Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.

Detection of viruses and body fluids which may contain viruses in the domestic environment. (1/2188)

The domestic environment was investigated for the presence of viruses and body fluids that may contain viruses. A range of surfaces in 39 homes (17 visited on 2 occasions) were sampled by swabbing and analysed using cell culture, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for enteroviral RNA, haemoglobin as a marker for blood, amylase as an indicator of urine, saliva and sweat, and protein as an indicator of general hygiene. Haemoglobin was found on 1.9% of surfaces sampled and of the positive samples 30% were from articles frequently handled. Amylase (> 5 U/l) was found in 29.3% of samples tested. Protein was found in 97.8% of samples tested. Enteroviral RNA, indicating the presence of virus, was detected in 3 out of 448 samples tested; they were from a tap handle, telephone handpiece and a toilet bowl. No viruses were isolated in cell culture, however significant problems were encountered with bacterial and fungal contamination. This work demonstrates that only testing environmental samples for bacteria and ATP may not give a total view of the microbiological problem in the home. A range of test methods is useful to gain a broad view of the problems of hygiene in the home and to allow comparative studies of specific areas such as the kitchen and bathroom.  (+info)

Preclinical safety evaluation of human gene therapy products. (2/2188)

Human gene therapy products include naked DNA and viral as well as non-viral vectors containing nucleic acids. There is limited experience on the preclinical toxicity studies necessary for the safety evaluation of these products, which have been outlined in several recently released guidelines. Requirements for the preclinical safety evaluation of human gene therapy products are both specific and non-specific. All key preclinical studies should be performed in compliance with Good Laboratory Practices. Non-specific requirements are in fact common to all pharmaceutical products. Critical specific issues to be addressed are: the safety evaluation of the vector and the toxicity of the expressed protein(s), which are the two components of gene therapy products, the quality of the test article, the selection of animal species, and the verification that the administration method successfully transports the gene of interest, with the vector, to the target site(s). The treatment schedule should mimic the intended human therapeutic design. The host's immune response against the gene therapy product has to be evaluated to detect possible adverse effects and immune neutralization by antibodies. The biodistribution of the gene of interest is also essential and can be evaluated by molecular biology techniques, such as PCR. Specific confinement is required for the safe manipulation of viral vectors.  (+info)

Isolation of animal viruses from farm livestock waste, soil and water. (3/2188)

Ten porcine enteroviruses, 2 porcine adenoviruses and 1 coronavirus were isolated directly from 32 samples of slurry collected from a pig fattening house. Concentration of the same samples by adsorption with the polyelectrolyte PE-60 yielded 24 porcine enteroviruses and 3 porcine adenoviruses. A porcine enterovirus was isolated, following PE-60 concentration, from 1 to 6 slurry samples from a sow farrowing house. No virus was isolated from 12 samples of slurry from dairy cows nor from 6 slurry samples from a calf-rearing unit. A porcine enterovirus was isolated from soil samples, after concentration with PE-60, collected 1, 2 and 8 days after pig slurry was spread on hay stubble. Two porcine enteroviruses were isolated by membrane filtration from 26 samples of surface run-off from land on which pig slurry was routinely spread, and 2 bovine enteroviruses were isolated from cattle feedlot run-off after adsorption to layers of talc and celite followed by hydroextraction. A porcine enterovirus was also isolated from 1 of 33 samples of surface water collected on farms on which pig slurry was routinely spread on the land, but no virus was isolated from 36 samples of ground water from the same farms. The surface water and ground water samples were concentrated by talc-celite adsorption and hydroextraction.  (+info)

Gene transfer to human pancreatic endocrine cells using viral vectors. (4/2188)

We have studied the factors that influence the efficiency of infection of human fetal and adult pancreatic endocrine cells with adenovirus, murine retrovirus, and lentivirus vectors all expressing the green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP, MLV-GFP, and Lenti-GFP, respectively). Adenoviral but not retroviral vectors efficiently infected intact pancreatic islets and fetal islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) in suspension. When islets and ICCs were plated in monolayer culture, infection efficiency with all three viral vectors increased. Ad-GFP infected 90-95% of the cells, whereas infection with MLV-GFP and Lenti-GFP increased only slightly. Both exposure to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and dispersion of the cells by removal from the culture dish and replating had substantial positive effects on the efficiency of infection with retroviral vectors. Studies of virus entry and cell replication revealed that cell dispersion and stimulation by HGF/SF may be acting through both mechanisms to increase the efficiency of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. Although HGF/SF and cell dispersion increased the efficiency of infection with MLV-GFP, only rare cells with weak staining for insulin were infected, whereas approximately 25% of beta-cells were infected with Lenti-GFP. We conclude that adenovirus is the most potent vector for ex vivo overexpression of foreign genes in adult endocrine pancreatic cells and is the best vector for applications where high-level but transient expression is desired. Under the optimal conditions of cell dispersion plus HGF/SF, infection with MLV and lentiviral vectors is reasonably efficient and stable, but only lentiviral vectors efficiently infect pancreatic beta-cells.  (+info)

Transport of colloidal particles in lymphatics and vasculature after subcutaneous injection. (5/2188)

This study was designed to determine the transport of subcutaneously injected viral-size colloid particles into the lymph and the vascular system in the hind leg of the dog. Transport of two colloid particles, with average size approximately 1 and 0.41 microm, respectively, and with and without leg rotation, was tested. Leg rotation serves to enhance the lymph flow rates. The right femoral vein, lymph vessel, and left femoral artery were cannulated while the animal was under anesthesia, and samples were collected at regular intervals after subcutaneous injection of the particles at the right knee level. The number of particles in the samples were counted under fluorescence microscopy by using a hemocytometer. With and without leg rotation, both particle sets were rapidly taken up into the venous blood and into the lymph fluid. The number of particles carried away from the injection site within the first 5 min was <5% of the injected pool. Particles were also seen in arterial blood samples; this suggests reflow and a prolonged residence time in the blood. These results show that particles the size of viruses are rapidly taken up into the lymphatics and blood vessels after subcutaneous deposition.  (+info)

The complete genome sequence of the Streptomyces temperate phage straight phiC31: evolutionary relationships to other viruses. (6/2188)

The completed genome sequence of the temperate Streptomyces phage straight phiC31 is reported. straight phiC31 contains genes that are related by sequence similarities to several other dsDNA phages infecting many diverse bacterial hosts, including Escherichia, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium, Rhodobacter, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus. These observations provide further evidence that dsDNA phages from diverse bacterial hosts are related and have had access to a common genetic pool. Analysis of the late genes was particularly informative. The sequences of the head assembly proteins (portal, head protease and major capsid) were conserved between straight phiC31, coliphage HK97, staphylococcal phage straight phiPVL, two Rhodobacter capsulatus prophages and two Mycobacterium tuberculosis prophages. These phages and prophages (where non-defective) from evolutionarily diverse hosts are, therefore, likely to share a common head assembly mechanism i.e. that of HK97. The organisation of the tail genes in straight phiC31 is highly reminiscent of tail regions from other phage genomes. The unusual organisation of the putative lysis genes in straight phiC31 is discussed, and speculations are made as to the roles of some inessential early gene products. Similarities between certain phage gene products and eukaryotic dsDNA virus proteins were noted, in particular, the primase/helicases and the terminases (large subunits). Furthermore, the complete sequence clarifies the overall transcription map of the phage during lytic growth and the positions of elements involved in the maintenance of lysogeny.  (+info)

Protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 mediates the Jak-dependent activation of MAPK and Stat1 in IFN-gamma, but not IFN-alpha, signaling. (7/2188)

Two distinct types of interferon, IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma, commonly exhibit antiviral activities by transmitting signals to the interior of the cell via their homologous receptors. Receptor stimulation results in the activation of distinct combinations of Janus family protein tyrosine kinases (Jak PTKs); Jak1/Tyk2 and Jak1/Jak2 for IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma, respectively. Jak PTK activation by these IFNs is commonly followed by tyrosine phosphorylation of the transcription factor Stat1 at Y701, which is essential for dimerization, translocation to the nucleus and DNA-binding activity. To gain full transcriptional activity, Stat1 also requires serine phosphorylation at S727. In this paper we demonstrate that Pyk2, which belongs to another PTK family, is critical for the Jak-mediated MAPK and Stat1 activation by IFN-gamma, but not IFN-alpha. Pyk2 is selectively associated with Jak2 and activated by IFN-gamma. Overexpression of PKM, a dominant interfering form of Pyk2, in NIH 3T3 cells results in a strong inhibition of the IFN-gamma-induced activation of Erk2, serine phosphorylation of Stat1 and Stat1-dependent gene transcription. Finally, the antiviral action of IFN-gamma, but not IFN-alpha, is severely impaired by PKM overexpression. Thus, the two types of IFN may utilize distinct Jak-mediated Erk2, and possibly other MAPK activation pathways for their antiviral action.  (+info)

Molecular epidemiology and evolution of emerging infectious diseases. (8/2188)

Molecular epidemiology is an emerging science. The development of new and rapid protocols to isolate and identify pathogens, coupled with the sophisticated phylogenetic analysis of their gene sequences, is providing a new and fascinating insight into the biology, origin and spread of infectious diseases. In this essay, I describe some of the ways in which the techniques of modern molecular biology and evolution have equipped us to face the challenge of these new infections.  (+info)

