Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with viruses from the genus SIMPLEXVIRUS. This includes vaccines for HSV-1 and HSV-2.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PSEUDORABIES (Aujeszky's disease), a herpesvirus of swine and other animals.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A species of AVIPOXVIRUS, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE. Canarypox virus vectors are used in vaccine and immunotherapy research.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with parainfluenza viruses in humans and animals.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Viruses that produce tumors.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
A species of PNEUMOVIRUS causing an important respiratory infection in cattle. Symptoms include fever, conjunctivitis, and respiratory distress.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A highly contagious herpesvirus infection affecting the central nervous system of swine, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, and other animals.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
"Construction of an infectious horsepox virus vaccine from chemically synthesized DNA fragments". PLOS ONE. 13 (1): e0188453. ... smallpox vaccine and horsepox virus. Tonix's TNX-801 is a horsepox-based live virus vaccine being developed as a potential ... "Vaccine Genome Researchers Report 99.7% Colinear Identity Between a U.S. Civil War Era Smallpox Vaccine and Horsepox Virus". ... This research collaboration will focus on developing a vaccine candidate utilizing a novel live virus vaccine vector platform ...
Hepatitis B virus); Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin (developers of the Polio vaccines); Paul Ehrlich (discovery of the Blood-brain ... "Rosalind Franklin :: DNA from the Beginning". Retrieved 18 September 2017. "Rosalind Franklin: A Crucial ... "Rosalind Franklin's contributions to the study of DNA". Archived from the original on 6 September 2006. Retrieved 18 ... DNA); Carl Djerassi (the pill); Stephen Jay Gould (Evolutionary biology); Baruch Samuel Blumberg ( ...
"A novel vaccine formulation consisting of dna vaccine inactivated virus". Orbit. 2017. "IISc-developed rabies vaccine cleared ... they improved the vaccine performance by combining the DNA-based rabies vaccine with a controlled quantity of inactivated virus ... 464-. ISBN 978-81-317-3220-5. "DNA vaccines can be produced more rapidly than conventional vaccines". Pharmabiz. 3 January 2008 ... "Immune Response to DNA Combined Tissue Culture Inactivated anti-rabies Vaccine (DINARAB)". Indian Journals. 2017. "Gene ...
This vaccine was used to stop the rapid spread of the virus and helped maintain morbidity and mortality rates in psittacine ... The detection of the virus through the DNA probe also helps identify a contaminated environment the bird has recently been ... By diagnosing an infected bird antemortem, a DNA probe runs serologically and detects the virus within the bird's internal ... Pacheco's disease is diagnosed through a DNA probe or chemical and serological testings. No vaccine directly cures Pacheco's ...
These vaccines are DNA vaccines and a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine. The vaccines were developed as part of the South ... virus type 1 subtype C Gag virus-like particle boost substantially improves the immune response to subtype C gag DNA vaccine in ... Her publications mainly consists of her area of expertise addressing HIV vaccine development, HIV virus, and HPV virus. Marais ... Vaccine Efficiently Boosts Immune Responses to a DNA Vaccine in Mice". AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 24 (2): 207-217. ...
Diagnosis can be confirmed by testing a lesion for the virus's DNA. The disease can appear similar to chickenpox. The smallpox ... because they are closely related viruses and the vaccine protects animals from experimental lethal monkeypox challenge. This ... The virus is found mainly in tropical rainforest regions of Central and West Africa. The virus was first discovered in monkeys ... Diagnosis can be verified by testing for the virus. The virus does not remain very long in the blood, and hence blood testing ...
"Novartis Teams with Synthetic Genomics Vaccines to Develop Flu Seed Virus Banks". "Synthetic Genomics and ADM partner for omega ... "SGI-DNA Launches the BioXp™ 3200 System Early Access Program". SGI-DNA. "Synthetic Genomics Inc. Expands Collaborative Research ... In 2010, Synthetic Genomics spun off a new subsidiary, Synthetic Genomics Vaccines Inc., to develop next generation vaccines In ... In 2015, the company launched the BioXP 3200 system, a fully automated benchtop instrument that produces DNA fragments from ...
van Oirschot JT (Aug 1999). "Diva vaccines that reduce virus transmission". Journal of Biotechnology. 73 (2-3): 195-205. doi: ... 78 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 4 (5): 307-13. doi:10.1093/dnares/4.5.307 ... DNA Research. 9 (3): 99-106. CiteSeerX doi:10.1093/dnares/9.3.99. PMID 12168954. Campioni M, Santini D, Tonini ...
A characteristic example is the subunit vaccine against Hepatitis B virus. Two future vaccinations: DNA vaccines: DNA vaccines ... Recombinant vector vaccines (platform-based vaccines): These vaccines are harmless live viruses that encode a one/or a few ... "Vaccine Types Vaccines". Retrieved 2020-08-07. Bull JJ, Nuismer SL, Antia R (July 2019). "Recombinant vector ... In 1798, Edward Jenner introduced the far safer method of deliberate infection with cowpox virus, (smallpox vaccine), which ...
Marantz Henig, Robin (March 30, 1993). "New Vaccine Method Using DNA Protects Mice Against a Flu Virus". The New York Times. ... She is a founder of the field of DNA-based vaccines, and studies both plasmid DNA and mRNA vaccine technologies. She was the ... She pioneered the development of DNA vaccines, which may offer "the hope of better, more stable vaccines that can be rapidly ... Liu, M. A. (24 April 2019). "A Comparison of Plasmid DNA and mRNA as Vaccine Technologies". Vaccines. 7 (2): 37. doi:10.3390/ ...
"Construction of an infectious horsepox virus vaccine from chemically synthesized DNA fragments". PLOS ONE. 13 (1): e0188453. ... Immunity to cowpox is gained when the smallpox vaccine is administered. Although the vaccine now uses vaccinia virus, the ... The virus, part of the genus Orthopoxvirus, is closely related to the vaccinia virus. The virus is zoonotic, meaning that it is ... but the effects of vaccinia and cowpox virus as vaccine are nearly the same. The virus is found in Europe, and mainly in the UK ...
"A novel synthetic DNA vaccine elicits protective immune responses against Powassan virus". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 14 ... Stanley Plotkin, M.D., a physician, who played a pivotal role in discovery of a vaccine against the rubella virus in the 1960s ... Wistar created vaccine candidate against Powassan virus. Educating and training the next generation of scientists are central ... Wistar contributed technology critical to the development of the first vaccine for the Zika virus approved by the U.S. Food and ...
There is no vaccine developed to fight this virus. Order Pimascovirales. The Iridoviridae have linear double stranded DNA ... Nucleocytoviricota is a phylum of viruses. Members of the phylum are also known as the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses ( ... "Evolution of double-stranded DNA viruses of eukaryotes: from bacteriophages to transposons to giant viruses". Annals of the New ... Once the virus infects the host, the replication cycle takes place in the cytoplasm. Within the genome, DNA repair enzymes can ...
... including adjuvanted DNA vaccines and adenoviral vectors. In 2000, Barouch began researching the development of an HIV vaccine ... In 2002, he published that a candidate HIV vaccine can suppress virus in preclinical studies for a period of two years. In 2006 ... "Novel HIV vaccine candidate is safe and induces immune response in healthy adults and monkeys". ScienceDaily. "HIV Vaccine ... "Johnson & Johnson to start testing on new type of HIV vaccine in U.S. and Europe". "HIV Vaccine Latest Test ...
"Enhanced T-cell immunogenicity of plasmid DNA vaccines boosted by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara in humans". Nature ... The universal flu vaccine does not need to be reformatted every year and stops people from needing a seasonal flu vaccine. Her ... On 30 December 2020, the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine she co-developed with the Oxford Vaccine Group was approved for ... Because of her vaccine research, Gilbert featured on The Times' 'Science Power List' in May 2020. Gilbert was the subject of ...
This process involves the virus transcribing its singe-stranded RNA genome into double-stranded DNA that is incorporated into ... International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. [1] accessed Dec 2007. Archived October 9, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. Poropatich, ... Mitochondrial DNA. Different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in humans may increase or decrease rates of AIDS progression. ... In a small number of people infected with HIV, the virus is naturally suppressed without medical treatment. These people may ...
A few examples of biologics made with recombinant DNA technology include: Many vaccines are grown in tissue cultures. Viral ... These are similar to the antibodies that the human immune system uses to fight off bacteria and viruses, but they are "custom- ... The first such substance approved for therapeutic use was biosynthetic "human" insulin made via recombinant DNA. Sometimes ... Different from totally synthesized pharmaceuticals, they include vaccines, whole blood, blood components, allergenics, somatic ...
"Designing and Development of a DNA Vaccine Based On Structural Proteins of Hepatitis C Virus". Iranian Journal of Pathology. 11 ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes refer to the genetic variations that occurs in the hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C is a ... Until recently, there were no specific vaccines available for treating hepatitis C virus genotypes. People traveling around ... Hepatitis C virus genotype is considered more common than the Hepatitis B virus infection contributing to more than a million ...
April 2015). "Safety and immunogenicity of Ebola virus and Marburg virus glycoprotein DNA vaccines assessed separately and ... Using combination DNA vaccines, it was shown that it is safe for people to receive both vaccines in combination. The antigens ... In 2014, MHRP's Uganda site conducted the first vaccine trial for Ebola and Marburg virus ever done in Africa. ... Gary R. Matyas proposed a vaccine to treat heroin addiction and prevent those who received this vaccine from contracting HIV. ...
The first step is based on a DNA vaccine vector in order to prime T cells. In the case of HIV, T cells specific for the group- ... This process was used in 1979 to observe that T cells specific to the influenza virus could promote the stimulation of ... For the second step a formulation of nano particles or virus-like particles is vaccinated. These particles contain Gag protein ... One of the approaches for a protective HIV-1 vaccine is broadly neutralizing antibodies. These antibodies are found in 10-25 % ...
A Brucella DNA vaccine containing IL-15 gene enhanced the CD8+ T cell immune response in mice. IL-15 was needed for CD4+ T cell ... While influenza A virus expressing IL-15 stimulates both innate and adaptive immune cells to decrease tumor growth mice. ... Hu XD, Chen ST, Li JY, Yu DH, Cai H (March 2010). "An IL-15 adjuvant enhances the efficacy of a combined DNA vaccine against ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.12.076. PMID 20064480. Hock K, Laengle J, Kuznetsova I, Egorov A, Hegedus B, Dome B, Wekerle T, ...
In addition the vaccine virus Vaccinia also uses elements of the actin cytoskeleton for its dissemination. Pseudomonas ... Its DNA sequence consists of seven exons that produce five known transcripts. The majority of these consist of point mutations ... ParM is an actin homologue that is coded in a plasmid and it is involved in the regulation of plasmid DNA. ParMs from different ... It also has two different DNA promoters. It has been noted that the sequences translated from this locus and from that of β- ...
A vaccine that targets PCSK9 has been developed to treat high LDL-particle concentrations. The vaccine uses a VLP (virus-like ... VLP's are viruses that have had their DNA removed so that they retain their external structure for antigen display but are ... "A cholesterol-lowering VLP vaccine that targets PCSK9". Vaccine. 33 (43): 5747-55. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.09.044. PMC ... Diedrich G (September 2006). "How does hepatitis C virus enter cells?". The FEBS Journal. 273 (17): 3871-85. doi:10.1111/j.1742 ...
Li's group was the first to sequence the full genomic DNA of pADR-1, the most prevalent subtype of hepatitis B virus in China. ... The research resulted in the development of a highly effective recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. In another project, he utilized ... His research team was the first in China to sequence a virus genome. He also utilized E. coli to produce human EGF and GM-CSF, ... After graduation in 1960, he founded China's first laboratory for molecular DNA and genetics research at the Shanghai institute ...
The novel vaccine consists of a recombinant DNA vaccine co-expressing human GM-CSF and non-infectious HIV virus-likeparticles. ... The vaccine works with a combined DNA vaccine and MVA (modified vaccinia Ankara) vaccine both of which lead to the insertion of ... The MVA expresses the HIV virus-like-particles, but does not express GM-CSF. The regimen builds on the GeoVax DNA/MVA vaccine ... "Phase 1 Safety and Immunogenicity Testing of DNA and Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccines Expressing HIV-1 Virus-like ...
"DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus". Vaccine. 26 (50 ... Currently efforts have been made to prevent infection by the virus through the development of DNA vaccines and ... The virus has been implicated in several outbreaks of SVC throughout the past few decades. Originally the range of the virus ... In 2004 the virus was isolated from imported koi in Cedar Lake, Wisconsin. Additionally, the virus has been linked to an ...
