Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.

Detection of viruses and body fluids which may contain viruses in the domestic environment. (1/2188)

The domestic environment was investigated for the presence of viruses and body fluids that may contain viruses. A range of surfaces in 39 homes (17 visited on 2 occasions) were sampled by swabbing and analysed using cell culture, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for enteroviral RNA, haemoglobin as a marker for blood, amylase as an indicator of urine, saliva and sweat, and protein as an indicator of general hygiene. Haemoglobin was found on 1.9% of surfaces sampled and of the positive samples 30% were from articles frequently handled. Amylase (> 5 U/l) was found in 29.3% of samples tested. Protein was found in 97.8% of samples tested. Enteroviral RNA, indicating the presence of virus, was detected in 3 out of 448 samples tested; they were from a tap handle, telephone handpiece and a toilet bowl. No viruses were isolated in cell culture, however significant problems were encountered with bacterial and fungal contamination. This work demonstrates that only testing environmental samples for bacteria and ATP may not give a total view of the microbiological problem in the home. A range of test methods is useful to gain a broad view of the problems of hygiene in the home and to allow comparative studies of specific areas such as the kitchen and bathroom.  (+info)

Preclinical safety evaluation of human gene therapy products. (2/2188)

Human gene therapy products include naked DNA and viral as well as non-viral vectors containing nucleic acids. There is limited experience on the preclinical toxicity studies necessary for the safety evaluation of these products, which have been outlined in several recently released guidelines. Requirements for the preclinical safety evaluation of human gene therapy products are both specific and non-specific. All key preclinical studies should be performed in compliance with Good Laboratory Practices. Non-specific requirements are in fact common to all pharmaceutical products. Critical specific issues to be addressed are: the safety evaluation of the vector and the toxicity of the expressed protein(s), which are the two components of gene therapy products, the quality of the test article, the selection of animal species, and the verification that the administration method successfully transports the gene of interest, with the vector, to the target site(s). The treatment schedule should mimic the intended human therapeutic design. The host's immune response against the gene therapy product has to be evaluated to detect possible adverse effects and immune neutralization by antibodies. The biodistribution of the gene of interest is also essential and can be evaluated by molecular biology techniques, such as PCR. Specific confinement is required for the safe manipulation of viral vectors.  (+info)

Isolation of animal viruses from farm livestock waste, soil and water. (3/2188)

Ten porcine enteroviruses, 2 porcine adenoviruses and 1 coronavirus were isolated directly from 32 samples of slurry collected from a pig fattening house. Concentration of the same samples by adsorption with the polyelectrolyte PE-60 yielded 24 porcine enteroviruses and 3 porcine adenoviruses. A porcine enterovirus was isolated, following PE-60 concentration, from 1 to 6 slurry samples from a sow farrowing house. No virus was isolated from 12 samples of slurry from dairy cows nor from 6 slurry samples from a calf-rearing unit. A porcine enterovirus was isolated from soil samples, after concentration with PE-60, collected 1, 2 and 8 days after pig slurry was spread on hay stubble. Two porcine enteroviruses were isolated by membrane filtration from 26 samples of surface run-off from land on which pig slurry was routinely spread, and 2 bovine enteroviruses were isolated from cattle feedlot run-off after adsorption to layers of talc and celite followed by hydroextraction. A porcine enterovirus was also isolated from 1 of 33 samples of surface water collected on farms on which pig slurry was routinely spread on the land, but no virus was isolated from 36 samples of ground water from the same farms. The surface water and ground water samples were concentrated by talc-celite adsorption and hydroextraction.  (+info)

Gene transfer to human pancreatic endocrine cells using viral vectors. (4/2188)

We have studied the factors that influence the efficiency of infection of human fetal and adult pancreatic endocrine cells with adenovirus, murine retrovirus, and lentivirus vectors all expressing the green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP, MLV-GFP, and Lenti-GFP, respectively). Adenoviral but not retroviral vectors efficiently infected intact pancreatic islets and fetal islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) in suspension. When islets and ICCs were plated in monolayer culture, infection efficiency with all three viral vectors increased. Ad-GFP infected 90-95% of the cells, whereas infection with MLV-GFP and Lenti-GFP increased only slightly. Both exposure to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and dispersion of the cells by removal from the culture dish and replating had substantial positive effects on the efficiency of infection with retroviral vectors. Studies of virus entry and cell replication revealed that cell dispersion and stimulation by HGF/SF may be acting through both mechanisms to increase the efficiency of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. Although HGF/SF and cell dispersion increased the efficiency of infection with MLV-GFP, only rare cells with weak staining for insulin were infected, whereas approximately 25% of beta-cells were infected with Lenti-GFP. We conclude that adenovirus is the most potent vector for ex vivo overexpression of foreign genes in adult endocrine pancreatic cells and is the best vector for applications where high-level but transient expression is desired. Under the optimal conditions of cell dispersion plus HGF/SF, infection with MLV and lentiviral vectors is reasonably efficient and stable, but only lentiviral vectors efficiently infect pancreatic beta-cells.  (+info)

Transport of colloidal particles in lymphatics and vasculature after subcutaneous injection. (5/2188)

This study was designed to determine the transport of subcutaneously injected viral-size colloid particles into the lymph and the vascular system in the hind leg of the dog. Transport of two colloid particles, with average size approximately 1 and 0.41 microm, respectively, and with and without leg rotation, was tested. Leg rotation serves to enhance the lymph flow rates. The right femoral vein, lymph vessel, and left femoral artery were cannulated while the animal was under anesthesia, and samples were collected at regular intervals after subcutaneous injection of the particles at the right knee level. The number of particles in the samples were counted under fluorescence microscopy by using a hemocytometer. With and without leg rotation, both particle sets were rapidly taken up into the venous blood and into the lymph fluid. The number of particles carried away from the injection site within the first 5 min was <5% of the injected pool. Particles were also seen in arterial blood samples; this suggests reflow and a prolonged residence time in the blood. These results show that particles the size of viruses are rapidly taken up into the lymphatics and blood vessels after subcutaneous deposition.  (+info)

The complete genome sequence of the Streptomyces temperate phage straight phiC31: evolutionary relationships to other viruses. (6/2188)

The completed genome sequence of the temperate Streptomyces phage straight phiC31 is reported. straight phiC31 contains genes that are related by sequence similarities to several other dsDNA phages infecting many diverse bacterial hosts, including Escherichia, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium, Rhodobacter, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus. These observations provide further evidence that dsDNA phages from diverse bacterial hosts are related and have had access to a common genetic pool. Analysis of the late genes was particularly informative. The sequences of the head assembly proteins (portal, head protease and major capsid) were conserved between straight phiC31, coliphage HK97, staphylococcal phage straight phiPVL, two Rhodobacter capsulatus prophages and two Mycobacterium tuberculosis prophages. These phages and prophages (where non-defective) from evolutionarily diverse hosts are, therefore, likely to share a common head assembly mechanism i.e. that of HK97. The organisation of the tail genes in straight phiC31 is highly reminiscent of tail regions from other phage genomes. The unusual organisation of the putative lysis genes in straight phiC31 is discussed, and speculations are made as to the roles of some inessential early gene products. Similarities between certain phage gene products and eukaryotic dsDNA virus proteins were noted, in particular, the primase/helicases and the terminases (large subunits). Furthermore, the complete sequence clarifies the overall transcription map of the phage during lytic growth and the positions of elements involved in the maintenance of lysogeny.  (+info)

Protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 mediates the Jak-dependent activation of MAPK and Stat1 in IFN-gamma, but not IFN-alpha, signaling. (7/2188)

Two distinct types of interferon, IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma, commonly exhibit antiviral activities by transmitting signals to the interior of the cell via their homologous receptors. Receptor stimulation results in the activation of distinct combinations of Janus family protein tyrosine kinases (Jak PTKs); Jak1/Tyk2 and Jak1/Jak2 for IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma, respectively. Jak PTK activation by these IFNs is commonly followed by tyrosine phosphorylation of the transcription factor Stat1 at Y701, which is essential for dimerization, translocation to the nucleus and DNA-binding activity. To gain full transcriptional activity, Stat1 also requires serine phosphorylation at S727. In this paper we demonstrate that Pyk2, which belongs to another PTK family, is critical for the Jak-mediated MAPK and Stat1 activation by IFN-gamma, but not IFN-alpha. Pyk2 is selectively associated with Jak2 and activated by IFN-gamma. Overexpression of PKM, a dominant interfering form of Pyk2, in NIH 3T3 cells results in a strong inhibition of the IFN-gamma-induced activation of Erk2, serine phosphorylation of Stat1 and Stat1-dependent gene transcription. Finally, the antiviral action of IFN-gamma, but not IFN-alpha, is severely impaired by PKM overexpression. Thus, the two types of IFN may utilize distinct Jak-mediated Erk2, and possibly other MAPK activation pathways for their antiviral action.  (+info)

Molecular epidemiology and evolution of emerging infectious diseases. (8/2188)

Molecular epidemiology is an emerging science. The development of new and rapid protocols to isolate and identify pathogens, coupled with the sophisticated phylogenetic analysis of their gene sequences, is providing a new and fascinating insight into the biology, origin and spread of infectious diseases. In this essay, I describe some of the ways in which the techniques of modern molecular biology and evolution have equipped us to face the challenge of these new infections.  (+info)