Emerging virus discovery through meta-transcriptomics: a novel virus impacting Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farming in Chile.
The National Collection of Pathogenic Viruses (NCPV) from European Collection of Cell Cultures (ECACC),Human Pathogenic Viruses The National Collection of Pathogenic Viruses (NCPV) preserves well characterised, authenticated human pathogenic viruses in a secure facility, and NCPV is able to supply the agents or nucleic acids derived from them, to the scientific community according to national and,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The lines of evidence described earlier combine to suggest the following tentative model of the emergence process for novel human viruses. First, humans are constantly exposed to a huge diversity of viruses, though those of others mammals (and perhaps birds) are of greatest importance. Moreover, these viruses are very genetically diverse and new genotypes, strains and species evolve rapidly (over periods of years or decades). A fraction of these viruses (both existing and newly evolved) are capable of infecting humans. It is not clear whether some of these human-infective viruses will already be capable of reaching higher levels of the pathogen pyramid-so-called off-the-shelf pathogens-or whether subsequent evolution of their ability to infect and transmit from humans is usually required-tailor-made [31]. The distinction is potentially important as it implies different determinants of the rate of emergence of viruses with epidemic or pandemic potential: for off-the-shelf pathogens this rate ...
All opinions are my own and do not represent medical advice or the views of any institution.. All graphics made by me are free-to-use. Please just cite the particular page, blog and me. A heads-up would be nice, but that can happen later.. ...
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are highly contagious pathogens infecting human and numerous animals. The viruses cause millions of infection cases and thousands of deaths every year, thus making IAVs a continual threat to global health. Upon IAV infection, host innate immune system is triggered and activated to restrict virus replication and clear pathogens. Subsequently, host adaptive immunity is involved in specific virus clearance. On the other hand, to achieve a successful infection, IAVs also apply multiple strategies to avoid be detected and eliminated by the host immunity. In the current review, we present a general description on recent work regarding different host cells and molecules facilitating antiviral defenses against IAV infection and how IAVs antagonize host immune responses.
An Introduction to Marine Viruses . What Is a Virus?. Virus Size & Structure. 1 Micron. Chlamydia. Pox virus. Herpes virus. Influenza Virus. Bacterium ( Staphyllococcus aureus ). Picornavirus (polio). Relative size of viruses and bacteria. Microbial Loop. CO2. DOC. Slideshow 1956999 by iona
Evolutionary and Computational Virology includes virus discovery from deep sequencing data to broaden our understanding of the diversity of viruses affecting humans and other organisms, phylogenetic to reconstruct the origin and evolution of different virus families, virus classification to group our complex knowledge about viruses into usable units, and virus-host interactions to analyze the interplay between viruses and the immune system and to explore whether certain viral infections can be linked to unexplained diseases like some types of human cancer.. Computational biology plays a vital role in virology and helps us to understand the structure of molecules, functioning of viral molecules, the dynamics of virus infections, and how do the virus epidemics spread and the origin and evolution of viruses. This Special Issue invites submissions of modeling and bioinformatics papers from all fields of virology at all levels of organization.. These strategies cowl bushed silico approaches like ...
It is clear that the unprecedented propagation of new virus variants witnessed on 2-3 March 2004 is the result of a war of viruses. The writers of Netsky, Bagle, and Mydoom have been competing in the release of new variants of their respective viruses, some of which are programmed to deactivate or delete their competitors.. In addition to this, a number of these new variants have statements and insults directed at the writers of competing viruses hidden in their code.. This barrage of new variants has been unusual in its speed. It normally takes virus writers a few days, or even weeks, to release new variants. However, these variants have all started spreading quickly after antivirus companies have released new virus signature files to counter previous versions. This is clearly an attempt to keep ahead of the antivirus companies in order to gain as wide spread a distribution as possible.. However, as seen by the number of variants it has been necessary for the virus writers to release in this ...
Global health is threatened by emerging viral infections, which largely lack effective vaccines or therapies. Targeting host pathways that are exploited by multiple viruses could offer broad-spectrum solutions. We previously reported that AAK1 and GAK, kinase regulators of the host adaptor proteins AP1 and AP2, are essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the underlying mechanism and relevance to other viruses or in vivo infections remained unknown. Here, we have discovered that AP1 and AP2 cotraffic with HCV particles in live cells. Moreover, we found that multiple viruses, including dengue and Ebola, exploit AAK1 and GAK during entry and infectious virus production. In cultured cells, treatment with sunitinib and erlotinib, approved anticancer drugs that inhibit AAK1 or GAK activity, or with more selective compounds inhibited intracellular trafficking of HCV and multiple unrelated RNA viruses with a high barrier to resistance. In murine models of dengue and Ebola infection, ...
The discovery of an HIV-1 cure remains a medical challenge because the virus rebounds quickly after the cessation of combination antiretroviral drug therapy (cART). Here, we investigate the potential of an engineered tandem bi-specific broadly neutralizing antibody (bs-bnAb) as an innovative product for HIV-1 prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. We discovered that by preserving two scFv binding domains of each parental bnAb, a single-gene-encoded tandem bs-bnAb, namely BiIA-SG, displayed significantly improved breadth and potency. BiIA-SG neutralized all 124 HIV-1 pseudotyped viruses tested, including global subtypes/recombinant forms, transmitted/founder viruses, and variants less or not susceptible to parental and many bnAbs, with an average IC50 value of 0.073 µ/ml (range , 0.001 to 1.03 µg/ml). In humanized mice, an injection of BiIA-SG conferred sterile protection when administered prior to challenges with diverse live HIV-1 stains. Moreover, while BiIA-SG delayed viral rebound in ...
Virus are elusive foes. It seems like every year theres a new one in the news - Ebola recently and now Zika - not to mention the virus that cause the flu or common cold. Despite the considerable threat (and sometimes just annoyance) from viruses, theres remarkably little anyone can do about them.. They are small, but wily.. With that history in mind, microbiologist Jeffrey Glenn, MD, PhD, thought a better approach would be to find a way of helping our cells help themselves. Working with Stanford ChEM-H, he created a center called [email protected] dedicated to finding therapies that would allow our cells to fight a variety of viruses rather than trying to kill off one virus at a time.. Working with that Glenns center, a group of scientists led by chemist Chaitan Khosla, PhD, and geneticist Michael Bassik, PhD, unearthed a previously discarded drug, figured out how it fought viruses, then improved on it. They published their results March 28 in Nature Chemical Biology.. In their paper, they show ...
The central focus of our research is the synthesis, folding, processing and function of viral glycoproteins. Previous studies of the synthesis and processing of viral glycoproteins in the secretory pathway have led to fundamental discoveries of basic cellular processes, and our research on the folding and processing of paramyxovirus glycoproteins provides insight into both cellular functions and important viral proteins. Our studies on viral proteins aim to elucidate mechanisms of promotion of membrane fusion, and to provide new targets for antiviral treatments. Many major human pathogenic viruses (including HIV, herpes simplex virus, measles virus and Ebola virus) are packaged in a membrane. In order for these viruses to infect cells, specific viral proteins promote fusion of the viral membrane with the membrane of the host cell. Understanding this process of protein-mediated membrane fusion is the major focus of our work. We study fusion proteins from several different paramyxoviruses. First, ...
We need to conduct such virus discovery work among people with pneumonia and also among people who have intense exposure to animals so that we get early warning of a new virus which may become a future pandemic virus. ...
If you were to make a solution containing different viruses you would have a solution containing different viruses. Nothing would happen, they wouldnt fight, they would just sit there. Drinking it would probably be a bad idea, but nothing would actually happen.. If you were to infect someone with different viruses then you would have given someone multiple diseases. Once again, they wouldnt fight, they would just go about their business infecting the host cells. Now, it is possible that some sort of recombination would occur. Viruses work by inserting their genetic material (DNA or RNA depending on the virus) into the host DNA. Then, the cells own machinery would start making copies of the virus. If a cell were infected by multiple viruses, it is possible that both would insert their genetic material into the host genome. If that were to happen, the likeliest outcome would be that the cell would simply start making copies of each of the viruses separately. It is extremely unlikely that any ...
Clean MSN Virus is a free tool that detects and deletes the various viruses that are spread via MSN Messenger, which are generically called MSN or MSN Messenger viruses.
The research team used the screening technique on 569 patients from all over the world. To do this, they used a very large dataset of peptides (molecules part of amino acids) from 206 viral species - all of which represented some 1,000 different viral strains - to make a synthetic representation of all human viral peptides. They found that on average, people had been exposed to about 10 viral species in their lifetimes. Several people, however, had been exposed to over 84 viral species ...
Nucleic acids from ATCC can save you the time and expense of isolating DNA yourself. Viral nucleic acids in the form of RNA and DNA from infected cells or allantoic fluid are available for use in a variety of applications.
In order to assess infertility or to ensure that patients receive proper treatment and are not exposed to unnecessary risk, Hayat conducts several investigations and tests for certain viruses, hormonal imbalances, and abnormalities along the reproductive tract.. ...
Although challenging, single-virus imaging has revealed key steps in the viral life cycle, and it will likely reveal more about viruses as imaging equ
Viruses infection millions annually, causing severe illness and threatening global public health. Limiting the impact of viral infection requires a multi-layered understanding of viral immunity, from basic research on viral recognition and host immune response, to the clinical applications of novel antiviral and host-targeted therapies and vaccines. Despite recent advances, the mechanisms of both both rapid host recovery as well as severe and fatal disease outcomes, are far from clear. This Keystone Symposia conference will cover a wide range of topics in viral immunity including innate immunity and inflammation, viral sensing and antigen presentation, adaptive T and B cell immunity, novel vaccine development, human immunology across anatomical sites, and innovative computational analyses. Animal models will be examined alongside human and clinical studies, and multi-disciplinary integration will enhance perspectives. A key outcome will be fostering collaborations across different approaches ...
Traces of a retrovirus similar to HIV are found in most patients with the mysterious disorder. It could be an opportunistic virus, but researchers want further testing to see if it causes the syndrome
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an enveloped RNA virus that is susceptible to many of the disinfectants already in use by healthcare facilities to disinfect counters and other hard, non-porous laboratory surfaces. However, the CDC recommends the use of disinfectants that work against non-enveloped viruses to provide a broader antiviral spectrum. Disinfectants labeled by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as effective against non-enveloped viruses are more potent and can inactivate both enveloped (eg, EVD) and non-enveloped (eg, poliovirus, rotavirus, norovirus) viruses ...
Effective spectrum: Bactericidal, tuberculocidal, fungicidal, virucidal against (enveloped viruses, e.g. Vaccinia viruses, HBV, HCV and HIV, SARS-Corona viruses as well as non-enveloped viruses, e.g. rota viruses, noro viruses). Effective spectrum: Bactericidal, tuberculocidal, fungicidal, virucidal against (enveloped viruses, e.g. Vaccinia viruses, HBV, HCV and HIV, SARS-Corona viruses as well as non-enveloped viruses, e.g. rota viruses, noro viruses). Application: For hygienic hand disinfection, rub IQ C20 into your hands and keep it wet for 30 seconds. Notes: Observe the directions for use and safety precautions for alcohol-based disinfectants. Flash point: 19 C. For external use only. Not suitable for disinfecting mucous membranes or injured skin. 100 g IQ C20 contains 63.1g 2-propanol (70%v/v) as active compound plus auxiliary substances ...
Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Lewis Lanier on NK cells in viral immunity, part of a collection of multimedia lectures.
Author(s): Drew, WL | Abstract: Diagnostic virology services are increasingly available and pertinent as the number of useful antiviral agents grows. In this article, current methods of diagnosis are reviewed with special emphasis on rapid procedures. Guidelines for interpretation of cultures and other tests are provided.
This Diagnostic Virology is us Stroll a better probability for all leaders. To ensure more about products, entertain monitor our centerpiece list. To run more often how we allow and have your syntaxes, have run our processing author.
Human virome is the collection of viruses in and on the human body. Defining the virome is thought to provide an understanding of microbes and how they affect human health and disease. Viruses in the human body infect both human cells as well as other microbes such as bacteria. For instance, many viruses (the bacteriophages) actually infect bacteria. Some viruses cause infections, while others may be asymptomatic. Certain viruses are integrated in the human genome. Viruses evolve rapidly and hence the human virome changes constantly. Every human being has a unique virome with a unique balance of species. Lifestyle, age, geographic location, and even the season of the year affects an individuals exposure to viruses; while their susceptibility to disease is effected by preexisting immunity and both viral and human genetics. The human virome is far from being completely explored and new viruses are discovered frequently. Multiple methods are available for the isolation and study of human viruses: ...
Researchers from Colorado State University exposed hundreds of mosquitoes to either chikungunya, Zika or dengue and different combinations of the three. They also exposed 48 mosquitoes to the three viruses--chikungunya, Zika and dengue--to see if one or all three of the diseases could appear in the saliva, which could then potentially infect a person. The researchers examined the saliva, gut and legs of the insects for signs of viral infection. They found that 92 percent of the mosquitoes tested positive for all three viruses. Of the 48 just one remained uninfected. They found that six saliva samples from the mosquito tested positive for all three viruses 14 days after the insects were exposed. Another two saliva samples tested positive 21 days after exposure. While not all the insects had the virus in the saliva, the researchers pointed out that the virus presence in the saliva occurs only after the infection has traveled through the body. As a result, the other mosquitoes that tested positive ...
in Journal of virology (2016), 90(4), 2039-51. Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their ... [more ▼]. Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their profit different pathways of glycan synthesis. Thus, the Bo17 gene of Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) encodes a homologue of the cellular core 2 protein beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucin type (C2GnT-M), which is a key player for the synthesis of complex O-glycans. Surprisingly, we show in this study that, as opposed to what is observed for the cellular enzyme, two different mRNAs are encoded by the Bo17 gene of all available BoHV-4 strains. While the first one corresponds to the entire coding sequence of the Bo17 gene, the ...
