RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.DNA Virus InfectionsVirus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.RNA Virus InfectionsSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Orf virus: The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Archaeal Viruses: Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Fowlpox virus: The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Leukemia Virus, Bovine: The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.DucksHendra Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Borna disease virus: A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.Bunyamwera virus: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Distemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Rinderpest virus: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Herpesvirus 3, Human: The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Respirovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.Reticuloendotheliosis virus: A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Infectious bronchitis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.Herpesvirus 1, Suid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Torque teno virus: A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.AKR murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.Ectromelia virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Avian myeloblastosis virus: A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Ross River virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.Classical swine fever virus: A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease: Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Respirovirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.Vesiculovirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
... virus 2 is typically contracted through direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected individual, but can also be ... "Herpes virus has infected nearly one in five Canadians over age 35, most unaware they have it: study". National Post. Retrieved ... Virus enters into susceptible cells by entry receptors such as nectin-1, HVEM and 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate. Infected people ... An immunity to the virus is built over time. Most infected individuals experience fewer outbreaks and outbreak symptoms often ...
... but also able to infect humans. Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) in the genus Henipavirus have emerged in humans and ... Another virus in this family is Anaconda paramyxovirus. Bank vole virus, Mossman virus and Nariva virus are three paramyxovirus ... Both viruses are contagious, highly virulent, and capable of infecting a number of mammalian species and causing potentially ... J virus is very similar to Beilong virus and probably belongs in the same genus. Both have features that differ from the other ...
As is typical with this virus family, it is shed in large amounts in the feces of infected persons. The disease can be spread ... Bornholm disease or epidemic pleurodynia or epidemic myalgia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie B virus or other viruses. It ... Other viruses in the enterovirus family, including echovirus and Coxsackie A virus, are infrequently associated with ... Infect. Immun. 8 (3): 341-8. PMC 422854 . PMID 4199715. Bell EJ, Grist NR (July 1971). "ECHO viruses, carditis, and acute ...
Lysogenic viruses infect Sulfolobus for protection. The viruses cannot survive in the extremely acidic and hot conditions that ... The viruses infecting archaea like Sulfolobus have to use a strategy to escape prolonged direct exposure to the type of ... The Sulfolobus viruses are temperate or permanent lysogens. Permanent lysogens differ from lysogenic bacteriophages in that the ... They are also unique in the sense that the genes encoding the structural proteins of the virus are constantly transcribed and ...
Both these viruses infect amoebas specifically. Charismatic megafauna Deep-sea gigantism Genome size Human timeline Island ... Prior to this discovery, the largest virus was the peculiar Pandoravirus genus of viruses, which have a size of approximately 1 ... The largest virus on record so far is the Pithovirus sibericum with the length of 1.5 micrometres, comparable to the typical ... Brumfiel, Geoff (18 July 2013). "World's Biggest Virus May Have Ancient Roots". National Public Radio. Retrieved 18 July 2013. ...
Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. Many types of bacteriophage exist, some simply infect and lyse their host ... Transduction of bacterial genes by bacteriophage is a consequence of infrequent errors during intracellular assembly of virus ... Donlan RM (2002). "Biofilms: microbial life on surfaces". Emerg Infect Dis. 8 (9): 881-90. doi:10.3201/eid0809.020063. PMC ... J Infect Dis. 143 (3): 325-45. doi:10.1093/infdis/143.3.325. PMID 7014727. Silverman PM (1997). "Towards a structural biology ...
By definition Alphatorquevirus infect humans. Biagini P (2009). "Classification of TTV and related viruses (anelloviruses)". ... It encompasses many type species of the virus formerly known as TTV, Transfusion Transmitted Virus or Torque Teno Virus, SENV, ... The type species is Torque Teno Virus 1-29. The viron is non-enveloped and isocahedral with a diameter of ~30-32 nm. The single ... ICTV Virus Taxonomy 2009 [1] UniProt Taxonomy [2] Anellovirus at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ...
Koonin, EV (2010). "The wonder world of microbial viruses" (PDF). Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 8: 1097-9. doi:10.1586/eri.10.96 ... Bettstetter M, Peng, X, Garrett RA, and Prangishvili D (2003) "AFV1, a novel virus infecting hyperthermophilic archaea of the ... reveal that DNA viruses of Archaea constitute a distinctive part of the viral world and that Archaea can be infected by viruses ... The results of his research provide new perspectives concerning the diversity and evolution of viruses and virus-host ...
Viruses of this genus exclusively infect birds; duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) and heron hepatitis B virus (HHBV) are the ... Viruses in this genus infect mammals, including human, apes, and rodents, with a narrow host range for each virus. The only ... DHBV: infects only certain duck and goose species, but does not even infect Muscovy ducks or chickens, or infects them ... Woodchuck Hepatitis virus), GSHV (Ground squirrel hepatitis virus ), and WMHV (Woolly monkey hepatitis virus) as the prototypes ...
These viruses infect rodents and occasionally humans; arenaviruses have also been discovered which infect snakes. At least ... virus Junin virus Latino virus Machupo virus Oliveros virus Paraná virus Patawa virus Pichinde virus Pirital virus Sabiá virus ... LCMV-Lassa virus (Old World) complex: Gairo virus Gbagroube virus Ippy virus Kodoko virus Lassa virus Lujo virus Luna virus ... virus Mariental virus Merino Walk virus Menekre virus Mobala virus Morogoro virus Mopeia virus Okahandja virus Wenzhou virus ...
