Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.

Detection of viruses and body fluids which may contain viruses in the domestic environment. (1/2188)

The domestic environment was investigated for the presence of viruses and body fluids that may contain viruses. A range of surfaces in 39 homes (17 visited on 2 occasions) were sampled by swabbing and analysed using cell culture, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for enteroviral RNA, haemoglobin as a marker for blood, amylase as an indicator of urine, saliva and sweat, and protein as an indicator of general hygiene. Haemoglobin was found on 1.9% of surfaces sampled and of the positive samples 30% were from articles frequently handled. Amylase (> 5 U/l) was found in 29.3% of samples tested. Protein was found in 97.8% of samples tested. Enteroviral RNA, indicating the presence of virus, was detected in 3 out of 448 samples tested; they were from a tap handle, telephone handpiece and a toilet bowl. No viruses were isolated in cell culture, however significant problems were encountered with bacterial and fungal contamination. This work demonstrates that only testing environmental samples for bacteria and ATP may not give a total view of the microbiological problem in the home. A range of test methods is useful to gain a broad view of the problems of hygiene in the home and to allow comparative studies of specific areas such as the kitchen and bathroom.  (+info)

Preclinical safety evaluation of human gene therapy products. (2/2188)

Human gene therapy products include naked DNA and viral as well as non-viral vectors containing nucleic acids. There is limited experience on the preclinical toxicity studies necessary for the safety evaluation of these products, which have been outlined in several recently released guidelines. Requirements for the preclinical safety evaluation of human gene therapy products are both specific and non-specific. All key preclinical studies should be performed in compliance with Good Laboratory Practices. Non-specific requirements are in fact common to all pharmaceutical products. Critical specific issues to be addressed are: the safety evaluation of the vector and the toxicity of the expressed protein(s), which are the two components of gene therapy products, the quality of the test article, the selection of animal species, and the verification that the administration method successfully transports the gene of interest, with the vector, to the target site(s). The treatment schedule should mimic the intended human therapeutic design. The host's immune response against the gene therapy product has to be evaluated to detect possible adverse effects and immune neutralization by antibodies. The biodistribution of the gene of interest is also essential and can be evaluated by molecular biology techniques, such as PCR. Specific confinement is required for the safe manipulation of viral vectors.  (+info)

Isolation of animal viruses from farm livestock waste, soil and water. (3/2188)

Ten porcine enteroviruses, 2 porcine adenoviruses and 1 coronavirus were isolated directly from 32 samples of slurry collected from a pig fattening house. Concentration of the same samples by adsorption with the polyelectrolyte PE-60 yielded 24 porcine enteroviruses and 3 porcine adenoviruses. A porcine enterovirus was isolated, following PE-60 concentration, from 1 to 6 slurry samples from a sow farrowing house. No virus was isolated from 12 samples of slurry from dairy cows nor from 6 slurry samples from a calf-rearing unit. A porcine enterovirus was isolated from soil samples, after concentration with PE-60, collected 1, 2 and 8 days after pig slurry was spread on hay stubble. Two porcine enteroviruses were isolated by membrane filtration from 26 samples of surface run-off from land on which pig slurry was routinely spread, and 2 bovine enteroviruses were isolated from cattle feedlot run-off after adsorption to layers of talc and celite followed by hydroextraction. A porcine enterovirus was also isolated from 1 of 33 samples of surface water collected on farms on which pig slurry was routinely spread on the land, but no virus was isolated from 36 samples of ground water from the same farms. The surface water and ground water samples were concentrated by talc-celite adsorption and hydroextraction.  (+info)

Gene transfer to human pancreatic endocrine cells using viral vectors. (4/2188)

We have studied the factors that influence the efficiency of infection of human fetal and adult pancreatic endocrine cells with adenovirus, murine retrovirus, and lentivirus vectors all expressing the green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP, MLV-GFP, and Lenti-GFP, respectively). Adenoviral but not retroviral vectors efficiently infected intact pancreatic islets and fetal islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) in suspension. When islets and ICCs were plated in monolayer culture, infection efficiency with all three viral vectors increased. Ad-GFP infected 90-95% of the cells, whereas infection with MLV-GFP and Lenti-GFP increased only slightly. Both exposure to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and dispersion of the cells by removal from the culture dish and replating had substantial positive effects on the efficiency of infection with retroviral vectors. Studies of virus entry and cell replication revealed that cell dispersion and stimulation by HGF/SF may be acting through both mechanisms to increase the efficiency of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. Although HGF/SF and cell dispersion increased the efficiency of infection with MLV-GFP, only rare cells with weak staining for insulin were infected, whereas approximately 25% of beta-cells were infected with Lenti-GFP. We conclude that adenovirus is the most potent vector for ex vivo overexpression of foreign genes in adult endocrine pancreatic cells and is the best vector for applications where high-level but transient expression is desired. Under the optimal conditions of cell dispersion plus HGF/SF, infection with MLV and lentiviral vectors is reasonably efficient and stable, but only lentiviral vectors efficiently infect pancreatic beta-cells.  (+info)

Transport of colloidal particles in lymphatics and vasculature after subcutaneous injection. (5/2188)

This study was designed to determine the transport of subcutaneously injected viral-size colloid particles into the lymph and the vascular system in the hind leg of the dog. Transport of two colloid particles, with average size approximately 1 and 0.41 microm, respectively, and with and without leg rotation, was tested. Leg rotation serves to enhance the lymph flow rates. The right femoral vein, lymph vessel, and left femoral artery were cannulated while the animal was under anesthesia, and samples were collected at regular intervals after subcutaneous injection of the particles at the right knee level. The number of particles in the samples were counted under fluorescence microscopy by using a hemocytometer. With and without leg rotation, both particle sets were rapidly taken up into the venous blood and into the lymph fluid. The number of particles carried away from the injection site within the first 5 min was <5% of the injected pool. Particles were also seen in arterial blood samples; this suggests reflow and a prolonged residence time in the blood. These results show that particles the size of viruses are rapidly taken up into the lymphatics and blood vessels after subcutaneous deposition.  (+info)

The complete genome sequence of the Streptomyces temperate phage straight phiC31: evolutionary relationships to other viruses. (6/2188)

The completed genome sequence of the temperate Streptomyces phage straight phiC31 is reported. straight phiC31 contains genes that are related by sequence similarities to several other dsDNA phages infecting many diverse bacterial hosts, including Escherichia, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium, Rhodobacter, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus. These observations provide further evidence that dsDNA phages from diverse bacterial hosts are related and have had access to a common genetic pool. Analysis of the late genes was particularly informative. The sequences of the head assembly proteins (portal, head protease and major capsid) were conserved between straight phiC31, coliphage HK97, staphylococcal phage straight phiPVL, two Rhodobacter capsulatus prophages and two Mycobacterium tuberculosis prophages. These phages and prophages (where non-defective) from evolutionarily diverse hosts are, therefore, likely to share a common head assembly mechanism i.e. that of HK97. The organisation of the tail genes in straight phiC31 is highly reminiscent of tail regions from other phage genomes. The unusual organisation of the putative lysis genes in straight phiC31 is discussed, and speculations are made as to the roles of some inessential early gene products. Similarities between certain phage gene products and eukaryotic dsDNA virus proteins were noted, in particular, the primase/helicases and the terminases (large subunits). Furthermore, the complete sequence clarifies the overall transcription map of the phage during lytic growth and the positions of elements involved in the maintenance of lysogeny.  (+info)

Protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 mediates the Jak-dependent activation of MAPK and Stat1 in IFN-gamma, but not IFN-alpha, signaling. (7/2188)

Two distinct types of interferon, IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma, commonly exhibit antiviral activities by transmitting signals to the interior of the cell via their homologous receptors. Receptor stimulation results in the activation of distinct combinations of Janus family protein tyrosine kinases (Jak PTKs); Jak1/Tyk2 and Jak1/Jak2 for IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma, respectively. Jak PTK activation by these IFNs is commonly followed by tyrosine phosphorylation of the transcription factor Stat1 at Y701, which is essential for dimerization, translocation to the nucleus and DNA-binding activity. To gain full transcriptional activity, Stat1 also requires serine phosphorylation at S727. In this paper we demonstrate that Pyk2, which belongs to another PTK family, is critical for the Jak-mediated MAPK and Stat1 activation by IFN-gamma, but not IFN-alpha. Pyk2 is selectively associated with Jak2 and activated by IFN-gamma. Overexpression of PKM, a dominant interfering form of Pyk2, in NIH 3T3 cells results in a strong inhibition of the IFN-gamma-induced activation of Erk2, serine phosphorylation of Stat1 and Stat1-dependent gene transcription. Finally, the antiviral action of IFN-gamma, but not IFN-alpha, is severely impaired by PKM overexpression. Thus, the two types of IFN may utilize distinct Jak-mediated Erk2, and possibly other MAPK activation pathways for their antiviral action.  (+info)

Molecular epidemiology and evolution of emerging infectious diseases. (8/2188)

Molecular epidemiology is an emerging science. The development of new and rapid protocols to isolate and identify pathogens, coupled with the sophisticated phylogenetic analysis of their gene sequences, is providing a new and fascinating insight into the biology, origin and spread of infectious diseases. In this essay, I describe some of the ways in which the techniques of modern molecular biology and evolution have equipped us to face the challenge of these new infections.  (+info)