Nguyen Quang N, Goudey S, Ségéral E, Mohammad A, Lemoine S, Blugeon C, Versapuech M, Paillart JC, Berlioz-Torrent C, Emiliani S, Gallois-Montbrun S. Dynamic nanopore long-read sequencing analysis of HIV-1 splicing events during the early steps of infection. Retrovirology. 2020 Aug 17;17(1):25.. Leymarie O, Lepont L, Versapuech M, Abelanet S, Judith D, Janvier K and Berlioz-Torrent C. Contribution of the cytoplasmic determinants of Vpu to the expansion of virus containing compartments in HIV-1 infected macrophages. J Virol. 2019 May 15;93(11).. Bonnard D, Le Rouzic E, Eiler S, Amadori C, Orlov I, Bruneau JM, Brias J, Barbion J, Chevreuil F, Spehner D, Chasset S, Ledoussal B, Moreau F, Saïb A, Klaholz BP, Emiliani S, Ruff M, Zamborlini A, Benarous R. Structure-function analyses unravel distinct effects of allosteric inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase on viral maturation and integration. J Biol Chem. 2018 Apr 20;293(16):6172-6186.. Dejarnac O, Hafirassou ML, Chazal M, Versapuech M, Gaillard J, ...
Nuremberg was the third European city to host the European Congress of Virology in September this year ( Some 1,500 scientists from Europe and elsewhere came together to share their knowledge on basic and applied research in clinical, veterinary and plant virology. The main focus was on human pathogenic viruses, providing a platform where basic research and clinical application came into contact. The topics covered all areas of research in virology, from basic molecular biology and immunology to epidemiology, vaccine development, and diagnostics. For this meeting report, the Editorial team has selected some of our highlights out of the many excellent keynote lectures and workshop contributions.
Next-generation sequencing has critical applications in virus discovery, diagnostics, and environmental surveillance. We used metagenomic sequence libraries for retrospective screening of plasma samples for the recently discovered human hepegivirus 1 (HHpgV-1). From a cohort of 150 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive case-patients, we identified 2 persons with HHpgV-1 viremia and a high frequency of human pegivirus (HPgV) viremia (14%). Detection of HHpgV-1 and HPgV was concordant with parallel PCR-based screening using conserved primers matching groups 1 (HPgV) and 2 (HHPgV-1) nonstructural 3 region sequences. PCR identified 1 HHPgV-1-positive person with viremia from a group of 195 persons with hemophilia who had been exposed to nonvirally inactivated factor VII/IX; 18 (9%) were HPgV-positive. Relative to HCV and HPgV, active infections with HHpgV-1 were infrequently detected in blood, even in groups that had substantial parenteral exposure. Our findings are consistent with lower transmissibility or
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Innate immunity is the first line of defense against pathogens and is highly conserved from insects to humans. While many key facets of the innate immune system...
It was elucidated that before virus invade into cell, antibodies cling to it. Inside the cell antibodies call another component TRIM-21 (Triple Motif Containing 21) [3], which escort them to Disposal system of the cell [1, 2]. This cell recycler is renowned proteosome [3] which is cellular structure (containing proteases). This all, TRIM-21 binding and escorting to destination, happen before virus hijack the cell [1]. Increase in viral destruction observed by increase in concentration of this protein [2]. So, it was practically proved that this protein has some role in viral destruction.. It is believed that this research will help in infections such as common cold, winter vomiting bug and gastroenteritis [1]. Studies say Rotavirus, causative agent of severe Diarrhea, can be killed within 2 hours [4]. Unfortunately, this cannot be applied on broad spectrum of viruses, only non-enveloped viruses are susceptible. It is effective against influenza virus because influenza virus shed the envelop ...
It was elucidated that before virus invade into cell, antibodies cling to it. Inside the cell antibodies call another component TRIM-21 (Triple Motif Containing 21) [3], which escort them to Disposal system of the cell [1, 2]. This cell recycler is renowned proteosome [3] which is cellular structure (containing proteases). This all, TRIM-21 binding and escorting to destination, happen before virus hijack the cell [1]. Increase in viral destruction observed by increase in concentration of this protein [2]. So, it was practically proved that this protein has some role in viral destruction.. It is believed that this research will help in infections such as common cold, winter vomiting bug and gastroenteritis [1]. Studies say Rotavirus, causative agent of severe Diarrhea, can be killed within 2 hours [4]. Unfortunately, this cannot be applied on broad spectrum of viruses, only non-enveloped viruses are susceptible. It is effective against influenza virus because influenza virus shed the envelop ...
Enveloped viruses fuse with host membranes without affecting cell integrity. Non-enveloped viruses and bacteria penetrate by rupturing endosomal membranes and thus expose complex-type carbohydrates from the endosome lumen to cytosolic proteins. Here we report on the dynamics and initial marker analyses of Galectin-3 (Gal3)-positive membranes triggered by incoming adenovirus species B/C in HeLa cells. Using mCherry-Gal3 reporter constructs, immunolabeling, confocal and electron microscopy, we detected robust signals from Gal3-containing, early endosomal antigen 1-positive membranes 1 h post-infection (pi). Adenoviruses penetrate from non-acidic endosomes with high efficiency, 15 min pi, and largely outnumbered the Gal3-positive membranes, suggesting that Gal3 recruitment to broken membranes is transient, or Gal3-positive membranes are rapidly turned-over. In support of rapid turn-over, Gal3 was found within single-membrane vesicles and degradative autophagosomes. The Gal3 membranes contained ubiquitin
Coursera - Virology II: How Viruses Cause DiseaseWEBRip | English | MP4 | 960 x 540 | VP8 ~670 kbps | 25 fpsVorbis | 128 Kbps | 48.0 KHz | 2 channels | 04:1...
A discovery by Melbourne researchers has solved a longstanding mystery of how viruses trigger protective immunity within our body.
Provide education on COVID-19 disease and SARS-CoV-2. Review the types of tests used for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Discuss approaches to serologic test development. Review the ki
Introduction to Genetic Analysis 8th Edition, Anthony J.F. Griffiths, Susan R. Wessler, Richard C. Lewontin, William M. Gelbart, David T. Suzuki, Jeffrey H. Miller ...
Introduction to Genetic Analysis 8th Edition, Anthony J.F. Griffiths, Susan R. Wessler, Richard C. Lewontin, William M. Gelbart, David T. Suzuki, Jeffrey H. Miller ...
Comparison of Respiratory Virus Detection Rates for Infants and Toddlers by Use of Flocked Swabs, Saline Aspirates, and Saline Aspirates Mixed in Universal Transport Medium for Room Temperature Storage and Shippin
Specific pharmacological targeting of viruses is extremely challenging since the vast majority of the molecular machinery required for viral replication is provided by host cells. Secondly, any replicative machinery of viral origin is often unique to the specific virus or viral family; consequently, antiviral agents are few and are not broadly effective against multiple classes of viruses ...
Page 1 of 2 - virus [Closed] - posted in Virus, Spyware, Malware Removal: I have an dell laptop that is almost a year old. Yesterday i was on netflix watching a movie and ads started popping up. I exited out of them not thinking anything of it but today i cant even get on the internet. When i open internet explorer it loads a page saying the site is under attack and i need to download security protection. Also things keep popping up on my home screen saying i have multiple viruses that nee...
The description you provide is for a specific bacteriovirus (a virus which infects bacteria). It applies to only one subclass of virus (in the case described, one called lambda).. Other bacteria infecting virus are not nearly so polite; they just kill the infected cell. As far as I am aware, there is no animal virus that has been demonstrated to behave in the same manner. Retroviruses do integrate into the host DNA but do not confer resistance on the host. So the suggested solution is a reasonable one for protecting some bacteria from getting specific virus infections; however I suspect the person asking the question was not the least bit interested in protecting bacteria from getting a viral infection! The principle is a good one, and might be useful if ever a virus if the type described was found that caused a disease in people.. One other interesting point: when a bacteria with lysogenized lambda virus (integrated into the genome of the host) is mated to a bacteria that does not have the same ...
Norton has been a PITA for years, I gave up on it well over a decade ago after multiple bouts of router problems with it. Its not even very good at its core job when you look at the various virus detection tests done over the years. The last notepad I bought new was a Win7 i5 ASUS about six years ago and Norton was part of the free crapware loaded and cocked ready to go on that. Of course it was only free for a short period and it took me quite a while to figure out how to get rid of it. No doubt ASUS and Norton shared the spoils from those who couldnt get rid of it ...
What is UV-C disinfection and how effective is it against various viruses and germs? This guide should give you some information about it all.
Sprout rediscovered Plague inc evolved today, and chatted to me lots about the options that you use as the pathogen to either wipe out or enslave the human race. It involved virulence, viruses, bacteria, Ebola, DNA, RNA... we looked up electron microscope scans of various viruses and he was curious about how close to real life it was... he told me about the similarity of one aspect of the game to Aliens xenomorphs... talked about what affects the success of a pathogen, whether wiping out its host is wise, how severity or otherwise might lead to better or worse spread... he told me about looking at infecting high density populations in poorer areas compared to lower density and richer areas, and the comparative consequences of this. He asked me what I thought the necro virus might be, and after guessing something quickly fatal, or something necrotising, I guessed at a zombie virus which he gleefully confirmed was correct :) We chatted briefly about the behaviour modification in mice due to ...
The new diagnostic methods will investigate exhaled air, biological fluids, in particular, saliva, and biological tissues (the epithelial layer of the oral cavity), - explains Yuri Kistenev, one of the project executors, head of the TSU Laboratory of Biophotonics, executive director of the TSU Institute of Biomedicine. - In each case, when pathogens are introduced into the body, changes in the molecular composition occur in the cells of biological tissues and gas and liquid samples of biological origin. Our task is to identify these molecular biomarkers for various viruses and bacteria and, using artificial intelligence methods, teach computer models to recognize the pathogen ...
Ive started to see an increasing amount of threads here with people getting infected with various viruses, getting hacked etc. This is in 99.9% of cases due to carelessness and/or ignorance. In this day and age, you have a responsibity to keep you computer from getting hacked and used in attacks towards other computers. I equal this to careless or drunk driving, only that people fortunately dont die from it (yet). So here goes my quick and dirty guide to securing your computer. 1. Get a
This test checks to see whether an infection is caused by a bacterium or a virus. It can also tell which specific virus is causing your infection.
In article ,Pine.SUN.3.91.960212130947.721A-100000 at chuma,, Elaine Morse , (BIO) ,morse at, wrote: , , , Microbiology undergrad seeks feedback on the following questions related , , to virology....All responses greatly appreciated! Thanks for your time, E. , , , , 1) Are viruses ALIVE? Yes. , , 2) What is the definition of viral purity? When its pure. , , 3) What factors limit host range? Many. , , 4) What is the minimum info needed to:a) uniquely id a virus within a , , Group? Shirt colour a Family? Name a Genus? Nickname a Species? Name only heard during pillowtalk as a Strain? If its heavy as Unique/new? b) If its COOOLLLL... , , diagnose pathology as a consequence of virus infection? & Damn! Hes sick with a virus!! c) diagnose , , pathology as a consequence of specific virus infection? Damn! Hes sick with the FLU virus!! , , 5) Which assays give high resolution answers for diagnosis? Electron micrsocopy and Why? Because it is a high resolution technique , , 6) What ...
It is easily killed with a 1:10 solution of bleach and water. It can be washed from skin with regular soaps. HIV will not survive outside the human body for more than a few hours at the most(Quackenbush 23). If a person thinks he or she might have HIV, he or she can get tested. HIV tests determine the presence of antibodies to the AIDS virus.. Antibodies are proteins produced by certain white blood cells to react with specific viruses, bacteria, or foreign substances that go into the body. The presence of antibodies to HIV indicates infection with the virus. The tests that detect the presence of HIV-1 became widely available in 1985. The tests that detect HIV-2 became widely available in 1992. All infected patients should get blood tests done periodically.. They should also have their health monitored by a physician(Drotman 164). There is no cure for HIV or AIDS, but treatments have been developed. The treatments help most people live longer. The infected people have to take medications to help ...
Simulate the spread of an illness through a population. Using a safe, simulated disease agent, students model the transmission of a communicable viral disease, identify its origin …
The video below will teach you to distinguish between viruses and bacteria and explain why its very important to know the difference.​
Reverse transcription is the flow of information from RNA to DNA, opposite the standard process cells use to make proteins. It is a method employed by certain viruses to embed their own genetic information into a hosts DNA, effectively hijacking the cell and using its organelles to produce more virus particles rather than proteins. These retroviruses, such as HIV, have the most complex reproductive cycle seen in any class of viruses. All retroviruses are ...
Researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College have unlocked the structure of a key protein that, when sensing certain viruses and bacteria, triggers the bodys immediate immune response.
Buy Aklovir Online! Aklovir is the generic name for Zovirax, a prescription medication used to treat certain virus infections. The drug works by preventing viruses from dividing and multiplying.
Something Ive always wondered about, I know certain viruses can alter DNA of surrounding cells and also alter themselves through mutation. The question is will we ever be able to alter DNA to the point where we could change things like hair color, or perhaps correct certain genetic related predisposition to disease. I dont think we will ever be able to change a persons overall look as thats something you grow into, not something thats constantly updated. Bone for example I dont think would just change shape based on genetic changes. I could be wrong ...
Viral concentration kit for saliva (10 reactions) is designed to maximally collect all respiratory viruses by deeply coughing and then rinsing the whole mouth, and to efficiently concentrate viral particles, up to 100 folds at any sample volume. The concentrated viral particles are suitable for both RNA and antigen detection with increasing sensitivity, as well as another in vitro and in vivo application. This kit is specifically suitable for viral detection for pooled saliva samples.
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: The Role of the Human Virome in Heart, Lung, and Blood Health and Resilience (R61/R33) RFA-HL-17-002. NHLBI
When it comes to the microbiome, bacteria get all the press. But virologists are starting to realize that their subjects also do a lot more than make people sick.
The aim of Reviews in Medical Virology is to provide virologists with articles reviewing conceptual or technological advances in diverse areas of virology.
viral infection - MedHelps viral infection Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for viral infection. Find viral infection information, treatments for viral infection and viral infection symptoms.
A panel of ten purified respiratory viruses pooled that have been inactivated to render them non‐infectious and formulated in viral transport medium.
Some viruses evade this by producing molecules which interfere with IFN production. For example, the Influenza A virus produces ... Viruses[edit]. Type I interferons (IFN), secreted mainly by dendritic cells,[22] play a central role in antiviral host defense ... RNA silencing mechanisms are also important in the plant systemic response, as they can block virus replication.[40] The ... García-Sastre A, Egorov A, Matassov D, Brandt S, Levy DE, Durbin JE, Palese P, Muster T (December 1998). "Influenza A virus ...
Bee paralysis virus[edit]. In 2008, the chronic bee paralysis virus was reported for the first time in this and another species ... Detection of Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) genome and its replicative RNA form in various hosts and possible ways of ...
"Scores - The Virus Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2016-03-23.. *^ "Scores Virus". agn-www.informatik.uni-hamburg. ... VIRUS-L Virus Discussion List, SCORES Virus (Mac) Sighted At Washington State U. 1988-11-22 ... This loophole resulted in the "Computer Virus Eradication Act of 1988". References[edit]. *Norstad, John. The Viruses. ... The alleged author of the virus was questioned by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) soon after the virus was discovered ...