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a virus similar to HIV, is capable of infecting primates. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is ... Bacteria infect hosts differently than viruses do. Unlike viruses, bacteria can replicate and divide on their own without entry ... If a cell does not express these receptors, then the virus cannot normally infect it. Therefore, if the virus cannot bind to ... Without this lining, viruses and bacteria could easily infect vital human organs such as the brain, lungs, and placenta. ...
West Nile virus is typically spread by infected mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds. Rarely ... The virus is believed to have entered in an infected bird or mosquito, although there is no clear evidence. West Nile virus is ... Infect. Dis. 42 (11): 1527-35. doi:10.1086/503841. PMID 16652309. Shaikh S, Trese MT (2004). "West Nile virus chorioretinitis ... West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND), which occurs in less than 1 percent of cases, is when the virus infects the central ...
The adult tick then transmits the virus to humans through a bite, where it infects bone marrow cells. The virus replicates in ... Since then, the virus took on some differences, and is now considered its own species of virus. European Eyach virus was ... that are already infected with virus. The tick's saliva then contains the virus, and it becomes infectious for life. ... Antibody to the virus is found only about two weeks after symptoms begin to show, but the virus can still be found in blood ...
In individuals infected with HIV, CCR5-using viruses are the predominant species isolated during the early stages of viral ... Many forms of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, initially use CCR5 to enter and infect host cells. Certain individuals carry a ... This same method might be used in vivo to establish a virus-resistant cell pool in infected individuals. This hypothesis was ... Moreover, at least half of all infected individuals harbor only CCR5-using viruses throughout the course of infection. CCR5 is ...
... the virus infects amoebas. Isachenkov, Vladimir (21 February 2012), "Russians revive Ice Age flower from frozen burrow", ... Yong, Ed (3 March 2014). "Giant virus resurrected from 30,000-year-old ice : Nature News & Comment". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature ... of the Silene stenophylla plants was cited in 2014 as the inspiration for experiments that discovered a viable giant virus, ...
Viruses infect host cells and reproduce inside them. Killer T-cells destroy those infected cells so that the viruses can't ... awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1996 for the discovery of how the immune system recognizes virus-infected ... he received the 1996 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of how the immune system recognizes virus-infected ... Zinkernagel and Doherty discovered that, in order for killer T-cells to recognize infected cells, they had to recognize two ...
Some bacteria and viruses have a broad tissue tropism and can infect many types of cells and tissues. Other viruses may infect ... For example, rabies virus affects primarily neuronal tissue. Factors influencing viral tissue tropism include: The presence of ... Tissue tropism develops in the following stages: Virus with GPX enters body (where GP - glycoprotein and X is the numeric value ... Tissue tropism is the cells and tissues of a host that support growth of a particular virus or bacterium. ...
Oncolytic viruses are engineered to infect cancerous cells. Limitations of that method include immune response to the virus and ... the possibility of the virus evolving into a pathogen. By manipulating the tumor environment, it is possible to create ...
Koyori will then infect innocent people with viruses. She could be considered Komugi's rival. She often gets frustrated at ... a perverted rabbit-like creature from Vaccine World who detects viruses. Kyosuke Date Voiced By: Mitsuki Saiga (Japanese), Brad ...
"Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses - Volume 20, Number 5-May 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC". Emerging Infect. ... On an evolutionary scale, this host-virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, ... The continual monitoring of known zoonotic diseases and the discovery of novel viruses assists in creating a vanguard to ... The organization has researched the emergence of diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Nipah virus, Middle ...
"LizaMoon breaking anti-virus barriers." CyberMedia India Online. Accessed October 2011. "Hackers infect websites to dupe ... Indeed, to become infected, a user must give permission to the software four times. LizaMoon asks the user to install a piece ... As of April 1, the file that is downloaded is currently detected by only 13 of 43 anti-virus engines according to VirusTotal. ... LizaMoon is a piece of malware that infected thousands of websites beginning in September, 2010. It is an SQL injection attack ...
Reploeg MD, Storch GA, Clifford DB (July 2001). "Bk virus: a clinical review". Clin. Infect. Dis. 33 (2): 191-202. doi:10.1086/ ... Human immunodeficiency virus, parvovirus B19 and BK virus are known to induce these antibodies. There is little evidence ... Epstein-Barr virus is also known to induce dsDNA antibodies, as seen after immunisation of animals with EBNA-1 epitopes. Anti- ... Poole BD, Scofield RH, Harley JB, James JA (February 2006). "Epstein-Barr virus and molecular mimicry in systemic lupus ...
Infect. Dis. 35 (2): 113-25. doi:10.1086/340949. PMID 12087516. Ebell MH (2004). "Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis ... Those infected should stay away from other people for at least 24 hours after starting treatment. Pain can be treated with ... It may also be spread by skin infected with group A strep. The diagnosis is made based on the results of a rapid antigen ... It is spread by direct, close contact with an infected person; thus crowding, as may be found in the military and schools, ...