Emerging virus discovery through meta-transcriptomics: a novel virus impacting Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farming in Chile.
The National Collection of Pathogenic Viruses (NCPV) from European Collection of Cell Cultures (ECACC),Human Pathogenic Viruses The National Collection of Pathogenic Viruses (NCPV) preserves well characterised, authenticated human pathogenic viruses in a secure facility, and NCPV is able to supply the agents or nucleic acids derived from them, to the scientific community according to national and,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The lines of evidence described earlier combine to suggest the following tentative model of the emergence process for novel human viruses. First, humans are constantly exposed to a huge diversity of viruses, though those of others mammals (and perhaps birds) are of greatest importance. Moreover, these viruses are very genetically diverse and new genotypes, strains and species evolve rapidly (over periods of years or decades). A fraction of these viruses (both existing and newly evolved) are capable of infecting humans. It is not clear whether some of these human-infective viruses will already be capable of reaching higher levels of the pathogen pyramid-so-called off-the-shelf pathogens-or whether subsequent evolution of their ability to infect and transmit from humans is usually required-tailor-made [31]. The distinction is potentially important as it implies different determinants of the rate of emergence of viruses with epidemic or pandemic potential: for off-the-shelf pathogens this rate ...
All opinions are my own and do not represent medical advice or the views of any institution.. All graphics made by me are free-to-use. Please just cite the particular page, blog and me. A heads-up would be nice, but that can happen later.. ...
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are highly contagious pathogens infecting human and numerous animals. The viruses cause millions of infection cases and thousands of deaths every year, thus making IAVs a continual threat to global health. Upon IAV infection, host innate immune system is triggered and activated to restrict virus replication and clear pathogens. Subsequently, host adaptive immunity is involved in specific virus clearance. On the other hand, to achieve a successful infection, IAVs also apply multiple strategies to avoid be detected and eliminated by the host immunity. In the current review, we present a general description on recent work regarding different host cells and molecules facilitating antiviral defenses against IAV infection and how IAVs antagonize host immune responses.
An Introduction to Marine Viruses . What Is a Virus?. Virus Size & Structure. 1 Micron. Chlamydia. Pox virus. Herpes virus. Influenza Virus. Bacterium ( Staphyllococcus aureus ). Picornavirus (polio). Relative size of viruses and bacteria. Microbial Loop. CO2. DOC. Slideshow 1956999 by iona
Evolutionary and Computational Virology includes virus discovery from deep sequencing data to broaden our understanding of the diversity of viruses affecting humans and other organisms, phylogenetic to reconstruct the origin and evolution of different virus families, virus classification to group our complex knowledge about viruses into usable units, and virus-host interactions to analyze the interplay between viruses and the immune system and to explore whether certain viral infections can be linked to unexplained diseases like some types of human cancer.. Computational biology plays a vital role in virology and helps us to understand the structure of molecules, functioning of viral molecules, the dynamics of virus infections, and how do the virus epidemics spread and the origin and evolution of viruses. This Special Issue invites submissions of modeling and bioinformatics papers from all fields of virology at all levels of organization.. These strategies cowl bushed silico approaches like ...
It is clear that the unprecedented propagation of new virus variants witnessed on 2-3 March 2004 is the result of a war of viruses. The writers of Netsky, Bagle, and Mydoom have been competing in the release of new variants of their respective viruses, some of which are programmed to deactivate or delete their competitors.. In addition to this, a number of these new variants have statements and insults directed at the writers of competing viruses hidden in their code.. This barrage of new variants has been unusual in its speed. It normally takes virus writers a few days, or even weeks, to release new variants. However, these variants have all started spreading quickly after antivirus companies have released new virus signature files to counter previous versions. This is clearly an attempt to keep ahead of the antivirus companies in order to gain as wide spread a distribution as possible.. However, as seen by the number of variants it has been necessary for the virus writers to release in this ...
Global health is threatened by emerging viral infections, which largely lack effective vaccines or therapies. Targeting host pathways that are exploited by multiple viruses could offer broad-spectrum solutions. We previously reported that AAK1 and GAK, kinase regulators of the host adaptor proteins AP1 and AP2, are essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the underlying mechanism and relevance to other viruses or in vivo infections remained unknown. Here, we have discovered that AP1 and AP2 cotraffic with HCV particles in live cells. Moreover, we found that multiple viruses, including dengue and Ebola, exploit AAK1 and GAK during entry and infectious virus production. In cultured cells, treatment with sunitinib and erlotinib, approved anticancer drugs that inhibit AAK1 or GAK activity, or with more selective compounds inhibited intracellular trafficking of HCV and multiple unrelated RNA viruses with a high barrier to resistance. In murine models of dengue and Ebola infection, ...
The discovery of an HIV-1 cure remains a medical challenge because the virus rebounds quickly after the cessation of combination antiretroviral drug therapy (cART). Here, we investigate the potential of an engineered tandem bi-specific broadly neutralizing antibody (bs-bnAb) as an innovative product for HIV-1 prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. We discovered that by preserving two scFv binding domains of each parental bnAb, a single-gene-encoded tandem bs-bnAb, namely BiIA-SG, displayed significantly improved breadth and potency. BiIA-SG neutralized all 124 HIV-1 pseudotyped viruses tested, including global subtypes/recombinant forms, transmitted/founder viruses, and variants less or not susceptible to parental and many bnAbs, with an average IC50 value of 0.073 µ/ml (range , 0.001 to 1.03 µg/ml). In humanized mice, an injection of BiIA-SG conferred sterile protection when administered prior to challenges with diverse live HIV-1 stains. Moreover, while BiIA-SG delayed viral rebound in ...
The central focus of our research is the synthesis, folding, processing and function of viral glycoproteins. Previous studies of the synthesis and processing of viral glycoproteins in the secretory pathway have led to fundamental discoveries of basic cellular processes, and our research on the folding and processing of paramyxovirus glycoproteins provides insight into both cellular functions and important viral proteins. Our studies on viral proteins aim to elucidate mechanisms of promotion of membrane fusion, and to provide new targets for antiviral treatments. Many major human pathogenic viruses (including HIV, herpes simplex virus, measles virus and Ebola virus) are packaged in a membrane. In order for these viruses to infect cells, specific viral proteins promote fusion of the viral membrane with the membrane of the host cell. Understanding this process of protein-mediated membrane fusion is the major focus of our work. We study fusion proteins from several different paramyxoviruses. First, ...
If you were to make a solution containing different viruses you would have a solution containing different viruses. Nothing would happen, they wouldnt fight, they would just sit there. Drinking it would probably be a bad idea, but nothing would actually happen.. If you were to infect someone with different viruses then you would have given someone multiple diseases. Once again, they wouldnt fight, they would just go about their business infecting the host cells. Now, it is possible that some sort of recombination would occur. Viruses work by inserting their genetic material (DNA or RNA depending on the virus) into the host DNA. Then, the cells own machinery would start making copies of the virus. If a cell were infected by multiple viruses, it is possible that both would insert their genetic material into the host genome. If that were to happen, the likeliest outcome would be that the cell would simply start making copies of each of the viruses separately. It is extremely unlikely that any ...