The role of viruses[edit]. Genes borrowed from viruses have recently been identified as playing a crucial role in the ... The first is syncytin, which came from a virus. The second identified in 2007 is called EFF1, which helps form the skin of ... Slezak, Michael (2016), "No Viruses? No skin or bones either" (New Scientist, No. 2958, 1 March 2014) p.16 ...
In influenza viruses[edit]. In the influenza virus, the two relevant antigens are the surface proteins, hemagglutinin and ... Antigenic drift occurs in both influenza A and influenza B viruses.. The immune system recognizes viruses when antigens on the ... All influenza viruses experience some form of antigenic drift, but it is most pronounced in the influenza A virus. ... As in all RNA viruses, mutations in influenza occur frequently because the virus' RNA polymerase has no proofreading mechanism ...
In vitro virus high-throughput sequencing[edit]. A method has been developed to analyze full sets of protein interactions using ... "The Next Frontier: Human Viruses" ,, Retrieved May 3, 2017. *^ Beck S, Pohl FM (1984). "DNA sequencing ... In some viruses (specifically, bacteriophage), cytosine may be replaced by hydroxy methyl or hydroxy methyl glucose cytosine.[5 ... Medical Research Council scientists deciphered the complete DNA sequence of the Epstein-Barr virus in 1984, finding it ...
Table1: Largest giant viruses with complete sequenced genomes[edit]. Giant virus name. Genome Length. Genes. Capsid diameter. ... Table 2: Specific common features among giant viruses[edit]. Giant virus name. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Octocoral-like MutS. ... The whole list is in the Giant Virus Topist created by the Giant Virus Finder software.[12] ... Megavirus also joins a group of large viruses known as nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV), although this term appears ...
Virus removal[edit]. This overarching process, which has come to be known simply as virus removal, is one in which all of the ... Viral inactivation renders viruses inactive, or unable to infect. Many viruses contain lipid or protein coats that can be ... Some of the more common viruses removed by these methods are the HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses; hepatitis A, B, and C; and ... Virus removal processes using nanofiltration techniques[1] remove viruses specifically by size exclusion. This type of process ...
Zika virus malformations[edit]. Cortical malformations induced by the Zika virus are due to infection during pregnancy, and are ... "Zika Virus Disrupts Neural Progenitor Development and Leads to Microcephaly in Mice". Cell Stem Cell. 19 (1): 120-6. doi ... "Zika Virus Infects Human Cortical Neural Progenitors and Attenuates Their Growth". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 587-590. doi ... "Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor in Neural Stem Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 591 ...
Kuruppu, D; Tanabe, KK (May 2005). "Viral oncolysis by herpes simplex virus and other viruses". Cancer Biology & Therapy. 4 (5 ... Virus isolation[edit]. Samples[edit]. For routine isolation of NDV from chickens, turkeys, and other birds, samples are ... Viruses: The new cancer hunters. 1 March 2006 *^ Mansour, M.; Palese, P.; Zamarin, D. (2011). "Oncolytic ... Virus-bearing material can be picked up on shoes and clothing and carried from an infected flock to a healthy one. ...
Epstein-Barr virus, mumps virus, rubella virus and rotavirus, but to date there is no stringent evidence to support this ... Virus[edit]. One theory proposes that type 1 diabetes is a virus-triggered autoimmune response in which the immune system ... Fairweather D, Rose NR (2002). "Type 1 diabetes: virus infection or autoimmune disease?". Nature Immunology. 3 (4): 338-40. doi ... attacks virus-infected cells along with the beta cells in the pancreas.[29][90] Several viruses have been implicated, including ...
... the VE hypothesis specifies a pox-like virus as the lysogenic virus. A pox-like virus is a likely ancestor because of its ... Barry RD (1961). "The multiplication of influenza virus. II. Multiplicity reactivation of ultraviolet irradiated virus". ... such as influenza virus, and in extant double-stranded segmented RNA viruses such as reovirus.[64] ... Virus-like RNA-based origin[edit]. Sex might also have been present even earlier, in the hypothesized RNA world that preceded ...
The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ... Virus taxonomy classification and nomenclature of viruses; 8th report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. ...
... adenovirus simian virus 40, vaccinia virus, reovirus, poliovirus and herpes simplex virus as well as numerous bacteriophages.[ ... Viruses[edit]. Viruses are capsid-encoding organisms composed of proteins and nucleic acids that can self-assemble after ... Many types of virus are capable of genetic recombination. When two or more individual viruses of the same type infect a cell, ... When two or more viruses, each containing lethal genomic damage infect the same host cell, the virus genomes often can pair ...
Viruses[edit]. Some viruses express their entire genome as one massive polyprotein and use a protease to cleave this into ... Some viruses, with HIV/AIDS among them, depend on proteases in their reproductive cycle. Thus, protease inhibitors are ... Proteases occur in all organisms, from prokaryotes to eukaryotes to viruses. These enzymes are involved in a multitude of ... Proteases can be found in Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Bacteria, Archaea and viruses. ...
Oncolytic viruses[edit]. Oncolytic viruses are engineered to infect cancerous cells. Limitations of that method include immune ... response to the virus and the possibility of the virus evolving into a pathogen.[118] ...
... , also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause ... LPAI viruses have negligible virulence, but these viruses can serve as progenitors to HPAI viruses. The current strain of H5N1 ... Influenza viruses have a relatively high mutation rate that is characteristic of RNA viruses. The segmentation of its genome ... Influenza A viruses are significant for their potential for disease and death in humans and other animals. Influenza A virus ...
DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ... Virus lifecycle[edit]. The lifecycle of hepatitis E virus is unknown; the capsid protein obtains viral entry by binding to a ... Recovery leads to virus clearance from the blood, while the virus may persist in stool for much longer. Recovery is also marked ...
Impact on blood-borne viruses. The 2003 evaluators of the Sydney MSIC found that it "had not increased blood-borne virus ... were infected with Hepatitis C virus and 17% with HIV, 20% were homeless with numerous others living in single resident rooms, ...
Stub templates on virus articles[edit]. Hi, you created some good stubs on various viruses. Please be aware in future that ... there is a more specific template, {{Virus-stub}} which is more relevant for those articles than {{med-stub}}. There is a list ...
... bunchy top virus. Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is a plant virus of the genus Babuvirus, family Nanonviridae affecting ... Infected plants may produce no fruit or the bunch may not emerge from the pseudostem.[90] The virus is transmitted by the ... There is no cure for BBTD, but it can be effectively controlled by the eradication of diseased plants and the use of virus-free ... "Banana Bunchy Top Virus." Global Invasive Species Database. N.p., 6 July 2005. ...
Viruses[edit]. Papaya, potatoes, and squash have been engineered to resist viral pathogens such as cucumber mosaic virus which ... Many strains of corn have been developed in recent years to combat the spread of Maize dwarf mosaic virus, a costly virus that ... Potatoes were engineered for resistance to potato leaf roll virus and Potato virus Y in 1998. Poor sales led to their market ... Yellow squash that were resistant to at first two, then three viruses were developed, beginning in the 1990s. The viruses are ...
Israeli acute paralysis virus[edit]. A related virus[20] described in 2004 is known as the Israeli acute paralysis virus.[22] ... Kashmir bee virus[edit]. Kashmir bee virus[25] is related to the preceding viruses.[20] Recently discovered, it is currently ... Deformed wing virus[edit]. Main article: Deformed wing virus. Deformed wing virus (DWV) is the causative agent of the wing ... Tobacco ringspot virus[edit]. The RNA virus tobacco ringspot virus, a plant pathogen, was described to infect honeybees through ...
Phytoplasma, virus and viruslike diseases[edit]. Virus and viruslike diseases. Alfalfa mosaic Alfalfa mosaic virus ...
Flaviviridae is a family of viruses that encompasses well known viruses such as West Nile virus and Dengue virus. The genus ... In viruses[edit]. Different virus families have different levels of ability to alter their genomes and trick the immune system ... Influenza virus[edit]. The antigenic properties of influenza viruses are determined by both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. ... Viruses in general have much faster rate of mutation of their genomes than human or bacterial cells. In general viruses with ...
Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ... MVD is caused by two viruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV)family Filoviridae[16] ... Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus". Vaccine. 21 (25-26): 4071-4080. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03 ... Marburg virus disease outbreaks. Year. Country. Virus. Human cases. Human deaths. Case fatality rate. ...
Link to Ebola virus[edit]. In August 2016, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) came out with a ... study that showed that people with the Ebola virus were 20 percent more likely to survive it if they were infected with the ... "NIAID researchers explore link between Ebola virus survival and malaria-causing parasite". Homeland Preparedness News ...
Epstein-Barr virus[edit]. Rarely, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple myeloma, particularly in individuals who ... as one form of the Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases and termed Epstein-Barr virus-associated plasma ... Yan J, Wang J, Zhang W, Chen M, Chen J, Liu W (April 2017). "Solitary plasmacytoma associated with Epstein-Barr virus: a ... Rezk SA, Zhao X, Weiss LM (June 2018). "Epstein - Barr virus - associated lymphoid proliferations, a 2018 update". Human ...
Extension to ebola virus[edit]. In December 2014, the Senate approved a bill that would add the Ebola virus to the Priority ... Zika virus disease (added in 2016 by Pub. L. 114-146). *Any other infectious disease for which there is no significant market ... The Ebola virus is a type of Filovirus. According to the Congressional Budget Office, enactment of the law does not have an ... Filovirus diseases (including Ebola virus disease) (added in 2014 by Pub. L. 113-233, amended by Pub. L. 114-146) ...
Several viruses, such as influenza viruses[8][9][10][11] Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)[8] and SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV),[ ... RNA sense in viruses[edit]. In virology, the term "sense" has a slightly different meaning. The genome of an RNA virus can be ... Some viruses (e.g. influenza viruses) have negative-sense genomes and so must carry an RNA polymerase inside the virion. ... Anne-Lise Haenni (2003). "Expression strategies of ambisense viruses". Virus Research. 93 (2): 141-150. doi:10.1016/S0168-1702( ...
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in infants and young children. But, anyone can get ... There are many different types of viruses that cause respiratory infections. Two of those viruses are HPIVs and influenza (flu ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in infants and young children. But anyone can get HPIV ... touching objects or surfaces with the viruses on them then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes ...
Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. However, sporadic human infections with swine flu have occurred - CDC ... All influenza viruses have the capacity to change and its possible that variant viruses may change such that they infect ... When this happens, these viruses are called "variant viruses." They also can be denoted by adding the letter "v" to the end of ... Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. However, sporadic human infections with influenza viruses that normally ...
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory illness in young children. Learn how to recognize the signs ... The virus infects the lungs and breathing passages.. What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Respiratory Syncytial Virus?. Kids with ... Respiratory syncytial virus is highly contagious. It spreads through droplets containing the virus when someone coughs or ... What Is Respiratory Syncytial Virus?. Respiratory syncytial (sin-SISH-ul) virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory illness ...
A letter from over 200 scientists to the World Health Organization asks for further investigation into how the virus spreads. ... How a virus could spread this way: Through the respiratory route in which a person breathes in clouds of tiny virus particles ... How a virus could spread this way: Through indirect transmission if people touch the surface of a virus-covered object, pick up ... How a virus could spread this way: "A large droplet flies through the air and lands on your body," says Linsey Marr, a ...
... pdm09 virus vaccination program prevented 700,000-1,500,000 clinical cases, 4,000-10,000 hospitalizations, and 200-500 deaths. ... the United States began a response to the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus strain: A(H1N1)pdm09. Vaccination began in ... Skarbinski J, Jain S, Bramley A, Lee EJ, Huang J, Kirschke D, Hospitalized patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus ... basic reproductive rate of the virus, virus subtype, subgroups affected, public acceptance of vaccination, vaccine safety ...
A Virus You Can Take to Dinner. Scientists find the first indications that there may be healthy viruses living in your gut. ... Billions of Viruses Fall From the Skies Every Day. The research can explain how identical viruses travel thousands of miles ... Rare Virus Sickens Thousands of Kids in Midwest. Luckily the virus isnt usually deadly, but has caused many hospitalizations. ... Algae Virus Can Infect Mammalian Cells. The virus may also infect humans and affect the brain. ...
From an obscure virus to the newest scare, interest in the virus has skyrocketed just in the past few weeks: I have a few ... Flu viruses are described by two key genes-hence the name H1N1. Tara C. Smith writes "The novel bat virus was a completely ... Smith writes, "These viruses are not just kinda new. They are really really different from the RNA viruses we already know ... but a virus is not a predator. Bonham says Ebola viruses, like other emerging diseases, are "poorly adapted for our immune ...
Infections caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) are exceedingly common. They are divided into primary and secondary (recurrent ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus Herpes Simplex Virus West Nile Virus Herpes Zoster Graft Versus Host Disease These keywords were ... Varicella-zoster virus disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Dermatol. 1990;127:1086-8.CrossRef ... Clinical features of human immunodeficiency virus-associated disseminated herpes zoster virus infection - a review of the ...
Computational Studies on Viruses and Binding of Antiviral Agents. It is known that antiviral agents against human rhinovirus ( ... Enveloped viruses comprise a protein-nucleic acid core covered by a membrane bilayer with integral membrane receptor proteins. ... 2010) NMR relaxation studies of an RNA-binding segment of the rous sarcoma virus gag polyprotein in free and bound states: a ... 2004) Solution structure of dengue virus capsid protein reveals another fold. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101: 3414-3419. doi: ...
It is now well-established that viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and are estimated to harbor the ... Virus Virus Mono Lake Centrifugal Filter Unit Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation Tangential Flow Filtration These keywords ... Pietila MK, Roine E, Paulin L, Kalkkinen N, Bamford DH (2009) An ssDNA virus infecting archaea: a new lineage of viruses with a ... Forterre P (2006) The origin of viruses and their possible roles in major evolutionary transitions. Virus Research 117(1):5-16 ...
Source for information on Viruses: Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health dictionary. ... VirusesDefinitionA virus is an infectious agent, often highly host-specific, consisting of genetic material surrounded by a ... Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) belongs to a class of viruses known as t… Viruses , ... Another effect of viruses on human health is infection by zoonotic viruses, that is, viruses that can be transmitted from an ...
Big Picture Book of Viruses. A catalog of virus pictures on the WWW. *American Society for Virology. *Institute for Molecular ... Virus Ultrastructure. Linda Stannard, University of Cape Town. *Electron Micrographs of Animal Viruses. Queens University at ... Single-stranded Negative Sense RNA Viruses (monophyly uncertain) *Single-stranded Positive Sense RNA Viruses (monophyly ... Virus Taxonomy. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Academic Press, San Diego. ...
