline lentivirus infection. *feline lentivirus infection. *feline lentivirus infection. *feline lentivirus infection ... Related to feline leukemia virus: Feline immunodeficiency virus. feline leukemia virus. n. Abbr. FeLV. A retrovirus that ...
Biobest provides serological testing for antibodies to Equine Infectious Anaemia Virus (EIA). Biobest is the only GLP compliant ... EIA commonly known as swamp fever is a viral disease of horses caused by the lentivirus equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV ... detection of serum antibody to EIAV confirms the diagnosis of EIA virus infection. ... Precipitating antibody is rapidly produced as a result of EIA infection, and can be detected by the AGID (Coggins) Test. ...
CAE is a debilitating and progressive infection determined by a lentivirus belonging to … ... Therefore, the goal of this study was to report a difference of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) seroreactivity by ... The authors suggest that there is an association between farmers belonging to cooperatives and CAEV infection. ...
Feline panleukopenia virus (PLV) causes significant mortality in domestic kittens. The virus is also carried by raccoons and is ... ringworm infection) has been diagnosed in several panthers and resulted in severe generalized infection in at least one ( ... Approximately 28% of Florida panthers were positive for antibodies to the puma lentivirus strain of FIV (Olmstead et al. 1992 ... Feline panleukopenia virus (PLV) causes significant mortality in domestic kittens. The virus is also carried by raccoons and is ...
... single-stranded RNA virus in the Lentivirus genus of the Retrovirus family. CAE is closely related to Visna/Maedi Virus(VMV) ... Stonos N, Wootton SK, Karrow N. Immunogenetics of small ruminant lentiviral infections. Viruses. (2014) ... Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus detection in blood by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the ... Sexual transmission is a possible but unlikely factor in the spread of CAEV infection. Atrogenic transfer of CAEV is also a ...
When I get the call, I just know. Can I just answer barely awake and go back to sleep or do I need to be up in a flash? Some of it is the intuition that comes with getting calls in the dead of the night over many years. Its the languid pace of a persons voice with a bothersome question, the timid entry phrase, Im sorry to bother you with this... Or its the fear and panic in the voice of the ...
HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ... Active, serious infections (other than HIV-1 infection) requiring parenteral antibiotic or antifungal therapy within 30 days ... HIV Infection Drug: Elvitegravir Drug: Raltegravir Drug: EVG placebo Drug: RAL placebo Drug: Background regimen Phase 3 ...
HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ... HIV HIV Infections Drug: Darunavir, Ritonavir, Truvada Drug: Darunavir, Ritonavir and Etravirine Phase 4 ... have no serologic evidence of active HBV infection evidenced by negative hepatitis B surface antigen ...
HIV Infections. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus ... A Study of a Combination of Four Drugs in Patients With Recent HIV Infection. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... HIV Infections Drug: Indinavir sulfate Drug: Abacavir sulfate Drug: Amprenavir Drug: Lamivudine Phase 2 ... Slow Virus Diseases. Lamivudine. Abacavir. Indinavir. Amprenavir. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Nucleic Acid Synthesis ...
HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ... HIV Infections Drug: Raltegravir Drug: Darunavir Drug: Ritonavir Drug: Tenofovir/Emtricitabine Phase 4 ...
RNA Virus Infections. Hepatitis. Liver Diseases. Digestive System Diseases. Immune System Diseases. Lentivirus Infections. ... HIV Infections. Hepatitis C, Chronic. Hepatitis, Viral, Human. Virus Diseases. Flaviviridae Infections. ... and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection (HIV/HCV) have a more rapid and progressive course of HCV infection, leading to fatty ... Retroviridae Infections. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Slow Virus Diseases. Hepatitis, ...
HIV Infections. Cryptosporidiosis. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. ... Protozoan Infections, Animal. Parasitic Diseases, Animal. Coccidiosis. Protozoan Infections. Intestinal Diseases. ...
HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ...
HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ... HIV Infections Behavioral: Cognitive Behavioral and Standard Care with Healthy Living Phase 1 Phase 2 ...
HIV Infections. Immune System Diseases. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. ... The CDC classifies HIV infection as Category A (participants with asymptomatic HIV infection, acute HIV infection with ... R5-tropic only virus at screening.. *Total prior antiretroviral experience of at least 3 months and documented resistance to at ... Significant ECG abnormalities or significant history of active pancreatitis, hepatitis, opportunistic infections, malabsorption ...
HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ... HIV-1 viral biofilm could be important not only for direct transmission of the virions but also for trans-infection , a ... Ultimately, we intend to determine how the interference of retroviral infections with T cell activation pathways modulates the ... Vpu and Nef HIV-1 encoded using mutant viruses or expression vectors). ...
HIV Infections. Tuberculosis. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually ... Mycobacterium Infections. Actinomycetales Infections. Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections. Bacterial Infections. Isoniazid. ...
HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ... HIV Infections Drug: Indinavir sulfate Drug: Abacavir sulfate Drug: Nelfinavir mesylate Drug: Efavirenz Drug: Nevirapine Drug: ... This study will also examine which treatment regimen is best as a first treatment for HIV infection. ...
HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ...
Caprine arthritis encephalitis, a disease caused by small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV), causes economic losses in goat breeding, ... However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge on the caprine immune response to infection. All types of cytokines play ... This review attempts to summarize the results of studies on the expression of cytokines in the context of the SRLV infection. ... This information encouraged the authors to examine the results of studies conducted on SRLV and other viral infections, with an ...
Virus produced from the parental vector was used as control. Lentivirus production and infections were performed as described ... For controls, the cell lines A549 and H522, which do not express ErbB-3, were also infected with the same viruses. As shown in ... Five days after infection, protein extracts were prepared and probed with antibodies against ErbB-3, phospho-Akt (Ser-473), ... The Calu-3 and H3255 cells were infected with ErbB-3 shRNA and control virus. ...
Lentivirus Production, Infection, and Selection. 4 × 106 Lenti-X 293T cells (Clontech) were transfected with 8 μg DNA of ... Virus pellets were resuspended in EpiLife with HKGS supplement. Spinfection with 1000 g for 30 min was used to transduce TRIPZ ... a) Infection of fibroblasts and keratinocytes with a TRIPZ Human TBX3 shRNA lentivirus, inducible via doxycycline addition. (b ... Two days after infection, keratinocytes and fibroblasts were detached using TrypLE Express (Life Technologies) and were seeded ...
feline immunodeficiency virus. a common lentivirus infection of cats considered to share many features in common with human ... feline sarcoma virus (FeSV). a recombinant virus in the family Retroviridae formed from feline leukemia virus and cat cellular ... feline leukemia virus (FeLV). an oncornavirus, antigenically related to other leukemia viruses; exists in three subtypes, A, B ... All felids, mustelids and procyonids are also susceptible to feline panleukopenia virus infection. ...
... infecting viruses) in the animal and that neuroinvasion in the outbreak involved microevolution after initial infection with an ... This study demonstrates virus compartmentalization in the CNS and other body tissues in sheep presenting the neurological form ... indicative of CNS virus sequence heterogeneity. Outbreak sequences were of genotype A, clustering per animal and ... in order to assess virus compartmentalization in CNS. Eight Visna (neurologically) affected sheep of the outbreak were used. Of ...