"Differentiation of serum antibodies from pigs vaccinated or infected with Aujeszky's disease virus by a competitive enzyme ... DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccines make it possible to differentiate between infected and ... Examples include the subunit vaccine against Hepatitis B virus that is composed of only the surface proteins of the virus ( ... Viruses are grown either on primary cells such as chicken eggs (e.g., for influenza) or on continuous cell lines such as ...
... can be infected by double-stranded DNA viruses that are unrelated to any other form of virus and have a variety of ... "An ssDNA virus infecting archaea; A new lineage of viruses with a membrane envelope". Mol. Microbiol. 72 (2): 307-19. doi: ... infecting halophilic archaea and the other one by the Aeropyrum coil-shaped virus ("Spiraviridae") infecting a ... Two groups of single-stranded DNA viruses that infect archaea have been recently isolated. One group is exemplified by the ...
IL-10 Induces T Cell Exhaustion During Transplantation of Virus Infected Hearts. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry. 2016, 38 ... Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... Role of regulatory T cells during virus infection. Immunological Reviews. September 2013, 255 (1): 182-96. PMC 3748387. PMID ... Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in ...
Systemic therapy of disseminated myeloma in passively immunized mice using measles virus-infected cell carriers. In: Molecular ... Systemic therapy of disseminated myeloma in passively immunized mice using measles virus-infected cell carriers. Molecular ... Systemic therapy of disseminated myeloma in passively immunized mice using measles virus-infected cell carriers. / Liu, ... title = "Systemic therapy of disseminated myeloma in passively immunized mice using measles virus-infected cell carriers", ...
... whereas 54 and 53 of the blood samples belonged to patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), ... Detection and Genotyping of Torque Teno Virus (TTV) in Healthy Blood Donors and Patients Infected With HBV or HCV in Qatar. ... Torque Teno virus (TTV) has been associated with non A-G hepatitis. The goal of this study was to estimate the infection rates ... The results obtained showed that the TTV infection rates in the healthy blood donors, and those infected with HBV or HCV ...
Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a dairy herd with high prevalence of persistently infected calves , Author:Mahmoud ... Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a dairy herd with high prevalence of persistently infected calves ... Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a dairy herd with high prevalence of persistently infected calves. ...
Asian stock markets slumped Tuesday as a SARS-like virus taking hold in China spooked investors, while sentiment suffered a ... Asian countries on Tuesday ramped up measures to block the spread of the new virus as the death toll in China rose to six, ... AJ Bell investment director Russ Mould attributed the weakness in stock markets in Asia and beyond to "reports the deadly virus ... Asian stock markets slumped Tuesday as a SARS-like virus taking hold in China spooked investors, while sentiment suffered a ...
MS Office virus could infect.... 18 May 1999. By Team Register 18 May 2004 at 12:15 ... The virus in question is Russian New Year, which uses the Excel CALL function in Office 95 and Office 97. This allows external ... A mass mail could be used to distribute the virus, which could be used for espionage purposes (suck data from your corporate ... She also suggests the possibility that the Melissa approach, where the virus apparently comes from a colleague or friend, could ...
... warns that computer viruses could infect humans... Were looking at software viruses and biological viruses becoming one and ... warns that computer viruses could infect humans... "Were looking at software viruses and biological viruses becoming one and ... Computer viruses could infect humans?. Kevin Warwick, professor of cybernetics at Reading University in England, ... Kevin Warwick, professor of cybernetics at Reading University in England, warns that computer viruses could infect humans... ...
... when they encounter other viruses, will merge and combine effects so that they create a new virus. A virus infects executable ... If the virus reaches a PC already compromised by a w... ... When Viruses Infect Worms 96 Posted by Soulskill on Friday ... when they encounter other viruses, will merge and combine effects so that they create a new virus. A virus infects executable ... If the virus reaches a PC already compromised by a worm, the virus will infect the exe files on that PC - including the worm. ...
Microsoft representatives acknowledged on Wednesday that the company may have infected up to 26 of its top support customers ... with a tenacious virus that spread to a key server late last week. ... If a virus infected an automatic update, rather than up to 170 customers downloading the infected software, potentially ... Microsoft infects customers with virus. Microsoft representatives acknowledged on Wednesday that the company may have infected ...
SirCam virus hogs connections with spam Its My Party and Ill infect you if I want to Hybrid viruses set to become bigger ... Undead virus infects the dim-witted. SirCam tops March charts. By John Leyden 2 Apr 2002 at 12:40 ... MessageLabs reports that virus infection rates are running at around one per 600 emails, compared to one in 30 infected emails ... Bill Clinton virus proves user security sucks Thousands of idiots still infected by SirCam ...
Researchers have created Chameleon, a virus that travels over Wi-Fi networks. One simulation infected 2,000 routers in London ... Computer Viruses Go Airborne, Can Now Infect You Over Wi-Fi. Beware the free Internet at the local coffeeshop. Researchers have ... In London, which is a far denser city, the virus simulation infected 2,000 routers in a matter of six to seven weeks. Over ... the first virus that can take over wireless routers and seek out new routers to infect, and published the results in the ...