If the vaccine or gene therapy fails in clinical trials, the virus can't be used again in the patient for a different vaccine ... based on the same rationale as DNA vaccines. The genes used in such vaccines are usually antigen coding surface proteins from ... A live vector vaccine is a vaccine that uses an organism (typically virus or bacterium) that does not cause disease to ... Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is the first virus to be discovered. Viral vectors based on tobacco mosaic virus include those of ...
Salk's inactivated polio vaccine was a killed-virus vaccine that was to be used in a massive national vaccination program. ... Levine, A.J. The Origins of Small DNA Tumor Viruses In: Foundations in Cancer Research, Academic Press, 1994 pp. 152-153. ... In parallel to her job as chief of flu virus vaccine testing Eddy began research on polio vaccines at NIH in 1952. In 1953 she ... The flawed vaccine manufacturing process produced 120,000 doses of polio vaccine that contained live polio virus. Of children ...
... the aliens are a virus. After the person falls asleep, the virus re-writes human DNA. Then, these Genetically Modified (post- ... Medical scientists somehow create a miracle vaccine in a few months to 'cure' the 'pandemic'. The treatment wipes the memories ... "influenza vaccines". As it continues across the globe, local conflicts are resolved, including the Iraq War and Darfur. However ... of the replicas... the infected live "as though they were in a deep sleep". Similar to previous incarnations, the virus can ...
... consider the vaccine to be safe. It does not contain mercury, thiomersal, live viruses or dead viruses, but virus-like ... Papillomavirus Vaccines at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Gardasil-Presence of DNA ... Yadav R, Zhai L, Tumban E (December 2019). "Virus-like Particle-Based L2 Vaccines against HPVs: Where Are We Today?". Viruses. ... Pallecaros A, Vonau B (December 2007). "Human papilloma virus vaccine--more than a vaccine". Current Opinion in Obstetrics & ...
"First FDA-approved vaccine for the prevention of Ebola virus disease, marking a critical milestone in public health ... December 1999). "Identification of Ebola virus sequences present as RNA or DNA in organs of terrestrial small mammals of the ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... Vaccines. Main article: Ebola vaccine. An Ebola vaccine, rVSV-ZEBOV, was approved in the United States in December 2019.[8] It ...
... a genetic mismatch as small as a single DNA base pair is significant so perfect matches require knowledge of the exact DNA ... For this reason transplant patients must be re-vaccinated with childhood vaccines once they are off immunosuppressive ... the virus was once again detected in both patients some time after the discontinuation of therapy.[64] ...
... anthrax and respiratory syncytial virus.[41] Korean scientists are looking at using the tomato to express a vaccine against ... DNA Plant Technology (DNAP), Agritope and Monsanto developed tomatoes that delayed ripening by preventing the production of ... Vaccines[edit]. Tomatoes (along with potatoes, bananas and other plants) are being investigated as vehicles for delivering ... Goyal, R.; Ramachandran, R.; Goyal, P.; Sharma, V. (2007). "Edible vaccines: Current status and future". Indian Journal of ...
Vaccines have been formulated and approved for prevention of Lyme disease in dogs. Currently, three Lyme disease vaccines are ... 1992)[156] (incompetent host for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus) but it is important for feeding the ticks,[157] as red deer and ... The examination of preserved museum specimens has found Borrelia DNA in an infected Ixodes ricinus tick from Germany that dates ... Poland GA, Jacobson RM (March 2001). "The prevention of Lyme disease with vaccine". Vaccine. 19 (17-19): 2303-8. doi:10.1016/ ...
This is due to the accumulation of oxidative damage to DNA by aging and cellular metabolic activity and the shortening of ... Vaccine. 21 (11-12): 1180-1186. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00481-4. PMID 12559796. Ginaldi, L.; M.F. Loreto; M.P. Corsi; M. ... envisaged as the result of the continuous challenge of the unavoidable exposure to a variety of antigens such as viruses and ... Vaccine. 18 (16): 1717-1720. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00513-7. PMID 10689155. Ito, K; A. Hirao; F. Arai; S. Matsuoka; K. ...
A comparative study of DNA content as measured by flow cytometry and image analysis in 1864 specimens. Analytical Cellular ... Pandemic influenza preparedness : the critical role of the syringe.. Vaccine. 2006 May 29;24(22):4874-82. Epub 2006 March 20. K ... activation with cellular viremia and plasma HIV RNA levels in asymptomatic patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus ...
Inactivated vaccine. *Live vector vaccine *Attenuated vaccine. *Heterologous vaccine. *Subunit/component / Peptide / Virus-like ... DNA vaccination. * ... Vaccines - a Biography edited by Andrew W. Artenstein ISBN 978- ... Use of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (Report). Centers for Disease ... Anthrax is now known to be caused by a bacterium, and rabies is known to be caused by a virus. The microscopes of the time ...
V3 loop - vaccination - vaccine - vaccinia - vaginal candidiasis - valley fever - variable region - varicella zoster virus (VZV ... radiology - randomized trial - rebound - receptor (immunology) - recombinant - recombinant DNA - recombinant DNA technology - ... herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly ... human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV- ...
Group VII viruses[edit]. Both families in Group VII have DNA genomes contained within the invading virus particles. The DNA ... and impedes the development of effective vaccines and inhibitors for the retrovirus.[9] ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... Group VI viruses[edit]. All members of Group VI use virally encoded reverse transcriptase, an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, to ...
Chaves SS, Gargiullo P, Zhang JX, et al. (2007). "Loss of vaccine-induced immunity to varicella over time". N Engl J Med 356 ( ... 26.0 26.1 "Epidemiology of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection, Epidemiology of VZV Infection, Epidemiology of Chicken Pox, ... DNA) பரிசோதனையும் செய்யப்படலாம்.[10] ... "Chickenpox (Varicella) Vaccine". Immunization Action Coalition (October 2005). பார்த்த நாள் 2006-06-12. ...
Use in vaccinesEdit. The first vaccine against smallpox by Edward Jenner in 1800 was by infection of a zoonotic bovine virus ... but there is increasing evidence from DNA and RNA sequencing, that measles, smallpox, influenza, HIV, and diphtheria came to ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus horses, donkeys, ... Kyasanur Forest disease virus rodents, shrews, bats, monkeys tick bite La Crosse encephalitis La Crosse virus chipmunks, tree ...
1986). "Transactivation of the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat sequences by DNA viruses". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.10.038. பப்மெட் 15705467. *↑ "Oral Polio Vaccine and HIV / AIDS: Questions and Answers". Centers for ... 2005). "Mitochondrial DNA and retroviral RNA analyses of archival oral polio vaccine (OPV CHAT) materials: evidence of macaque ... Pollok RC (2001). "Viruses causing diarrhoea in AIDS". Novartis Found. Symp. 238: 276-83; discussion 283-8. doi:10.1002/ ...
For virus-associated tumors, such as cervical cancer and a subset of head and neck cancers, epitopes derived from viral open ... Vaccines are examples of antigens in an immunogenic form, which are intentionally administered to a recipient to induce the ... For human tumors without a viral etiology, novel peptides (neo-epitopes) are created by tumor-specific DNA alterations.[15] ... An autoantigen is usually a normal protein or protein complex (and sometimes DNA or RNA) that is recognized by the immune ...
"Following the path of the virus: the exploitation of host DNA repair mechanisms by retroviruses". ACS Chem Biol 1 (4): 217-26. ... Reynell, L; Trkola, A (2012-03-02). "HIV vaccines: an attainable goal?". Swiss medical weekly 142: w13535. PMID 22389197. doi: ... O grupo de Montagnier denominou o seu novo virus illado virus asociado á linfadenopatía (LAV).[181] Como estes dous virus se ... Despois de que o virus entra no corpo hai un período de rápida replicación viral, que fai que o virus sexa abondoso no sangue ...
Once the virus has gained access to the host's cells, the virus' genetic material (RNA or DNA) must be introduced to the cell. ... Following on from this, in 1857 Louis Pasteur also designed vaccines against several diseases such as anthrax, fowl cholera and ... Most DNA viruses assemble in the nucleus while most RNA viruses develop solely in cytoplasm.[22][23] ... Like other pathogens, viruses use these methods of transmission to enter the body, but viruses differ in that they must also ...
... genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for potential use as pre-pandemic vaccines ... The sequencing of the influenza genome and recombinant DNA technology may accelerate the generation of new vaccine strains by ... In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... These viruses are only distantly related to the human parainfluenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the ...
"Targeting host-derived glycans on enveloped viruses for antibody-based vaccine design". Current Opinion in Virology. Viral ... This enzymatic process produces one of the fundamental biopolymers found in cells (along with DNA, RNA, and proteins). ... A significant example is the dense glycan shield of the envelope spike of the human immunodeficiency virus.[7] ... The process is non-templated (unlike DNA transcription or protein translation); instead, the cell relies on segregating enzymes ...
Vaccine[edit]. As of 2017[update], no approved vaccines are available. A phase-II vaccine trial used a live, attenuated virus, ... a nonstructural protein that degrades RBP1 and turns off the host cell's ability to transcribe DNA.[51] NS2 interferes with the ... "Chikungunya virus and prospects for a vaccine". Expert Review of Vaccines. 11 (9): 1087-101. doi:10.1586/erv.12.84. PMC 3562718 ... It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ...
... while others accept that the virus exists but say that it is a harmless passenger virus and not the cause of AIDS. Insofar as ... Vaccine hysterics tell us that the science is split on whether vaccinations cause autism. And AIDS denialists say that ... The Royal Society review (2002) concluded that the risks to human health associated with the use of specific viral DNA ... AIDS denialism is the denial that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( ...
Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance For providing sustained access to childhood vaccines around the globe, saving millions of lives, and ... Discovery of the virus that causes hepatitis C and the development of screening methods that reduced the risk of blood ... For discoveries concerning the DNA-damage response-a fundamental mechanism that protects the genomes of all living organisms.[ ... For development of a system to study the replication of the virus that causes hepatitis C and for use of this system to ...
DVE has similar morphology to other Herpesvirales viruses. Common elements of herpviruses include a "DNA core, icosahedral ... Only attenuated vaccines are efficacious. Once DVE is present, depopulation, relocation and intensive disinfection are required ... Immature capsids are formed from coiled DNA. L genes are transcribed "after the synthesis of DNA and viral protein onset". ... DNA and proteins enter the host cell nucleus and turn-off host cell synthesis of nucleic acids, proteins, and other macro ...
"DNA related to the transforming gene(s) of avian sarcoma viruses is present in normal avian DNA". Nature. 260 (5547): 170-173 ... including a new Clinical Center and a Vaccine Research Center at the NIH.[20] ... that gave rise to the v-src oncogene of Rous Sarcoma Virus, a cancer-causing virus first isolated from a chicken sarcoma by ... Brown, P. O.; Bowerman, B.; Varmus, H. E.; Bishop, J. M. (1987-05-08). "Correct integration of retroviral DNA in vitro". Cell. ...
These vaccines contained HBV-infected human serum as a stabilizing agent. HBV was identified as a new DNA virus in the 1960s, ... A new virus has been described in fish - White sucker hepatitis B virus.[3] This is the first hepadnavirus described from fish ... Etymology - portmanteau of hepa (liver: reference to Hepatitis B the primary human member) DNA virus. ... "A novel cis-acting element facilitates minus-strand DNA synthesis during reverse transcription of the hepatitis B virus genome" ...
Nasal: the vaccine is sprayed into the nose and absorbed through the nasal passage. Oral: the vaccine is swallowed and ingested ... 10-100 virus particles Norovirus (commonly called 'a stomach bug'): 10-100 virus particles Rotavirus (severe diarrhea, can be ... DNA aptamers, which are peptides that have with specific target molecules that they search for, fold in response to the ... Most vaccines require multiple doses for full immunity, given in recommended intervals depending on the vaccine. There are ...
Coronavirus vaccine[edit]. The NIH partnered with Moderna in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic to develop a vaccine. The final ... By the 1990s, the NIH committee focus had shifted to DNA research, and launched the Human Genome Project.[19] ... In 1984 National Cancer Institute scientists found implications that "variants of a human cancer virus called HTLV-III are the ... "COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Heads To Widespread Testing In U.S." NPR.. ...
A respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (RSV vaccine) is a vaccine which prevents infection by respiratory syncytial virus. No ... Conjugate vaccine. *DNA vaccination. *Inactivated vaccine. *Live vector vaccine *Attenuated vaccine. *Heterologous vaccine ... The current types of vaccines which are in research are particle-based vaccines, attenuated vaccines, protein subunit vaccines ... or vector-based vaccines.[3] References[edit]. *^ a b Dudas, RA; Karron, RA (July 1998). "Respiratory syncytial virus vaccines" ...