Emerging virus discovery through meta-transcriptomics: a novel virus impacting Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farming in Chile.
The National Collection of Pathogenic Viruses (NCPV) from European Collection of Cell Cultures (ECACC),Human Pathogenic Viruses The National Collection of Pathogenic Viruses (NCPV) preserves well characterised, authenticated human pathogenic viruses in a secure facility, and NCPV is able to supply the agents or nucleic acids derived from them, to the scientific community according to national and,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The lines of evidence described earlier combine to suggest the following tentative model of the emergence process for novel human viruses. First, humans are constantly exposed to a huge diversity of viruses, though those of others mammals (and perhaps birds) are of greatest importance. Moreover, these viruses are very genetically diverse and new genotypes, strains and species evolve rapidly (over periods of years or decades). A fraction of these viruses (both existing and newly evolved) are capable of infecting humans. It is not clear whether some of these human-infective viruses will already be capable of reaching higher levels of the pathogen pyramid-so-called off-the-shelf pathogens-or whether subsequent evolution of their ability to infect and transmit from humans is usually required-tailor-made [31]. The distinction is potentially important as it implies different determinants of the rate of emergence of viruses with epidemic or pandemic potential: for off-the-shelf pathogens this rate ...
All opinions are my own and do not represent medical advice or the views of any institution.. All graphics made by me are free-to-use. Please just cite the particular page, blog and me. A heads-up would be nice, but that can happen later.. ...
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are highly contagious pathogens infecting human and numerous animals. The viruses cause millions of infection cases and thousands of deaths every year, thus making IAVs a continual threat to global health. Upon IAV infection, host innate immune system is triggered and activated to restrict virus replication and clear pathogens. Subsequently, host adaptive immunity is involved in specific virus clearance. On the other hand, to achieve a successful infection, IAVs also apply multiple strategies to avoid be detected and eliminated by the host immunity. In the current review, we present a general description on recent work regarding different host cells and molecules facilitating antiviral defenses against IAV infection and how IAVs antagonize host immune responses.
An Introduction to Marine Viruses . What Is a Virus?. Virus Size & Structure. 1 Micron. Chlamydia. Pox virus. Herpes virus. Influenza Virus. Bacterium ( Staphyllococcus aureus ). Picornavirus (polio). Relative size of viruses and bacteria. Microbial Loop. CO2. DOC. Slideshow 1956999 by iona
Evolutionary and Computational Virology includes virus discovery from deep sequencing data to broaden our understanding of the diversity of viruses affecting humans and other organisms, phylogenetic to reconstruct the origin and evolution of different virus families, virus classification to group our complex knowledge about viruses into usable units, and virus-host interactions to analyze the interplay between viruses and the immune system and to explore whether certain viral infections can be linked to unexplained diseases like some types of human cancer.. Computational biology plays a vital role in virology and helps us to understand the structure of molecules, functioning of viral molecules, the dynamics of virus infections, and how do the virus epidemics spread and the origin and evolution of viruses. This Special Issue invites submissions of modeling and bioinformatics papers from all fields of virology at all levels of organization.. These strategies cowl bushed silico approaches like ...
It is clear that the unprecedented propagation of new virus variants witnessed on 2-3 March 2004 is the result of a war of viruses. The writers of Netsky, Bagle, and Mydoom have been competing in the release of new variants of their respective viruses, some of which are programmed to deactivate or delete their competitors.. In addition to this, a number of these new variants have statements and insults directed at the writers of competing viruses hidden in their code.. This barrage of new variants has been unusual in its speed. It normally takes virus writers a few days, or even weeks, to release new variants. However, these variants have all started spreading quickly after antivirus companies have released new virus signature files to counter previous versions. This is clearly an attempt to keep ahead of the antivirus companies in order to gain as wide spread a distribution as possible.. However, as seen by the number of variants it has been necessary for the virus writers to release in this ...
The discovery of an HIV-1 cure remains a medical challenge because the virus rebounds quickly after the cessation of combination antiretroviral drug therapy (cART). Here, we investigate the potential of an engineered tandem bi-specific broadly neutralizing antibody (bs-bnAb) as an innovative product for HIV-1 prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. We discovered that by preserving two scFv binding domains of each parental bnAb, a single-gene-encoded tandem bs-bnAb, namely BiIA-SG, displayed significantly improved breadth and potency. BiIA-SG neutralized all 124 HIV-1 pseudotyped viruses tested, including global subtypes/recombinant forms, transmitted/founder viruses, and variants less or not susceptible to parental and many bnAbs, with an average IC50 value of 0.073 µ/ml (range , 0.001 to 1.03 µg/ml). In humanized mice, an injection of BiIA-SG conferred sterile protection when administered prior to challenges with diverse live HIV-1 stains. Moreover, while BiIA-SG delayed viral rebound in ...
Global health is threatened by emerging viral infections, which largely lack effective vaccines or therapies. Targeting host pathways that are exploited by multiple viruses could offer broad-spectrum solutions. We previously reported that AAK1 and GAK, kinase regulators of the host adaptor proteins AP1 and AP2, are essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the underlying mechanism and relevance to other viruses or in vivo infections remained unknown. Here, we have discovered that AP1 and AP2 cotraffic with HCV particles in live cells. Moreover, we found that multiple viruses, including dengue and Ebola, exploit AAK1 and GAK during entry and infectious virus production. In cultured cells, treatment with sunitinib and erlotinib, approved anticancer drugs that inhibit AAK1 or GAK activity, or with more selective compounds inhibited intracellular trafficking of HCV and multiple unrelated RNA viruses with a high barrier to resistance. In murine models of dengue and Ebola infection, ...
Virus are elusive foes. It seems like every year theres a new one in the news - Ebola recently and now Zika - not to mention the virus that cause the flu or common cold. Despite the considerable threat (and sometimes just annoyance) from viruses, theres remarkably little anyone can do about them.. They are small, but wily.. With that history in mind, microbiologist Jeffrey Glenn, MD, PhD, thought a better approach would be to find a way of helping our cells help themselves. Working with Stanford ChEM-H, he created a center called [email protected] dedicated to finding therapies that would allow our cells to fight a variety of viruses rather than trying to kill off one virus at a time.. Working with that Glenns center, a group of scientists led by chemist Chaitan Khosla, PhD, and geneticist Michael Bassik, PhD, unearthed a previously discarded drug, figured out how it fought viruses, then improved on it. They published their results March 28 in Nature Chemical Biology.. In their paper, they show ...
The central focus of our research is the synthesis, folding, processing and function of viral glycoproteins. Previous studies of the synthesis and processing of viral glycoproteins in the secretory pathway have led to fundamental discoveries of basic cellular processes, and our research on the folding and processing of paramyxovirus glycoproteins provides insight into both cellular functions and important viral proteins. Our studies on viral proteins aim to elucidate mechanisms of promotion of membrane fusion, and to provide new targets for antiviral treatments. Many major human pathogenic viruses (including HIV, herpes simplex virus, measles virus and Ebola virus) are packaged in a membrane. In order for these viruses to infect cells, specific viral proteins promote fusion of the viral membrane with the membrane of the host cell. Understanding this process of protein-mediated membrane fusion is the major focus of our work. We study fusion proteins from several different paramyxoviruses. First, ...
We need to conduct such virus discovery work among people with pneumonia and also among people who have intense exposure to animals so that we get early warning of a new virus which may become a future pandemic virus. ...
If you were to make a solution containing different viruses you would have a solution containing different viruses. Nothing would happen, they wouldnt fight, they would just sit there. Drinking it would probably be a bad idea, but nothing would actually happen.. If you were to infect someone with different viruses then you would have given someone multiple diseases. Once again, they wouldnt fight, they would just go about their business infecting the host cells. Now, it is possible that some sort of recombination would occur. Viruses work by inserting their genetic material (DNA or RNA depending on the virus) into the host DNA. Then, the cells own machinery would start making copies of the virus. If a cell were infected by multiple viruses, it is possible that both would insert their genetic material into the host genome. If that were to happen, the likeliest outcome would be that the cell would simply start making copies of each of the viruses separately. It is extremely unlikely that any ...