Though the military hasnt found any incidents of the virus sending information ... A virus has infected Americas drone fleet, Wireds Noah Shachtman reports. It logs every keystroke operators type from their ... A virus has infected Americas drone fleet, Wireds Noah Shachtman reports. It logs every keystroke operators type from their ... The specialists dont know exactly how far the virus has spread. But theyre sure that the infection has hit both classified ...
A third American missionary has been infected with Ebola and is being treated in the Liberian hospital where he works, putting ... Ebola Virus Infects a Third American Missionary. Doctors Plight in Liberia Shines Light on Risks and Ethical Choices for ... A third American missionary has been infected with Ebola while working in Liberia and is being treated in an isolation unit in ...
... Published: 2006-01-23. ... Half-million PCs infected by e-mail virus 2006-01-24. Anonymous ... Half-million PCs infected by e-mail virus 2006-01-24. Anonymous ... Half-million PCs infected by e-mail virus 2006-01-24. Anonymous ... Half-million PCs infected by e-mail virus 2006-01-30. Anonymous ... The virus will increment a Web counter hosted at Internet service provider RCN. The counter, which can be accessed via a Web ...
... which has infected Nortons (so that it wont run, although it does still pick up atempts to run infected programs), Stay ... Ive just been hit with the [email protected] virus, ... HELP! Infected with virus.... Hi.. Ive just been hit with the ... took all day Friday and all yesterday to remove virus, uninstall infected software (it had infected _51_ .exes...!), reinstall ... [email protected] virus, which has infected Nortons (so that it wont run, although it does still pick up atempts to run infected ...
... strain of swine flu virus is not new and does not infect or sicken humans and animals easily, rebuffing a study published ... China says G4 swine flu virus not new; does not infect humans easily. ... strain of swine flu virus is not new and does not infect or sicken humans and animals easily, rebuffing a study published ... warned that a new swine flu virus, named G4, has become more infectious to humans and could become a potential "pandemic virus ...
... have been infected by a computer virus. The virus, thats apparently recording drone operators keystrokes, was detected about ... It may be a run of the mill computer virus that somehow made its way into the bases systems or it may be a sophisticated cyber ... The Air Force suspects that one of these hard drives was infected since many of the classified GCS are heavily defended against ... internal hard drives to get rid of the virus. Service officials still arent 100 percent sure how it penetrated Creechs ...
... which saw a British scientist infect himself with a computer virus, as scaremongering. ... See also: Bird flu brings on PC virus. This story, "Sophos: Scientist Infected With Virus Is Just Scaremongering" was ... Dr Mark Gasson from the University of Reading infected a computer chip implanted in his hand with the virus and then ... Security vendor Sophos has slammed a technology experiment in which a British scientist infected himself with a computer virus. ...
Students / Home users: If your computer is infected with the CryptoLocker virus, please do not share any files with other users ... Original announcement - October 10, 2013:There is currently a virus infecting computers all over the world. If you receive any ... Faculty and Staff: If your computer is infected with the CryptoLocker virus, please shut down your computer immediately and ... If you have Trend Micro Titanium antivirus, the update protecting users from this virus was released yesterday. Titanium ...
Viruses, which cause a number of acute and chronic infectious diseases,... ... Cooper N.R., Nemerow G.R. (1985) Complement, Viruses, and Virus-Infected Cells. In: Müller-Eberhard H.J., Miescher P.A. (eds) ... Antigenic modulation and abrogation of lymphocyte lysis of virus-infected cells. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 9: 55PubMedCrossRef ... Sissons JGP, Oldstone MBA (1980) Antibody-mediated destruction of virus-infected cells. Adv Immunol 29: 209PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
This virus wont be any trouble for Mac customers, and can be removed by using free Anti-Virus... ... Apple as revealed that a small number of video iPods contain the Windows RavMonE.exe virus, which they say found its way onto ... "The iPods were infected with the virus at one of Apples contract manufacturers. The virus does not affect Mac customers. "As ... This virus wont be any trouble for Mac customers, and can be removed by using free Anti-Virus software found on Apples site, ...
... has said women infected with the Zika virus should be denied abortions. ... has said women infected with the Zika virus should be denied abortions. ... Zika virus Marco Rubio, the Florida senator who ran an unsuccessful campaign for the Republican presidential nomination, ... As a senator, Mr Rubio has backed federal funding to tackle the Zika virus, successfully proposing a measure which allocated $ ...
Our story about the scientist who said he had become the first human to be infected with a computer virus provoked strong ... I thought the infected by virus headline was a bit cheeky, maybe sensationalist. They guys stuck a chip with a virus into him ... Our human "infected with computer chip virus" story. Rory Cellan-Jones , 10:09 UK time, Thursday, 27 May 2010 ... Our story about the scientist who said he had become the first human to be infected with a computer virus provoked strong ...
... that while canines can carry the virus, they are unlikely to infect humans. ... This dog could have provided valuable answers to the world\s questions: can a dog be sick with Ebola, can it excrete the virus ... If those dogs are carrying the virus, they are definitely a potential source. They have to be considered a risk to anyone who ... "This dog could have provided valuable answers to the worlds questions: can a dog be sick with Ebola, can it excrete the virus ...
i am operating win me and have 4 files in restore temp folder that are infected, how can i delete these files.i have tried a ... In reply to removing virus infected f ... I know of an anti virus program that will likely fix the problem. Go to www.hauriusa. ... In reply to removing virus infected f ... Boot to DOS. Navigate to the temp folder (cd temp or cd \windows\temp). delete ... In reply to removing virus infected f ... Chances are that no AV application will get rid of anything in the _RESTORE folder. ...