Vaccines AdjuvantsEdit. Vector-based therapy - Nonlytic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) was engineered to express recombinant IL- ... Hu XD, Chen ST, Li JY, Yu DH, Cai H (March 2010). "An IL-15 adjuvant enhances the efficacy of a combined DNA vaccine against ... A Brucella DNA vaccine containing IL-15 gene enhanced the CD8+ T cell immune response in mice.[32] IL-15 was needed for CD4+ T ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.12.076. PMID 20064480.. *^ Hock K, Laengle J, Kuznetsova I, Egorov A, Hegedus B, Dome B, Wekerle T, ...
"The Use of Conventional Immunologic Adjuvants in DNA Vaccine Preparations". In Lowrie DB, Whalen RG (eds.). DNA Vaccines: ... Inactivated vaccine. *Live vector vaccine *Attenuated vaccine. *Heterologous vaccine. *Subunit/component / Peptide / Virus-like ... Vaxjo: Comprehensive vaccine adjuvant database.. References[edit]. *^ "Guideline on Adjuvants in Vaccines for Human Use" (PDF) ... It has been speculated that the dying cells release DNA which serves as an immune alarm. Some studies found that DNA from dying ...
Transcription is when RNA is made from DNA. During transcription, RNA polymerase makes a copy of a gene from the DNA to mRNA as ... RNA virus genomes (the + strands of which are translated as mRNA) are also commonly circularized.[citation needed] During ... which in turn could directly treat a disease or could function as a vaccine; more indirectly the protein could drive an ... Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they ...
... zinc supplement and rota virus vaccine in the management of childhood acute diarrhea". Journal of Family & Community Medicine. ... By inserting separate, successive sections of V. cholerae DNA into the DNA of other bacteria, such as E. coli that would not ... The World Health Organization (WHO) has prequalified three bivalent cholera vaccines-Dukoral (SBL Vaccines), containing a non- ... The vaccine that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends, Vaxchora, is an oral attenuated live vaccine, that is ...
... the future development of a tetravalent vaccine that could provide efficient protection against all four serotypes of the virus ... They found that the vaccine candidate was able to induce persistent humoral and cellular immune responses and provided ... efficient protection against lethal challenge from one of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DV1). These results are ... researchers inoculated mice with a new DNA vaccine candidate (pVAX1-D1ME) in order to evaluate its efficiency. ...
Scientists at The Wistar Institute have designed and tested the first-of-its-kind synthetic DNA vaccine against Powassan virus ... POWV), targeting portions of the virus envelope protein. ... kind synthetic DNA vaccine designed against Powassan virus. * ... Powassan Virus, Preclinical, Protein, Rash, Research, RNA, Skin, Vaccine, Virus, Zika Virus ... Scientists at The Wistar Institute have designed and tested the first-of-its-kind synthetic DNA vaccine against Powassan virus ...
Recombinant DNA and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) vaccines represent a promising approach to an HIV/AIDS vaccine. This ... GeoVax pGA2/JS7 DNA (D) and MVA/HIV62 (M) vaccines encode noninfectious virus-like particles. Intramuscular needle injections ... Phase 1 safety and immunogenicity testing of DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines expressing HIV-1 virus-like ... Phase 1 Safety and Immunogenicity Testing of DNA and Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccines Expressing HIV-1 Virus-like ...
New drugs and vaccines for DNA virus infections: a symposium in memory of Mark Prichard. ... New drugs and vaccines for DNA virus infections: a symposium in memory of Mark Prichard ... Similarly, although vaccines are in use against varicella-zoster virus and human papillomaviruses, much work is still needed to ... Mark Prichard, who was editor for DNA virus manuscripts from 2010 until his death from cancer in June, 2019. Mark was a good ...
... strains share common ancestry with horsepox virus (HPXV). Given concerns relating to the toxicity of modern VACV vaccines, we ... Ten large (10-30 kb) fragments of DNA were synthesized based on the HPXV sequence along with two 157 nt VACV terminal sequences ... This scHPXV produced smaller plaques, produced less extracellular virus and exhibited less virulence in mice than VACV, but ... Collectively, these findings support further development of scHPXV as a novel replication-proficient smallpox vaccine. ...
Unlike the pilot study where neutralizing titers were not detected until after virus challenge, modest neutralizing titers were ... In a pilot study, we constructed a DNA vaccine (pLASV-GPC) that expressed the LASV glycoprotein precursor gene (GPC). This ... In a follow-on study, we developed a new device that allowed for both the vaccine and electroporation pulse to be delivered to ... We also codon-optimized the GPC sequence of the vaccine to enhance expression in GPs. Together, these innovations resulted in ...
This study suggests that a DNA and VLP combination vaccine with MVA is a promising strategy in enhancing the efficacy of DNA- ... DNA prime and boost with a combination of VLP and DNA vaccines followed by an rMVA boost induced over a 100-fold increase in ... a combination of DNA and virus-like particles (VLP), and rMVA expressing HIV-1 89.6 gp120 envelope proteins (Env). ... vaccines is considered as a promising vaccination approach against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). To further enhance the ...
Results Two volunteers withdrew for vaccine-unrelated reasons. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or reactions occurred ... Myalgia and flu-like symptoms were more strongly associated with MVA than ChAdV63 or DNA vectors and more common in vaccine ... Conclusions These data demonstrate safety and good tolerability of the pSG2.HIVconsv DNA, ChAdV63.HIVconsv and MVA.HIVconsv ... Here, detail safety and tolerability of these vaccines are reported. Methods Local and systemic reactogenicity data were ...
DNA,Vaccine,Trials,Against,HIV,Virus,In,Sweden,Nurture,Hope,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters ... DNA vaccines represent the latest innovation in the area of vaccin...The technology is highly promising for producing simple ... Swedish researchers have expressed hope regarding the DNA vaccine tria... ... DNA Vaccine Trials Against HIV Virus In Sweden Nurture Hope. Swedish researchers have expressed hope regarding the DNA vaccine ...
DNA Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection. The safety and scientific validity of this ...
1996) Kinetics of duck hepatitis B virus infection following low dose virus inoculation: one virus DNA genome is infectious in ... Protective Efficacy of DNA Vaccines against Duck Hepatitis B Virus Infection. M. Triyatni, A. R. Jilbert, M. Qiao, D. S. Miller ... Protective Efficacy of DNA Vaccines against Duck Hepatitis B Virus Infection. M. Triyatni, A. R. Jilbert, M. Qiao, D. S. Miller ... Protective Efficacy of DNA Vaccines against Duck Hepatitis B Virus Infection. M. Triyatni, A. R. Jilbert, M. Qiao, D. S. Miller ...
Simian immunodeficiency virus DNA vaccine trial in macaques.. S Lu, J Arthos, D C Montefiori, Y Yasutomi, K Manson, F Mustafa, ... Simian immunodeficiency virus DNA vaccine trial in macaques.. S Lu, J Arthos, D C Montefiori, Y Yasutomi, K Manson, F Mustafa, ... Simian immunodeficiency virus DNA vaccine trial in macaques.. S Lu, J Arthos, D C Montefiori, Y Yasutomi, K Manson, F Mustafa, ... Simian immunodeficiency virus DNA vaccine trial in macaques. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
... for the prevention of seasonal influenza virus infection have limited ability to induce immunity against diverse H3N2 viruses, ... Citation: Synthetic DNA vaccine effective against influenza A virus subtype (2018, September 6) retrieved 20 April 2019 from ... Synthetic DNA vaccine effective against influenza A virus subtype. by The Wistar Institute ... These micro-consensus sequences were used to generate four DNA vaccines that were co-mixed to create a cocktail vaccine labeled ...
A synthetic DNA vaccine candidate for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) developed at The Wistar Institute ... Low-dose Administration of MERS DNA Vaccine Candidate Induces Potent Immunity and Protects From Virus Challenge in Preclinical ... "Intradermal delivery of synthetic DNA vaccines has significant advantages for rapid clinical development. It can be dose ... Publication information: Intradermal delivery of a synthetic DNA vaccine protects macaques from Middle East respiratory ...
DNA has been regularly evaluated as a vaccine vector albeit with limited success in large animal models and humans. However, ... DNA has been regularly evaluated as a vaccine vector albeit with limited success in large animal models and humans. However, ... if there is a need develop DNA vaccines for HIV-1 and HCV? Since the initial study from Wolff and colleagues which showed that ... is there a need to develop DNA vaccines against HIV-1 and HCV? Since the initial study from Wolff and colleagues which showed ...
... expects to test Zika vaccine in humans in 2016 PLYMOUTH MEETING, Pa., Feb. 17, 2016 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Inovio Pharmaceuticals ... DNA vaccine constructs targeting multiple Zika virus antigens were synthetically generated using Inovios SynCon vaccine ... Inovio Pharmaceuticals DNA Vaccine for Zika Virus Induces Robust Immune Responses in Preclinical Study ... is an international DNA vaccine developer and leading contract manufacturer of DNA plasmid-based agents for preclinical and ...
Rotarix Rotavirus Vaccine Contaminated With Pig Virus DNA. March 23, 2010. March 23, 2010. by Infinite ... The contaminant material is DNA from porcine circovirus 1, a virus from pigs that is not known to cause disease in humans or ... saying the vaccine is contaminated with material from a pig virus.. "There is no evidence at this time that this material poses ... of the DNA was found in the vaccine. But, he stressed, "there is no evidence that it causes any disease. … There is no evidence ...
Captured adult crows were given 0.5 mg of the DNA vaccine either orally or by intramuscular (IM) inoculation; control crows ... Although oral administration of a single DNA vaccine dose failed to elicit an immune response or protect crows from WNV ... While none of the 9 IM vaccine-inoculated birds died, 5 of 10 placebo-inoculated and 4 of 8 orally vaccinated birds died within ... A DNA vaccine for West Nile virus (WNV) was evaluated to determine whether its use could protect fish crows (Corvus ossifragus ...
We studied DNA vaccination in mice with plasmids expressing conserved nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix (M) from an H1N1 virus. ... After vaccination, mice were challenged with A/H5N1 viruses of low, intermediate, and high lethality. A/NP+A/M DNA vaccination ... In the absence of antigenically matched hemagglutinin-based vaccines, DNA vaccination with conserved influenza genes may ... If an unexpected strain, as in the 1997 H5N1 Hong Kong outbreak, or even a pandemic emerges, appropriate vaccines may take too ...
... there is no available anti-dengue vaccine for worldwide use. In the current study, a DNA... ... caused by dengue viruses (DENVs), is a widespread mosquito-borne zoonotic disease; however, ... Effective protection induced by a monovalent DNA vaccine against dengue virus (DV) serotype 1 and a bivalent DNA vaccine ... Efficacy of an autophagy-targeted DNA vaccine against avian leukosis virus subgroup. J. Vaccine 35:808-813CrossRefGoogle ...
Phase I Open-Label Study of Recombinant DNA Plasmid Vaccine, VRC-AVIDNA036-00-VP, Encoding for Influenza Virus H5 Hemagglutinin ... Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype Influenza A Virus Influenzavirus A Orthomyxovirdae H5N1 Virus Drug: VRC-AVIDNA036-00-VP Phase 1 ... and immunogenicity of a recombinant DNA vaccine against the influenza virus H5 hemagglutinin by intradermal (ID) delivery. The ... The vaccine is composed of a single closed-circular DNA plasmid that encodes the H5 protein with a CMV/R promoter. Vaccine ...
Safety and Efficacy Study of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) Therapeutic DNA Vaccine (HSV-2). The safety and scientific ... DNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Skin Diseases, Viral. Skin Diseases, Infectious. Skin Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ... this trial is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a therapeutic DNA vaccine in adults with symptomatic herpes simplex virus ... To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 4 doses of VCL-HB01, a therapeutic HSV plasmid DNA vaccine formulated with Vaxfectin® in ...
DNA vaccine constructs targeting multiple Zika virus antigens were synthetically generated using Inovios SynCon vaccine ... Inovio Pharmaceuticals DNA Vaccine for Zika Virus Induces Robust Immune Responses in Preclinical Study Press Releases Follow ... is an international DNA vaccine developer and leading contract manufacturer of DNA plasmid-based agents for preclinical and ... Zika virus is a flavivirus, a family of viruses including yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile virus, which are introduced to ...