Clean MSN Virus is a free tool that detects and deletes the various viruses that are spread via MSN Messenger, which are generically called MSN or MSN Messenger viruses.
The research team used the screening technique on 569 patients from all over the world. To do this, they used a very large dataset of peptides (molecules part of amino acids) from 206 viral species - all of which represented some 1,000 different viral strains - to make a synthetic representation of all human viral peptides. They found that on average, people had been exposed to about 10 viral species in their lifetimes. Several people, however, had been exposed to over 84 viral species ...
Nucleic acids from ATCC can save you the time and expense of isolating DNA yourself. Viral nucleic acids in the form of RNA and DNA from infected cells or allantoic fluid are available for use in a variety of applications.
In order to assess infertility or to ensure that patients receive proper treatment and are not exposed to unnecessary risk, Hayat conducts several investigations and tests for certain viruses, hormonal imbalances, and abnormalities along the reproductive tract.. ...
Although challenging, single-virus imaging has revealed key steps in the viral life cycle, and it will likely reveal more about viruses as imaging equ
Viruses infection millions annually, causing severe illness and threatening global public health. Limiting the impact of viral infection requires a multi-layered understanding of viral immunity, from basic research on viral recognition and host immune response, to the clinical applications of novel antiviral and host-targeted therapies and vaccines. Despite recent advances, the mechanisms of both both rapid host recovery as well as severe and fatal disease outcomes, are far from clear. This Keystone Symposia conference will cover a wide range of topics in viral immunity including innate immunity and inflammation, viral sensing and antigen presentation, adaptive T and B cell immunity, novel vaccine development, human immunology across anatomical sites, and innovative computational analyses. Animal models will be examined alongside human and clinical studies, and multi-disciplinary integration will enhance perspectives. A key outcome will be fostering collaborations across different approaches ...
Traces of a retrovirus similar to HIV are found in most patients with the mysterious disorder. It could be an opportunistic virus, but researchers want further testing to see if it causes the syndrome
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an enveloped RNA virus that is susceptible to many of the disinfectants already in use by healthcare facilities to disinfect counters and other hard, non-porous laboratory surfaces. However, the CDC recommends the use of disinfectants that work against non-enveloped viruses to provide a broader antiviral spectrum. Disinfectants labeled by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as effective against non-enveloped viruses are more potent and can inactivate both enveloped (eg, EVD) and non-enveloped (eg, poliovirus, rotavirus, norovirus) viruses ...
Effective spectrum: Bactericidal, tuberculocidal, fungicidal, virucidal against (enveloped viruses, e.g. Vaccinia viruses, HBV, HCV and HIV, SARS-Corona viruses as well as non-enveloped viruses, e.g. rota viruses, noro viruses). Effective spectrum: Bactericidal, tuberculocidal, fungicidal, virucidal against (enveloped viruses, e.g. Vaccinia viruses, HBV, HCV and HIV, SARS-Corona viruses as well as non-enveloped viruses, e.g. rota viruses, noro viruses). Application: For hygienic hand disinfection, rub IQ C20 into your hands and keep it wet for 30 seconds. Notes: Observe the directions for use and safety precautions for alcohol-based disinfectants. Flash point: 19 C. For external use only. Not suitable for disinfecting mucous membranes or injured skin. 100 g IQ C20 contains 63.1g 2-propanol (70%v/v) as active compound plus auxiliary substances ...
Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Lewis Lanier on NK cells in viral immunity, part of a collection of multimedia lectures.
This Diagnostic Virology is us Stroll a better probability for all leaders. To ensure more about products, entertain monitor our centerpiece list. To run more often how we allow and have your syntaxes, have run our processing author.
Human virome is the collection of viruses in and on the human body. Defining the virome is thought to provide an understanding of microbes and how they affect human health and disease. Viruses in the human body infect both human cells as well as other microbes such as bacteria. For instance, many viruses (the bacteriophages) actually infect bacteria. Some viruses cause infections, while others may be asymptomatic. Certain viruses are integrated in the human genome. Viruses evolve rapidly and hence the human virome changes constantly. Every human being has a unique virome with a unique balance of species. Lifestyle, age, geographic location, and even the season of the year affects an individuals exposure to viruses; while their susceptibility to disease is effected by preexisting immunity and both viral and human genetics. The human virome is far from being completely explored and new viruses are discovered frequently. Multiple methods are available for the isolation and study of human viruses: ...
Virus are elusive foes. It seems like every year theres a new one in the news - Ebola recently and now Zika - not to mention the virus that cause the flu or common cold. Despite the considerable threat (and sometimes just annoyance) from viruses, theres remarkably little anyone can do about them.. They are small, but wily.. With that history in mind, microbiologist Jeffrey Glenn, MD, PhD, thought a better approach would be to find a way of helping our cells help themselves. Working with Stanford ChEM-H, he created a center called [email protected] dedicated to finding therapies that would allow our cells to fight a variety of viruses rather than trying to kill off one virus at a time.. Working with that Glenns center, a group of scientists led by chemist Chaitan Khosla, PhD, and geneticist Michael Bassik, PhD, unearthed a previously discarded drug, figured out how it fought viruses, then improved on it. They published their results March 28 in Nature Chemical Biology.. In their paper, they show ...
Researchers from Colorado State University exposed hundreds of mosquitoes to either chikungunya, Zika or dengue and different combinations of the three. They also exposed 48 mosquitoes to the three viruses--chikungunya, Zika and dengue--to see if one or all three of the diseases could appear in the saliva, which could then potentially infect a person. The researchers examined the saliva, gut and legs of the insects for signs of viral infection. They found that 92 percent of the mosquitoes tested positive for all three viruses. Of the 48 just one remained uninfected. They found that six saliva samples from the mosquito tested positive for all three viruses 14 days after the insects were exposed. Another two saliva samples tested positive 21 days after exposure. While not all the insects had the virus in the saliva, the researchers pointed out that the virus presence in the saliva occurs only after the infection has traveled through the body. As a result, the other mosquitoes that tested positive ...
in Journal of virology (2016), 90(4), 2039-51. Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their ... [more ▼]. Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their profit different pathways of glycan synthesis. Thus, the Bo17 gene of Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) encodes a homologue of the cellular core 2 protein beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucin type (C2GnT-M), which is a key player for the synthesis of complex O-glycans. Surprisingly, we show in this study that, as opposed to what is observed for the cellular enzyme, two different mRNAs are encoded by the Bo17 gene of all available BoHV-4 strains. While the first one corresponds to the entire coding sequence of the Bo17 gene, the ...
Nuremberg was the third European city to host the European Congress of Virology in September this year ( Some 1,500 scientists from Europe and elsewhere came together to share their knowledge on basic and applied research in clinical, veterinary and plant virology. The main focus was on human pathogenic viruses, providing a platform where basic research and clinical application came into contact. The topics covered all areas of research in virology, from basic molecular biology and immunology to epidemiology, vaccine development, and diagnostics. For this meeting report, the Editorial team has selected some of our highlights out of the many excellent keynote lectures and workshop contributions.