  • Dominance of highly divergent feline leukemia virus A progeny variants in a cat with recurrent viremia and fatal lymphoma," Retrovirology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. (labome.org)
  • There is an ever-growing list of different virus species that are being used as virus vectors. (hindawi.com)
  • Dr Parfentjev, an employee of Lederle Laboratories (one of many well‐known vaccine manufacturers), reported that vaccination of mice with pertussis vaccine sensitised them, i.e. caused anaphylaxis (as opposed to prophylaxis), and increased their susceptibility to infection with several unrelated species of Gram negative bacteria and viruses. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • Specifically, we discovered that HIV-1 resulted from cross-species infections of SIVcpz and SIVgor naturally infecting chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) , respectively, while HIV-2 resulted from transmissions of SIVsmm infecting sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) . (upenn.edu)
  • South America includes four hantavirus species (the Andes, Rio Mamoré, Laguna Negra and Cano Delgadito viruses) with more than 30 variants responsible for approximately 4,000 HCPS cases. (scielo.br)
  • In particular, phylogenetic analysis of the primate lentiviruses has established the approximate timing and geographic locations of the transmission events that preceded the global HIV-1 and HIV-2 pandemics ( 2 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Despite being ancient, this subgroup contains many of the features found in present-day lentiviruses, such as the presence of tat and rev genes, thus also indicating an ancient origin for the complex regulation of lentivirus gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • The virus causes neoplastic (lymphosarcoma and other lymphoid tumors and myeloproliferative disease) and many non-neoplastic (bone marrow suppression, including nonregenerative anemia, thymic atrophy and immunosuppression) diseases and is associated with reproductive failure, glomerulonephritis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In contrast, the ungulate lentiviruses induce diseases reminiscent of chronic inflammatory conditions. (asm.org)
  • Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, to design therapeutic approaches that can modulate the course of lentivirus diseases, it is essential not only to characterize the virus variants that evolve during the course of infection but also to understand the basis for their selection in the host. (asm.org)
  • Due to their extensive overlap in developing regions, especially Sub-Saharan Africa, co-infections with malaria and HIV-1 are common, but the interplay between the two diseases is poorly understood. (jove.com)
  • Lentivirus are a family of viruses that are responsible for notable diseases like HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the experimental uses for the Lentivirus vector have been in gene therapy of diseases like Diabetes mellitus, Murine haemophilia A, prostate cancer, chronic granulomatous disease, and vascular gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The engineering of virus vectors has allowed the development of gene vaccines for a wide range of infectious diseases and cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • The lentiviruses are associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in mammals. (pnas.org)
  • Sexually transmitted diseases are the infections that are transmitted during a sexual intercourse or sexual contact. (manipalhospitals.com)
  • If a person gets infected with HIV, he/she will find it difficult to fight other infections and diseases. (manipalhospitals.com)
  • Many anthropological and biological studies detail indigenous people's use of stingless bee honey to treat various ailments, such as bacterial infections, sore throats, and digestive diseases. (jyi.org)
  • Modified live vaccines are efficacious against numerous viral diseases, but concern over reversion to a virulent phenotype or recombination with endogenous or exogenous viruses have limited their use against lentiviruses ( 8 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • During this acute primary infection, the blood has a high number of HIV copies (viral load) that spread throughout the body, infecting various organs, particularly the lymphoid organs such as the thymus, spleen and lymph nodes, where massive production of virus follows. (hiv-monitoring.nl)
  • and highly immunogenic viral proteins, nucleic acids, and virus fragments. (clontech.com)
  • In fact, purified Lenti-X samples contain very little detectable protein, while filter-purified virus preparations contain high levels of extraneous proteins that copurify with the virus. (clontech.com)
  • We systematically screened publicly available, genome scale sequence databanks and trace archives using BLAST algorithms and sequence probes derived from the enzymatic and structural proteins of representative lentiviruses. (pnas.org)
  • To determine how MFN2 mutations lead to peripheral neuropathy, we expressed disease-mutated MFN2 proteins in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using lentivirus vectors. (jneurosci.org)