Virus,DNA,Vaccine,Using,Inovios,Electroporation,Delivery,Technology,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory ... DNA vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV), delivered by Inovios proprietary electroporation DNA vaccine delivery technology, in ... Contactless Electroporation Technology for DNA Vaccine Delivery. 5. Inovio Pharmaceuticals Dual-Antigen SynCon™ DNA Vaccine for ... Inovio Pharmaceuticals Partner ChronTech Initiates Phase II Clinical Trial of Hepatitis C Virus DNA Vaccine Using Inovios ...
Long-term protection following DNA vaccination may require revaccination, higher doses of DNA, or a vaccine that contains ... The vaccine elicited neutralizing antibodies to dengue-2 virus and antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in mice. ... The DNA was adsorbed onto gold microspheres for administration by a gene gun. Expression was demonstrated by transfection of ... When dengue virus challenge was performed one month after vaccination, the three animals that received four 2-μg doses ...
Thus, genetically engineered vaccines, including DNA vaccine and live vector engineered vaccines, have been developed. ... DNA vaccines expressing GP3 and GP5 of Genotype-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus showed good ... Construction and Immunogenicity of a DNA Vaccine Coexpressing GP3 and GP5 of Genotype-1 PRRS virus. Disease and welfare ... observed in mice immunised with the DNA vaccine co-expressing GP3 and GP5 proteins than in those immunised with a DNA vaccine ...
The PCV2 virus is known to cause wasting disease in pigs. But you can relax, theres no evidence of harm to your baby. The ... DNA from Pig Viruses Found in Paul Offit Merck RotaTeq Vaccine From Reuters: The highlighing is ours. The PCV1 and PCV2 were ... WASHINGTON, May 6 (Reuters) - Pieces of DNA from two pig viruses were found in Merck & Co Incs (MRK.N) rotavirus vaccine, but ... And for all you who seem to think you are experts on vaccines, the rotavirus vaccine is taken orally, it is a live virus ...
... ... DNA vaccination represents a unique strategy to overcome the limitations of immunization with conventional vaccines which is ... These findings suggest that the plasmid DNA expressing a single matrix epitope may serve as a promising vaccine candidate to ... A significant decrease in virus replication was also observed in the lungs of immunized mice and 83% of the mice were protected ...
In addition to pig viral DNA found in Rotarix vaccine, low levels of DNA fragments from avian (bird) leukosis virus (a ... pig virus were present in all Rotarix vaccine lots released since the vaccine was licensed in 2008 because the pig virus DNA ... was found in measles vaccine and DNA fragments of a virus similar to simian (monkey) retrovirus was found in RotaTeq vaccine. ... The FDA says it "does not know how DNA from PCV1 came to be present in Rotarix" or whether "this means that intact virus is ...
UPI) - A synthetic DNA vaccine is showing immediate and long-term promising results against the Ebola virus in preclinical ... UPI) - A synthetic DNA vaccine is showing immediate and long-term promising results against the Ebola virus in preclinical ... DNA Vaccine Shows Promising, Long-Term Results Against Ebola Virus. October 10, 2018 ... The Wistar Institute Vaccine and Immunotherapy Centers designed optimized synthetic DNA vaccine candidates that target a virus ...
  • DNA vaccination is a novel and rapidly developing approach for prevention and therapy of disease, which utilizes genetically modified plasmids with added genetic sequences that encode specific antigens and allows the body to produce them. (
  • Heterologous prime boost with DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) vaccines is considered as a promising vaccination approach against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). (
  • To further enhance the efficacy of DNA-rMVA vaccination, we investigated humoral and cellular immune responses in mice after three sequential immunizations with DNA, a combination of DNA and virus-like particles (VLP), and rMVA expressing HIV-1 89.6 gp120 envelope proteins (Env). (
  • This study suggests that a DNA and VLP combination vaccine with MVA is a promising strategy in enhancing the efficacy of DNA-rMVA vaccination against HIV-1. (
  • Gangadhara S, Kwon Y-M, Jeeva S, Quan F-S, Wang B, Moss B, Compans RW, Amara RR, Jabbar MA, Kang S-M. Vaccination with Combination DNA and Virus-Like Particles Enhances Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses upon Boost with Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Proteins. (
  • Therefore, further development of the current HBV vaccines to improve the efficacy of vaccination would be desirable. (
  • Vaccination with pH3HA induced robust antibodies against the 1968 pandemic H3N2 as well as contemporary H3N2 strains that were components of commercially available vaccines from 2015/2016 and 2017/2018. (
  • A rigorous virus challenge experiment showed that all vaccination groups were protected against MERS-CoV compared to unvaccinated control animals. (
  • However, several recent studies in Phase I-IIb trials showed that vaccination of patients with recombinant DNA represents a feasible therapeutic intervention to even cure cervical cancer, highlighting the potential of using DNA for human vaccinations. (
  • For IM vaccination, the DNA vaccine was formulated in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.5, at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. (
  • If we can repeat the Phase I results in this phase IIb study there is certainly a possibility that vaccination with ChronVac-C® before drug therapy could become a part of the standard of care therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C-virus infection. (
  • Several vaccination regimens were evaluated in rhesus macaques for the ability to elicit neutralizing antibodies and protect against viremia after challenge with live dengue-2 virus. (
  • When dengue virus challenge was performed one month after vaccination, the three animals that received four 2-μg doses exhibited 0, 0, and 1 day of viremia compared with unimmunized controls which exhibited 4, 4, and 6 days of viremia. (
  • These results suggest that a regimen consisting of two 1-μg doses of DNA can confer satisfactory protection at one month, but not at seven months, after vaccination. (
  • Long-term protection following DNA vaccination may require revaccination, higher doses of DNA, or a vaccine that contains additional epitopes or adjuvants. (
  • DNA vaccination represents a unique strategy to overcome the limitations of immunization with conventional vaccines which is restricted by the high variability of influenza viruses. (
  • Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with DNA and MVA vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag virus-like particles, is highly immunogenic in mice. (
  • The DNA homologous prime boost vaccination elicited predominantly CD8+ T cells while the homologous MVA vaccination induced predominantly CD4+ T cells. (
  • The immunogenicity of the mosaic Gag (GagM) was compared to a naturally occurring subtype C Gag (GagN) using a DNA homologous vaccination regimen. (
  • DNA-GagM homologous vaccination induced cumulative HIV-1 Gag-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT responses that were 6.5-fold higher than those induced by the DNA-GagN vaccination. (
  • Similarly, DNA-GagM vaccination generated 7-fold higher levels of cytokine-positive CD8+ T cells than DNA-GagN, indicating that this subtype C mosaic Gag elicits far more potent immune responses than a consensus-type Gag. (
  • DNA vaccination has immense potential in this regard. (
  • The protective abilities were correlated with the amount of injected DNA and the length of time after vaccination. (
  • Thus, our APC-expressing DNA vaccination approach induces comparable immunity in comparison to ubiquitous promoter construct. (
  • Vaccination with recombinant suicidal DNA/RNA. (
  • 7. Ditcham W.G.F., Lewis J.R., Dobson R.J., Hartaningsih N., Wilcox G.E., Desport M.: Vaccination reduces the viral load and the risk of transmission of Jembrana disease virus in Bali cattle. (
  • We studied DNA vaccination in mice with plasmids expressing conserved nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix (M) from an H1N1 virus. (
  • After vaccination, mice were challenged with A/H5N1 viruses of low, intermediate, and high lethality. (
  • A/NP+A/M DNA vaccination reduced replication of A/Hong Kong/486/97 (HK/486), a nonlethal H5N1 strain, and protected against lethal challenge with more virulent A/Hong Kong/156/97 (HK/156). (
  • After HK/156 exposure, mice survived rechallenge with A/Hong Kong/483/97 (HK/483), although the DNA vaccination alone protected poorly against this highly virulent strain. (
  • The anti-Ebola virus glycoprotein DNA vaccination was delivered in a multiple-injection regimen by intramuscular administration and in a 2-injection regimen by intradermal administration, followed by electroporation. (
  • CIDRAP News) Two studies reported in today's issue of the New England Journal of Medicine provide additional support for seasonal influenza immunization while shedding some light on questions about vaccination strategies and the efficacy of the vaccines. (
  • Vaccination would be the best way to way to prevent a chlamydia infection, and this study has identified important new antigens which could be used as part of a vaccine to prevent or eliminate the damaging reproductive consequences of untreated infections. (
  • Today's FMD vaccines based on killed/inactivated viruses can actually cause FMD infection, so are only used regionally after an outbreak rather than for broad preemptive vaccination. (
  • This result suggests that IgM -secreting hybridomas are predominantly generated by DNA vaccination . (
  • However, boosting with GP resulted in greater production of IgG -secreting hybridomas than GP DNA vaccination alone. (
  • DNA vaccination may preferentially generate IgM -secreting hybridomas , but boosting with the protein antigen can reverse this propensity. (
  • Thus, this protein boosting approach may have implications for the production of IgG -specific hybridomas in the context of the DNA vaccination platform. (
  • The results from this recent, randomised, controlled trial in Australia, conducted after vaccination has been implemented now for 10 years, gives us confidence that the decision being made to move to HPV DNA testing … is a safe and appropriate change,' said Professor Garland, who was also on the scientific advisory committee for the study. (
  • T he number of vaccines on the CDC's recommended vaccination schedule for children under the age of 2 increased from 10 to 36 after Congress passed a law ( The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 ) in 1986 preventing vaccine-injured citizens from suing the vaccine manufacturer responsible for the production of the vaccine. (
  • Hensigten med terapeutisk vaccination, også kaldet immunterapi, er derfor at inducere en bredere, kraftigere og mere rationelt rettet immunitet end den "naturlige" infektion. (
  • Different types of Th responses have also been attributed to whether or not the expressed Ag is secreted ( 6 , 10 , 11 ), but systematic studies on how the immune response to DNA vaccination is influenced by the structure and secretion properties of the expressed Ag are still needed. (
  • The availability of this model system allows the immune response to secreted vs nonsecreted and soluble vs particulate forms of the same protective viral Ag to be compared and evaluated in the context of DNA vaccination. (
  • Approaches at rational vaccine design have been limited by our understanding of the immune response to vaccination at the molecular level. (
  • Vaccination against hepatitis A virus may not be required for schoolchildren in northern India: results of a seroepidemiological survey. (
  • We are developing a dengue tetravalent DNA vaccine and evaluating the immunogenicity in animal models," says Dr. An. (
  • Phase 1 safety and immunogenicity testing of DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines expressing HIV-1 virus-like particles. (
  • Researchers evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of their MERS synthetic vaccine when delivered intradermally using a shortened two-dose immunization schedule compared with intramuscular delivery of higher doses in NHP. (
  • Inovio previously published robust immunogenicity and challenge protection data for its SynCon dengue and WNV vaccine candidates. (
  • In the current study, a DNA vaccine candidate (pV-D4ME) expressing prM-E protein of DENV serotype 4 (DENV-4) was constructed, and its immunogenicity and protection were evaluated in immunocompetent BALB/c mice. (
  • Study Design: This is a Phase I study to evaluate safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant DNA vaccine against the influenza virus H5 hemagglutinin by intradermal (ID) delivery. (
  • DNA vaccines expressing GP3 and GP5 of Genotype-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus showed good immunogenicity, and the DNA vaccine expressing both GP3 and GP5 produced better results in this Chinese work in mice, offering the prospect of more effective vaccines for pigs. (
  • To evaluate the immunogenicity of GP3 and GP5 proteins from European-type PRRSV, three DNA vaccines, pVAX1-EU-ORF3-ORF5, pVAX1-EU-ORF3 and pVAX1-EU-ORF5, were constructed, which were based on a Genotype-I LV strain (GenBank ID: M96262). (
  • 2014. Construction and immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine coexpressing GP3 and GP5 of genotype-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. (
  • We analysed a set of multigenic HIV and SHIV DNA and Fowlpoxvirus (FPV) prime and boost vaccines for immunogenicity and protective efficacy in outbred pigtail macaques when delivered via mucosal surfaces (intranasally or intrarectally). (
  • Secondly, we found that DNA-prime and inactivated virion-boost regimens improved the immunogenicity in mice compared with DNA vaccine alone. (
  • Importantly, results showed strong immune responses one year after the last dose, supporting the long-term immunogenicity of the vaccine - a particularly challenging area for Ebola vaccines. (
  • Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Zika Virus Envelope Domain III in DNA, Protein, and ChAdOx1 Adenoviral-Vectored Vaccines. (
  • Cross-protectiveness and immunogenicity of influenza A/Duck/Singapore/3/97(H5) vaccines against infection with A/Vietnam/1203/04(H5N1) virus in ferrets. (
  • Of note, when the anti-Ebola virus glycoprotein DNA vaccine was by 2 injections delivered intradermally followed by electroporation, a strong immunogenicity was generated and was also 100% protective against the lethal Ebola virus-Makona challenge. (