Large-scale discovery of vertebrate RNA viruses shows that, although viruses often jump between hosts, most have co-evolved ... Large-scale discovery of vertebrate RNA viruses shows that, although viruses often jump between hosts, most have co-evolved ... Large-scale discovery of vertebrate RNA viruses shows that, although viruses often jump between hosts, most have co-evolved ... with their hosts over millions of years The evolutionary history of viruses is largely unknown. ...
Viruses and the Prokaryotic World. Viruses. Viruses and bacteria are too small to be seen without the aid of microscopes. As ... Structure and Classification of Viruses. Viruses differ from cellular organisms in many ways. A virus contains only a single ... Viruses infect all forms of life. Organisms and physical objects that carry or transmit viruses are called vectors. Viruses ... Extremely small, simple in structure, and widely distributed, viruses exist in a realm all their own. Viruses do not qualify as ...
I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ... a b Breitbart M, Rohwer F. Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?. Trends in Microbiology. 2005;13(6):278-84. ...
Generally viruses are much smaller than bacteria. Most viruses that have been studied have a diameter between 10 and 300 nanome ... Viruses display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes, called morphologies. ... A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of organisms. ... Flu viruses tend to live longer on surfaces than cold viruses do. Also, its generally believed that cold and flu viruses live ...
Archaebacterial viruses.. Reiter WD1, Zillig W, Palm P.. Author information. 1. Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie, Martinsried ...
Viruses with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) genomes are called DNA viruses. Like all viruses, DNA viruses are small when compared ... DNA viruses are able to program the cell to replicate the virus using the genes contained within the viral DNA genome. Source ... DNA Viruses Viruses can be classified based on proteins encoded within the viral genetic material or genome . ... Viruses with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) genomes are called DNA viruses. Like all viruses, DNA viruses are small when compared ...
For this reason, viruses are often grouped by the type of file they infect, such as boot viruses and macro viruses. ... The decline of viruses. Viruses used to be the most common type of harmful program that users encountered in the 1990s; today, ... A quick guide to computer viruses - what they are, how they work and the potential consequences of a virus infecting your ... Viruses can be distributed and installed on a computer in many ways, though the most common methods usually involve either:. * ...
... shaun everiss Wed, 14 Oct 2009 12:27:02 -0700 ... the spam itself but now every day for the last 3 days I have been recieving an attachment called which has a virus. ...
Why by making a Frankenstein virus, of course!. Deniers, take note- they did not create a zombie virus. They did not bring an ... They took parts of an extinct virus, combined them with parts of an alive virus, and created a Frankenstein. Oh they call them ... How can you test how well our TRIM5a works against a virus if the virus doesnt exist anymore? ... pseudoviruses/dummy viruses). Bits and pieces of viruses smashed together to make a functional thing. Frankenstein. 😀 ...
Influenza virus Nipah virus Poliovirus Coxsackie B4 virus Tacaribe complex (New world arenaviruses) Rotavirus Parvovirus ... Sulfolobus and Sulfolobus tengchongensis spindle-shaped virus 1 (STSV1) HIV-1 Bracovirus © 2002 International Society of ... Viruses Images Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ...
Articles on viral structure, function, and genetics will be considered, as well as articles focusing on virus-host interactions ... and clinical studies on viruses and viral diseases. ... Oncolytic Viruses. Guest Editors: Nanhai G. Chen, Aladar A. ... Oncolytic Viruses, Nanhai G. Chen, Aladar A. Szalay, R. Mark L. Buller, and Ulrich M. Lauer Editorial (2 pages), Article ID ... Retargeting of Viruses to Generate Oncolytic Agents, M. H. Verheije and P. J. M. Rottier Review Article (15 pages), Article ID ...
DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... The JC virus or John Cunningham virus is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus). It was identified by ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ...
The mosquito-borne Zika virus is prompting worldwide concern because of its rapid spread across the globe and its connection to ... The Zika virus has been linked to microcephaly, a neurological disorder that results in newborns with small heads and abnormal ... A banner about Zika virus is seen as ferry passengers arriving from Singapore get in line at the immigration check on September ... The Rio 2016 Olympic Games commence August 5 amid a political and economic crisis in the country along with the Zika virus ...
Information on Zika virus. Provided by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... In 2018 and 2019, no local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission has been reported in the continental United States. ... CDC has a surveillance system for collecting data on Zika virus cases. ... Interim Guidance for Managing Occupational Exposures to Zika Virus for Healthcare Personnel ...
... caused by the Epstein Barr virus (EBV) - spread from person-to-person by saliva and stays for life usually with no further ... Once a person catches Epstein Barr virus, it is believed that the virus remains in his or her body for life, though it usually ... Young children may be infected by saliva on the hands of care givers or by sucking and sharing toys, but the virus does not ... The virus is shed in the saliva for up to a year after illness and intermittently thereafter. ...
The discovery of the causative agent, hepatitis C virus (HCV), in 1989 has initiated an almost unparalleled research activity ... Review Mechanisms of hepatitis C virus infection.[Antivir Chem Chemother. 2003]. Review Mechanisms of hepatitis C virus ... Review Virology and cell biology of the hepatitis C virus life cycle: an update.[J Hepatol. 2014]. Review Virology and cell ... Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) and Other Strategies in HCV Vaccine Designs and Immunotherapy. Ayaz M Majid and ...
... In todays why-the-bees-are-dying news: Giving hives checkups throughout the year yields a ... This doesnt mean that the viruses arent killing off honeybees, but it does suggest that CCD is the result of a number of ... "We noticed that specific viruses dominated in some. seasons, but also found that not all of the colonies tested positively. for ... The researchers came away with a pattern of infections that can be found throughout the seasons-including 27 honeybee viruses ( ...
  • Antibiotics aren't used because RSV is a virus - antibiotics work only against bacteria. (
  • So small that they cannot be seen by a light microscope, viruses range in size from about 30 nanometers (about0.000001 in) to about 450 nanometers (about0.000014 in) and are between 100 to 20 times smaller than bacteria. (
  • Viruses and bacteria are too small to be seen without the aid of microscopes. (
  • Viruses that infect bacteria are called bacteriophages , or simply phages. (
  • Viruses can infect all types of life forms , from animals and plants to microorganisms , including bacteria and archaea . (
  • The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids -pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (
  • Generally viruses are much smaller than bacteria. (
  • The researchers came away with a pattern of infections that can be found throughout the seasons-including 27 honeybee viruses (four of which were previously unknown), six species of fungi, six kinds of bacteria, four species of mites, and a phorid (a kind of parasitic fly which previously had not been observed in honeybees outside California). (
  • It turns out that not only viruses but also bacteria and other organisms which invade your body are often quite picky about which cell they first interact with and enter. (
  • By building on this research, we may one day be able to advise people genetically predisposed to multiple sclerosis, for instance, to avoid certain viruses or bacteria or to be vaccinated against them in order to prevent actual development of autoimmune disease, wrote Mitchell Kronenberg, president and scientific director of San Diego's La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology, where the research took place. (
  • Bacteriophage are viruses that infect bacteria and are distinct from animal and plant viruses in that they lack intrinsic tropism for eukaryotic cells ( 30 ). (
  • Unlike human cells or bacteria, viruses don't contain the chemical machinery ( enzymes ) needed to carry out the chemical reactions for life. (
  • So, a virus must have a host cell (bacteria, plant or animal) in which to live and make more viruses. (
  • There are many different, tailed, bacteria viruses--or phages--and all of these phages have such a motor for packaging their DNA, their genome, into their pre-formed heads. (
  • There are many such classifications under the microbes such as the Bacteria,Fungus, Virus, Protozoans and Algae. (
  • Microbiologists had focused on bacteria and other microbes that viruses infect. (
  • Most of these viruses are bacteriophages which infect and destroy marine bacteria and control the growth of phytoplankton at the base of the marine food web. (
  • In particular the breaking down of bacteria by viruses (lysis) has been shown to enhance nitrogen cycling and stimulate phytoplankton growth. (
  • It is thought viruses played a central role in early evolution before the diversification of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes, at the time of the last universal common ancestor of life on Earth. (
  • Some viruses may have evolved from plasmids-pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (
  • Bacteriophages, often just called phages, are viruses that parasite bacteria. (
  • [5] [6] The study of viruses is known as virology , a sub-speciality of microbiology . (
  • Review Virology and cell biology of the hepatitis C virus life cycle: an update. (
  • Teams of the Department of Virology, of Global Heath, of Structural Biology and Chemistry and of Computational Biology study viruses causing infections to understand their epidemiology and to develop alternative strategies to fight them and overcome drug resistance. (
  • The studies involved with Virus, is Virology. (
  • A microbiologist is attaining his complete knowledge about the Virus, through Virology studies. (
  • A serious attempt was made to deal concisely with every major topic of chemical virology and to present examples from different classes of viruses. (
  • 2000. Iridovirus homologues of cellular genes -- implications for the molecular evolution of large DNA viruses. (
  • Virus Genes 21:77-81. (
  • In the appropriate cell, DNA viruses are able to program the cell to replicate the virus using the genes contained within the viral DNA genome. (
  • For a DNA virus, the virion is composed of a set of DNA genes protected by a proteincontaining coat called a capsid. (
  • Small DNA viruses generally have less than ten genes encoded within the viral genome, whereas large DNA viruses can have anywhere from fifty genes to well over one hundred genes. (
  • A map of the genome of JC virus, indicating the position of the tumor antigen genes (red), the three capsid protein genes (green and blue), the agnogene (yellow), and the non-coding control region (NCCR). (
  • Viruses are the smallest and simplest microbes, just a ball of genes wrapped in a shell - about a millionth of an inch across. (
  • They reproduce by injecting their genes into a cell to produce thousands of new viruses. (
  • By analyzing these genes, scientists can better understand the impacts viruses have on their microbial hosts, their environments, and us. (
  • By manipulating genes inside the viruses, the scientists coaxed them into coating themselves with cobalt oxide molecules and gold particles and then lining themselves up to form tiny wires that serve as the anode electrode in a battery. (
  • Cancer cells are ideal hosts for many viruses because they have the antiviral interferon pathway inactivated or have mutated tumour suppressor genes 2 3 that enable viral replication to proceed unhindered. (
  • Although RSIV was identified as an iridovirus, sequence analyses of RSIV genes revealed that the virus did not belong to any of the four known genera within the family Iridoviridae . (
  • Phylogenetic analyses of the major capsid protein (MCP) and ATPase genes indicated that although these viruses shared considerable sequence identity, they could be divided into three tentative species, represented by RSIV, ISKNV and TRBIV, respectively. (
  • Then she mixes them with simple, harmless viruses whose genes have been reprogrammed to promote random variations. (
  • Viruses are an important natural means of transferring genes between different species, which increases genetic diversity and drives evolution. (
  • All standard viruses share a general structure of genetic material, or viral genome, and a protein coat, called a capsid. (
  • Instead, they use host cell machinery to make both the viral genome and capsids of the newly formed viruses, or virions. (
  • There are no cures for viral infections, due in part to the difficulty of developing drugs that adversely affect only the virus and not the host. (
  • Exactly how viruses function in this manner is best understood by examining general viral structure, classification, and reproductive strategies. (
  • An example of a virus having an icosahedral structure is adenovirus, the virus that can cause acute respiratory disease or viral pneumonia in humans. (
  • 2004. The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a double-stranded DNA viral capsid type that spans all domains of life. (
  • Viruses must use the metabolic machinery of a live host cell to produce more viral particles. (
  • Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. (
  • However, some viruses including those that cause AIDS and viral hepatitis evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. (
  • These "early" proteins are also important for promoting "late" viral gene synthesis and preparing the cell for the production of progeny virus. (
  • [3] Certain transcription factors present in the early promoter sequences of the JC virus can induce trophism and viral proliferation that leads to PML. (
  • [10] The protein encoded by these early sequences, T-antigen, also plays a key role in viral proliferation, [11] directing the initiation of DNA replication for the virus as well as performing a transcriptional switch to allow for the formation of the various capsid and regulatory proteins needed for viral fitness. (
  • Although JC virus infection is classically associated with white matter demyelination and PML pathogenesis, recent literature has identified viral variants as etiological agents of other novel syndromes. (
  • Further research by Stanley and others established that a virus consists of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat that may also shelter viral proteins involved in infection. (
  • The newly created viral bits assemble and, voilà, more virus arises, which also may infect other cells. (
  • Interestingly, even though biologists long favored the view that viruses were mere boxes of chemicals, they took advantage of viral activity in host cells to determine how nucleic acids code for proteins: indeed, modern molecular biology rests on a foundation of information gained through viruses. (
  • The researchers study the tree-dimensional organization of virus particles and viral replication enzymes, focusing on enveloped viruses and the envelope glycoproteins anchored in the viral membrane. (
  • The discovery of how this virus motor functions represents a significant milestone in the investigation of viral processes,' says David Rockcliffe, the program director who oversees a National Science Foundation (NSF) grant that partly funded the research. (
  • Having already determined the structures of a number of other viral components and how they self-assemble, in this study the researchers focused their attention on the small motor that some viruses use to package DNA into their 'heads', protein shells also called capsids. (
  • Unlike existing drugs that stop viral replication by blocking known viral or cellular processes, DIPs can compete and co-evolve along with viruses. (
  • Several methods can be used for diagnosis, such as viral nucleic acid detection, virus isolation and serological testing. (
  • There are several challenges in viral ecology right now, from the actual identification and classification of unknown viruses to their interactions with their host and environments," said David Paez-Espino, a researcher at JGI, a DOE Office of Science user facility. (
  • But viruses that scientists can grow in the lab represent only a tiny fraction of viral diversity. (
  • Sequences of DNA often differ radically between groups of viruses, making it hard to sort out viral DNA from non-viral DNA. (
  • The use of viral vectors has now expanded from relatively safe, non-replicating viruses to the use of viruses that replicate more selectively in cancer cells than in normal cells (oncolytic viruses). (
  • The existence of viruses in the ocean was discovered through electron microscopy and epifluorescence microscopy of ecological water samples, and later through metagenomic sampling of uncultured viral samples. (
  • A third way to possibly get infected is to inhale particles containing influenza virus. (
  • Through the respiratory route in which a person breathes in clouds of tiny virus particles that have accumulated and may be traveling on air currents. (
  • These unconventional viruses include viroids, which exist as circular RNA molecules that are not packaged, and prions, infective particles that contain protein and little or no nucleic acids. (