Clean MSN Virus is a free tool that detects and deletes the various viruses that are spread via MSN Messenger, which are generically called MSN or MSN Messenger viruses.
The research team used the screening technique on 569 patients from all over the world. To do this, they used a very large dataset of peptides (molecules part of amino acids) from 206 viral species - all of which represented some 1,000 different viral strains - to make a synthetic representation of all human viral peptides. They found that on average, people had been exposed to about 10 viral species in their lifetimes. Several people, however, had been exposed to over 84 viral species ...
Nucleic acids from ATCC can save you the time and expense of isolating DNA yourself. Viral nucleic acids in the form of RNA and DNA from infected cells or allantoic fluid are available for use in a variety of applications.
In order to assess infertility or to ensure that patients receive proper treatment and are not exposed to unnecessary risk, Hayat conducts several investigations and tests for certain viruses, hormonal imbalances, and abnormalities along the reproductive tract.. ...
Although challenging, single-virus imaging has revealed key steps in the viral life cycle, and it will likely reveal more about viruses as imaging equ
Viruses infection millions annually, causing severe illness and threatening global public health. Limiting the impact of viral infection requires a multi-layered understanding of viral immunity, from basic research on viral recognition and host immune response, to the clinical applications of novel antiviral and host-targeted therapies and vaccines. Despite recent advances, the mechanisms of both both rapid host recovery as well as severe and fatal disease outcomes, are far from clear. This Keystone Symposia conference will cover a wide range of topics in viral immunity including innate immunity and inflammation, viral sensing and antigen presentation, adaptive T and B cell immunity, novel vaccine development, human immunology across anatomical sites, and innovative computational analyses. Animal models will be examined alongside human and clinical studies, and multi-disciplinary integration will enhance perspectives. A key outcome will be fostering collaborations across different approaches ...
Traces of a retrovirus similar to HIV are found in most patients with the mysterious disorder. It could be an opportunistic virus, but researchers want further testing to see if it causes the syndrome
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an enveloped RNA virus that is susceptible to many of the disinfectants already in use by healthcare facilities to disinfect counters and other hard, non-porous laboratory surfaces. However, the CDC recommends the use of disinfectants that work against non-enveloped viruses to provide a broader antiviral spectrum. Disinfectants labeled by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as effective against non-enveloped viruses are more potent and can inactivate both enveloped (eg, EVD) and non-enveloped (eg, poliovirus, rotavirus, norovirus) viruses ...
Effective spectrum: Bactericidal, tuberculocidal, fungicidal, virucidal against (enveloped viruses, e.g. Vaccinia viruses, HBV, HCV and HIV, SARS-Corona viruses as well as non-enveloped viruses, e.g. rota viruses, noro viruses). Effective spectrum: Bactericidal, tuberculocidal, fungicidal, virucidal against (enveloped viruses, e.g. Vaccinia viruses, HBV, HCV and HIV, SARS-Corona viruses as well as non-enveloped viruses, e.g. rota viruses, noro viruses). Application: For hygienic hand disinfection, rub IQ C20 into your hands and keep it wet for 30 seconds. Notes: Observe the directions for use and safety precautions for alcohol-based disinfectants. Flash point: 19 C. For external use only. Not suitable for disinfecting mucous membranes or injured skin. 100 g IQ C20 contains 63.1g 2-propanol (70%v/v) as active compound plus auxiliary substances ...
Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Lewis Lanier on NK cells in viral immunity, part of a collection of multimedia lectures.
Author(s): Drew, WL | Abstract: Diagnostic virology services are increasingly available and pertinent as the number of useful antiviral agents grows. In this article, current methods of diagnosis are reviewed with special emphasis on rapid procedures. Guidelines for interpretation of cultures and other tests are provided.
This Diagnostic Virology is us Stroll a better probability for all leaders. To ensure more about products, entertain monitor our centerpiece list. To run more often how we allow and have your syntaxes, have run our processing author.
Human virome is the collection of viruses in and on the human body. Defining the virome is thought to provide an understanding of microbes and how they affect human health and disease. Viruses in the human body infect both human cells as well as other microbes such as bacteria. For instance, many viruses (the bacteriophages) actually infect bacteria. Some viruses cause infections, while others may be asymptomatic. Certain viruses are integrated in the human genome. Viruses evolve rapidly and hence the human virome changes constantly. Every human being has a unique virome with a unique balance of species. Lifestyle, age, geographic location, and even the season of the year affects an individuals exposure to viruses; while their susceptibility to disease is effected by preexisting immunity and both viral and human genetics. The human virome is far from being completely explored and new viruses are discovered frequently. Multiple methods are available for the isolation and study of human viruses: ...
Researchers from Colorado State University exposed hundreds of mosquitoes to either chikungunya, Zika or dengue and different combinations of the three. They also exposed 48 mosquitoes to the three viruses--chikungunya, Zika and dengue--to see if one or all three of the diseases could appear in the saliva, which could then potentially infect a person. The researchers examined the saliva, gut and legs of the insects for signs of viral infection. They found that 92 percent of the mosquitoes tested positive for all three viruses. Of the 48 just one remained uninfected. They found that six saliva samples from the mosquito tested positive for all three viruses 14 days after the insects were exposed. Another two saliva samples tested positive 21 days after exposure. While not all the insects had the virus in the saliva, the researchers pointed out that the virus presence in the saliva occurs only after the infection has traveled through the body. As a result, the other mosquitoes that tested positive ...
in Journal of virology (2016), 90(4), 2039-51. Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their ... [more ▼]. Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their profit different pathways of glycan synthesis. Thus, the Bo17 gene of Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) encodes a homologue of the cellular core 2 protein beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucin type (C2GnT-M), which is a key player for the synthesis of complex O-glycans. Surprisingly, we show in this study that, as opposed to what is observed for the cellular enzyme, two different mRNAs are encoded by the Bo17 gene of all available BoHV-4 strains. While the first one corresponds to the entire coding sequence of the Bo17 gene, the ...
Nguyen Quang N, Goudey S, Ségéral E, Mohammad A, Lemoine S, Blugeon C, Versapuech M, Paillart JC, Berlioz-Torrent C, Emiliani S, Gallois-Montbrun S. Dynamic nanopore long-read sequencing analysis of HIV-1 splicing events during the early steps of infection. Retrovirology. 2020 Aug 17;17(1):25.. Leymarie O, Lepont L, Versapuech M, Abelanet S, Judith D, Janvier K and Berlioz-Torrent C. Contribution of the cytoplasmic determinants of Vpu to the expansion of virus containing compartments in HIV-1 infected macrophages. J Virol. 2019 May 15;93(11).. Bonnard D, Le Rouzic E, Eiler S, Amadori C, Orlov I, Bruneau JM, Brias J, Barbion J, Chevreuil F, Spehner D, Chasset S, Ledoussal B, Moreau F, Saïb A, Klaholz BP, Emiliani S, Ruff M, Zamborlini A, Benarous R. Structure-function analyses unravel distinct effects of allosteric inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase on viral maturation and integration. J Biol Chem. 2018 Apr 20;293(16):6172-6186.. Dejarnac O, Hafirassou ML, Chazal M, Versapuech M, Gaillard J, ...
Nuremberg was the third European city to host the European Congress of Virology in September this year ( Some 1,500 scientists from Europe and elsewhere came together to share their knowledge on basic and applied research in clinical, veterinary and plant virology. The main focus was on human pathogenic viruses, providing a platform where basic research and clinical application came into contact. The topics covered all areas of research in virology, from basic molecular biology and immunology to epidemiology, vaccine development, and diagnostics. For this meeting report, the Editorial team has selected some of our highlights out of the many excellent keynote lectures and workshop contributions.