  • Further, although reports of long-term immunogenicity following DNA or other experimental vaccine administration are lacking, results showed that the anti-Ebola virus glycoprotein DNA vaccine induced long-term immune responses in the nonhuman primates. (
  • Limitations include the relatively poor immunogenicity of naked DNA in humans and the profound differences in HSV-2 pathogenesis between host species. (
  • Vaccine constructs based on replication defective human adenovirus type 5 expressing a partial or full-length SARS-CoV S protein have been evaluated for immunogenicity in rats and monkeys ( 18 , 19 ), but immunization depends on a high vaccine dose, and safety and protective efficacy remain to be demonstrated. (
  • However, the immunogenicity of NS1 protein of Zika virus ( ZIKV ) is less understood. (
  • Virus-like particle secretion and genotype-dependent immunogenicity of dengue virus serotype 2 DNA vaccine. (
  • We constructed candidate vaccines containing the DNA of five of the genotypes of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) and evaluated the immunogenicity, the neutralizing (Nt) activity of the elicited antibodies, and the protective efficacy elicited in mice immunized with the vaccine candidates. (
  • Five genotype-specific dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) DNA vaccine candidates were evaluated for their immunogenicity, homologous and heterologous neutralizing (Nt) antibody titers, and cross-genotype protection in a murine model. (
  • Past attempts to adapt this virus to replicate in cells that are more favorable for vaccine production resulted in mutations that significantly reduced immunogenicity. (
  • Together, these innovations resulted in enhanced efficacy of the vaccine. (
  • The prospective vaccine is being tested on a small group of volunteers to assess the safety and efficacy in the first phase. (
  • The efficacy of DNA vaccines encoding the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) pre-S/S and S proteins were tested in Pekin ducks. (
  • This phenomenon requires further clarification, particularly in light of the development of newer HBV vaccines containing pre-S proteins and a possible discrepancy between anti-HBs titers and protective efficacy. (
  • Commercial vaccine efficacy against H3N2 in 2017/2018 was low and contributed to a greater rate of pneumonia and influenza-associated deaths. (
  • Newswise - PHILADELPHIA - (April 22, 2021) - A synthetic DNA vaccine candidate for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) developed at The Wistar Institute induced potent immune responses and afforded protective efficacy in non-human primate (NHP) models when given intradermally in abbreviated, low-dose immunization regimen. (
  • Given that human efficacy trials for MERS vaccines may be challenging due to the low number of yearly cases, animal models such as our NHP model are valuable as a bridge with human data coming from early-phase clinical trials," said Weiner. (
  • Babiuk S, Baca-Estrada ME, Foldvari M, Middleton DM, Rabussay D, Widera G, Babiuk LA (2004) Increased gene expression and inflammatory cell infiltration caused by electroporation are both important for improving the efficacy of DNA vaccines. (
  • The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a therapeutic DNA vaccine in adults with symptomatic herpes simplex virus type 2 (i.e., genital herpes). (
  • To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 4 doses of VCL-HB01, a therapeutic HSV plasmid DNA vaccine formulated with Vaxfectin® in HSV-2-seropositive adults with a reported history of symptomatic genital herpes for at least one year. (
  • We evaluated the protective efficacy of a plasmid DNA (pDNA), encoding an evolutionarily conserved epitope of viral matrix protein, against the influenza A virus infection. (
  • DNA vaccines encoding different portions of the structural proteins of western equine encephalitis virus were tested for the efficacy of their protection in a 100% lethal mouse model of the virus. (
  • They demonstrated efficacy of the novel vaccine candidates and durability of the immune responses in animal models. (
  • Here, we tested the efficacy of ZIKV-EDIII against ZIKV infection, using several vaccine platforms that present the antigen in various ways. (
  • Louping ill virus (LIV) infection of mice was used as a model to evaluate the protective efficacy of Semliki Forest virus (SFV)-based vaccines in comparison to a standard DNA vaccine and a commercial chemically inactivated vaccine. (
  • 12. Issel C.J., Horohov D.W., Lea D.F., Adams W.V., Hagius S.D., McManus J.M., Allison A.C., Montelaro R.C.: Efficacy of inactivated whole-virus and subunit vaccines in preventing infection and disease caused by equine infectious anemia virus. (
  • Furthermore, due to the fear of inadvertent spread to farm animals, research with the live virus to test vaccine efficacy is heavily restricted to only a few government laboratories in the US. (
  • Here, we determined the efficacy of ZIKV NS1-based vaccine candidates using two delivery platforms, methyltransferase-defective recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (mtdVSV) and a DNA vaccine. (
  • We observed a significant correlation between the level of in vitro virus-like particle secretion, the elicited antibody response, and the protective efficacy of the vaccines containing the DNA of the different DENV genotypes in immunized mice. (
  • Scientists are working on a benchmark for COVID - 19 vaccine efficacy that would allow drugmakers to. (
  • Importantly, the bivalent vaccine generated a balanced immunity against DV1 and DV2 infection, which emits light for development of new type of tetravalent vaccine against dengue viruses," says corresponding author Dr. Jing An (Capital Medical University, China). (
  • Thus, it is still necessary to develop safer, more economical and effective vaccines against dengue infection specifically. (
  • There are no vaccines or therapies available to treat or prevent this emerging infection. (
  • Given the risk of serious complications from POWV and the 300% increase in incidence of POWV infection over the past 16 years, we will continue efforts to advance this urgently needed emerging infectious disease vaccine candidate towards the clinic,' said Weiner. (
  • Prevention and treatment of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. (
  • Detractors have raised skeptical concerns regarding the materialization of a DNA vaccine for HIV infection. (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines which contain the small envelope protein (S-HBs) of the virus provide significant protection against HBV infection. (
  • In natural HBV infection and in HBV vaccine recipients, the presence of antibodies directed to the surface antigen of the viral envelope protein (anti-HBs antibodies) is a marker of immunity. (
  • The DNA immunizations did not prevent infection or protect against CD4+ cell loss. (
  • Long-term chronic levels of infection were similar in the vaccinated and control animals, with 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 100,000 peripheral blood cells carrying infectious virus. (
  • Thus, the DNA vaccine raised both neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses and provided some attenuation of the acute phase of infection, but it did not prevent the loss of CD4+ cells. (
  • Currently available vaccines for the prevention of seasonal influenza virus infection have limited ability to induce immunity against diverse H3N2 viruses, an influenza A subtype that has led to high morbidity and mortality in recent years. (
  • They were protected against lethal influenza A infection from two different challenge H3N2 viruses. (
  • the placebo group succumbed to infection within six days of exposure to the challenge virus. (
  • Vaccine candidates that are simple to deliver, well tolerated, and can be readily deployed in resource-limited settings will be important to achieve control of infection. (
  • These findings are vital given the potential importance of neutralizing antibodies in preventing infection and the role T cells play in clearing infection by killing cells that harbor the virus. (
  • A DNA vaccine for West Nile virus (WNV) was evaluated to determine whether its use could protect fish crows ( Corvus ossifragus ) from fatal WNV infection. (
  • Although oral administration of a single DNA vaccine dose failed to elicit an immune response or protect crows from WNV infection, IM administration of a single dose prevented death and was associated with reduced viremia. (
  • Accordingly, we examined a DNA vaccine developed for use in horses ( 13 ) for its ability to protect crows, a species known to be highly susceptible to lethal infection with this virus ( 8 , 10 ). (
  • Chen H, Zheng X, Wang R, Gao N, Sheng Z, Fan D, Feng K, Liao X, An J (2016) Immunization with electroporation enhances the protective effect of a DNA vaccine candidate expressing prME antigen against dengue virus serotype 2 infection. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common chronic blood borne infection in the United States, where approximately 3.5 million persons have been chronically infected. (
  • Current vaccines are not able to protect against PRRSV infection completely and have inherent drawbacks. (
  • Some protection from acute infection with a pathogenic vaginal SHIVSF162P3 challenge was, however, observed with a regimen involving intramuscular DNA vaccine priming followed by either intranasally or intrarectally delivered rFPV boosting. (
  • Currently, no commercial vaccine and no antiviral drug are available for the prevention and treatment of WEEV infection. (
  • Three DNA vaccines encoding different portions of the 71V-1658 structural proteins were constructed (Fig. 1 ) and tested for their efficacies by intranasal challenge of mice in a lethal model of WEEV infection. (
  • Developing vaccines for the prevention of human infection by H5N1 influenza viruses is an urgent task. (
  • A single immunization of 100 μg H5 HA DNA vaccine combined with electroporation was able to provide early protection in mice against homologous virus infection. (
  • The HA gene was cloned from the virus and the abilities of an HA DNA vaccine to provide protection for BALB/c mice against homologous virus infection were explored. (
  • We showed that a single immunization of H5N1 DNA vaccine was able to provide early protection in mice against homologous virus infection. (
  • PHILADELPHIA - (October 10, 2018) - A novel synthetic DNA vaccine developed based on technology pioneered by scientists at The Wistar Institute Vaccine & Immunotherapy Center offers complete protection from Zaire Ebolavirus (EBOV) infection in promising preclinical research. (
  • Ebola virus infection causes a severe hemorrhagic fever that has a 50% fatality rate, according to the World Health Organization. (
  • 5. Craigo J.K., Montelaro R.C.: Lessons in AIDS vaccine development learned from studies of equine infectious anemia virus infection and immunity. (
  • A quadrivalent vaccine to prevent infection with four types of HPV was licensed for use in the United States in 2006, a bivalent vaccine was licensed in 2009, and a 9-valent vaccine was licensed in 2014. (
  • Powassan virus (POWV) infection is a tick-borne emerging infectious disease in the United States and North America. (
  • Herein, we detail lessons learned investigating candidate DNA vaccines in the progesterone-primed female mouse vaginal model of HSV-2 infection as a guide to investigators in the field. (
  • Image credit: Marcus007, Wikimedia Commons Newswise - The first steps towards developing a vaccine against an insidious sexual transmitted infection (STI) have been accomplished by researchers at McMaster University . (
  • The investigators therefore developed a new proprietary neutralization assay (using a mock virus unrelated to FMD to assess the ability of the vaccine-induced antibodies to neutralize virus infection). (
  • Vesicular stomatitis virus and DNA vaccines expressing Zika virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) induce substantial but not sterilizing protection against Zika virus infection. (
  • The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of several flaviviruses , including West Nile, dengue , and yellow fever viruses , is capable of inducing variable degrees of protection against flavivirus infection in animal models . (
  • Here we show that recombinant VSV and DNA vaccines expressing NS1, alone, confer partial protection against ZIKV infection in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice , highlighting the value of NS1 as a potential vaccine candidate. (
  • In addition, the purified monoclonal IgG antibodies may be useful as therapeutic antibodies for controlling Ebola virus infection . (
  • Notably, the SARS-CoV-2 virus infects a human host where it can multiply, in the absence of the host it cannot survive, and stopping the transmission of the virus from a person to another person will decrease the infection rate of the disease to a level where it can eventually die. (
  • Although there is no evidence that SFV causes disease, the virus can remain in a lifelong quiet state in the DNA after infection. (
  • In 1993, Jeffrey Ulmer and co-workers at Merck Research Laboratories demonstrated that direct injection of mice with plasmid DNA encoding a flu antigen protected the animals against subsequent experimental infection with influenza virus. (
  • A Zika virus vaccine is designed to prevent the symptoms and complications of Zika virus infection in humans. (
  • As Zika virus infection of pregnant women may result in congenital defects in the newborn, the vaccine will attempt to protect against congenital Zika syndrome during the current or any future outbreak. (
  • The goal of a Zika virus vaccine is to produce specific antibodies against the Zika virus to prevent infection and severe disease. (
  • The challenges in developing a safe and effective vaccine include limiting side effects such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, a potential consequence of Zika virus infection. (
  • Additionally, as dengue virus is closely related to Zika virus, the vaccine needs to minimize the possibility of antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. (
  • Recently, the company began collaborating with Emory University on the development of a therapeutic vaccine for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, with a specific focus on head and neck cancer (HNC). (
  • Zika Virus Zika virus infection has been linked to an increase in microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barre syndrome (a neurodegenerative disease) in adults. (
  • The effectiveness of this vaccine was evaluated in preclinical studies that showed a single immunization elicited broad T and B cell immune responses in mice similar to those induced naturally in POWV-infected individuals, and that vaccine-induced immunity provided protection in a POWV challenge animal model. (