If the PC was virus infected, can virus also infect the motherboards configuration/setup software (the BIOS software which ... And there is NO GUARANTEE that a format will erase the virus. Ive had a workstation infected with a virus that required a ... Motherboard broken OR Virus infected??. I have a PC showing a blue screen of death - while Im using the PC, every 5~ 10 ... Lets assume the faulty PC is virus infected. If I delete the partition of the hdd and format the hard disk of the faulty PC ...
  • The results obtained showed that the TTV infection rates in the healthy blood donors, and those infected with HBV or HCV patients were 81.4, 90.75 and 84.9%, respectively. (edu.qa)
  • Liu, C , Russell, SJ & Peng, KW 2010, ' Systemic therapy of disseminated myeloma in passively immunized mice using measles virus-infected cell carriers ', Molecular Therapy , vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1155-1164. (elsevier.com)
  • First, replication of AIBV in the epididymal region of the rooster reproductive tract was detected using 3' RACE indicating the epididymal region is a target for the virus in vitro. (illinois.edu)
  • Speaking with a bright Irish lilt, he's incredibly patient and polite while describing the first Wi-Fi virus that, like the flu, can spread over the air, but with the potential to infect thousands of laptops via coffeehouse routers. (fastcompany.com)
  • In an ongoing study of HIV-infected patients who have had a recently documented episode of PCP (AIDS Clinical Trial Group Study 002), zidovudine therapy was started using two different dosing regimens (6). (cdc.gov)
  • We performed an observational, comparative, retrospective study of HIV-infected patients who were admitted to a tertiary referral center in Mexico City and who had syphilis according to the criteria of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Through several different mechanisms viruses have the potential to become latent in cells and to emerge at a later time and directly or indirectly produce disease. (springer.com)
  • Others integrate into the genome and may be passed from generation to generation, thus blurring the distinctions between foreign antigenic structures and host antigens on the surface of viruses or virus-infected cells. (springer.com)
  • Among the simplest RNA viruses, they are capsidless - they exist in the infected cell as RNA molecules, passed to other cells during cell division or cell fusion. (virology.ws)
  • In most patients, the post-transplant viruses had mutations in one region of the surface protein the virus uses to infect cells. (biologynews.net)
  • The progeny viruses bud from the surface of host cells, acquiring an envelope derived from the host's cell surface membrane. (news-medical.net)
  • To be recognized by the target cells, PS needs to be present on the surface of the virus particles. (news-medical.net)
  • Xkr8 is then activated, which leads to exposure of PS on its surface so the virus can enter the target cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Here we show that fully helped effector CTLs are themselves not self-sufficient for entry into the infected tissue, but rely on the CD4 + T cells to provide the necessary cue. (nature.com)
  • CD4 + T helper cells control the migration of CTL indirectly through the secretion of IFN-γ and induction of local chemokine secretion in the infected tissue. (nature.com)
  • Vaginal submucosal dendritic cells, but not Langerhans cells, induce protective Th1 responses to herpes simplex virus-2. (nature.com)
  • Measuring the diaspora for virus-specific CD8 + T cells. (nature.com)
  • We were also interested in viruses that may be found within mosquitoes but don't necessarily grow on mammalian cells, so we used cultures of insect cells, enabling us to find this new virus. (eurekalert.org)
  • Then newly-formed viruses are released and infect other cells. (icr.org)
  • 3 There is a significant difference between bacterial and human cells, but amazingly the "phage convert the [bacterial] cells they have infected into mammalian-type cells with a centrally located nucleus-like structure, formed by a protein shell surrounding the replicated phage DNA. (icr.org)
  • 3. Viruses found to use intricate 'treadmill' to move cargo across bacterial cells. (icr.org)
  • Avian viruses prefer binding to ?2-3-linked sialic acids on receptors of intestinal epithelial cells, while human viruses are usually specific for the ?2-6 linkage on epithelial cells of the lungs and upper respiratory tract. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Our recombinant approach to the structural analysis of the Viet04 virus showed that when we inserted HA mutations that had already been shown to shift receptor preference in H3 HAs to the human respiratory tract, the mutations increased receptor preference of the Viet04 HA towards specific human glycans that could serve as receptors on lung epithelial cells," Wilson said. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Our finding sheds new light on how deadly influenza viruses attach to cells that are present in the respiratory tract and the importance of O-glycans has been overlooked so far," lead researcher Associate Professor Thomas Haselhorst said. (xinhuanet.com)
  • Localization of human immunodeficiency virus Rev in transfected and virus-infected cells. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, morphological changes in the three-dimensional network of speckles were observed in both transfected cells expressing both the Rev protein and RRE-containing mRNA and in cells infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2. (nih.gov)
  • Chronically infected patients are able to successfully fight the deadly Hepatitis B virus because the cells that control the disease are forced to self-destruct, a study by researches at the University College London has indicated. (medindia.net)
  • Dr Mala Maini and colleagues found that Hepatitis B virus (HBV) triggers a group of cells, called T cells, to 'commit suicide' in patients who are chronically infected. (medindia.net)
  • We used microarray gene chips to screen more than 5,000 genes in T cells from both recovered and chronically infected Hepatitis B patients. (medindia.net)
  • In a paper published online in Nature on March 31, Dr. Lemon's team discovered that hepatitis A virus does not have an envelope when found in the environment, but acquires one from the cells that it grows in within the liver. (medindia.net)