Next-generation sequencing has critical applications in virus discovery, diagnostics, and environmental surveillance. We used metagenomic sequence libraries for retrospective screening of plasma samples for the recently discovered human hepegivirus 1 (HHpgV-1). From a cohort of 150 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive case-patients, we identified 2 persons with HHpgV-1 viremia and a high frequency of human pegivirus (HPgV) viremia (14%). Detection of HHpgV-1 and HPgV was concordant with parallel PCR-based screening using conserved primers matching groups 1 (HPgV) and 2 (HHPgV-1) nonstructural 3 region sequences. PCR identified 1 HHPgV-1-positive person with viremia from a group of 195 persons with hemophilia who had been exposed to nonvirally inactivated factor VII/IX; 18 (9%) were HPgV-positive. Relative to HCV and HPgV, active infections with HHpgV-1 were infrequently detected in blood, even in groups that had substantial parenteral exposure. Our findings are consistent with lower transmissibility or
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Innate immunity is the first line of defense against pathogens and is highly conserved from insects to humans. While many key facets of the innate immune system...
It was elucidated that before virus invade into cell, antibodies cling to it. Inside the cell antibodies call another component TRIM-21 (Triple Motif Containing 21) [3], which escort them to Disposal system of the cell [1, 2]. This cell recycler is renowned proteosome [3] which is cellular structure (containing proteases). This all, TRIM-21 binding and escorting to destination, happen before virus hijack the cell [1]. Increase in viral destruction observed by increase in concentration of this protein [2]. So, it was practically proved that this protein has some role in viral destruction.. It is believed that this research will help in infections such as common cold, winter vomiting bug and gastroenteritis [1]. Studies say Rotavirus, causative agent of severe Diarrhea, can be killed within 2 hours [4]. Unfortunately, this cannot be applied on broad spectrum of viruses, only non-enveloped viruses are susceptible. It is effective against influenza virus because influenza virus shed the envelop ...
It was elucidated that before virus invade into cell, antibodies cling to it. Inside the cell antibodies call another component TRIM-21 (Triple Motif Containing 21) [3], which escort them to Disposal system of the cell [1, 2]. This cell recycler is renowned proteosome [3] which is cellular structure (containing proteases). This all, TRIM-21 binding and escorting to destination, happen before virus hijack the cell [1]. Increase in viral destruction observed by increase in concentration of this protein [2]. So, it was practically proved that this protein has some role in viral destruction.. It is believed that this research will help in infections such as common cold, winter vomiting bug and gastroenteritis [1]. Studies say Rotavirus, causative agent of severe Diarrhea, can be killed within 2 hours [4]. Unfortunately, this cannot be applied on broad spectrum of viruses, only non-enveloped viruses are susceptible. It is effective against influenza virus because influenza virus shed the envelop ...
Enveloped viruses fuse with host membranes without affecting cell integrity. Non-enveloped viruses and bacteria penetrate by rupturing endosomal membranes and thus expose complex-type carbohydrates from the endosome lumen to cytosolic proteins. Here we report on the dynamics and initial marker analyses of Galectin-3 (Gal3)-positive membranes triggered by incoming adenovirus species B/C in HeLa cells. Using mCherry-Gal3 reporter constructs, immunolabeling, confocal and electron microscopy, we detected robust signals from Gal3-containing, early endosomal antigen 1-positive membranes 1 h post-infection (pi). Adenoviruses penetrate from non-acidic endosomes with high efficiency, 15 min pi, and largely outnumbered the Gal3-positive membranes, suggesting that Gal3 recruitment to broken membranes is transient, or Gal3-positive membranes are rapidly turned-over. In support of rapid turn-over, Gal3 was found within single-membrane vesicles and degradative autophagosomes. The Gal3 membranes contained ubiquitin
Coursera - Virology II: How Viruses Cause DiseaseWEBRip | English | MP4 | 960 x 540 | VP8 ~670 kbps | 25 fpsVorbis | 128 Kbps | 48.0 KHz | 2 channels | 04:1...
A discovery by Melbourne researchers has solved a longstanding mystery of how viruses trigger protective immunity within our body.
Provide education on COVID-19 disease and SARS-CoV-2. Review the types of tests used for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Discuss approaches to serologic test development. Review the ki
Introduction to Genetic Analysis 8th Edition, Anthony J.F. Griffiths, Susan R. Wessler, Richard C. Lewontin, William M. Gelbart, David T. Suzuki, Jeffrey H. Miller ...
Introduction to Genetic Analysis 8th Edition, Anthony J.F. Griffiths, Susan R. Wessler, Richard C. Lewontin, William M. Gelbart, David T. Suzuki, Jeffrey H. Miller ...
Comparison of Respiratory Virus Detection Rates for Infants and Toddlers by Use of Flocked Swabs, Saline Aspirates, and Saline Aspirates Mixed in Universal Transport Medium for Room Temperature Storage and Shippin
Specific pharmacological targeting of viruses is extremely challenging since the vast majority of the molecular machinery required for viral replication is provided by host cells. Secondly, any replicative machinery of viral origin is often unique to the specific virus or viral family; consequently, antiviral agents are few and are not broadly effective against multiple classes of viruses ...
Page 1 of 2 - virus [Closed] - posted in Virus, Spyware, Malware Removal: I have an dell laptop that is almost a year old. Yesterday i was on netflix watching a movie and ads started popping up. I exited out of them not thinking anything of it but today i cant even get on the internet. When i open internet explorer it loads a page saying the site is under attack and i need to download security protection. Also things keep popping up on my home screen saying i have multiple viruses that nee...
The description you provide is for a specific bacteriovirus (a virus which infects bacteria). It applies to only one subclass of virus (in the case described, one called lambda).. Other bacteria infecting virus are not nearly so polite; they just kill the infected cell. As far as I am aware, there is no animal virus that has been demonstrated to behave in the same manner. Retroviruses do integrate into the host DNA but do not confer resistance on the host. So the suggested solution is a reasonable one for protecting some bacteria from getting specific virus infections; however I suspect the person asking the question was not the least bit interested in protecting bacteria from getting a viral infection! The principle is a good one, and might be useful if ever a virus if the type described was found that caused a disease in people.. One other interesting point: when a bacteria with lysogenized lambda virus (integrated into the genome of the host) is mated to a bacteria that does not have the same ...
Norton has been a PITA for years, I gave up on it well over a decade ago after multiple bouts of router problems with it. Its not even very good at its core job when you look at the various virus detection tests done over the years. The last notepad I bought new was a Win7 i5 ASUS about six years ago and Norton was part of the free crapware loaded and cocked ready to go on that. Of course it was only free for a short period and it took me quite a while to figure out how to get rid of it. No doubt ASUS and Norton shared the spoils from those who couldnt get rid of it ...
What is UV-C disinfection and how effective is it against various viruses and germs? This guide should give you some information about it all.
Sprout rediscovered Plague inc evolved today, and chatted to me lots about the options that you use as the pathogen to either wipe out or enslave the human race. It involved virulence, viruses, bacteria, Ebola, DNA, RNA... we looked up electron microscope scans of various viruses and he was curious about how close to real life it was... he told me about the similarity of one aspect of the game to Aliens xenomorphs... talked about what affects the success of a pathogen, whether wiping out its host is wise, how severity or otherwise might lead to better or worse spread... he told me about looking at infecting high density populations in poorer areas compared to lower density and richer areas, and the comparative consequences of this. He asked me what I thought the necro virus might be, and after guessing something quickly fatal, or something necrotising, I guessed at a zombie virus which he gleefully confirmed was correct :) We chatted briefly about the behaviour modification in mice due to ...
The new diagnostic methods will investigate exhaled air, biological fluids, in particular, saliva, and biological tissues (the epithelial layer of the oral cavity), - explains Yuri Kistenev, one of the project executors, head of the TSU Laboratory of Biophotonics, executive director of the TSU Institute of Biomedicine. - In each case, when pathogens are introduced into the body, changes in the molecular composition occur in the cells of biological tissues and gas and liquid samples of biological origin. Our task is to identify these molecular biomarkers for various viruses and bacteria and, using artificial intelligence methods, teach computer models to recognize the pathogen ...
Ive started to see an increasing amount of threads here with people getting infected with various viruses, getting hacked etc. This is in 99.9% of cases due to carelessness and/or ignorance. In this day and age, you have a responsibity to keep you computer from getting hacked and used in attacks towards other computers. I equal this to careless or drunk driving, only that people fortunately dont die from it (yet). So here goes my quick and dirty guide to securing your computer. 1. Get a