  • While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles. (
  • The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms for some virus species to more complex structures for others. (
  • A cell is infected with one (or more) virus particles. (
  • The enzymes make parts for more new virus particles. (
  • The new particles assemble the parts into new viruses. (
  • T4 has been an important model system to tease out the details of basic mechanisms by which viruses assemble into infectious particles. (
  • Mathematical and computational modeling of virus and defective particles competition at single cell, tissue, organ and host level will allow inference of antiviral design principles. (
  • The virus infects the lungs and breathing passages. (
  • Bath C, Dyall-Smith ML (1998) His1, an archaeal virus of the Fuselloviridae family that infects Haloarcula hispanica. (
  • Hepatitis B is another small DNA virus that infects the liver, causes hepatitis, and is associated with liver cancer. (
  • Narcissus yellow stripe virus infects daffodils and jonquils. (
  • A computer virus is designed to copy itself and spread to other devices as widely as possible, just as a biological virus infects its host, self-replicates, and spreads to new hosts. (
  • Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. (
  • However, each case of human infection with a swine influenza virus should be fully investigated to be sure that such viruses are not spreading in an efficient and ongoing way in humans and to limit further exposure of humans to infected animals if infected animals are identified. (
  • The virus may also infect humans and affect the brain. (
  • While the scientific literature indicates that over 5,500 phages have been described Ackermann (Arch Virol 152(2):227-243, 2007), much of the scientific community has focused attention on the relatively fewer pathogenic viruses of humans, animals, and agricultural crops. (
  • These include viruses highly pathogenic to humans, such as influenza virus, arenaviruses and filoviruses, that have not previously been reported in fish or amphibians. (
  • In fact, many virus outbreaks in humans are the result of animal-to-human transmission, as exemplified by the recent Ebola epidemic in West Africa 10 . (
  • There are six different DNA virus families that infect and may cause significant disease in humans. (
  • Adenovirus, herpesvirus, and poxvirus are all examples of large DNA viruses that infect humans. (
  • Other herpes viruses that infect humans include Epstein-Barr virus , which causes mononucleosis and is important in a variety of human cancers, and varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. (
  • The final large DNA virus that can infect humans is smallpox. (
  • Biological viruses affect animals and humans. (
  • Vaccinia virus is normally confined to cattle, but is conveyed to humans through vaccination, thereby, imparting immunity to the smallpox virus. (
  • Zika virus is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. (
  • Zika virus is primarily transmitted to humans through bites from Aedes mosquitos, which often live around buildings in urban areas and are usually active during daylight hours (peak biting activity occurs in early mornings and late afternoons). (
  • Some evidence suggests Zika virus can also be transmitted to humans through blood transfusion, perinatal transmission and sexual transmission. (
  • In recent years, West Nile virus has been found in animals, birds, and humans in all continental states in the United States. (
  • Mosquitoes become infected by feeding on infected birds, and then transmit the virus to humans and animals through bites. (
  • Since that time, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has verified reports of West Nile virus infection in birds, mosquitoes, or humans throughout most of the country. (
  • Influenza virus - Humans, Animals, Avians 9. (
  • Deadly H7N9 avian flu viruses infected people for the first time earlier this year in China, but little is known about how they evolved to become harmful to humans. (
  • Most of these infections occurred after exposure to infected poultry or contaminated environments rather than person-to-person contact, but these viruses could evolve to become more readily transmissible among humans. (
  • To address this problem, Jiang teamed up with Daxin Peng of Yangzhou University and their collaborators to analyze whole-genome sequences of avian flu viruses from humans, poultry, and wild birds from China. (
  • Our work not only re-enforces the important role of wild birds in the emergence of novel influenza viruses but also highlights the necessity of integrating data from infections in humans, poultry, and wild birds for effective influenza surveillance," Jiang says. (
  • Positive-sense RNA viruses are responsible for frequent and often devastating diseases in humans, animals, and plants. (
  • Viruses are classified according to structural characteristics such as whether the virus genome is made of DNA or RNA. (
  • DNA viruses with small DNA genomes have genome sizes of less than 10 kilobasepairs , whereas DNA viruses with large genomes are over 30 kilobasepairs. (
  • This month's Genome Watch highlights how high-throughput sequencing has provided new insights into the diversity, evolution and genome organization of arthropod viruses. (
  • Artist rendering of genome standards being applied to deciphering the extensive diversity of viruses. (
  • Microbial studies in this location and others unintentionally formed a foundation for research into viruses at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI). (
  • In a study published by Cell Press in Cell Host & Microbe , an in-depth evolutionary analysis of whole-genome sequences of different types of avian flu viruses has revealed that new H7N9 viruses emerged from distinct H9N2 viruses in a two-step process, first occurring in wild birds and then continuing in domestic birds. (
  • Whole genome analyses have been reported for several of these viruses. (
  • A letter from over 200 scientists to the World Health Organization asks for further investigation into how the virus spreads. (
  • Scientists say the teenager is unlikely to be the only person to be infected with the virus. (
  • Scientists find the first indications that there may be healthy viruses living in your gut. (
  • Finally, however, scientists are beginning to appreciate viruses as fundamental players in the history of life. (
  • as such, the scientists identify the ways that viruses can evolve to escape antiviral approaches and develop ways to counter these measures through evolutionary concepts. (
  • Scientists found mice predisposed to diabetes were more likely to develop the disease if exposed to a virus. (
  • Most scientists agree that viruses are alive because of what happens when they infect a host cell. (
  • The virus is well known to scientists. (
  • But until recently, scientists' databases had little information about viruses. (
  • Scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the United States have figured out a way to use viruses to build ultrathin lithium-ion batteries that pack three times the normal energy level for their weight and size, they said this week. (
  • Marine viruses, although microscopic and essentially unnoticed by scientists until recently, are the most abundant and diverse biological entities in the ocean. (
  • 2003. Coevolution of viruses with hosts and vectors and possible paleontology. (
  • Organisms and physical objects that carry or transmit viruses are called vectors . (
  • Aphids are the vectors of Narcissus yellow stripe virus and several other viruses. (
  • The risk of a global spread of Zika virus to areas where the competent vectors, the Aedes mosquitoes, are present is significant, given the wide geographical distribution of these mosquitoes in various regions of the world. (
  • Viruses are frequently transmitted through propagated material but, depending on the virus, can also be transmitted via insect or mite vectors, pollen, mechanical transfer via contaminated hands and tools, and nematode vectors in the soil. (
  • Not all viruses produce new virions immediately. (
  • Most virus species have virions that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope . (
  • Following late gene synthesis, which includes proteins that are important for replicating and encasing the virus, progeny virions are then released by the infected cell to invade other cells so that the process can be repeated. (
  • Additionally, analysis of the sub-cellular localization of JC CPN virions in nuclei, cytoplasm, and axons suggests that the virus may travel through axons to increase infectivity. (
  • In contrast, non-enveloped viruses typically exit cells by cell lysis, and lipid membranes are not part of the released virions. (
  • Baranyi U, Klein R, Lubitz W, Kruger DH, Witte A (2000) The archaeal halophilic virus-encoded Dam-like methyltransferase M. phiCh1-I methylates adenine residues and complements dam mutants in the low salt environment of Escherichia coli. (
  • As of the seventh report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses(ICTV), published in September 2000, known viruses have been assigned to 1550 species in 53 different families. (
  • 2000. The origins and ongoing evolution of viruses. (
  • 2000. A hypothesis for DNA viruses as the origin of eukaryotic replication proteins. (
  • 2000. Virus Taxonomy. (
  • 2000. Virus nomenclature: consensus versus chaos. (
  • [12] Several studies since 2000 have suggested that the virus is also linked to colorectal cancer , as JCV has been found in malignant colon tumors, but these findings are still controversial. (
  • Q. What do you think were the "important" viruses in 2000? (
  • The ILOVEYOU virus in 2000 had a similarly devastating effect. (
  • There are many different types of viruses that cause respiratory infections. (
  • However, sporadic human infections with influenza viruses that normally circulate in swine and not people have occurred. (
  • Human infections with H1N1v, H3N2v and H1N2v viruses have been detected in the United States. (
  • Most commonly, human infections with variant viruses occur in people with exposure to infected pigs (e.g., children near pigs at a fair or workers in the swine industry). (
  • The vast majority of human infections with variant influenza viruses do not result in person-to-person spread. (
  • Sporadic infections and even localized outbreaks among people with variant influenza viruses may occur. (
  • The links below offer information about human infections with variant influenza viruses. (
  • Infections caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) are exceedingly common. (
  • Colds generally do not result in serious health problems, such as pneumonia, bacterial infections, or hospitalizations, whereas this is possible with an infection with a flu virus. (
  • Though the total number of actual virus infections have dropped precipitously over the years, they still remain a threat to users using older, unprotected operating systems or programs. (
  • To reduce the threat of virus infections, some South Florida companies have gone to a diskless PC station or put locks on the disk drives to prevent employees from bringing disks from home, Rauen said. (
  • Infections by Narcissus yellow stripe virus and other viruses usually do not kill plants, but cause a loss of vigour and a wide variety of discolourations and distortions. (
  • The research collaboration will focus on poliovirus, the virus responsible for poliomyelitis , a highly infectious disease that mainly affects children, and 1 in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis 3 . (
  • In the northern United States, infections happen mainly in the summer and early fall, but in the warmer southern regions, the virus can be transmitted all year. (
  • Within a few days, cybersecurity experts had mostly contained the spread of the virus and restored the functionality of their networks, although it took some time to remove the infections entirely. (
  • Independently of considerations regarding Zika virus, WHO always recommends the use of safer sexual practices, including the correct and consistent use of condoms to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies. (
  • First detected in people in late March, H7N9 viruses have resulted in more than 130 human infections and at least 44 deaths. (
  • Right now, Zika virus matters. (
  • Since my students are learning how to use tools that can be applied to this problem, I decided to have them apply their new bioinformatics skills to identify drugs that work against Zika virus. (
  • As you've probably seen, unless you've been living in a cave, Zika virus is the infectious disease topic du jour. (
  • A banner about Zika virus is seen as ferry passengers arriving from Singapore get in line at the immigration check on September 4, in Batam, Indonesia. (
  • The Rio 2016 Olympic Games commence August 5 amid a political and economic crisis in the country along with the Zika virus outbreak. (
  • Rio 2016 Chief Medical Officer Joao Grangeiro, Municipal Secretary of Health Daniel Soranz and Sub-secretary of the State for Health and Surveillence Alexandre Chieppe field questions from the media during an International Media Briefing to address the Zika virus on Tuesday, June 7, in Rio de Janeiro. (
  • The mosquito carries the Zika virus, which has suspected links to birth defects in newborn children. (
  • The Zika virus has been linked to microcephaly, a neurological disorder that results in newborns with small heads and abnormal brain development. (
  • In 2018 and 2019, no local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission has been reported in the continental United States. (
  • There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, parts of the Caribbean, and Central and South America. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that pregnant women do not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. (
  • Zika virus disease is usually mild, with symptoms lasting only a few days. (
  • There is no cure for Zika virus disease. (
  • Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to dengue virus. (
  • Zika virus is endemic in parts of Africa and Asia and was first identified in the South Pacific after an outbreak on Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia in 2007. (
  • Zika virus infection is characterized by low grade fever (less than 38.5°C) frequently accompanied by a maculopapular rash. (
  • A high rate of asymptomatic infection with Zika virus is expected, similar to other flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus. (
  • Approximately one in four people infected with Zika virus will develop symptoms. (
  • To date, there have been no reported deaths associated with Zika virus. (
  • Saliva or urine samples collected during the first 3 to 5 days after symptom onset, or serum collected in the first 1 to 3 days, are suitable for detection of Zika virus by these methods. (
  • Serological tests, including immunofluorescence assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays may indicate the presence of anti-Zika virus IgM and IgG antibodies. (
  • There is no commercial vaccine or specific antiviral drug treatment for Zika virus infection. (
  • The proximity of mosquito vector breeding sites to human habitation is a significant risk factor for Zika virus infection. (
  • The case (Person A) developed symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease: rash, retroauricular adenopathies, conjunctivitis, and arthritis on 4 February. (
  • Her partner (Person B) developed symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease after travelling to a country where local transmission of Zika virus is known. (
  • Infection by Zika virus was confirmed for both cases IgM and IgG positive for Zika virus (Person A) and IgM and IgG positive for Zika virus, and negative for dengue IgM (Person B). (
  • advising travellers to areas where Zika virus is circulating to seek medical assistance if presenting symptoms associated with Zika virus infection after return. (
  • All patients (male and female) with Zika virus infection and their sexual partners (particularly pregnant women) should receive information about the potential risks of sexual transmission of Zika virus, contraceptive measures and safer sexual practices, and should be provided with condoms when feasible. (
  • Women who have had unprotected sex and do not wish to become pregnant because of concern with infection with Zika virus should also have ready access to emergency contraceptive services and counselling. (
  • Sexual partners of pregnant women, living in or returning from areas where local transmission of Zika virus is known to occur, should use safer sexual practices or abstinence from sexual activity for the duration of the pregnancy. (
  • Men and women living in areas where local transmission of Zika virus is known to occur should consider adopting safer sexual practices or abstaining from sexual activity. (
  • Men and women returning from areas where local transmission of Zika virus is known to occur should adopt safer sexual practices or consider abstinence for at least four weeks after return. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued travel notices for numerous countries regarding the Zika virus. (
  • The CDC has concluded that the Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects in some fetuses and babies born to infected mothers. (
  • On March 10, 2017, CDC updated their travel guidance recommending that pregnant women not travel to any area where there is a risk of Zika Virus infection. (
  • Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have more frequent, persistent, and severe recurrences of HSV, and are more likely to be resistant to standard antiviral medications. (