  • What we have discovered is that a virus that has been classically considered to be 'non-enveloped', that is hepatitis A virus, actually hijacks membranes from the cells it grows in to wrap itself in an envelope. (medindia.net)
  • Despite complete proviral sequences markedly homologous to MMTV being identified in human breast cancer tissue, no convincing evidence has been presented to date that MMTV can infect human cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, MMTV can infect human cells and this finding provides a possible explanation for the detection by others of MMTV sequences in human breast cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • without the Sag-mediated amplification of the few B cells initially infected by the virus, MMTV seems poorly infectious ( 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In SIV-infected animals, the labeling and elimination rates of both CD4 + and CD8 + BrdUrd-labeled cells were increased by 2- to 3-fold as compared with normal controls. (pnas.org)
  • In normal and SIV-infected animals, the rates of CD4 + T cell BrdUrd-labeling and decay were closely correlated with those of CD8 + T cells. (pnas.org)
  • The elimination rate of BrdUrd-labeled cells was accelerated in both naive and memory T lymphocytes in SIV-infected animals. (pnas.org)
  • By analyzing both the rate of BrdUrd-labeling and the elimination of BrdUrd-labeled cells, we provide direct evidence for a 2- to 3-fold increased rate of turnover of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in SIV-infected animals. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, the authors of the published study agreed that the G4 virus does not effectively replicate in the human body and cause disease, according to the statement. (reuters.com)
  • Dr Mark Gasson from the University of Reading infected a computer chip implanted in his hand with the virus and then transmitted it to a PC to prove that malware can move between human and computer. (pcworld.com)
  • Beebe DP, Cooper NR (1981) Neutralization of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) by human complement requires a natural IgM antibody present in human serum. (springer.com)
  • Beebe DP, Schreiber RD, Cooper NR (1983) Neutralization of influenza virus by normal human sera: Mechanisms involving antibody and complement. (springer.com)
  • Cooper NR, Jensen FC, Welsh RM, Oldstone MBA (1976) Lysis of RNA tumor viruses by human serum: Direct antibody independent triggering of the classical complement pathway. (springer.com)
  • Our story about the scientist who said he had become the first human to be infected with a computer virus provoked strong reactions. (bbc.co.uk)
  • It remains unknown if the dogs that were investigated picked up the virus from another animal -monkeys, apes, bats, or from a human. (ibtimes.co.uk)
  • A Uintah Basin-area man has been infected with West Nile virus, the first lab-confirmed human case in Utah this season, according to Joseph Shaffer, director of the TriCounty Health Department, which serves Daggett, Duchesne and Uintah counties. (deseretnews.com)
  • The virus is related to human hepatitis C virus, which causes liver damage in people, and some birds with BeHV show similar effects. (newswise.com)
  • Could An Artificial Virus Infect The Human Mind? (technovelgy.com)
  • No human cases of the fever have so far been reported, although the presence of infected bats - who do not show obvious signs of the disease - increases the risk of contracting the virus. (reuters.com)
  • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), the most common presenting manifestation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is a major and recurring cause of morbidity and mortality for persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (cdc.gov)
  • Although the new virus does not appear to be a human pathogen, or even a mammalian one, the investigators say this work is a good exercise to help hone the tools and expertise needed to characterize novel infectious agents. (eurekalert.org)
  • Experts believe that the most likely infectious viruses to make the jump to humans are those that are already circulating in other mammals, especially non-human primates. (eurekalert.org)
  • An enteral nutritional product for persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus contains a soy protein hydrolysate having a degree of hydrolysis in the range of about 14 to 17 and a molecular weight partition, as determined by size exclusion chromatography, wherein 30-60% of the particles have a molecular weight in the range of 1500-5000 Daltons. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The virus, a polyomavirus known as simian virus 40 (SV40), has long been a subject of public health concern, in part because it has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, and some investigators have reported SV40 DNA in human tumors. (innovations-report.com)
  • In an accompanying editorial, Keerti Shah of The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, commented that, "although humans in contact with primates may become infected with SV40, currently available evidence does not suggest that SV40 circulates independently in the community or that it contributes to the development of any human cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • Trump's diagnosis came during an already turbulent period in Washington and around the world, with the U.S. gripped in a heated presidential election amid the human and economic toll of the virus. (capitolhillblue.com)
  • The potential for the emergence of a human-adapted H5 virus, either by re-assortment or mutation, is a clear threat to public health worldwide. (rxpgnews.com)
  • These mutations, the study noted, were already "known in [some human influenza] viruses to increase binding for these receptors. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The study concluded that other, as yet "unidentified mutations" could emerge, allowing the avian virus to switch receptor specificity and make the jump to human-to-human transmission. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The infected turned other uninfected human beings into their food to survive. (wattpad.com)
  • We haven't heard much about Warwick in a while, but when I saw a bunch of folks chatting about a BBC article concerning the "first human infected with computer virus," I was immediately reminded of Warwick. (techdirt.com)
  • I want to see the first computer infected with a human virus. (techdirt.com)