This test checks to see whether an infection is caused by a bacterium or a virus. It can also tell which specific virus is causing your infection.
In article ,Pine.SUN.3.91.960212130947.721A-100000 at chuma,, Elaine Morse , (BIO) ,morse at, wrote: , , , Microbiology undergrad seeks feedback on the following questions related , , to virology....All responses greatly appreciated! Thanks for your time, E. , , , , 1) Are viruses ALIVE? Yes. , , 2) What is the definition of viral purity? When its pure. , , 3) What factors limit host range? Many. , , 4) What is the minimum info needed to:a) uniquely id a virus within a , , Group? Shirt colour a Family? Name a Genus? Nickname a Species? Name only heard during pillowtalk as a Strain? If its heavy as Unique/new? b) If its COOOLLLL... , , diagnose pathology as a consequence of virus infection? & Damn! Hes sick with a virus!! c) diagnose , , pathology as a consequence of specific virus infection? Damn! Hes sick with the FLU virus!! , , 5) Which assays give high resolution answers for diagnosis? Electron micrsocopy and Why? Because it is a high resolution technique , , 6) What ...
It is easily killed with a 1:10 solution of bleach and water. It can be washed from skin with regular soaps. HIV will not survive outside the human body for more than a few hours at the most(Quackenbush 23). If a person thinks he or she might have HIV, he or she can get tested. HIV tests determine the presence of antibodies to the AIDS virus.. Antibodies are proteins produced by certain white blood cells to react with specific viruses, bacteria, or foreign substances that go into the body. The presence of antibodies to HIV indicates infection with the virus. The tests that detect the presence of HIV-1 became widely available in 1985. The tests that detect HIV-2 became widely available in 1992. All infected patients should get blood tests done periodically.. They should also have their health monitored by a physician(Drotman 164). There is no cure for HIV or AIDS, but treatments have been developed. The treatments help most people live longer. The infected people have to take medications to help ...
Simulate the spread of an illness through a population. Using a safe, simulated disease agent, students model the transmission of a communicable viral disease, identify its origin …
The video below will teach you to distinguish between viruses and bacteria and explain why its very important to know the difference.​
Reverse transcription is the flow of information from RNA to DNA, opposite the standard process cells use to make proteins. It is a method employed by certain viruses to embed their own genetic information into a hosts DNA, effectively hijacking the cell and using its organelles to produce more virus particles rather than proteins. These retroviruses, such as HIV, have the most complex reproductive cycle seen in any class of viruses. All retroviruses are ...
Researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College have unlocked the structure of a key protein that, when sensing certain viruses and bacteria, triggers the bodys immediate immune response.
Buy Aklovir Online! Aklovir is the generic name for Zovirax, a prescription medication used to treat certain virus infections. The drug works by preventing viruses from dividing and multiplying.
Something Ive always wondered about, I know certain viruses can alter DNA of surrounding cells and also alter themselves through mutation. The question is will we ever be able to alter DNA to the point where we could change things like hair color, or perhaps correct certain genetic related predisposition to disease. I dont think we will ever be able to change a persons overall look as thats something you grow into, not something thats constantly updated. Bone for example I dont think would just change shape based on genetic changes. I could be wrong ...
Viral concentration kit for saliva (10 reactions) is designed to maximally collect all respiratory viruses by deeply coughing and then rinsing the whole mouth, and to efficiently concentrate viral particles, up to 100 folds at any sample volume. The concentrated viral particles are suitable for both RNA and antigen detection with increasing sensitivity, as well as another in vitro and in vivo application. This kit is specifically suitable for viral detection for pooled saliva samples.
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: The Role of the Human Virome in Heart, Lung, and Blood Health and Resilience (R61/R33) RFA-HL-17-002. NHLBI
When it comes to the microbiome, bacteria get all the press. But virologists are starting to realize that their subjects also do a lot more than make people sick.
The aim of Reviews in Medical Virology is to provide virologists with articles reviewing conceptual or technological advances in diverse areas of virology.
viral infection - MedHelps viral infection Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for viral infection. Find viral infection information, treatments for viral infection and viral infection symptoms.
A panel of ten purified respiratory viruses pooled that have been inactivated to render them non‐infectious and formulated in viral transport medium.
It is estimated viruses kill 20% of the microorganism biomass each day and that there are 15 times as many viruses in the ... Marine viruses are defined by their habitat as viruses that are found in marine environments, that is, in the saltwater of seas ... A marine virus is more likely to infect cooccurring organisms, those that live in the same region the virus lives in. Therefore ... Viruses are still one of the largest areas of unexplored genetic diversity on Earth. Viruses are now recognised as ancient and ...
Algal viruses are the viruses infecting photosynthetic single-celled eukaryotes, algae. As of 2020, there were 61 viruses known ... DNA viruses, are the best studied subgrouping of algae-infecting viruses This is especially true for the dsDNA virus family, ... ssDNA viruses, like the group of diatom infecting viruses Bacilladnaviridae, have been discovered RNA viruses also attack algal ... There are dsRNA viruses like those belonging to the Reoviridae family that infect Micromonas pusilla and ssRNA viruses like ...
"Merryxmas Virus". Virus Test Center. University of Hamburg. Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. Anbinder, Mark H. (31 ... "HyperCard Viruses". HyperActive Software. Retrieved 15 March 2021. Harley, David (3 October 2011). "HyperCard Viruses? You're ... Soon after the release of HyperCard in 1987, computer viruses appeared that targeted the application. The viruses were written ... Szor, Peter (2005). The Art of Computer Virus Research and Defense. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Addison-Wesley. pp. 91-92. ...
Viruses is a monthly peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by MDPI covering all aspects of virology. It was ... "Scopus preview - Scopus - Viruses". Official website (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... ". "Affiliated Societies". Viruses. MDPI. Retrieved 2018-12-28. "Journals Ranked by Impact: Virology". 2018 Journal Citation ...
... may refer to: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Porcine ... circovirus Porcine parvovirus This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Porcine viruses. If an internal ...
The Herpes Viruses Association (formerly the Herpes Association) was started in 1982. It is a support group for people with ... Herpes simplex virus. It conducts information campaigns and attempts to reduce the stigma associated with sexually transmitted ... ". "The Herpes Viruses Association". Archived from the original on 2015-01-13. "Gynaecological infections". Nursing in practice ...
While some viruses did exist for Palm OS based devices, very few were ever designed. Typically, mobile devices are difficult ... Virus that infects handheld devices that run Palm OS. It was discovered on September 22, 2000. For more information, see http ... for virus writers to target, since their simplicity provides fewer security holes to target compared to a desktop. Distributed ...
... (HPIVs) are the viruses that cause human parainfluenza. HPIVs are a paraphyletic group of four ... These viruses are closely associated with both human and veterinary disease. Virions are approximately 150-250 nm in size and ... The viruses can be detected via cell culture, immunofluorescent microscopy, and PCR. HPIVs remain the second main cause of ... In immunosuppressed people, parainfluenza virus infections can cause severe pneumonia, which can be fatal. HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 ...
When a virus infects a cell, the virus forces it to make thousands more viruses. It does this by making the cell copy the ... There are many ways in which viruses spread from host to host but each species of virus uses only one or two. Many viruses that ... Some viruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus, often cause cells to proliferate without causing malignancy; but some other viruses, ... The coevolution, or "virus-first" hypothesis, conflicts with the definition of viruses, because viruses depend on host cells. ...
These RNA viruses have genes made from RNA and not DNA, and their whole genome - that is the number of nucleotides - is always ... This is because during their replication, these viruses are dependent on nucleoprotein molecules that each bind to six ...
There are numerous causes, including viruses - particularly hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ... yellow fever virus, dengue virus and Pappataci fever virus. More than 100 of such viruses are now known to cause human diseases ... Breitbart M, Rohwer F (2005). "Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?". Trends in Microbiology. 13 (6): 278- ... the virus spread throughout East Africa. Human activity introduced plant viruses to native crops. The citrus tristeza virus ( ...