  • Sarah Elliott et al, A Synthetic Micro-Consensus DNA Vaccine Generates Comprehensive Influenza-A H3N2 Immunity and Protects Mice Against Lethal Challenge by Multiple H3N2 Viruses, Human Gene Therapy (2018). (
  • While several vaccine products are being advanced against MERS and other coronaviruses, low-dose delivery and shortened regimes are crucial to rapidly induce protective immunity, particularly during emerging outbreaks, as the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has emphasized," said David B. Weiner, Ph.D. , Wistar executive vice president, director of the Vaccine & Immunotherapy Center (VIC) and W.W. Smith Charitable Trust Professor in Cancer Research, who led the study. (
  • In particular, we focus on potential strategies exploiting DNA vectors to elicit protective localized CD8 + T cell immunity in the liver for HCV and in the cervicovaginal mucosa for HIV-1 as localized immunity will be an important, if not critical component, of an efficacious vaccine against these viral infections. (
  • The pV-D4ME candidate vaccine induced effective humoral and cellular immunity of mice against DENV-4 in vivo when administered both at 50 μg and 5 μg through electroporation. (
  • Chen H, Gao N, Fan D, Wu J, Zhu J, Li J, Wang J, Chen Y, An J (2012) Suppressive effects on the immune response and protective immunity to a JEV DNA vaccine by co-administration of a GM-CSF-expressing plasmid in mice. (
  • There is potential threat of a pandemic from emerging virus strains for which the population has little or no preexisting immunity. (
  • These findings suggest that the plasmid DNA expressing a single matrix epitope may serve as a promising vaccine candidate to provide effective immunity in the susceptible (mouse) population. (
  • Further advances are required in understanding protection from AIDS by T cell immunity across mucosal sites of virus transmission. (
  • Synthetic non-viral based DNA technology allows for rapid vaccine development by delivery directly into the skin, resulting in consistent, potent and rapid immunity compared to traditional vaccine approaches," said lead researcher David B. Weiner, Ph.D. , executive vice president and director of Wistar's Vaccine & Immunotherapy Center, and W.W. Smith Charitable Trust Professor in Cancer Research. (
  • This new approach induced rapid and protective immunity from virus challenges. (
  • All vaccines tested induced humoral immunity but gave varying levels of protection against lethal challenge. (
  • A synthetic DNA vaccine may be a reasonable candidate because it is non-live, nonviral, and able to drive humoral and T-cell immunity along with establishing a long-term immunologic memory. (
  • DNA vaccines hold promise for development, but achieving protective levels of antibody has been difficult and there is an incomplete understanding of protective immunity. (
  • A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against COVID-19. (
  • NDV has the potential for further development as a pretested, highly attenuated, intranasal vector to be available for expedited vaccine development for humans, who generally lack preexisting immunity against NDV. (
  • Inactivated whole-virus preparations of SARS-CoV have been shown to induce protective immunity in small-animal models ( 2 - 5 ) and primates ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • The immunity elicited by our prototype vaccine candidate (Asian 1 genotype strain 16681) in mice was protective against viruses of other genotypes but not against virus of the Sylvatic genotype, whose emergence and potential risk after introduction into the human population have previously been demonstrated. (
  • Abstract Background and Objective: The M2 gene expressing the conserved protein in influenza virus can be used to make a single-dose vaccine with permanent immunity. (
  • Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine is a noninfectious subunit viral vaccine, which confers active immunity via formation of antihepatitis B antibodies. (
  • Thus, although both DNA vaccines induced high titers of anti-DHBs antibodies, anti-S antibodies induced by the S-DNA construct were highly effective in neutralizing virus infectivity while similar levels of anti-S induced by the pre-S/S-DNA construct conferred only very limited protection. (
  • Inovio's Zika DNA vaccine resulted in seroconversion, or the development of detectable specific antibodies in the blood, in all vaccinated mice. (
  • The vaccine elicited neutralizing antibodies to dengue-2 virus and antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in mice. (
  • Neutralizing antibodies were measured in three of three animals that received four 2-μg doses of DNA and in two of six animals that received two 1-μg doses. (
  • The results showed that ORF3 and ORF5 proteins of Genotype-I PRRSV induced GP3 and GP5-specific antibodies that could neutralis the virus. (
  • Enhanced immune response correlated with high IgG antibody titer, Th2 biased response with a high level of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs) and IgG1/IgG2a ratio >1, observed upon alum supplementation of the rabies DNA vaccine. (
  • Given that the envelope glycoprotein (E) is the main target of neutralizing antibodies, it has been used as the antigen of choice for vaccine development efforts. (
  • The antibody responses were stable over long periods of time and different tetravalent formulations of the vaccine showed induction of neutralising antibodies against all four dengue serotypes as well. (
  • To test the humoral immune response induced by HA DNA, serum samples were collected through the eye canthus of mice on various days after immunization and examined for specific antibodies by ELISA and an HI assay. (
  • E protein induces virus neutralizing antibodies and these have been shown to neutralize virus activity through passive administration in mice model also [ 13 ]. (
  • We provide data demonstrating that mice vaccinated with a ZIKV-EDIII as DNA or protein-based vaccines failed to raise fully neutralizing antibodies and did not control viremia, following a ZIKV challenge, despite eliciting robust antibody responses. (
  • That's because the immune system needs to be first introduced to a virus (primed) and then given a second exposure, which boosts the antibodies to protective levels. (
  • Strong protective neutralizing antibodies were also observed in pigs vaccinated with the same vaccine. (
  • These results are the first report of a DNA vaccine producing high titers of neutralizing antibodies against FMD. (
  • African green monkeys immunized through the respiratory tract with two doses of the vaccine developed a titer of SARS-CoV-neutralizing antibodies comparable with the robust secondary response observed in animals that have been immunized with a different experimental SARS-CoV vaccine and challenged with SARS-CoV. (
  • Nevertheless, these results highlight the value of ZIKV NS1 for vaccine development.Importance Most Zika virus ( ZIKV ) vaccine research has focused on the E or prM-E proteins and the induction of high levels of neutralizing antibodies . (
  • ZIKV NS1 protein may be an alternative antigen for vaccine development, as antibodies to NS1 do not bind to the virion , thereby eliminating the risk of ADE. (
  • Serum was collected from all the mice before and after virus challenge by retroorbital puncture and assayed for anti-JEV antibodies by ELISA using plates coated with inactivated JEV antigen. (
  • The goal of this study was to investigate the utility of DNA vaccines encoding Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) as a vaccine type for the production of GP-specific hybridomas and antibodies . (
  • However, higher total IgG antibody levels did not always translate into higher Nt antibodies against homologous and heterologous viruses. (
  • In addition, the lack of a critical epitope(s) in the Sylvatic genotype virus recognized by interdomain antibodies could be the major cause of the poor protection of mice vaccinated with the Asian 1 genotype vaccine (pVD2-Asian 1) from lethal challenge with virus of the Sylvatic genotype. (
  • In conclusion, although the pVD2-Asian 1 vaccine was immunogenic, elicited sufficient titers of Nt antibodies against all DENV-2 genotypes, and provided 100% protection against challenge with virus of the homologous Asian 1 genotype and virus of the heterologous Cosmopolitan genotype, it is critical to monitor the potential emergence of Sylvatic genotype viruses, since vaccine candidates under development may not protect vaccinated humans from these viruses. (
  • Thirty four out of 158 (22%) newborns to mothers chronically infected by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) did not produce antibodies (Ab) to HBsAg I month after the last injection of the HBV vaccine supplemented with HBV specific immunoglobulins. (
  • In a new study , researchers inoculated mice with a new DNA vaccine candidate (pVAX1-D1ME) in order to evaluate its efficiency. (
  • Our DNA vaccine candidate induced effective immune responses and protection in mice. (
  • However, it was noted that the end-point titers of anti-DV1 and anti-DV2 in the bivalent vaccine-immunized mice were lower than those in the monovalent vaccine-immunized mice, indicating interference between the DV1 and DV2 vaccine candidates. (
  • The significant protection in mice demonstrated by our vaccine is highly encouraging and strongly supports the importance of this vaccine approach for further study. (
  • The scientists administered the vaccine or placebo to mice and a booster vaccine two weeks later. (
  • All mice immunized with the synthetic DNA vaccine developed broad, robust antibody responses against HA and effective cellular immune responses including CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. (
  • With robust antibody and killer T cell responses generated by our vaccine in mice, we will next test the vaccine in non-human primates and initiate clinical product manufacturing. (
  • a Mice were immunized intramuscularly with 100 μg each of influenza A nucleoprotein and matrix DNA (A/NP+A/M DNA) or controls with 100 μg each of influenza B nucleoprotein DNA (B/NP)+blank DNA (total dose 200 μg/mouse on each occasion), three times at 2-week intervals. (
  • Two weeks after the last dose of DNA, mice were challenged with 100 mouse infectious dose (MID) 50 of HK/486 intranasally. (
  • X31 virus-primed mice and their controls were challenged along with DNA-vaccinated mice. (
  • On day 6 after challenge, mice were sacrificed and lungs collected for titration of virus infectivity. (
  • This study aimed to determine the enhanced immune responses of mice inoculated with a DNA vaccine coexpressing GP3 and GP5 of a Genotype-I PRRSV. (
  • T-lymphocyte proliferation assays showed that the PRRSV LV strain virus could stimulate the proliferation of T-lymphocytes in mice in the experimental group. (
  • More importantly, they report, better PRRSV-specific neutralising antibody titres and cell-mediated immune responses were observed in mice immunised with the DNA vaccine co-expressing GP3 and GP5 proteins than in those immunised with a DNA vaccine expressing either protein singly. (
  • The cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the spleen of immunized mice significantly lysed the virus-infected MDCK cells. (
  • A significant decrease in virus replication was also observed in the lungs of immunized mice and 83% of the mice were protected against the lethal challenge of influenza A viruses. (
  • Our data indicates that a heterologous prime boost regimen using DNA and MVA vaccines expressing HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag is highly immunogenic in mice and warrants further investigation in non-human primates. (
  • The DNA vaccine pgp.LAMP-1 conferred 60% protection to BALB/c mice against 20 LD50 rabies challenge virus standard (CVS) strain challenge. (
  • We previously developed a DNA vaccine (pVHX-6) encoding all the structural proteins (capsid-E3-E2-6K-E1) of the 71V-1658 strain of WEEV and demonstrated that the vaccine protected mice against challenge with a lethal dose of strain 71V-1658 ( 9 ). (
  • Mice were immunized once with HA DNA at 3, 5, 7 days before a lethal challenge. (
  • The H5 virus was found to be able to replicate in BALB/c mice without adaptation and caused mortality, which demonstrated the infectivity of influenza H5N1 virus among species. (
  • Immunization with recombinant Semliki Forest virus induces protection against influenza challenge in mice. (
  • Plasmid DNA-based vaccines protect mice and ferrets against lethal challenge with A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) influenza virus. (
  • Vaxfectin-formulated influenza DNA vaccines encoding NP and M2 viral proteins protect mice against lethal viral challenge. (
  • In mice, antibody and T-cell responses to PLG-formulated DNA were substantially improved compared to those to naked DNA. (
  • CIDRAP News) Government researchers reported this week that they have developed a vaccine that protects mice from the deadly 1918 "Spanish flu" virus, demonstrating that immunization against it is possible. (
  • A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the SARS-CoV S protein was protective in mice ( 14 ) but has not been tested in primates, and the safety of VSV in humans remains to be established. (
  • A single dose of mtdVSV-NS1-based vaccine or two doses of DNA vaccine induced high levels of NS1-specfic antibody and T cell immune responses but provided only partial protection against ZIKV viremia in BALB/c mice . (
  • In Ifnar1-/- mice , neither NS1-based vaccine provided protection against a lethal high dose (105 PFU) ZIKV challenge, but mtdVSV-NS1-based vaccine prevented deaths from a low dose (103 PFU) challenge, though they experienced viremia and body weight loss. (
  • All the DNA vaccinated mice received a repeat dose 2 weeks later. (
  • This dosage was chosen based on the fact that immunization of mice twice with 80-100 μg of DNA vaccine twice was shown to confer 100% protection against peripheral JEV challenge [2 and 3]. (
  • This dosage of BIKEN vaccine was shown to confer 100% protection in mice against peripheral JEV challenge [6]. (
  • The data presented in Table 1 indicate that all the mice immunized with BIKEN JE vaccine were protected against i.c. (
  • None of the unimmunized mice or mice immunized with pCMX vector survived the virus challenge (data not shown). (
  • Mice were injected with GP DNA vaccines and their splenocytes were used for hybridoma production . (
  • A subset of JEV SA14-14-2 variants and the recombinant clone were evaluated in vivo and exhibited levels of attenuation that varied significantly in suckling mice, but were avirulent and highly immunogenic in weanling mice and are promising candidates for the development of a second-generation, recombinant vaccine. (