  • After all, wouldn't a computer infected with a human virus not be a human virus by definition if it's not infecting a human. (techdirt.com)
  • Idaho officials reported earlier this month they had confirmed 10 human cases of West Nile virus this year. (spokesman.com)
  • The virus is not passed from one human to another. (spokesman.com)
  • Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) has long been speculated to be involved in human breast cancer and more recently in human primary biliary cirrhosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present article focused on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected veterans and the prevalence of homelessness and alcohol use among this population. (rwjf.org)
  • The Department of Public Health has confirmed today five human infections of the West Nile Virus in Los Angeles County, the first such cases of 2013. (laweekly.com)
  • In 2012, 174 human cases of West Nile Virus were reported in Los Angeles County, the second highest count documented since 2004. (laweekly.com)
  • Israeli security outfit Finjan Software has warned of how a potentially serious Excel-related virus could spread and inflict damage without the recipient opening an email attachment. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Microsoft notified customers with a mass e-mailing Monday, and by late Wednesday had narrowed down the potentially infected organizations to 26, based on the user names used to download the files. (zdnet.com)
  • If a virus infected an automatic update, rather than up to 170 customers downloading the infected software, potentially hundreds of thousands of customers could be affected. (zdnet.com)
  • He said the implications for computer viruses in implants are far-reaching, and could potentially affect those with pacemakers and other medical devices. (pcworld.com)
  • Someone with an infected chip implant could potentially infect someone else, while a person with two devices under the skin could run the risk of viruses passing between the two chips, he said. (pcworld.com)
  • Five more people have been infected with potentially deadly Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) virus, the World Health Organization announced, bringing the total number of confirmed cases to 176, of which 74 have died. (rt.com)
  • "People at high risk of severe disease due to MERS-CoV should avoid close contact with animals when visiting farms or barn areas where the virus is known to be potentially circulating," the WHO wrote on its website. (rt.com)
  • Indeed, our oceans, soils and potentially even our bodies would be overrun with bacteria were it not for bacteria-eating viruses, called bacteriophages, that keep the microbial balance of ecological niches in check. (astrobiology.com)
  • The Guaico Culex virus (GCXV), a type of Jingmenvirus, was isolated from mosquitoes, and opens up a new avenue of research into potentially infectious agents. (eurekalert.org)
  • SHANGHAI/BEIJING (Reuters) - China's Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs said on Saturday that the so-called "G4" strain of swine flu virus is not new and does not infect or sicken humans and animals easily, rebuffing a study published earlier this week. (reuters.com)
  • We used the nucleoside analogue bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) in combination with five-color flow cytometric analysis to evaluate T lymphocyte turnover rates in normal and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques. (pnas.org)
  • To directly evaluate T cell turnover in a nonhuman primate model of AIDS, we used the nucleoside analogue BrdUrd to label lymphocytes in normal and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques. (pnas.org)
  • Because of these many features, it is likely that viruses are largely responsible for driving the immune system to ever greater diversity through evolution. (springer.com)
  • Being enveloped in host membranes helps the virus to evade host immune systems and spread within the liver. (medindia.net)
  • The investigators found that meth increases expression of a receptor called DC-SIGN, a "virus-attachment factor," allowing more of the virus to invade the immune system. (biologynews.net)
  • Health officials say that although individuals over age 50 are at greatest risk for serious illness and even death from West Nile virus, people of all ages have been infected with the virus and have had severe disease. (in.gov)
  • Five of those cases were of the most severe type, which can infect the brain or spinal cord. (spokesman.com)
  • MERS comes from the same family but it is also related to a virus found in bats. (rt.com)
  • "This is definitive proof that camels can be infected with MERS-CoV, but based on the current data we cannot conclude whether the humans on the farm were infected by the camels or vice versa," Bart Haagmans of Rotterdam's Erasmus Medical Centre, who led the study with other Dutch and Qatari scientists told Reuters. (rt.com)
  • Scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources found the virus while searching for the cause of Wisconsin River Eagle Syndrome, an enigmatic disease endemic to bald eagles near the Lower Wisconsin River. (newswise.com)
  • Scientists are beginning to unravel how the virus works, which is critical for developing effective treatments. (news-medical.net)
  • Scientists believe in such indoor spaces, the amount of infectious droplets and particles produced by COVID-19 positive persons can became concentrated and result in spreading the virus to others. (outlookindia.com)
  • This is also the first time that scientists have made actual images showing how the virus's tail extends into the host - the very action that allows it to infect a cell with its DNA. (innovations-report.com)
  • Scientists have successfully revived a 700-year-old virus that was frozen within ancient caribou feces, using it to infect a modern-day plant. (rt.com)
  • Scientists knew the virus' host was an amoeba and tried seeing if the ancient virus could prove infectious. (rt.com)
  • Scientists at France's National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM claim to discover a new molecular mechanism by which the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver diseases. (medindia.net)