Next-generation sequencing has critical applications in virus discovery, diagnostics, and environmental surveillance. We used metagenomic sequence libraries for retrospective screening of plasma samples for the recently discovered human hepegivirus 1 (HHpgV-1). From a cohort of 150 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive case-patients, we identified 2 persons with HHpgV-1 viremia and a high frequency of human pegivirus (HPgV) viremia (14%). Detection of HHpgV-1 and HPgV was concordant with parallel PCR-based screening using conserved primers matching groups 1 (HPgV) and 2 (HHPgV-1) nonstructural 3 region sequences. PCR identified 1 HHPgV-1-positive person with viremia from a group of 195 persons with hemophilia who had been exposed to nonvirally inactivated factor VII/IX; 18 (9%) were HPgV-positive. Relative to HCV and HPgV, active infections with HHpgV-1 were infrequently detected in blood, even in groups that had substantial parenteral exposure. Our findings are consistent with lower transmissibility or
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Innate immunity is the first line of defense against pathogens and is highly conserved from insects to humans. While many key facets of the innate immune system...
It was elucidated that before virus invade into cell, antibodies cling to it. Inside the cell antibodies call another component TRIM-21 (Triple Motif Containing 21) [3], which escort them to Disposal system of the cell [1, 2]. This cell recycler is renowned proteosome [3] which is cellular structure (containing proteases). This all, TRIM-21 binding and escorting to destination, happen before virus hijack the cell [1]. Increase in viral destruction observed by increase in concentration of this protein [2]. So, it was practically proved that this protein has some role in viral destruction.. It is believed that this research will help in infections such as common cold, winter vomiting bug and gastroenteritis [1]. Studies say Rotavirus, causative agent of severe Diarrhea, can be killed within 2 hours [4]. Unfortunately, this cannot be applied on broad spectrum of viruses, only non-enveloped viruses are susceptible. It is effective against influenza virus because influenza virus shed the envelop ...
It was elucidated that before virus invade into cell, antibodies cling to it. Inside the cell antibodies call another component TRIM-21 (Triple Motif Containing 21) [3], which escort them to Disposal system of the cell [1, 2]. This cell recycler is renowned proteosome [3] which is cellular structure (containing proteases). This all, TRIM-21 binding and escorting to destination, happen before virus hijack the cell [1]. Increase in viral destruction observed by increase in concentration of this protein [2]. So, it was practically proved that this protein has some role in viral destruction.. It is believed that this research will help in infections such as common cold, winter vomiting bug and gastroenteritis [1]. Studies say Rotavirus, causative agent of severe Diarrhea, can be killed within 2 hours [4]. Unfortunately, this cannot be applied on broad spectrum of viruses, only non-enveloped viruses are susceptible. It is effective against influenza virus because influenza virus shed the envelop ...
Enveloped viruses fuse with host membranes without affecting cell integrity. Non-enveloped viruses and bacteria penetrate by rupturing endosomal membranes and thus expose complex-type carbohydrates from the endosome lumen to cytosolic proteins. Here we report on the dynamics and initial marker analyses of Galectin-3 (Gal3)-positive membranes triggered by incoming adenovirus species B/C in HeLa cells. Using mCherry-Gal3 reporter constructs, immunolabeling, confocal and electron microscopy, we detected robust signals from Gal3-containing, early endosomal antigen 1-positive membranes 1 h post-infection (pi). Adenoviruses penetrate from non-acidic endosomes with high efficiency, 15 min pi, and largely outnumbered the Gal3-positive membranes, suggesting that Gal3 recruitment to broken membranes is transient, or Gal3-positive membranes are rapidly turned-over. In support of rapid turn-over, Gal3 was found within single-membrane vesicles and degradative autophagosomes. The Gal3 membranes contained ubiquitin
Coursera - Virology II: How Viruses Cause DiseaseWEBRip | English | MP4 | 960 x 540 | VP8 ~670 kbps | 25 fpsVorbis | 128 Kbps | 48.0 KHz | 2 channels | 04:1...
A discovery by Melbourne researchers has solved a longstanding mystery of how viruses trigger protective immunity within our body.
Provide education on COVID-19 disease and SARS-CoV-2. Review the types of tests used for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Discuss approaches to serologic test development. Review the ki
Introduction to Genetic Analysis 8th Edition, Anthony J.F. Griffiths, Susan R. Wessler, Richard C. Lewontin, William M. Gelbart, David T. Suzuki, Jeffrey H. Miller ...
Introduction to Genetic Analysis 8th Edition, Anthony J.F. Griffiths, Susan R. Wessler, Richard C. Lewontin, William M. Gelbart, David T. Suzuki, Jeffrey H. Miller ...
Comparison of Respiratory Virus Detection Rates for Infants and Toddlers by Use of Flocked Swabs, Saline Aspirates, and Saline Aspirates Mixed in Universal Transport Medium for Room Temperature Storage and Shippin
Specific pharmacological targeting of viruses is extremely challenging since the vast majority of the molecular machinery required for viral replication is provided by host cells. Secondly, any replicative machinery of viral origin is often unique to the specific virus or viral family; consequently, antiviral agents are few and are not broadly effective against multiple classes of viruses ...
Page 1 of 2 - virus [Closed] - posted in Virus, Spyware, Malware Removal: I have an dell laptop that is almost a year old. Yesterday i was on netflix watching a movie and ads started popping up. I exited out of them not thinking anything of it but today i cant even get on the internet. When i open internet explorer it loads a page saying the site is under attack and i need to download security protection. Also things keep popping up on my home screen saying i have multiple viruses that nee...
The description you provide is for a specific bacteriovirus (a virus which infects bacteria). It applies to only one subclass of virus (in the case described, one called lambda).. Other bacteria infecting virus are not nearly so polite; they just kill the infected cell. As far as I am aware, there is no animal virus that has been demonstrated to behave in the same manner. Retroviruses do integrate into the host DNA but do not confer resistance on the host. So the suggested solution is a reasonable one for protecting some bacteria from getting specific virus infections; however I suspect the person asking the question was not the least bit interested in protecting bacteria from getting a viral infection! The principle is a good one, and might be useful if ever a virus if the type described was found that caused a disease in people.. One other interesting point: when a bacteria with lysogenized lambda virus (integrated into the genome of the host) is mated to a bacteria that does not have the same ...
Norton has been a PITA for years, I gave up on it well over a decade ago after multiple bouts of router problems with it. Its not even very good at its core job when you look at the various virus detection tests done over the years. The last notepad I bought new was a Win7 i5 ASUS about six years ago and Norton was part of the free crapware loaded and cocked ready to go on that. Of course it was only free for a short period and it took me quite a while to figure out how to get rid of it. No doubt ASUS and Norton shared the spoils from those who couldnt get rid of it ...
What is UV-C disinfection and how effective is it against various viruses and germs? This guide should give you some information about it all.
Sprout rediscovered Plague inc evolved today, and chatted to me lots about the options that you use as the pathogen to either wipe out or enslave the human race. It involved virulence, viruses, bacteria, Ebola, DNA, RNA... we looked up electron microscope scans of various viruses and he was curious about how close to real life it was... he told me about the similarity of one aspect of the game to Aliens xenomorphs... talked about what affects the success of a pathogen, whether wiping out its host is wise, how severity or otherwise might lead to better or worse spread... he told me about looking at infecting high density populations in poorer areas compared to lower density and richer areas, and the comparative consequences of this. He asked me what I thought the necro virus might be, and after guessing something quickly fatal, or something necrotising, I guessed at a zombie virus which he gleefully confirmed was correct :) We chatted briefly about the behaviour modification in mice due to ...
Ive started to see an increasing amount of threads here with people getting infected with various viruses, getting hacked etc. This is in 99.9% of cases due to carelessness and/or ignorance. In this day and age, you have a responsibity to keep you computer from getting hacked and used in attacks towards other computers. I equal this to careless or drunk driving, only that people fortunately dont die from it (yet). So here goes my quick and dirty guide to securing your computer. 1. Get a