  • HIV-1 exploits multiple host proteins during infection. (sciencemag.org)
  • HIV-1 encodes only 15 proteins ( 1 ) and thus must exploit multiple host cell functions for successful infection ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Within an infected cell, virions are formed in a temporally and spatially coordinated manner wherein the components that make up the virus (e.g., the virally encoded envelope, Gag, protease, integrase, reverse transcriptase, and Vpr proteins, together with the RNA genome) assemble in association with a specific cellular membrane from which the viral envelope is derived. (rupress.org)
  • Lentiviral vectors in gene therapy is a method by which genes can be inserted, modified, or deleted in organisms using lentivirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Lentivirus is unique in that it has been the basis of research using viruses in gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • To do this scientists use the Lentivirus' mechanisms of infection to achieve a desired outcome to gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study designed to enhance the outcomes of vascular transplant through vascular endothelial cell gene therapy, the third generation of Lentivirus showed to be effective in the delivery of genes to moderate venous grafts and transplants in procedures like coronary artery bypass. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also restored gene expression in the Parkin -deficient lung carcinoma cell line H460 by use of a recombinant lentivirus containing the wild-type Parkin cDNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To better understand the role of TMPRSS2 for avian, human and swine influenza virus infection, a lentivirus was constructed containing a doxycycline-inducible small hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) to inhibit the TMPRSS2 gene via RNA interference (RNAi). (jyi.org)
  • Thus, these data provide direct evidence that changes which evolve in Env-SU during the course of SIVMne infection do not alter CCR-5 interactions. (asm.org)
  • Amplifying viral genes and quantifying HIV-1 RNA in HIV-1 infected individuals with viral loads below the limit of detection by standard assays (below 50-75 copies/ml) is necessary to gain insight to viral dynamics and virus host interactions in patients who naturally control the infection and those who are on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). (jove.com)
  • Although the virus we describe is defective, reconstruction of an infectious progenitor could provide novel insights into lentivirus biology and host interactions. (pnas.org)
  • To identify genetic changes that are important to virus evolution in the host, we constructed chimeric viruses by introducing variant envelope genes representative of proviruses throughout the course of infection and disease into the SIVMne parental clone (SIVMneCL8) that infected the macaque. (asm.org)
  • Therapy requires manipulation of the Lentivirus genes and structure for delivery of specific genes to alter the course of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the virus has been adapted to lose most of its genome, the virus becomes safer and more effective in transplanting the required genes into the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • As infection is the greatest killer in human history [ 1 ], the strongest evidence for selection in the human genome has been obtained for genes involved in immune defense, including those which encode receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To overcome problems such as these, the research community must rely primarily on various in vitro and animal systems to model aspects of HIV infection of the CNS. (asm.org)
  • There are a number of in vitro systems and animal models that are being used to investigate aspects of HIV infection in the CNS. (asm.org)
  • In the present study, an in vitro cell model of lentivirus‑mediated gain‑of‑function demonstrated promotion of ESCC cell migration and invasion when miR‑212 was overexpressed, and no effect on cell proliferation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that upregulation of endogenous CXCR4 can increase the susceptibility to infection with FIV ( 59 ) and that overexpression of exogenous human CXCR4 on a target cell may overcome the requirement for the expression of CD134 ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Evolutionary analyses of the genomic sequences of modern-day lentiviruses have suggested a relatively recent date for their emergence, but the failure to identify any endogenous, vertically transmitted examples has meant that their longer term evolutionary history and origin remain unknown. (pnas.org)
  • All known lentiviruses are exogenous (transmitted horizontally from host to host) and are only distantly related to endogenous, germ-line retroviruses ( 7 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the lack of endogenous "genomic fossils" has precluded studies into the longer term evolutionary history and origin of lentiviruses ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here we report the discovery and analysis of the first endogenous lentivirus, present in the genome of the European rabbit, which we term rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K (RELIK). (pnas.org)