  • The work will help scientists better understand diseases caused by viruses and could lead to improved therapies. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Evidence of exposure to a monkey virus possibly related to cancer has been found in the blood of North American zoo workers, according to a study in the December 15 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases, now available online. (innovations-report.com)
  • When the worm spreads, it will carry the virus with it. (slashdot.org)
  • The virus also spreads automatically throughout a network via any hard drives shared with the infected system. (zdnet.com)
  • The virus spreads via the bodily fluids of infected animals and humans. (news-medical.net)
  • Chikungunya has now officially reached Long Island, and the feds must act before this debilitating virus spreads further and takes hold in New York," said U.S. Sen. Charles Schumer (D-NY), calling on the CDC to issue a health alert and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to declare a public emergency. (longislandpress.com)
  • In an October 5 update on its site titled "How COVID-19 spreads" , The CDC says such transmissions occur when the infected person is breathing heavily, for example while singing or exercising. (outlookindia.com)
  • However, the CDC admitted that the COVID-19 virus spreads more commonly through close-contact with infected persons rather than via airborne transmission. (outlookindia.com)
  • At this stage, our research indicates that a specific region in the avian virus protein called haemagglutinin is structurally well suited to recognize and bind these receptors," Thomas said. (xinhuanet.com)
  • A total of 20 samples, which were collected from Uyole and Mwakeleli and found to be ELISA-positive for one or several viruses, were pressed on FTA cards (GE Healthcare, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom), transported to University of Helsinki, and analyzed by reverse-transcription PCR (2) using virus-specific primers designed to amplify the coat protein (CP) encoding region. (apsnet.org)
  • Viruses, which cause a number of acute and chronic infectious diseases, represent a major category of such pathogens. (springer.com)
  • Until now, multicomponent viruses were thought to infect only plants and fungi, as a result of relatively inefficient transmission," says first author Jason Ladner, a staff scientist from the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). (eurekalert.org)
  • However virus writers tried to give the malicious code a fresh lease of life by releasing four variants of the worm over the Easter weekend . (theregister.co.uk)
  • Best Buy Co. Inc., during the holidays in the end week of December 2007, shipped digital picture frames that contained malicious code capable of infecting any Windows computer connected to the Internet, the company confirmed. (spamfighter.com)
  • Pig Virus " is the nickname Howard Stern gave long ago to Kevin Metheny, the man in charge of programming at the Tribune Co.-owned news/talk station since January. (wbez.org)
  • It wouldn't really be news if anyone else got infected, but come on this is supposed to the pinnacle of security or something? (darknet.org.uk)
  • People can't get the virus from other people or from other types of pets, the CDC said in a news release. (health24.com)
  • The world's second-most populous country has added more than 1 million cases this month alone and is expected to become the pandemic's worst-hit country within weeks, surpassing the United States, where more than 6.6 million people have been infected. (chron.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of mitovirus genome sequences indicates that they clearly infect plants, not the fungi in or on them. (virology.ws)
  • Fungal viruses, or mycoviruses, are widespread in all major groups of fungi and next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently the most efficient approach for their identification. (mdpi.com)
  • FILE PHOTO: A health worker in protective clothing peers out from behind barriers marking the isolation ward where victims of the deadly Marburg virus are treated in the northern Angolan town of Uige April 20, 2005. (reuters.com)
  • In a statement on Thursday, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said five Egyptian rousette fruit bats caught in Sierra Leone tested positive for the Marburg virus. (reuters.com)
  • AJ Bell investment director Russ Mould attributed the weakness in stock markets in Asia and beyond to "reports the deadly virus has spread to neighboring countries, with all the potential economic disruption that could cause. (yahoo.com)
  • After the major backlash following the killing of the Excalibur dog, belonging to the Spanish nurse who contracted the deadly virus while treating a victim from Sierra Leone , experts confirm on Thursday (9 October) that while canines can carry the virus, they are unlikely to infect humans. (ibtimes.co.uk)
  • The research here has used a vulnerability in the technology to allow an engineered computer virus to propagate via an implant. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Health secretary Sophia Chan said earlier, that officials are planning to test tens of thousands of taxi drivers for the virus in phases, after a number of drivers were confirmed to be infected over the past few days. (thestandard.com.hk)
  • Now that chikungunya is in the United States, CDC officials think it will behave like dengue virus, with imported cases causing occasional local transmissions but not widespread outbreaks. (tbo.com)
  • US officials Thursday said 40,000 people may have been infected with HIV and hepatitis in a major health scare after a Las Vegas clinic was found to have re-used syringes and medicine vials. (medindia.net)
  • What BitDefender observed is that one particular virus, Virtob, is actively infecting worms in order to increase its reach. (geek.com)
  • And here's the best part: if a computer happens to be infected with multiple worms that Virtob can latch onto, it'll spread even more quickly. (geek.com)
  • If your computer is infected with the CryptoLocker virus, please do not share any files with other users, or upload them to myCourses. (mcgill.ca)
  • If your computer is infected with the CryptoLocker virus, please shut down your computer immediately and notify the IT Administrator in your department. (mcgill.ca)
  • The arrival of chikungunya virus, first in the tropical Americas and now in the United States, underscores the risks posed by this and other exotic pathogens," said Roger Nasci, of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in a prepared statement. (tbo.com)