This test checks to see whether an infection is caused by a bacterium or a virus. It can also tell which specific virus is causing your infection.
In article ,Pine.SUN.3.91.960212130947.721A-100000 at chuma,, Elaine Morse , (BIO) ,morse at, wrote: , , , Microbiology undergrad seeks feedback on the following questions related , , to virology....All responses greatly appreciated! Thanks for your time, E. , , , , 1) Are viruses ALIVE? Yes. , , 2) What is the definition of viral purity? When its pure. , , 3) What factors limit host range? Many. , , 4) What is the minimum info needed to:a) uniquely id a virus within a , , Group? Shirt colour a Family? Name a Genus? Nickname a Species? Name only heard during pillowtalk as a Strain? If its heavy as Unique/new? b) If its COOOLLLL... , , diagnose pathology as a consequence of virus infection? & Damn! Hes sick with a virus!! c) diagnose , , pathology as a consequence of specific virus infection? Damn! Hes sick with the FLU virus!! , , 5) Which assays give high resolution answers for diagnosis? Electron micrsocopy and Why? Because it is a high resolution technique , , 6) What ...
It is easily killed with a 1:10 solution of bleach and water. It can be washed from skin with regular soaps. HIV will not survive outside the human body for more than a few hours at the most(Quackenbush 23). If a person thinks he or she might have HIV, he or she can get tested. HIV tests determine the presence of antibodies to the AIDS virus.. Antibodies are proteins produced by certain white blood cells to react with specific viruses, bacteria, or foreign substances that go into the body. The presence of antibodies to HIV indicates infection with the virus. The tests that detect the presence of HIV-1 became widely available in 1985. The tests that detect HIV-2 became widely available in 1992. All infected patients should get blood tests done periodically.. They should also have their health monitored by a physician(Drotman 164). There is no cure for HIV or AIDS, but treatments have been developed. The treatments help most people live longer. The infected people have to take medications to help ...
Simulate the spread of an illness through a population. Using a safe, simulated disease agent, students model the transmission of a communicable viral disease, identify its origin …
Reverse transcription is the flow of information from RNA to DNA, opposite the standard process cells use to make proteins. It is a method employed by certain viruses to embed their own genetic information into a hosts DNA, effectively hijacking the cell and using its organelles to produce more virus particles rather than proteins. These retroviruses, such as HIV, have the most complex reproductive cycle seen in any class of viruses. All retroviruses are ...
Researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College have unlocked the structure of a key protein that, when sensing certain viruses and bacteria, triggers the bodys immediate immune response.
Buy Aklovir Online! Aklovir is the generic name for Zovirax, a prescription medication used to treat certain virus infections. The drug works by preventing viruses from dividing and multiplying.
Something Ive always wondered about, I know certain viruses can alter DNA of surrounding cells and also alter themselves through mutation. The question is will we ever be able to alter DNA to the point where we could change things like hair color, or perhaps correct certain genetic related predisposition to disease. I dont think we will ever be able to change a persons overall look as thats something you grow into, not something thats constantly updated. Bone for example I dont think would just change shape based on genetic changes. I could be wrong ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: The Role of the Human Virome in Heart, Lung, and Blood Health and Resilience (R61/R33) RFA-HL-17-002. NHLBI
When it comes to the microbiome, bacteria get all the press. But virologists are starting to realize that their subjects also do a lot more than make people sick.
viral infection - MedHelps viral infection Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for viral infection. Find viral infection information, treatments for viral infection and viral infection symptoms.
A panel of ten purified respiratory viruses pooled that have been inactivated to render them non‐infectious and formulated in viral transport medium.
2012). Virus Taxonomy. Ninth Report of the International Committee for Virus Taxonomy. Burlington, MA, USA: Elsevier Academic ... Alves C, Branco C, Cunha C (2013). "Hepatitis delta virus: a peculiar virus". Advances in Virology. 2013: 560105. doi:10.1155/ ... viruses). The unique properties of viroids have been recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, in ... Virus Virus classification Virusoid "ICTV Report Viroids". Hadidi A (January 2019). "Next-Generation Sequencing and CRISPR/ ...
Another unclassified virus in this taxon is duck hepacivirus-like virus. A virus related to hepaciviruses has been isolated ... GBV-B virus (also known as GB virus B) discovered in 1995 is capable of infecting New World monkeys, in particular tamarins. ... Cattle are a host for viruses of the species Hepacivirus N. The viruses most closely related to Hepacivirus C are the equine ... Hepacivirus is a genus of positive-strand RNA viruses in the family Flaviviridae. The hepatitis C virus (HCV), in species ...
This occurs when two genetically related viruses infect the same cell at the same time forming a progeny virus and this virus ... The oropouche virus is an emerging infectious agent that causes the illness oropouche fever. This virus is an arbovirus and is ... This virus is a single-stranded, negative sense RNA virus which is the cause of this disease. There are no specific ... These findings confirmed the neurotropism of this virus, which means that this virus is capable of infecting nerve cells. ...
However, other strains of this virus ( Junin and Machupo viruses) are present in parts of South America and other strains ... Understanding the biology of the LCMV model virus will help in advancing the understanding of this important class of viruses ... Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus from Pet Rodents. CDC, n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2009. ---. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus ( ... Interference with research may involve: [Inhibition of] tumor induction due to polyoma virus, and mammary tumor virus in the ...
... is an antiviral drug developed as a potential treatment for the filoviruses Ebola virus and Marburg virus. In tests on ... Bradfute SB, Warfield KL, Bray M (September 2012). "Mouse models for filovirus infections". Viruses. 4 (9): 1477-508. doi: ... De Clercq E (January 2015). "Ebola virus (EBOV) infection: Therapeutic strategies". Biochemical Pharmacology. 93 (1): 1-10. doi ... mice FGI-103 was effective against both Ebola and Marburg viruses when administered up to 48 hours after infection. The ...
If a virus is an enveloped virus, the entry is more complicated. For an enveloped virus, the virus enters the cell by attaching ... How a virus enters a cell is different depending on the type of virus it is. A virus with a nonenveloped capsid enters the cell ... Viruses that enter a cell in this manner included HIV, KSHV and herpes simplex virus. Viruses with no viral envelope enter the ... Viruses that exhibit this behavior include many enveloped viruses such as HIV and Herpes simplex virus. These basic ideas ...
JSRV is the virus that is the cause of the contagious lung tumors in sheep called ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). The ... However, Jaagsiekte virus can sometimes mutate to overcome this protection, and there is evidence of this having occurred in ... Transmission of virus is through aerosol spread between sheep. The exogenous infectious form of JSRV has an endogenous ... As the tumour grows, fluid production in the lung increases and this is likely to promote virus spread to other sheep. Only ...
Viruses. 7 (4): 2168-2184. doi:10.3390/v7042168. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC 4411695. PMID 25912718. Coordinates: 4°18′39″S 15°18′11″E ...
Examples of the human viruses include the following: parainfluenza virus (hPIV) and mumps virus (MuV), and examples of the bat- ... Future studies should focus on studying how bat mumps virus interacts with human mumps virus. Tropism in bats for BMV has not ... between these two viruses. Those proteins are the targets for the neutralizing antibodies in the viruses. Due to those similar ... it is known that the bat mumps virus is closely related to the human mumps virus. So, the following information is regarding ...