  • If a single virus genome is detected in 7 ml of plasma, then the RNA copy number is reported to be 0.3 copies/ml. (jove.com)
  • Lastly, the "env" domain of the viral genome encodes for the glycoproteins and envelope on the surface of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • By dating the invasion of the rabbit genome by the RELIK virus, we provide the first direct evidence that lentiviruses are ancient in origin. (pnas.org)
  • Effect of daily aciclovir on HIV disease progression in individuals in Rakai, Uganda, co-infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. (medscape.com)
  • To understand the capabilities of the Lentivirus as a vector, the biology of the infectious process must be understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of RELIK extends the host range of lentiviruses to a fifth mammalian order and demonstrates that such viruses can also spread by vertical transmission and intragenomic proliferation, in addition to infectious horizontal transfer. (pnas.org)
  • The emergence of equine infectious anemia in France prompted the local authorities to issue a temporary ban on importing equines from this European country as it will be helpful in preventing the spread of the infection inside the Kingdom, according to the Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are however, other types of cancers that appear more among HIV infected people compared with the general population but were not previously associated with HIV infection. (scielo.org.za)
  • Because the viruses isolated late in SIVMne infection of macaques include a complex mixture of variants, the viral determinants of such phenotypic changes have not been defined. (asm.org)
  • The chimeric viruses expressed sequences encoding the surface unit of the envelope glycoprotein (Env-SU) of variants cloned between 35 and 170 weeks postinfection. (asm.org)
  • The chimera with Env-SU from 35 weeks postinfection encoded only four changes in V1 compared to SIVMneCL8, whereas the chimeras encoding Env-SU from variants isolated later in infection encoded progressively more mutations both in V1 and elsewhere. (asm.org)
  • CD8 + T cell responses play a key role in the containment of lentivirus infections. (jimmunol.org)
  • FIV is an enveloped virus and, similar to other lentiviruses, has a virion diameter of 105-125 nm and includes a host cell-acquired membrane with viral glycoproteins protruding as spike-like projections [ 1 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The virus contains a reverse transcriptase molecule found to perform transcription of the viral genetic material upon entering the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first step the virus uses its surface glycoproteins for attachment to the outer surface of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • With prostate cancer, the Lentivirus is transformed by being bound to trastuzumab to attach to androgen-sensitive LNCaP and castration-resistant C4-2 human prostate cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, virus maturation was delayed by 3 days until further cell maturation had occurred. (unl.edu)
  • Thus, the entire life cycle of the virus, from its attachment to the target cell to its maturation in the cell, was dependent on the level of maturation/differentiation of the monocytic cell. (unl.edu)
  • Predictive value of plasma HIV RNA level on rate of CD4 T-cell decline in untreated HIV infection. (medscape.com)
  • Kinetics of CD4+ T cell repopulation of lymphoid tissues after treatment of HIV-1 infection. (iasusa.org)
  • Population biology of HIV-1 infection: viral and CD4+ T cell demographics and dynamics and lymphatic tissues. (iasusa.org)
  • Reversibility of the pathological changes in the follicular dendritic cell network with treatment of HIV-1 infection. (iasusa.org)
  • The paper also reports that before a nerve cell can become infected with the virus, it must be associated with a specific type of lymphocyte, or immune cell. (innovations-report.com)
  • Viruses spread within the body by first breaching the cell wall and taking up residence within the cellular environment. (innovations-report.com)
  • You can basically take this cell that normally has a limited ability to consistantly replicate virus and just dramatically turn it on, simply by adding methamphetamine. (innovations-report.com)
  • HIV particles budding at the cell surface would need to recruit these so-called ESCRT complexes to the plasma membrane, whereas the presence of the ESCRT complexes on endosomes may favor intracellular virus assembly. (rupress.org)
  • Human t cell lymphotropic virus type i-induced t cell activation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cleavage of influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) via host cell proteases is required for entry into the host cell. (jyi.org)
  • We developed a mathematical model of within-host EIAV infection dynamics that contains both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. (scirp.org)
  • That cell line is NOT compatible and cannot be used to produce virus with the MISSION shRNA library. (sigmaaldrich.com)