  • The functional immune response was evaluated by determining specific neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibiting Ab activities and by challenging the mice with a lethal dose of the virus. (
  • It has been demonstrated that the delivery of DNA vaccines by different routes and techniques, e.g., by i.m. injection vs Gene Gun-mediated delivery into the skin, has a strong influence on the efficiency and the type of immune response in mice, including the development of distinct Th subsets, with Th1- and Th2-dominated responses favored by i.m. and Gene Gun immunization, respectively ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • The vaccine groups are given at the top of the schematics, and the immunization status of groups, at the bottom. (
  • for example, DDM means 2 DNA and one MVA immunization. (
  • These results suggest that immunization with 50 μg pV-D4ME through electroporation could confer effective and long-term protection against DENV-4, offering a promising approach for development of a novel DNA vaccine against DENVs. (
  • In this study, we assessed whether a single immunization with plasmid DNA expressing H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA) could provide early protection against lethal challenge in a mouse model. (
  • Challenge experiments revealed that a single immunization of H5N1 virus HA DNA is effective in early protection against lethal homologous virus. (
  • Immunization with inactivated vaccines has been the main technique used to prevent avian influenza for a long time. (
  • Immunization with DNA vaccines is also one of the strategies for preventing avian influenza. (
  • The researchers optimized a shorter, dose-sparing, immunization regimen and simplified vaccine administration directly into the skin. (
  • Outcome of immunization of cynomolgus monkeys with recombinant Semliki Forest virus encoding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein and challenged with a high dose of SHIV-4 virus. (
  • Development of a low-cost, heat-stable vaccine for infants under the age of 6 months could improve measles control by facilitating delivery at the time of other vaccines and by closing a window of susceptibility prior to immunization at 9 months of age. (
  • We have conducted a DNA immunization study to evaluate how the immune response is influenced by the physical structure and secretion of the expressed Ag. (
  • 12][13] DNA immunization is also being investigated as a means of developing antivenom sera. (
  • 14] DNA immunization can be used as a technology platform for monoclonal antibody induction. (
  • DNA prime and boost with a combination of VLP and DNA vaccines followed by an rMVA boost induced over a 100-fold increase in Env-specific IgG antibody titers compared to three sequential immunizations with DNA and rMVA. (
  • The hypothesis is that this vaccine will be safe for human administration by ID delivery by either needle/syringe or Biojector and will elicit antibody and T cell responses against the H5 protein. (
  • Based on this, we developed a novel DNA gene-gun immunisation strategy using an engineered version of DIII fused to the CH3 domain of the IgG H chain, which is efficiently secreted from transfected cells and induced strong antibody responses that neutralise all DENV serotypes. (
  • Proteins from 293S cells transfected with the DNA vaccine were separated by electrophoresis through 12.5% polyacrylamide gels, transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, probed with an anti-E1 (A) or an anti-E2 (B) monoclonal antibody, and incubated with goat anti-mouse IgG conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). (
  • The detected antibody levels were equal or higher to those reported for other vaccines currently being evaluated in the clinic, according to the study. (
  • When this construct was administered as a boost to a DNA vaccine expressing the complete EBOV GP gene, the resultant antibody response was focused largely toward the less immunodominant epitopes in the oligopeptide. (
  • 2. Burkala E.J., Narayani I., Hartaningsih N., Kertayadnya G., Berryman D.I., Wilcox G.E.: Recombinant Jembrana disease virus proteins as antigens for the detection of antibody to bovine lentiviruses. (
  • Can a DNA Construction Kit Replace Expensive Antibody Medication? (
  • Importantly, the multi-subtype DNA vaccines targeting three or four subtypes simultaneously were able to induce equally strong levels of antibody titers compared to the single-subtype vaccines. (
  • The underlying mechanism of a lack of protection elicited by the prototype vaccine may at least be contributed by the absence of a flavivirus subgroup-cross-reactive, highly neutralizing monoclonal antibody 1B7-5-like epitope in DENV-2 of the Sylvatic genotype. (
  • UPI ) - A synthetic DNA vaccine is showing immediate and long-term promising results against the Ebola virus in preclinical animal research. (
  • An anti-Ebola virus DNA vaccine like this may provide an important new tool for protection, and we are excited to see what future studies will unveil. (
  • We performed epitope mapping studies on the major surface glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus (EBOV) using Chemically Linked Peptides on Scaffolds (CLIPS), which form linear and potential conformational epitopes. (
  • A DNA vaccine for Ebola virus is safe and immunogenic in a phase I clinical trial. (
  • Results showed that multiple-injection regimens of the anti-Ebola virus glycoprotein DNA vaccine were 100% protective against the lethal Ebola virus-Makona challenge. (
  • Although there have been significant breakthroughs in the Ebola virus disease vaccine development field, there remains an important need for prophylactic anti-Ebola virus vaccine candidates that elicit long-lasting immune responses. (
  • Therefore, this study designed a novel synthetic anti-Ebola virus glycoprotein DNA vaccine as a strategy to expand protective breadth against diverse Ebola virus strains and evaluated the impact of vaccine dosing and route of administration on protection against lethal Ebola virus-Makona challenge in nonhuman primates. (
  • Nonhuman primates were challenged on day 20 postimmunization with 1000 50% tissue culture infective dose of Ebola virus/H.sapiens-tc/GIN/2014/Makona-C07. (
  • [1] MVD is a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), and the clinical symptoms are indistinguishable from Ebola virus disease (EVD). (
  • Contrary to Ebola virus disease (EVD) , which has been associated with heavy rains after long periods of dry weather, [18] [21] triggering factors for spillover of marburgviruses into the human population have not yet been described. (
  • DNA vaccines were constructed to express Ebola virus GP. (
  • I Virus forskning og udviklings laboratoriet (ViFU) på SSI forsker vi i immunitet mod virus med især HIV-1 (en kronisk virus) og pandemisk Influenza A (en akut virus) som samfundsrelevante modeller, men også andre, nye og "emerging" virus fx ebola, usutu, zika mfl. (
  • The company is now working on vaccines for Marburg, Lassa Fever, Ebola, Zika and Covid-19. (
  • Ebola and Other Filoviruses Ebola, Sudan, and Marburg viruses are the most virulent species of the Filoviridae family. (
  • Lassa Fever Lassa fever virus, a member of the Arenaviridae family, causes severe and often fatal hemorrhagic illnesses in an overlapping region with Ebola. (
  • Scientists at The Wistar Institute have designed and tested the first-of-its-kind synthetic DNA vaccine against Powassan virus (POWV), targeting portions of the virus envelope protein. (
  • To overcome the antigenic diversity of H3N2 viruses, Weiner and colleagues used H3N2 strains from 1968 to the present retrieved from the Influenza Research Database to generate four synthetic common sequences of the hemagglutinin antigen (HA), a protein present on the viral surface. (
  • When used to deliver DNA vaccines, Inovio's systems can increase levels of gene expression (i.e. production of the coded protein) and immune responses by 100 times or more compared to plasmid DNA delivered without other delivery enhancements. (
  • Scientists at The Wistar Institute Vaccine and Immunotherapy Centers designed optimized synthetic DNA vaccine candidates that target a virus surface protein called glycoprotein. (
  • Evaluation of a Tetravalent DNA Vaccine against Dengue: Integrating Biochemical Studies on Dengue Virus Envelope Protein to a Domain-Based Antigen Design. (
  • The 6K-E1 structural protein encoded by the DNA vaccine conferred complete protection against challenge with the homologous strain and limited protection against challenge with a heterologous strain. (
  • Studies of other alphaviruses, such as Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), revealed that the structural proteins consist of a capsid protein, E3 (a signal peptide), E2 (an envelope glycoprotein responsible for receptor binding), 6K (a signal peptide and a possible viroporin), and E1 (an envelope glycoprotein responsible for the fusion of the viruses with cell membrane) ( 14 ). (
  • We demonstrated that the DNA vaccine encoding the 6K-E1 protein was enough to provide complete protection against challenge with homologous strain 71V-1658. (
  • Thirdly, we demonstrated that combination of three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on non-structural protein 1 can distinguish DENV and Zika virus infections with high specificity and sensitivity. (
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP27 is an essential regulatory protein. (
  • Genetic evidence for two distinct transactivation functions of the herpes simplex virus alpha protein ICP27. (
  • Using a unique approach, Wistar scientists designed optimized synthetic DNA vaccine candidates targeting a virus surface protein called glycoprotein. (
  • The flavivirus envelope protein domain III (EDIII) was an effective immunogen against dengue virus (DENV) and other related flaviviruses. (
  • The nucleic acid vaccines expressed the spike precursor prME and the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigens of LIV. (
  • This study aims to prepare a Jembrana DNA vaccine encoding the transmembrane portion of the envelope protein in pEGFP-C1 and test the success of its delivery in culture cells using a chitosan-DNA complex. (
  • the vaccines encoded influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA), and/or nucleoprotein (NP), and M2 protein. (
  • Most of the COVID-19 vaccines are made of mRNA, a set of instructions for our cells to make a harmless piece of what is called a spike protein. (
  • The protein is found on the surface of the virus that causes COVID-19 . (
  • The findings, published in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases , detail the team's use of a novel synthetic DNA vaccine to target a viral envelope (E) protein found in MAYV major circulating strains. (
  • 27, 2014-Virus-like particles containing a protein from human metapneumovirus are a promising vaccine candidate for this respiratory virus. (
  • Furthermore, inactivated whole-virus or protein subunit vaccines are not necessarily safe and effective: in the case of measles and respiratory syncytial virus, they induced altered immune responses, resulting in immune-mediated enhancement of disease upon subsequent exposure to the pathogen ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • We previously used an attenuated version of human parainfluenza virus type 3, a common pediatric respiratory pathogen, to express the SARS-CoV S protein and showed that a single intranasal (i.n.) and intratracheal (i.t.) inoculation was immunogenic and protective against SARS-CoV challenge in hamsters and African green monkeys (AGM) ( 20 ). (
  • The polypeptides include short polypeptides which are related to a neutralizing and fusion epitope of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus fusion protein. (
  • Recently it was shown that the envelope protein E of the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) 2 virus can be expressed from recombinant plasmids in different physical forms depending on the expression cassette used ( 12 ). (
  • Flaviviruses are small enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses containing a capsid protein (C) and two membrane-associated proteins (E-envelope and M-membrane). (
  • In earlier plasmid transfection studies ( 12 , 17 ), it was shown that the TBE virus E protein, when expressed alone, is retained within the cell and that only low levels of secretion can be achieved by introducing a stop codon to truncate the protein before the membrane anchor. (
  • The investigational HIV-1 vaccine GTU®-MultiHIV B clade encodes for a MultiHIV antigen which is a synthetic fusion protein consisting of full-length polypeptides of Rev, Nef, Tat, p17 and p24 and containing more than 20 Th and CTL epitopes of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT) and gp160 regions of the HAN2 HIV-1 B clade. (
  • Unresponsiveness was specific to the HBV envelope protein since all late responders and 15-months-non-responders to the HBsAg vaccine produced normal levels of Abs to the three poliovirus serotypes, to tetanus toroid and to the pneumococcus polysaccharides, An in utero induced immune tolerance to low doses of HBsAg appears as the most plausible hypothesis to explain this unresponsiveness to HBV vaccine. (
  • Alternatively, the DNA may be encapsulated in protein to facilitate cell entry. (
  • If this capsid protein is included in the DNA, the resulting vaccine can combine the potency of a live vaccine without reversion risks. (
  • The vaccine consists of a DNA plasmid encoding the E and PrM proteins which make up the outer protein coat of the Zika virus virion. (
  • Based on a previous platform used to develop a West Nile virus vaccine, the DNA vaccine is designed to assemble protein particles that mimic Zika virus and trigger the body's immune response. (
  • They found that the vaccine candidate was able to induce persistent humoral and cellular immune responses and provided efficient protection against lethal challenge from one of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DV1). (
  • They also evaluated the immunoprotective potential of a combined (bivalent) DNA vaccine, which was found to generate a balanced immunogenic response to two serotypes of dengue virus (DV1 & DV2). (
  • This evidence should be considered in further research on dengue virus tetravalent vaccine. (
  • Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne pathogen that causes dengue fever (DF) - one of the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne diseases worldwide according to the WHO. (
  • Although the recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) has been approved for use in some countries, the vaccine appears to increase the risk of severe dengue in younger vaccine recipients. (
  • Among the four distinct serotypes of dengue viruses (DV1-4), DV1 and DV2 are especially predominant serotypes," explains Dr. An. (