Viruses portal Animal virology List of viruses RNA virus TLR3 Virology Virus classification "Double-stranded RNA virus ... Double-stranded RNA viruses (dsRNA viruses) are a polyphyletic group of viruses that have double-stranded genomes made of ... 2008). "The Yeast dsRNA Virus L-A Resembles Mammalian dsRNA Virus Cores". Segmented Double-stranded RNA Viruses: Structure and ... Double-stranded RNA viruses evolved two separate times from positive-strand RNA viruses. In the Baltimore classification system ...
Grapevine leafroll-associated virus (GLRaV) is a name for a group of viruses that infect grapevine. Obscure mealybugs ( ... "Introduction of Grapevine virus B and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 testing in sanitary selection of grapevine" (PDF). ... 623 Leafroll viruses are associated with rugose wood condition of grapevine. Maree HJ, Almeida RP, Bester R, Chooi KM, Cohen D ... "Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3". Front Microbiol. 4: 82. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00082. PMC 3627144. PMID 23596440. ...
... human Influenza virus or avian influenza viruses respectively). Different viruses can have different routes of transmission; ... Viruses can cause massive human mortality. The smallpox virus killed an estimated 10 to 15 million human beings per year until ... Viruses need a suitable environment to survive in. There are many characteristics that control the survival of viruses in water ... Enteric viruses primarily infect the intestinal tract through ingestion of food and water contaminated with viruses of fecal ...
... is the movement of plant viruses between organisms. Viruses are known to infect both plant cells ... MicrobiologyBytes: Plant viruses Vectors of Plant Viruses Descriptions of Plant Viruses (Wikipedia introduction cleanup from ... The virus commonly uses these methods to be passed from one host to another. However, the virus is dependent upon physical ... Vectors either transmit the virus propagative transmission, which results in an amplification of the virus by replication ...
... how can it conceivably be regarded as analogous to a virus?" Speciesism#"Discontinuous mind" The concept of language as a virus ... "Viruses of the Mind" is an essay by British evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins, first published in the book Dennett and His ... Dawkins's God p. 136 citing Koenig and Cohen The Link between Religion and Health OUP 2002 Viruses of the Mind Alt URL ( ... "virus of religion", providing examples for most of them, and tries to define a connection between the elements of religion and ...
List of computer worms Timeline of computer viruses and worms Palm OS viruses HyperCard viruses Linux malware Conficker Creeper ... which list viruses in active circulation, and lists of all known viruses, which also contain viruses believed not to be in ... they usually study and name the viruses independently. By the time the virus is identified, many names denote the same virus. ... listing of the Latest Viruses by Symantec. List of all viruses All viruses cataloged in Panda Security's Collective ...
A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Other viruses, such as rabies virus, can infect different species of mammals and are said to have a broad range. The viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ... RNA viruses Replication of RNA viruses usually takes place in the cytoplasm. RNA viruses can be placed into four different ...
... is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering virology, published by John Wiley & Sons ... Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses is the first journal to specialise exclusively on influenza and other respiratory ... Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate Analytics. ... viruses and strives to play a key role in the dissemination of information in this broad and challenging field. It is aimed at ...
The following list of primate viruses is not exhaustive. Many viruses specific to non-human primates nevertheless are known to ...
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), cannas are susceptible to this virus, but none found yet in England. Canna yellow streak virus ( ... ICTVdB - Tomato aspermy virus. New Disease Reports. ICTVdB - Cucumber Mosaic Virus RHS article on Canna virus. MEDWORM search ... Canna yellow mottle virus, a non-enveloped small-bacilliform virus in Canna sp. Annals of Phytopathological Society of Japan 51 ... Known species of virus are: Canna yellow mottle badnavirus (CYMV) infecting canna species. Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) ...
Sangassou virus Bat-borne virus Weiss S, Witkowski PT, Auste B, Nowak K, Weber N, Fahr J, et al. Hantavirus in bat, Sierra ... Magboi virus (MGBV) is a novel, bat-borne Orthohantavirus discovered in a slit-faced bat trapped near the Magboi Stream in ... It is a single-stranded, negative sense, RNA virus in the Bunyavirales order. The discovery represented the first time a ... Calisher CH, Childs JE, Field HE, Holmes KV, Schountz T Bats: important reservoir hosts of emerging viruses. Clin Microbiol Rev ...
Virus is a Dark Horse Comics comic book, written by Chuck Pfarrer, drawn by Canadian artist Howard Cobb and first published in ... It was adapted into the 1999 science fiction horror film Virus, directed by John Bruno. Dark Horse Comics, June 1995, ISBN 1- ...
... (QPV), also known as quokka poxvirus, marsupial papillomavirus, or marsupialpox virus, is a dsDNA virus that ... Virus-related cutaneous conditions, Species described in 1972, Infraspecific virus taxa, Marsupial diseases, All stub articles ... It is unclear whether this virus is its own species or a member of another species. It primarily infects the quokka, which is ... Because the quokka host primarily lives on isolated islands in Western Australia, the range of the virus is limited as well. It ...
Juncopox virus, Mynahpox virus, Psittacinepox virus, Sparrowpox virus, Starlingpox virus, Pigeonpox virus, Canarypox virus and ... Turkeypox virus is a virus of the family Poxviridae and the genus Avipoxvirus that causes turkeypox. It is one of the most ... Turkeypox virus, like other Avipoxviruses, is an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus with a large, linear genome of ... but most of our knowledge comes from the study of fowlpox virus and canarypox virus as they are the only species with full ...
... (NRIV) is a single-stranded, negative sense, tri-segmented RNA virus. It is a subtype of the Bunyamwera virus (BUNV ... Furthermore, the virus has previously been found within goats and sheep in Mauritania. The virus has been reported primarily in ... Humans that are infected by the virus typically develop severe or fatal hemorrhagic fever. Ngari virus was first isolated in ... Gerrard, Sonja R.; Li, Li; Barrett, Alan D.; Nichol, Stuart T. (August 2004). "Ngari virus is a Bunyamwera virus reassortant ...
But ultimately, Alien Virus proved to be too much of a snooze to be worth it." Computer Game Review was similarly lukewarm on ... Alien Virus is a video game developed by Trecision and released in 1994 for MS-DOS. The player character, a pilot named Joshua ... Computer Gaming World gave Alien Virus 2 stars and stated that "This game is fun to play and an improvement on the old text ... While you're en route, the stations gets infected with a mysterious--you guessed it!--Alien Virus. Okay, so this isn't so very ...
... may refer to: Any member of the large family of DNA viruses known as Herpesviridae Human herpesviruses, nine types ... or Epstein-Barr virus, one of the most common viruses which can cause various diseases Human betaherpesvirus 5 Roseolovirus, a ... Herpes simplex virus-associated diseases, overview of diseases associated with a Herpes simplex virus This disambiguation page ... any infection caused by Herpes simplex virus 1 or 2 Herpes labialis, also called cold sores, painful blistering of the lip ...
Hendra virus, Menangle virus, Nipah virus) suggests the possibility that it may cause disease upon crossing the species barrier ... The virus was discovered during efforts to identify the natural host of Nipah virus which was responsible for a large outbreak ... Tioman virus is antigenically related to Menangle virus which is also harboured by Pteropid fruit bats and caused an outbreak ... Tioman virus is a paramyxovirus first isolated from the urine of island fruit bats (Pteropus hypomelanus) on Tioman Island, ...
Virus held the title for 392 days before losing it back to Rocky Romero. In 2005 Virus was turned Rudo once more and generally ... In 2013 Virus team member Vangelis won the tournament, and in 2015 "Team Virus" member Boby Zavala won the tournament. ... In early 1998 he made his debut as part of the regular-sized division under the name "Virus", no mention was made that Virus ... "Entravista con Virus: El Pequeño Gran Maestro" [Interview with Virus:: The little grand master]. Lucha 2000 (in Spanish). June ...
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in infants and young children. But, anyone can get ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory infections in infants and young children. Patients usually ...
Illinois has tested positive for West Nile virus. This mosquito pool is the first confirmed indicator of West Nile virus ... Most people infected with West Nile virus have no symptoms of illness. However, some may become ill usually 3 to 15 days after ... Mosquitoes Test Positive for West Nile Virus in Lake County. Lake County, Illinois sent this bulletin at 06/28/2022 01:00 PM ... Culex pipiens mosquitoes, which are the primary carriers of West Nile virus, are most abundant when the weather is hot. ...