  • An interest of Post is to understand how drugs enter an interior binding pocket and, once bound, how the drug alters conformational and fluctuation properties of the virus capsid to give rise to the observed antiviral activity. (
  • 2008) Antiviral compounds discovered by virtual screening of small-molecule libraries against dengue virus E protein. (
  • An antiviral compound, designed to inhibit maturation of assembled dengue virus, was discovered using computational screening of the envelope protein, followed by validation using NMR. (
  • Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, but several antiviral drugs have been developed. (
  • This unit recently demonstrated the potential of synthetic molecules that destabilize the RED-SMU1 splicing complex as an antiviral, host-directed therapy which could be active against a wide range of influenza viruses and be less prone to drug resistance. (
  • To try and help solve the problem, biologists and mathematicians from IBM, UCSF, Stanford University, and the University of Haifa are working side-by-side on a DARPA-funded research project to engineer a new type of antiviral agent against viruses such as polio. (
  • This interference hinders the parent virus and enables the antiviral agents to replicate and spread, until the virus is completely gone and no more of the essential elements the agents lack remain available. (
  • After displacing the virus, the antiviral agents will die out because of their inability to survive alone. (
  • Just how long does the Ebola virus linger in semen? (
  • The 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus outbreak altered our perception of just what an Ebola outbreak could look like. (
  • As an unprecedented outbreak of Ebola crosses borders in West Africa, people are asking new questions about the virus and its potential to turn into a global pandemic (hint: it's not gonna happen). (
  • Like the deadly Ebola virus that eats away internal organs, Michelangelo and other computer viruses infect a computer's parts destroying data. (
  • For this reason, viruses are often grouped by the type of file they infect, such as boot viruses and macro viruses . (
  • Lately, 'macro' viruses have proliferated in the computer world. (
  • More than 90 macro viruses have been discovered, up from nine last August, Frederick said. (
  • The most common macro viruses attack Microsoft Word software. (
  • Everyone exchanges documents and data, and in doing so, macro viruses can infect more people than their more complex counterparts. (
  • With few exceptions, macro viruses are spread when a user opens or closes an infected document. (
  • Not simply limited to the already powerful macro language commands, macro viruses are increasingly used as transport mechanisms to drop off even nastier bugs. (
  • Macro viruses can use the VBA SHELL command or utilize the operating system's kernel API to run any external command they want. (
  • Macro viruses modify registries, use email to forward copies of itself to others, look for passwords, copy documents, and infect other programs. (
  • Macro viruses can do a lot of different damage in a lot of different ways. (
  • To understand macro viruses, you must understand how each application uses macros. (
  • Sprint hopes that by detecting macro viruses and other malicious code before they reach intranets, these viruses won't spread so quickly. (
  • It is now well-established that viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and are estimated to harbor the second greatest biomass after prokaryotes, equivalent to the amount of carbon found in ~75 million blue whales (the largest organism on Earth) Suttle (Nature 437(7057):356-361, 2005). (
  • [4] Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most abundant type of biological entity. (
  • First seen as poisons, then as life-forms, then biological chemicals, viruses today are thought of as being in a gray area between living and nonliving: they cannot replicate on their own but can do so in truly living cells and can also affect the behavior of their hosts profoundly. (
  • The categorization of viruses as nonliving during much of the modern era of biological science has had an unintended consequence: it has led most researchers to ignore viruses in the study of evolution. (
  • Because they were clearly biological themselves and could be spread from one victim to another with obvious biological effects, viruses were then thought to be the simplest of all living, gene-bearing life-forms. (
  • Are computer viruses and biological viruses the same? (
  • The term computer virus is often used instead of just virus to specify that a virus in the computing sense, rather than the biological sense, is being referred to. (
  • The most abundant type of biological entity on Earth, viruses, live across all ecological niches. (
  • 2004) Solution structure of dengue virus capsid protein reveals another fold. (
  • Some viruses show more than one capsomere arrangement within the capsid. (
  • Some of these capsid structures are stiff and rodlike, while other helical viruses are more flexible. (
  • The influenza virus is an example of a virus with a helical capsid structure. (
  • The third type of virus capsid structure is called complex. (
  • The type of capsid structure and whether the virus is naked or enveloped are also considered. (
  • The capsid and envelope protect the virus from physical damage. (
  • In the case of some DNA viruses, the capsid can be surrounded by a membrane that is formed from cellular membranes. (
  • You can then cut/paste the capsid gene into an 'alive' virus in place of its own capsid, and voila! (
  • The researchers found that the motor is located at the intersection of the capsid and the virus 'tail' and is made of a circular array of proteins called gene product 17 (gp17). (
  • As a T4 virus assembles itself, the lower ring of the motor structure attaches to a strand of DNA, while the upper ring attaches to a capsid. (
  • The process draws the DNA strand upwards into the capsid where it is protected from damage, enabling the virus to survive and reproduce. (
  • After the DNA is inside the capsid, the motor falls off, and a virus tail attaches to the capsid. (
  • More poetically, virologists Marc H. V. van Regenmortel of the University of Strasbourg in France and Brian W. J. Mahy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recently said that with their dependence on host cells, viruses lead "a kind of borrowed life. (
  • On a search-and-destroy mission, a virus can spread easily from an infected floppy disk as well as from files downloaded onto a hard drive from an e-mail attachment, the Internet, online services and bulletin boards. (
  • There have been documented cases of multiple people becoming sick after exposure to one or more infected pigs and also cases of limited spread of variant influenza viruses from person-to-person. (
  • All influenza viruses have the capacity to change and it's possible that variant viruses may change such that they infect people easily and spread easily from person-to-person. (
  • CDC also is required to report all cases of human infection with novel influenza viruses (which would include variant viruses) to the World Health Organization (WHO) external icon as part of the International Health Regulations (IHR) external icon . (
  • Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. (
  • A deep understanding of how the novel H7N9 viruses were generated is of critical importance for formulating proper measures for surveillance and control of these viruses and other potential emerging influenza viruses," says senior study author Taijiao Jiang of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. (
  • Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in infants and young children. (
  • Respiratory syncytial (sin-SISH-ul) virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory illness in young children. (
  • What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Respiratory Syncytial Virus? (
  • Is Respiratory Syncytial Virus Contagious? (
  • How Is Respiratory Syncytial Virus Diagnosed? (
  • How Is Respiratory Syncytial Virus Treated? (
  • Most cases of respiratory syncytial virus are mild and don't need medical treatment from doctors. (
  • Can Respiratory Syncytial Virus Be Prevented? (
  • Most public health organizations, including the WHO, do not recognize airborne transmission except for aerosol-generating procedures performed in healthcare settings," the letter states, "Hand-washing and social distancing are appropriate, but in our view, insufficient to provide protection from virus-carrying respiratory microdroplets released into the air by infected people. (
  • The unit focuses on the mechanisms of virus evolution and virus-host protein-protein interactions as well as the large collection of influenza and other respiratory viruses of the National Reference Center for Respiratory viruses. (
  • For example, cold and flu viruses will attack cells that line the respiratory or digestive tracts. (
  • The decision brings an end to a three-year moratorium on research involving the influenza virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (known as SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (or MERS). (
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a leading cause of hospitalization due to acute lower respiratory infection especially in infants and young children. (
  • Several countries test for RSV as part of influenza and other respiratory virus surveillance. (
  • Viruses differ from cellular organisms in many ways. (
  • A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms . (
  • Because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have been described as "organisms at the edge of life", [8] and as replicators. (
  • A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of organisms. (
  • A previous analysis of mutation rates in RNA viruses (specifically in riboviruses rather than retroviruses) was constrained by the quality and quantity of available measurements and by the lack of a specific theoretical framework for converting mutation frequencies into mutation rates in this group of organisms. (
  • And of course, both computer viruses and real viruses have harmful effects on the organisms or computers which become infected by them. (
  • This research is identifying gene content - sections of DNA that organisms pass on to their offspring - from viruses in a variety of habitats. (
  • The number of viruses in the oceans decreases further offshore and deeper into the water, where there are fewer host organisms. (
  • Opinions differ on whether viruses are a form of life or organic structures that interact with living organisms. (
  • Like all viruses, DNA viruses are small when compared to the cells they infect and as such are obligate intracellular parasites (parasites that can only replicate within cells). (
  • Each time a host file is run, the virus code in it will replicate - that is, it will create and insert more unwanted code, either into the same file or into another file on the same machine (essentially infecting the other file as well). (
  • Viruses are programs that replicate themselves inside a computer. (
  • After viruses replicate, many carry out damaging instructions that have been programmed into them. (
  • 1 The benefit of using these viruses is that as they replicate, they lyse their host cells. (
  • Adenovirus 3 4 and herpes simplex virus, 5 specifically mutated to replicate faster in cancer cells, are the main replicating human pathogenic viruses used in the clinic. (
  • Currently, laboratory (and some clinical) studies are using many different viruses (such as Newcastle disease virus, reovirus, poliovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, measles, 6 and vaccinia 7 ), selected for their ability to actively replicate in cancer cells. (
  • Viruses are small infectious agents that can only replicate inside the living cells of a host organism, because they need the replication machinery of the host to do so. (
  • They found that the phylogenies of RNA viruses were broadly comparable to those of the viruses' vertebrate hosts. (
  • This shows that RNA viruses followed a similar evolutionary trajectory to vertebrates, and have co-evolved with their hosts over millions of years (Fig. 1). (
  • The authors found that RNA viruses co-diverged with their vertebrate hosts (black lines indicate virus evolution). (
  • However, the researchers also show that some viruses can infect multiple hosts, indicating that, in addition to co-evolution, viruses have made jumps between species. (
  • The hosts for a virus are system-call interfaces that are accessible from the point of entry (an infected program), such as sendmail or an HTTP server. (
  • The hosts are platform-specific, so a virus for Linux would in all likelihood terminate the host under QNX Neutrino as soon as it tried to do anything damaging. (
  • The method aims to "throttle" the spread of the virus by limiting the number of outbound connections from an infected computer to one new address per second, during which time a virus like Nimda would try to get its hosts to make about 400 new connections. (
  • The US government on Tuesday lifted a ban on making lethal viruses, saying the research is necessary to "develop strategies and effective countermeasures against rapidly evolving pathogens that pose a threat to public health. (
  • As obligatory intracellular pathogens, viruses exploit various cellular molecules and structures, such as cellular membranes, for their propagation. (
  • Herpetic geometric glossitis: a distinctive pattern of lingual herpes simplex virus infection. (
  • Pseudotumour of the tongue caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 in an HIV-1 infected immunosuppressed patient. (
  • Hanjani NM, Foster DC, Scott GA, Mercurio MG. A genital mass due to herpes simplex virus in a renal transplant recipient. (
  • Holmes A, McMenamin M, Mulcahy F, Bergin C. Thalidomide therapy for the treatment of hypertrophic herpes simplex virus-related genitalis in HIV-infected individuals. (
  • Herpes simplex virus infection masquerading as condyloma acuminate in a patient with HIV disease. (
  • In addition, because a number of virus types may possess a similar motor, including the virus that causes herpes, the results may also assist pharmaceutical companies developing methods to sabotage virus machinery. (
  • This is thought to happen mainly when an infected pig coughs or sneezes and droplets with influenza virus in them spread through the air. (
  • Once your device has a virus it may spread easily and quickly. (
  • Worms can spread from device to device , but unlike a virus they don't need to attach themselves to other programs. (
  • What viruses are spread by email? (
  • Mind viruses are conditioned fears or beliefs that spread from one person to another. (
  • Zika is a virus that is spread mostly by mosquitoes. (
  • There have also been reports that the virus has spread through blood transfusions. (
  • West Nile is a virus that is spread by the Culex species of mosquito. (
  • Once they are inside the body, viruses can spread and make people sick. (
  • Earlier this year, thousands of companies were hit by the Melissa virus and other viruses that spread through E-mail attachments. (
  • The viruses were written in the HyperTalk programming language and typically spread by infecting the Home stack and then infecting other stacks from there. (
  • What are viruses and malware? (
  • Viruses and malware are programs that can attack computers, tablets, phones and other digital devices. (
  • Viruses are just one type of malware. (
  • How can you avoid viruses or malware? (
  • Considering the increasing use of phishing tactics, anti-virus companies have reclassified them as malware instead of spam. (
  • Plenty of people use the terms "malware" and "virus" interchangeably, but they're not quite the same. (
  • The difference between malware and viruses is this: malware is the umbrella term, with viruses being just one type of malware among many other kinds. (
  • Read on to learn more about malware vs. viruses and how to protect yourself against both of them. (
  • What's the difference between malware and a virus? (
  • A computer virus is just one type of malware. (
  • Just as all squares are rectangles (but not all rectangles are squares), all viruses are malware , but not all malware is a virus . (
  • So if you're wondering whether malware and viruses are the same thing, the answer is a firm "no. (
  • Knowing the differences between viruses and other types of malware is helpful when it comes to prevention as well as removal. (
  • Why are viruses and malware so commonly confused? (
  • Confusion over the difference between virus and malware comes down to entrenched name recognition. (
  • I followed the instructions in your thread 'Viruses/Spyware/Malware, preliminary removal instructions' and here are the three logs. (
  • By definition a virus is any malware, also an anti virus can say a file is a Trojan when it's really not. (
  • Enveloped viruses comprise a protein-nucleic acid core covered by a membrane bilayer with integral membrane receptor proteins. (
  • A virus is an infectious agent, often highly host-specific, consisting of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat. (
  • The virus does this by taking over the host cell's protein and gentic material-making processes, forcing it to produce the new viruses. (
  • The helical viruses have protein subunits that curve about a central axis running the length of the virus. (
  • Some viruses even have a tail made of protein. (