He was the first researcher to use RNA to block the progress of the virus that causes HIV/Aids by degrading the HIV virus ... This approach combines stem cell and gene therapy to deliver RNA molecules that can block the genes that the HIV/AIDS virus ... Viruses. 2013 (5): 2898-2919. doi:10.3390/v5112898. PMC 3856421. PMID 24284880. DiGiusto, D. L.; Krishnan, A.; Li, L.; Li, H.; ...
... virus Uganda S virus Usutu virus Wesselsbron virus West Nile virus Yaounde virus Yellow fever virus Yokose virus Zika virus ... virus Aroa virus Bamaga virus Bagaza virus Banzi virus Bouboui virus Bukalasa bat virus Cacipacore virus Carey Island virus ... virus Jugra virus Jutiapa virus Kadam virus Kedougou virus Kokobera virus Koutango virus Kyasanur Forest disease virus Langat ... virus Kamiti River virus Lammi virus Marisma mosquito virus Nakiwogo virus Nhumirim virus Nienokoue virus Nounané virus Palm ...
Play media Tylonycteris bat coronavirus HKU4 (Bat-CoV HKU4) is an enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus mammalian ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) London1-nCoV-2012 phylogenetic tree Coronaviruses Viralzone: Betacoronavirus Virus ... "Genetic characterization of betacoronavirus lineage C viruses in bats reveals marked sequence divergence in the spike protein ... Tylonycteris Pipistrellus Human coronavirus HKU1 Human coronavirus OC43 Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 RNA virus Positive/ ...
... equine arteritis virus, coronavirus, HCV, HSV, HCoV-229E, HIV, mengovirus, MERS-CoV, rhinovirus, SARS-CoV-1, Zika virus. ... Inhibits Zika Virus Infection in Different Cell Models". Viruses. 8 (12): 322. doi:10.3390/v8120322. PMC 5192383. PMID 27916837 ... "Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by chloroquine targeting virus-associated autophagy". Journal of Gastroenterology. ... TSAI, WEN-PO; NARA, PETER L.; KUNG, HSIANG-FU; OROSZLAN, STEPHEN (April 1990). "Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...
Archaean viruses (e.g. ANMV-1), temperate phages (e.g. Hankyphage and CrAss-like phage), and lytic phages. DGRs benefit their ... Viruses. 12 (5): 573. doi:10.3390/v12050573. ISSN 1999-4915. Hedzet, Stina; Accetto, Tomaž; Rupnik, Maja (2020-10-10). "Lytic ... "Targeted diversity generation by intraterrestrial archaea and archaeal viruses". Nature Communications. 6 (1). doi:10.1038/ ...
"Junín Virus Pathogenesis and Virus Replication". Viruses. National Institutes of Health. 4 (10): 2317-2339. doi:10.3390/ ... Argentinian mammarenavirus, better known as the Junin virus or Junín virus (JUNV), is an arenavirus in the Mammarenavirus genus ... "Junin virus". Grant, A.; Seregin, A.; Huang, C.; Kolokoltsova, O.; Brasier, A.; Peters, C.; Paessler, S. (2012). " ... The virus is spread by rodents. A member of the genus Mammarenavirus, Argentinian mammarenavirus characteristically causes ...
... and herpes simplex viruses. It appears to have potential for the treatment of Ebola virus disease, which is somewhat ... Brincidofovir was administered to the first patient diagnosed in the Ebola virus disease outbreak in the US in 2014. The ... Brincidofovir is one of several experimental drugs administered to a small number of patients to treat Ebola virus disease ... "Ethical considerations for use of unregistered interventions for Ebola virus disease". Retrieved 8 October 2014. Kern ER, ...
Viruses. 9 (7): 184. doi:10.3390/v9070184. PMC 5537676. PMID 28704957.. ...
"The Origin of the Variola Virus". Viruses. 7 (3): 1100-1112. doi:10.3390/v7031100. PMC 4379562. PMID 25763864. Li, Y.; Carroll ... "17th Century Variola Virus Reveals the Recent History of Smallpox". Current Biology. 26 (24): 3407-3412. doi:10.1016/j.cub. ... these early cases were caused by virus lineages that were no longer circulating at the point of eradication in the 1970s." It ...
Viruses portal Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Coronaviridae Archived Web page from 2006 on coronaviruses ... PMID 27012512 "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 11 ... They are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genome ... In humans, the viruses cause respiratory infections, including the common cold, which are typically mild, though rarer forms ...
taeniorhynchus is a carrier for West Nile Virus, mosquito iridescent virus, the eastern and western type of equine ... Clark, Truman B.; Kellen, William R.; Lum, Patrick T. M. (1965-12-01). "A mosquito iridescent virus (MIV) from Aedes ... Kelser, R.A. (1937). "Transmission of the Virus of Equine Encephalomy-elîtis by Aëdes taeniorhynchus". ... It is a carrier for encephalitic viruses including Venezuelan equine encephalitis and can transmit Dirofilaria immitis. It ...
Alxa virus (ALXV) Dandenong virus (DANV) Gairo virus (GAIV) Gbagroube virus Ippy virus (IPPYV) Kodoko virus (KODV) Lassa virus ... Merino Walk virus (MRWV) Menekre virus Minu virus Mobala virus (MOBV) Morogoro virus (MORV) Mopeia virus (MOPV) Ryukyu virus ( ... Flexal virus (FLEV) Paraná virus (PRAV) Pichindé virus (PICHV) Pirital virus (PIRV) Clade B Amaparí virus (AMAV) Aporé virus ( ... Junin virus, Lassa virus, Lujo virus, Machupo virus, Sabia virus, or Whitewater Arroyo virus. Because of the epidemiological ...
... adenovirus simian virus 40, vaccinia virus, reovirus, poliovirus and herpes simplex virus as well as numerous bacteriophages. ... Many types of virus are capable of genetic recombination. When two or more individual viruses of the same type infect a cell, ... Parasites feed on the nutrients of another organism which allows the virus to thrive. Once the human body detects a virus, it ... When two or more viruses, each containing lethal genomic damage infect the same host cell, the virus genomes often can pair ...
"Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. February 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019. "Virus ... Interactions between L1 and sulfated sugars on the cell surface promote initial attachment of the virus. The virus is then able ... Like most non-enveloped viruses, the capsid is geometrically regular and presents icosahedral symmetry. Self-assembled virus- ... Currently, the most effective way to go about it is to mimic a virus that is composed of L1 protein but lack the DNA. Basically ...
... is one of six genera of viruses within the family Iridoviridae and one of three genera within this family which ... Infection with these viruses produces a characteristic presence of enlarged basophilic cells within infected organs. ... In Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselburger U, Ball LA (eds). Virus Taxonomy, Eighth report of the International Committee ... The megalocytiviruses are an emerging group of closely related dsDNA viruses which cause systemic infections in a wide variety ...
... viruses which infect bats generate more viral proteins than typical viruses. As a result, when bat viruses infect humans cells ... In these cells, the virus was able to multiply at ease. The isolated virus should allow for the development of a COVID-19 ... Karen Mossman discusses what isolating a virus means, 2020-03-13, retrieved 2020-04-08 Mossman, Karen. "I study viruses: How ... She looks to understand how viruses can elude the immune system of cells, including normal and cancer cells. She hopes to use ...
Roossinck, M. J. (2011). "Changes in population dynamics in mutualistic versus pathogenic viruses". Viruses. 3 (12): 12-19. doi ... The relationship between these viruses and the wasp is obligatory in the sense that all individuals are infected with the ... The wasp benefits from this relationship because the virus provides protection for the parasitic larvae inside the host, (i) by ... Polydnaviruses are a unique group of insect viruses that have a mutualistic relationship with some parasitic wasps. The ...
RNA virus evolution appears to be facilitated by a high mutation rate caused by the lack of a proofreading mechanism during ... The resulting recombinant viruses may sometimes cause an outbreak of infection in humans. RNA world Crick F (1970). "Central ... Carrasco-Hernandez R, Jácome R, López Vidal Y, Ponce de León S. Are RNA Viruses Candidate Agents for the Next Global Pandemic? ... Barr JN, Fearns R (June 2010). "How RNA viruses maintain their genome integrity". The Journal of General Virology. 91 (Pt 6): ...
"Overall Structural Model of NS5A Protein from Hepatitis C Virus and Modulation by Mutations Confering Resistance of Virus ... "Involvement of Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Hyperphosphorylation Mediated by Casein Kinase I- in Infectious Virus Production". ... The virus has been around for over a millennia and has been classified into six known genotypes, each of which contains ... HCV is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that has been demonstrated to replicate in the hepatocytes of both humans and ...