As concern mounts, new virus strain in UK interrupts travel across Europe A growing number of countries are halting air travel ...
... Linda Pagillo Thu, 16 Apr 2009 07:52:13 -0700 ... To unsubscribe, just send an E-mail to [email protected], and type unsubscribe Declude.Virus. The archives can be found at ... This E-mail came from the Declude.Virus mailing list. ...
What is Powassan virus? Powassan virus causes a rare, but often serious disease, and is spread by the bite of tiny, infected ... How is Powassan virus spread?. Powassan virus is spread by the bite of an infected tick. In Massachusetts, the black-legged ... When am I at risk from Powassan virus?. Cases of Powassan virus disease can occur any time ticks are active. Young ticks ( ... What are the symptoms of Powassan virus disease?. Although most people who are exposed to Powassan virus likely never feel ill ...
How does a virus affect information stored in a RAID config? Thinking about using a RAID config. TIA ... How does a virus affect information stored in a RAID config?. Thinking about using a RAID config. TIA ... If you get a virus all your disk storage could get screwed whether you have raid or not. ...
... and the health ministry was forced to admit a resurgence of a previously eliminated strain of the crippling virus. Even as all ... so that families can better protect themselves from the infection and prevent the virus from spreading within their communities ...
Zambrano likened the virus to other mosquito-borne tropical diseases that can lead to GBS, such as Chikungunya virus and Dengue ... See Also: Tips for protecting yourself against the Zika virus. Kevin Farrell is a travel, hospitality, and technology ... "Of course" the virus will impact the festivities, he says. "At an event as big as the Olympic Games, which [will attract] ... "People need to know that [Zika] is far less dangerous than other outbreaks, like the Ebola virus, SARS, or H1N1 (swine flu)." ...
Its still more corona virus, but even then, it interacts with our immune system nothing at all like the corona viruses that ... According to this paper the virus may have an R0 = 4.08 coupled with potential "super-spreaders" I would think spells big ... According to this paper the virus may have an R0 = 4.08 coupled with potential "super-spreaders" I would think spells big ... Pfizer Admits To Engineering Viruses, Validates Project Veritas Video, Investigation Launched. Diseases and Pandemics: 8 hours ...
... Some home security / anti-virus software can interact badly with Chrome. If you have been directed here you ... may need to configure your anti-virus software to allow Chrome to access the Internet. ...
Most people who get the virus do not get sick. A blood test can tell if you have Zika. ... Zika is a virus that is spread by mosquitoes. ... Zika Virus Disease (World Health Organization) * Zika Virus ... Zika Virus (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) * Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies (Centers ... There have also been reports that the virus has spread through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in ...
Read issues of the Anti-virus Times-youll be up to speed on todays Internet threats and learn how to neutralise them ... Add the Anti-virus Times informer code to your page and all Anti-virus Times issues will become available to your sites ... About the Dr.Web virus library and the importance of anti-virus updates ... About the Dr.Web virus library and the importance of anti-virus updates ...
However when I do a virus scan in this Windows VM using AVG and Avast they both say my system is clean and safe. I dont know ... Today I did a virus scan on my mac in snow leopard using avast for mac. It says that these files are infected by a trojan Win32 ... Re: Help with possible Virus « Reply #1 on: April 28, 2010, 10:13:15 AM » ... Re: Help with possible Virus « Reply #2 on: April 28, 2010, 01:11:36 PM » ...
The molecular details of the influenza virus-host interplay are discussed in this article as well as how researchers are using ... Influenza virus antagonism of innate immunity *. Influenza viruses have evolved numerous strategies in order to evade the host ... Influenza viruses *. In humans, influenza virus infection is usually limited to the upper respiratory tract. In certain severe ... Influenza A viruses use two mechanisms to counteract the powerful antiviral activity of PKR.[125] First, influenza A virus ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
In addition, they found that these virus-containing vesicles were significantly more infectious than the free, unbound viruses ... Previously, it was believed that these viruses only spread through individual virus particles. The discovery of these clusters ... A group of membrane-bound viruses arrives at a host cell and deposits viruses in the cell while dodging detection by the immune ... The researchers studied norovirus and rotavirus--hard-to-treat viruses that are the most common cause of stomach illness, or ...
Emergent viruses in water and the use of polyomaviruses and adenoviruses as indicators of the quality of water. ... Emergent viruses in water and the use of polyomaviruses and adenoviruses as indicators of the quality of water. ... Read more about Emergent viruses in water and the use of polyomaviruses and adenoviruses as indicators of the quality of water ... Read more about Emergent viruses in water and the use of polyomaviruses and adenoviruses as indicators of the quality of water ...
World Health Organization = Organisation mondiale de la Santé (‎World Health Organization = Organisation mondiale de la Santé, 2017-03-24)‎ ...
... a common virus (adenovirus-36), that causes throat and eye infections may play a part in obesity. ... Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus detection using ribonucleic acid sequencing among smokers ... Dhurandhar says the virus adenovirus-36 or Ad-36, caused animals to pack on the pounds in earlier lab experiments and the ... He says some people might find it hard to believe that a virus could be responsible for obesity and says there are multiple ...
Home ▶ Patients ▶ Patient Resources ▶ Fact Sheets: Topic Specific ▶ Infections and Problems from Bacteria, Viruses, Molds and ...
... to the Wuhan Institute of Virology was a highlight of their mission to gather data and search for clues as to where the virus ... One possibility is that a wildlife poacher might have passed the virus to traders who carried it to Wuhan.. The first clusters ... It should be noted that virus traceability is a complex scientific issue, and we need to provide sufficient space for experts ... One of Chinas top virus research labs, the Wuhan Institute of Virology built an archive of genetic information about bat ...
... though the virus cannot be spread from one infected person to others. ... State health officials have confirmed one case of the Zika virus in Massachusetts and said additional cases will not come as a ... The virus had been confined to Africa and Asia until 2015, when it was first discovered on Easter Island, off the coast of ... Only people who have or are planning to travel to places with ongoing Zika virus outbreaks are at risk for getting the disease ...
... virus in the early weeks of what would later spiral into a pandemic that has seen sharp stock market selloffs. ...
You put it on your hands and viruses simply dont want to cling to it. So it does reduce the amount of a virus that can cling ... Does hand sanitizer kill bacteria and viruses?. As a new feature of, our team of expert doctors will answer ... At the end of the day, basic principles apply to avoid getting a virus. Avoid touching your mouth, eyes and nose as much as ... Try this on Does hand sanitizer kill bacteria and viruses?. *western panel rugs on FDA recommends lowering Celexas maximum ...
... we will explore how viruses are transported through air and what steps we can take to reduce exposure to them. ... In this webinar, we will explore how viruses are transported through air and what steps we can take to reduce exposure to them. ... Transmission of Viruses in Droplets and Aerosols in the Built Environment. *Home ...
Tag: virus del papiloma humano. Enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ETS) Updated 6 September 2019 under Guías de la Salud. ... hepatitis B herpes ladillas molusco contagioso piojos púbicos sarna sexo saludable sífilis tricomoniasis VIH VIH/SIDA virus del ...
The Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search for the Virus That Caused It presents a fascinating l... ... But no one had ever seen a virus-electron microscopes had not been invented and viruses are far too small to be seen with ... And no one understood what viruses were, since DNA and RNA, the genetic material of viruses and the clues to their ... and that the viruses die in hours if left alone with no cells to infect. They know what the flu viruses look like-under an ...
How viruses emerge to cause pandemics, how our immune system combats them, and how diagnostic tests, vaccines, and antiviral ... How viruses emerge to cause pandemics, how our immune system combats them, and how diagnostic tests, vaccines, and antiviral ... They speak from a deep understanding of the viruses and the bodys response to viral infections. A great book for people who ... Viruses, Pandemics, and Immunity by Arup K. Chakraborty and Andrey S. Shaw ...
Spains far-right holds car protest against virus lockdown May 23, 2020 at 5:17 am Updated May 23, 2020 at 10:38 pm ... Abascal and another leading Vox politician both fell ill with the virus after holding a massive party rally in early March. The ... The government says that all the information it makes public on virus deaths and infections are provided by the regions, some ... Follow AP coverage of the virus outbreak at and ...

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