  • There are ERV families- take all the ones that are related and still have a gag or a env , figure out what their common ancestor looks like, and then do experiments with the resulting protein mashed together with a virus we know how to work with (pseudoviruses/dummy viruses). (
  • HIV for example recognizes a protein called "CD4" on T-lymphocytes (part of the white blood cell family) while the Varicella zoster virus (chicken pox virus) appears to recognize a protein/sugar molecule (called a proteoglycan) on skin cells. (
  • The research tested the use of a type of protein that can be combined with viruses to help them attach to cancer cells. (
  • Their results showed that mixing these proteins with viruses could significantly increase their ability to enter tumour cells (described as the tumour cells' uptake of the virus), with an 18-fold increase in uptake with one particular protein. (
  • Viruses are extremely minute and consist of a protein coat and a core of nucleic acid. (
  • Once viruses penetrate into the plant cells they take over the cells' nucleic acid and protein synthesis systems and 'hijack' them to produce more virus. (
  • All viruses have some type of protein on the outside coat or envelope that 'feels' or 'recognizes' the proper host cell(s). (
  • This protein attaches the virus to the membrane of the host cell. (
  • Nucleic acid detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction targeting the non-structural protein 5 genomic region is the primary means of diagnosis, while virus isolation is largely for research purposes. (
  • This photograph reveals smallpox virus pocks on the chorioallantoic membrane of a developing embryonic chick. (
  • Around that time, vials of the deadly smallpox virus were found in a cardboard box in an unsecured refrigerator at the National Institutes of Health's campus in Bethesda, Maryland. (
  • The analysis also revealed an astonishing level of biodiversity - the researchers identified previously unknown viruses in almost every RNA-virus family known to infect mammals. (
  • Researchers believe the body may act correctly to repel an invading virus but then extend its attack to molecules similar to those in the virus. (
  • The researchers hoped these proteins would give the viruses a greater ability to enter and attack the tumour cells as part of a targeted therapy. (
  • The researchers used the adenoviruses to transfect (infect) cell lines derived from cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3), and assessed how much of the virus ended up inside the cell, as well as the activity of beta-galactosidase that they had introduced into the cell. (
  • The researchers also made viruses that would allow the DNA sequence for proteins that could kill the cancer cells to be carried into the cells. (
  • Peering at structures only atoms across, researchers have identified the clockwork that drives a powerful virus nanomotor. (
  • Purdue researchers studied the virus structures, such as the motor, while the Catholic University researchers isolated the virus components and performed biochemical analyses. (
  • T4 is what's called a 'tailed virus',' says Purdue biologist Michael Rossmann, one of the lead researchers for the study. (
  • In contrast, researchers wanted to identify viruses that live in natural habitats all over the world. (
  • Viruses' unusual characteristics make it hard for researchers to study them using the same techniques they use to study microbes. (
  • That status changed when JGI researchers developed new technology that enabled them to mine their existing database for viruses. (
  • Damage to the cell wall of a plant cell allows plant viruses to enter. (
  • Plant viruses may be transferred by contaminated machinery, fungi, nematode worms, and sucking insects like aphids. (
  • Plant viruses share many of the characteristics of those that infect animals, though they do not cross infect (plant viruses only infect plants). (
  • In addition, few authors have attempted to integrate the findings pertaining to the various major classes of viruses (that is, animal, bacterial, and plant viruses) but, rather, have chosen to assemble large monographs dealing in depth with facts and fancies pertaining to specific groups of viruses. (
  • A Brazilian soldier inspects a home in Recife on Monday, January 25, while canvassing the neighborhood and attempting to eradicate the larvae of mosquitoes linked to the virus. (
  • Less than 1% of mosquitoes in any area where carrier mosquitoes have been found are actually infected with West Nile virus. (
  • There is no evidence to suggest that West Nile virus is transmitted by ticks, birds, or any other insect besides mosquitoes. (
  • Viruses are real, virus species are man-made, taxonomic constructions. (
  • The authors analysed the viruses in 186 vertebrate species using an approach called metatranscriptomic sequencing, in which all of the RNA present in a sample is sequenced. (
  • however, occasional cross-species transmissions occur (dashed arrows), introducing new viruses into a particular class. (
  • This phylogenetic tree is a simplified schematic to exemplify RNA-virus evolution as a whole, and does not reflect precise dates or cross-species transmission events found by the authors. (
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky 's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, [2] about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, [3] although there are millions of types. (
  • This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many. (
  • What are the species of computer viruses? (
  • Gardeners should minimise the risk of virus infection in daffodils and other Narcissus species by seeking virus-free stock. (
  • The genus Megalocytivirus , represented by red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV), the first identified and one of the best characterized megalocytiviruses, Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), the type species of the genus, and numerous other isolates, is the newest genus within the family Iridoviridae . (
  • Viruses within this genus are causative agents of severe disease accompanied by high mortality in multiple species of marine and freshwater fish. (
  • Illness associated with variant virus infection has been mostly mild with symptoms similar to those of seasonal flu. (
  • The first is an introductory primer to the virus, answering the basic questions--what is it, where did it come from, what are its symptoms, why is it concerning? (
  • One thing that would be observed in any real contagion would be an incubation period- the time between when a virus (for example) enters your body and you start showing symptoms of infection. (
  • They are caused by different viruses and have slightly different symptoms. (
  • The symptoms of the cold and flu can be hard to differentiate, sometimes not even possible without a specific laboratory test to determine which virus is causing your symptoms. (
  • Symptoms- Powassan Virus symptoms can begin 1 to 4 weeks after a tick bite (1-2 weeks is typical). (
  • Approximately 15% of those infected with the virus will experience severe symptoms, with 50% developing chronic neurological problems. (
  • These viruses do not display obvious symptoms, they are common ailments for many people, and we rarely have cause to question their existence. (
  • Aphids do not breed on daffodils, but winged forms do visit and feed and can therefore transmit viruses. (
  • In addition to infecting its host files, a virus can often perform other harmful actions on the affected computer. (
  • It spreads through droplets containing the virus when someone coughs or sneezes. (
  • A virus spreads by duplicating and attaching itself to other files. (
  • Once in the bloodstream, the virus multiplies and spreads. (
  • When the worm spreads, it will carry the virus with it. (
  • Many human diseases, from the common cold to deadly haemorrhagic fevers, are caused by RNA viruses. (
  • More than 1000 plant diseases are caused by viruses. (
  • [2] The virus causes PML and other diseases only in cases of immunodeficiency , as in AIDS or during treatment with drugs intended to induce a state of immunosuppression (e.g. organ transplant patients). (
  • The initial interest in viruses stemmed from their association with diseases-the word "virus" has its roots in the Latin term for "poison. (
  • Not all viruses have a motor such as the one found in the T4 virus, but some viruses that cause human diseases posses molecular motors with similar functions, and likely have similar structures. (
  • But a small percentage can carry diseases like West Nile virus. (
  • Ninety to ninety-five percent of people with MS have proteins in their spinal fluid that are typically found in the spinal fluid of people with nervous system diseases that are known to be reactions to viruses. (
  • The IHR requires countries to report certain disease outbreaks and public health events, including any confirmed case of human infection with a "novel" (non-human) influenza virus. (
  • Increasing outbreaks of mumps virus across the U.S. may be the result of the vaccine itself-and the lack thereof. (
  • Before we used to see outbreaks in certain geographic regions because in order for a virus to get around the world, it required a person to board a plane, and fly to another country. (
  • This possible threat highlights the importance of understanding the evolutionary history of H7N9 viruses for developing appropriate strategies to monitor and control outbreaks. (
  • How Computer Viruses Work? (
  • Here is the detailed story about the working of computer viruses :) enjoy. (
  • Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. (
  • Die Entscheidung über verschiedene Taxa wird von einem internationalen Gremium, dem International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), beraten und getroffen. (
  • Adenoviruses are types of viruses can enter cells, where their DNA can be activated. (
  • Review Innate immune responses in hepatitis C virus infection. (
  • The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, attacks the T-cells of the immune system. (
  • Like DIPs, vaccines also use a defective version of viruses, but as a preventive treatment building immune memory rather than a curative treatment based on competition and co-evolution. (
  • Viruses and the Evolution of Life. (
  • Detailed genetic information for RNA viruses from other classes of vertebrate is sorely needed if we are to fully understand long-term virus evolution. (
  • Tracking the evolution of RNA viruses. (
  • 6 sequenced RNA viruses present in various classes of vertebrate, and constructed trees of virus evolution. (
  • In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer , which increases genetic diversity . (
  • They discovered that H7N9 viruses are genetically diverse, suggesting that complex genetic events were involved in their evolution. (
  • About two years ago, I was asked to run a virus scan on one company's network of computers. (
  • These viruses can be detected by a virus scan. (
  • Then, just simply bind the virus file with any exe file and a virus scan won't detect it. (
  • Most of the anti-virus software programs scan for boot-sector and memory-resident viruses automatically. (
  • To remove computer viruses, you can run a virus scan using antivirus software. (
  • Google Drive can't scan this file for viruses. (
  • [] Darker than Black (720p).rar (3.8G) is too large for Google to scan for viruses. (
  • LE4_DESKTOP_04-04-2015.iso (3.6G) is too large for Google to scan for viruses. (
  • The best way to find out whether an attachment is safe is to scan it with software that searches for viruses and then alerts you when one is discovered. (
  • Hepatitis C Viruses: Genomes and Molecular Biology. (
  • Biology of Viruses of the Tick-borne Encephalitis Complex. (
  • Even pollen and seeds may transmit viruses. (
  • It is possible for your pet to become infected, but your pet cannot transmit the virus to you. (
  • The long evolutionary reach of viruses. (
  • The evolutionary history of viruses is largely unknown. (
  • 6 report the discovery of previously unidentified vertebrate RNA viruses from across evolutionary timescales. (
  • used this information to construct phylogenetic trees that describe the evolutionary relationships between viruses. (
  • The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear because they do not form fossils. (
  • It is possible to insert human DNA sequences into the viruses' genetic material, so that the human DNA will also be carried into the cell and "transcribed" into a substance called RNA. (
  • Their analysis revealed that the new H7N9 viruses emerged through a two-step process involving the exchange of genetic material between distinct viruses. (
  • In the first step, which took place in wild birds, genetic material from H9N2 viruses and unspecified H7 and N9 viruses was mixed to create precursor H7N9 viruses. (
  • The second step, which occurred in domestic birds in eastern China early last year, involved the exchange of genetic material between the precursor H7N9 viruses and other H9N2 viruses to create new, genetically diverse H7N9 viruses. (
  • RNA viruses, however, are probably older than the last common ancestor of life on Earth 4 , 5 . (
  • Luckily the virus isn't usually deadly, but has caused many hospitalizations. (
  • A virus is generally considered to be an infection that runs code on the host (e.g., a Trojan horse). (
  • The types of computer viruses are the virus, the worm and the Trojan horse. (
  • And, although Macs may be safe from most viruses, they can be compromised by Trojan horses and phishing attacks. (
  • In these samples, Shi and colleagues discovered a total of 214 viruses, dramatically increasing the number of known RNA viruses in each vertebrate class. (
  • A microscopic virus-packed particle that's also expelled from an infected person's mouth when breathing, speaking, coughing or sneezing. (
  • Half a century ago even regular folks like the Kramdens had some knowledge of viruses-as microscopic bringers of disease. (
  • Most viruses can only be seen with an electron microscope. (
  • Electron micrograph of a Vaccinia Virus. (
  • Viruses are so small that most cannot be seen with a light microscope , but must be observed with an electron microscope. (
  • Quantification of marine viruses was originally performed using transmission electron microscopy but has been replaced by epifluorescence or flow cytometry. (
  • Enveloped viruses acquire lipid membranes as their outer coat through interactions with cellular membranes during morphogenesis within, and egress from, infected cells. (
  • However, non-enveloped viruses also interact with lipid membranes at least during entry into target cells. (
  • Even among the giant viruses, these are weird. (
  • Giant viruses have taken up real estate, using the algae's cellular machinery to make more viruses. (
  • The giant viruses themselves are infected with tiny viruses called virophages. (
  • Phages are some of the most studied viruses. (
  • Bacteriophages (phages) Viruses are now recognised as ancient and as having origins that pre-date the divergence of life into the three domains. (
  • For a virus like the flu, this could be about two days during which you don't feel sick but could still be infecting people around you-even if you don't bite them. (
  • Someone once suggested that if people were the size of viruses, the entire population of the U.S. would fit on the end of two pencil erasers. (
  • Is it going to a direction, where people need a virus-scanner for their microwave or their razor, because computers and embedded systems are going to be used everywhere? (
  • It is critical that people update their anti-virus software every few months, experts say. (
  • Increasingly, people have been getting computer viruses from downloading files off the Internet, said Wayne Rauen, with PC Clean, a data recovery company based in Sunrise. (
  • People on Facebook do sometimes post links to viruses, and there are scams that exist on Facebook, but there are no viruses on Facebook itself. (
  • Lots of people say Cheat Engine is a virus,and lots of people say Cheat Engine is safe,I need to know the TRUTH! (
  • The virus in the study, called T4, is not a common scourge of people, but its host is: the bacterium Escherichia coli ( E. coli) . (
  • Most people who get the virus do not get sick. (
  • Fewer than 1% of people who are bitten and infected with West Nile virus will become seriously ill. (
  • Most people who do get sick from the virus become only mildly ill. (
  • These cases of sexual transmission do not change the overall risk assessment since the virus continues to be primarily transmitted to people through mosquito bites. (
  • An e-mail virus travels as an attachment to e-mail messages, and usually replicates itself by automatically mailing itself to dozens of people in the victim's e-mail address book. (
  • When someone opens a unkown e-mail, it instantly send that virus to the previous people that you have e-mailed. (
  • Symantec, publisher of the popular anti-virus program Norton Anti-Virus, is one of the forerunners against the fight against viruses also runs the Symantec Anti-Virus Research Center (SARC). (
  • We have known viruses mating and creating new hybrid viruses,' said Carey Nachenberg, chief architect of the Symantec Anti-virus Research Center, based in Cupertino, Calif. (
  • Authorities traced the electronic fingerprints of the virus to Smith, who was arrested in northeastern New Jersey on April 1, 1999. (
  • Back in March 1999, the Melissa virus was so powerful that it forced Microsoft and a number of other very large companies to completely turn off their e-mail systems until the virus could be contained. (
  • Colds and flu (influenza) are caused by viruses . (
  • Babies can also suffer from asthmatic reactions to viruses, with chronic coughs and/or wheezing following colds. (