Although more complex, this has the advantage of a higher titre for the sgRNA library virus. In general, there are two ... 2017), who aimed to dissect the host factors associated with dengue and hepatitis C (HCV) infection (two viruses in family ... Due to their small genomes and limited number of encoded proteins, viruses exploit host proteins for entry, replication, and ... Xu CL, Ruan MZ, Mahajan VB, Tsang SH (January 2019). "Viral Delivery Systems for CRISPR". Viruses. 11 (1): 28. doi:10.3390/ ...
The viruses in the group were previously known as group 2d coronaviruses. The viruses of this subgenus, like other ... International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 20 June 2020. Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Wang, Ming; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Xu ... Structure of Virions; A. Virion Morphology", Advances in Virus Research, Academic Press, 48, pp. 5-6, retrieved 2020-02-28 Woo ... Embecovirus (group 2a) Sarbecovirus (group 2b) Merbecovirus (group 2c) "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". ...
Influenza (Flu) Viruses. There are two main types of influenza (flu) virus: Types A and B. The influenza A and B viruses that ... More Information about Flu Viruses. *Types of Influenza Viruses. Influenza A and B viruses are responsible for seasonal flu ... How the Flu Virus Can Change. Influenza viruses can change in two different ways-antigenic drift and antigenic shift. ... Transmission of Influenza Viruses from Animals to People. Influenza A viruses also are found in many different animals, ...
Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses - CDC ... H1N1 influenza virus, trH3N2 virus, and trH1N2 virus. ... Influenza viruses that commonly circulate in swine are called "swine influenza viruses" or "swine flu viruses." Like human ... influenza viruses, there are different subtypes and strains of swine influenza viruses. The main swine influenza viruses ... Swine influenza is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses that regularly cause outbreaks of influenza ...
A letter from over 200 scientists to the World Health Organization asks for further investigation into how the virus spreads. ... How a virus could spread this way: Through the respiratory route in which a person breathes in clouds of tiny virus particles ... How a virus could spread this way: Through indirect transmission if people touch the surface of a virus-covered object, pick up ... How a virus could spread this way: "A large droplet flies through the air and lands on your body," says Linsey Marr, a ...
... pdm09 virus vaccination program prevented 700,000-1,500,000 clinical cases, 4,000-10,000 hospitalizations, and 200-500 deaths. ... the United States began a response to the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus strain: A(H1N1)pdm09. Vaccination began in ... Skarbinski J, Jain S, Bramley A, Lee EJ, Huang J, Kirschke D, Hospitalized patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus ... basic reproductive rate of the virus, virus subtype, subgroups affected, public acceptance of vaccination, vaccine safety ...
A Virus You Can Take to Dinner. Scientists find the first indications that there may be healthy viruses living in your gut. ... Billions of Viruses Fall From the Skies Every Day. The research can explain how identical viruses travel thousands of miles ... Rare Virus Sickens Thousands of Kids in Midwest. Luckily the virus isnt usually deadly, but has caused many hospitalizations. ... Algae Virus Can Infect Mammalian Cells. The virus may also infect humans and affect the brain. ...
"Merryxmas Virus". Virus Test Center. University of Hamburg. Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. Anbinder, Mark H. (31 ... "HyperCard Viruses". HyperActive Software. Retrieved 15 March 2021. Harley, David (3 October 2011). "HyperCard Viruses? Youre ... Soon after the release of HyperCard in 1987, computer viruses appeared that targeted the application. The viruses were written ... Szor, Peter (2005). The Art of Computer Virus Research and Defense. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Addison-Wesley. pp. 91-92. ...
From an obscure virus to the newest scare, interest in the virus has skyrocketed just in the past few weeks: I have a few ... Flu viruses are described by two key genes-hence the name H1N1. Tara C. Smith writes "The novel bat virus was a completely ... Smith writes, "These viruses are not just kinda new. They are really really different from the RNA viruses we already know ... but a virus is not a predator. Bonham says Ebola viruses, like other emerging diseases, are "poorly adapted for our immune ...
Infections caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) are exceedingly common. They are divided into primary and secondary (recurrent ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus Herpes Simplex Virus West Nile Virus Herpes Zoster Graft Versus Host Disease These keywords were ... Varicella-zoster virus disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Dermatol. 1990;127:1086-8.CrossRef ... Clinical features of human immunodeficiency virus-associated disseminated herpes zoster virus infection - a review of the ...
The Herpes Association (now the Herpes Viruses Association) was started in 1982. It is a support group for people with Herpes ... simplex virus. It conducts information campaigns and attempts to reduce the stigma associated with sexually transmitted ... ". "The Herpes Viruses Association". Archived from the original on 2015-01-13. "Gynaecological infections". Nursing in practice ...
Computational Studies on Viruses and Binding of Antiviral Agents. It is known that antiviral agents against human rhinovirus ( ... Enveloped viruses comprise a protein-nucleic acid core covered by a membrane bilayer with integral membrane receptor proteins. ... 2010) NMR relaxation studies of an RNA-binding segment of the rous sarcoma virus gag polyprotein in free and bound states: a ... 2004) Solution structure of dengue virus capsid protein reveals another fold. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101: 3414-3419. doi: ...
It is now well-established that viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and are estimated to harbor the ... Virus Virus Mono Lake Centrifugal Filter Unit Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation Tangential Flow Filtration These keywords ... Pietila MK, Roine E, Paulin L, Kalkkinen N, Bamford DH (2009) An ssDNA virus infecting archaea: a new lineage of viruses with a ... Forterre P (2006) The origin of viruses and their possible roles in major evolutionary transitions. Virus Research 117(1):5-16 ...
Source for information on Viruses: Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health dictionary. ... VirusesDefinitionA virus is an infectious agent, often highly host-specific, consisting of genetic material surrounded by a ... Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) belongs to a class of viruses known as t… Viruses , ... Another effect of viruses on human health is infection by zoonotic viruses, that is, viruses that can be transmitted from an ...
Big Picture Book of Viruses. A catalog of virus pictures on the WWW. *American Society for Virology. *Institute for Molecular ... Virus Ultrastructure. Linda Stannard, University of Cape Town. *Electron Micrographs of Animal Viruses. Queens University at ... Single-stranded Negative Sense RNA Viruses (monophyly uncertain) *Single-stranded Positive Sense RNA Viruses (monophyly ... Virus Taxonomy. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Academic Press, San Diego. ...
Large-scale discovery of vertebrate RNA viruses shows that, although viruses often jump between hosts, most have co-evolved ... Large-scale discovery of vertebrate RNA viruses shows that, although viruses often jump between hosts, most have co-evolved ... Large-scale discovery of vertebrate RNA viruses shows that, although viruses often jump between hosts, most have co-evolved ... with their hosts over millions of years The evolutionary history of viruses is largely unknown. ...
Viruses and the Prokaryotic World. Viruses. Viruses and bacteria are too small to be seen without the aid of microscopes. As ... Structure and Classification of Viruses. Viruses differ from cellular organisms in many ways. A virus contains only a single ... Viruses infect all forms of life. Organisms and physical objects that carry or transmit viruses are called vectors. Viruses ... Extremely small, simple in structure, and widely distributed, viruses exist in a realm all their own. Viruses do not qualify as ...
I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ... a b Breitbart M, Rohwer F. Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?. Trends in Microbiology. 2005;13(6):278-84. ...
Generally viruses are much smaller than bacteria. Most viruses that have been studied have a diameter between 10 and 300 nanome ... Viruses display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes, called morphologies. ... A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of organisms. ... Flu viruses tend to live longer on surfaces than cold viruses do. Also, its generally believed that cold and flu viruses live ...