  • Dr. An and the research team are hoping that their research will pave the path for further advances in the research for a vaccine against all four serotypes of dengue virus. (
  • Zika virus belongs to the flavivirus family, which includes dengue and West Nile virus (WNV). (
  • Zika virus is a flavivirus, a family of viruses including yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile virus, which are introduced to people through mosquito bites. (
  • however, there is no available anti-dengue vaccine for worldwide use. (
  • A nucleic acid vaccine for dengue-2 virus was developed, consisting of a plasmid DNA vector with the pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes expressed from a cytomegalovirus promoter. (
  • Dengue virus (DENV) is among the most important mosquito-borne human pathogens worldwide. (
  • Concerns regarding the effectiveness of Dengue vaccines together with emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) have reignited the interest for new vaccines using alternative approaches. (
  • ScholarSpace at University of Hawaii at Manoa: DNA Vaccine Expressing Mature Dengue Virus-Like Particles and Serological Tests to Distinguish Dengue and Zika. (
  • Our study investigated DNA vaccines expressing mature dengue virus (DENV) viruslike particles (VLPs) and developed serological tests to distinguish dengue and Zika. (
  • Taken together, our data indicate that contrary to what was shown for other flaviviruses like the dengue virus, which has close similarities with ZIKV-EDIII, this antigen might not be a suitable vaccine candidate for the correct induction of protective immune responses against ZIKV. (
  • Dengue virus (DENV), composed of four distinct serotypes, is the most important and rapidly emerging arthropod-borne pathogen and imposes substantial economic and public health burdens. (
  • As a member of the flavivirus genus in the family Flaviviridae, it is a close relative of yellow fever, dengue, and Japanese encephalitis virus. (
  • This vaccine is based on the dengue vaccine Dengvaxia, which has been approved for use in humans. (
  • Zika is a member of the Flaviviridae family, which includes medically important pathogens such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. (
  • In a pilot study, we constructed a DNA vaccine (pLASV-GPC) that expressed the LASV glycoprotein precursor gene (GPC). (
  • In this study, we evaluate the immune response and protection against challenge elicited in bovines, by a DNA vaccine carrying the sequence of secreted version of glycoprotein D (gD) of BoHV-1 formulated with chemical adjuvants. (
  • For this purpose, we used a series of plasmid constructs encoding different forms of the envelope glycoprotein E of the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis virus. (
  • These vaccines precipitate an immune response so that the body's defense mechanism recognize and destroy the virus once it enters the living system. (
  • The second phase trial, targeted at testing the effectiveness of the vaccine to enhance the immune response, is due to end next May or June. (
  • DNA vaccine has been developed for VHSV, but to sustain the immune response of this DNA vaccine for a long time adjuvant studies are required. (
  • The purpose of this study is to test the safety of and immune response to an HIV-1 vaccine, VRC-HIVDNA009-00-VP, in HIV uninfected participants. (
  • But clinical trials of vaccines made to protect against other viruses in the H7 family have shown the vaccines don't induce much of an immune response, even when people are given what would be considered very large doses. (
  • Since the virus load, route of inoculation and the neuroinvasiveness of the challenge virus play a major role in determining the type of immune response mounted by the immunized host, studies on the potency of JE vaccines can yield different results depending on the challenge model employed. (
  • Formulations containing adjuvants Montanide™ 1113101PR and ESSAI 903110 were both, capable of increasing humoral immune response against the virus and diminishing clinical symptoms. (
  • Injection of this personalized DNA vaccine may be a way to generate an immune response to kill tumor cells. (
  • DNA vaccines work by injecting genetically engineered plasmid containing the DNA sequence encoding the antigen(s) against which an immune response is sought, so the cells directly produce the antigen, thus causing a protective immunological response. (
  • DNA vaccines have theoretical advantages over conventional vaccines, including the ability to induce a wider range of immune response types. (
  • Adenoviruses have been previously used as a vaccine platform for HIV and elicit a strong immune response. (
  • In human clinical trials of the company's HIV vaccines, GeoVax demonstrated that VLPs are safe and eliciting both strong and durable humoral and cellular immune response. (
  • A Portrait of the Sialyl Glycan Receptor Specificity of the H10 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin-A Picture of an Avian Virus on the Verge of Becoming a Pandemic? (
  • Transmission electron micrograph of influenza A virus, late passage. (
  • Current vaccine design and manufacturing to meet the antigenic diversity of H3N2 viruses is challenging, and with another flu season approaching there remains a pressing need for new vaccine approaches for influenza," said lead researcher David B. Weiner, Ph.D., executive vice president and director of the Vaccine & Immunotherapy Center at The Wistar Institute, and W.W. Smith Charitable Trust Professor in Cancer Research. (
  • Two weeks after the booster injection, they inoculated them with two representative influenza viruses. (
  • The pH3HA vaccine represents a unique micro-consensus approach to producing immune responses to antigenically related-yet diverse, seasonal influenza A H3N2 viruses," Weiner said. (
  • This study will evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a vaccine to prevent avian influenza (bird flu). (
  • Avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses causing serious disease have emerged recently, affecting domestic and wild bird populations. (
  • The outbreak of human infections of H5N1 influenza in 1997 in Hong Kong and in 2003-2004 in most Asian countries demonstrated that purely avian viruses could be transmitted to humans and cause severe disease [ 1 ]. (
  • In this study, an avian influenza virus strain A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004 (H5N1) was isolated from a farmed chicken in Henan province, China. (
  • Plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccines represent an alternative to conventional inactivated influenza vaccines that are likely to experience supply constraints during a pandemic. (
  • Avian influenza virus (H5N1): a threat to human health. (
  • Guidance for industry: clinical data needed to support the licensure of pandemic influenza vaccines. (
  • Influenza virus - Humans, Animals, Avians 9. (
  • TORONTO - Making a vaccine to protect against the new H7N9 flu virus that has emerged in eastern China could prove to be problematic, influenza experts acknowledged Thursday. (
  • In all cases where these vaccines were trialed, it was found that the vaccines were poorly immunogenic," said Nancy Cox, the virologist who heads the influenza branch at the U.S. Centers for Diseases Control in Atlanta. (
  • If we can't get a good response there" - with healthy adults - "the question is: Why would you ever expect a better response in the older population," noted Osterholm, whose team produced a major report on flu vaccine last year, called the CIDRAP Comprehensive Influenza Vaccine Initiative. (
  • Jan 7, 2009 (CIDRAP News) - Hong Kong health officials reported today that the H9N2 avian influenza virus that recently infected a 2-month-old girl from mainland China has not acquired any genes from human-adapted flu viruses, implying that it is unlikely to pose a major danger to humans. (
  • DNA sequences of the genes concerned show that they are of avian origin, and reassortment with genes of human influenza origin has not been found," an anonymous CHP spokesman said in the release. (
  • Virus Forskning og Udvikling (ViFU) udvikler nye genetiske metoder til vaccinering af mennesker og dyr mod influenza A virus. (
  • Ny influenza A virus fra fugle og svin truer konstant med potentialet for nye pandemier, når smitte til mennesker med menneske-til-menneske smitte opstår. (
  • Beskyttelsen af de eksisterende vacciner er forholdsvis lav og er stammespecifik over for én bestemt influenza A virus variant og skal derfor ændres hvert år. (
  • The emergence of pathogenic virus infections like influenza and HIV have created an urgent need for new vaccines. (
  • These include tumorigenic cells such as MDCK and CHO cells (for influenza virus vaccines), 293 and PER.C6 cells (for adenovirus-vectored HIV-1 and other vaccines), and tumor-derived cells such as HeLa cells (for HIV-1 vaccines). (
  • They altered the DNA of cowpox virus by inserting a gene from other viruses (namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and influenza). (
  • An experimental vaccine consisting of five DNA plasmids expressing different combinations and forms of simian immunodeficiency virus-macaque (SIVmac) proteins has been evaluated for the ability to protect against a highly pathogenic uncloned SIVmac251 challenge. (
  • The method for microencapsulating DNA was adapted from procedures previously described for virus and subunit vaccines and isolated proteins ( 14 - 16 ). (
  • Schematic illustration of the synthesis of structural proteins of the alphaviruses and DNA plasmids constructed in this study. (
  • Expression of E1 and E2 proteins from DNA vaccines. (
  • In this study, we further investigated which portion of the structural proteins encoded by the DNA vaccine is responsible for the protection. (
  • The early viral genes encode proteins necessary for viral DNA replication. (
  • Recently, it has been shown that HCV core proteins (HCcAg) with C-terminal deletions assemble in vitro into virus-like particles (VLPs) in the presence of structured RNA molecules. (
  • 23, 2014-Insights into the workings of DNA damage response proteins such as SMARCAL1 could suggest new ways to improve genome integrity and prevent cancer. (
  • Learn about the cellular, molecular, and biochemical pathways of CRISPR-associated proteins, DNA repair pathways, and applications in diverse organisms, including for human health and disease biology. (
  • DNA vaccines contain DNA that codes for specific proteins (antigens) from a pathogen. (
  • The DNA is injected into the body and taken up by cells, whose normal metabolic processes synthesize proteins based on the genetic code in the plasmid that they have taken up. (
  • Because these proteins contain regions of amino acid sequences that are characteristic of bacteria or viruses, they are recognized as foreign and when they are processed by the host cells and displayed on their surface, the immune system is alerted, which then triggers immune responses. (
  • A modified mRNA vaccine developed in collaboration with Moderna Therapeutics containing the E and PrM proteins is undergoing concurrent phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. (
  • Multiple vaccines are also being developed using safe, non-pathogenic, viruses as vectors for immunogenic Zika virus proteins. (
  • We have extended the assay to develop a stepwise approach to induce and detect endogenous retroviruses and latent DNA viruses during evaluation of cell substrates for vaccine safety. (
  • Finally, we try to translate the DNA vaccine candidates for further clinical application. (
  • Future challenge experiments are needed to show the protective effect of these vaccine candidates. (
  • Recent advances have led to the development of promising experimental vaccine candidates that may be associated with side effects and/or may not be applicable in specific vulnerable populations, such as children, pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. (
  • They have completed the design and construction of multiple vaccine candidates and have initiated applications to US government organizations requesting funding support of our COVID-19 vaccine development efforts. (
  • The surprising discovery reportedly was made after the independent lab used new technology to evaluate the purity of eight live virus vaccines for polio, rubella, measles, yellow fever, human herpes 3 (varicella or chicken pox), rotavirus (Rotarix and RotaTeq) and MMR. (
  • In addition to pig viral DNA found in Rotarix vaccine, low levels of DNA fragments from avian (bird) leukosis virus (a retrovirus) was found in measles vaccine and DNA fragments of a virus similar to simian (monkey) retrovirus was found in RotaTeq vaccine. (
  • Measles remains an important cause of vaccine-preventable child mortality. (
  • In the current study, we evaluated the use of a layered alphavirus DNA/RNA vector encoding measles virus H (SINCP-H) adsorbed onto polylactide glycolide (PLG) microparticles. (
  • We conclude that PLG/SINCP-H is most efficacious when delivered intramuscularly but does not provide an advantage over standard DNA vaccines for protection against measles. (
  • Autism and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: no epidemiological evidence for a causal association. (
  • 10 Kaye JA, del Mar Meloro-Montes M, Kick H. Mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine and the incidence of autism recorded by general practitioners: a time trend analysis. (
  • One phase 1 trial is using the Measles virus as a vector and was completed in April 2018. (
  • Fatima K, Syed NI (2018) Dengvaxia controversy: impact on vaccine hesitancy. (
  • Although this method is still in development and no licensed DNA vaccine is currently available for humans, it would offer a number of potential advantages including inexpensiveness, improved vaccine stability and ease of production. (
  • Humans can become infected by inhalation of aerosolized virus shed in rodent excreta or by person-to-person or nosocomial exposure [ 1 ]. (
  • Since the initial study from Wolff and colleagues which showed that DNA represents a vector that can be used to express transgenes durably in vivo , DNA has been regularly evaluated as a vaccine vector albeit with limited success in large animal models and humans. (
  • The contaminant material is DNA from porcine circovirus 1, a virus from pigs that is not known to cause disease in humans or animals, Hamburg said. (
  • GlaxoSmithKline emphasized Monday that the pig virus is not known to cause illness in humans, saying "it is found in everyday meat products and is frequently eaten with no resulting disease or illness. (
  • A similar virus, porcine circovirus 2, also does not cause disease in humans, but it does cause disease in its pig host, Hamburg said. (
  • Intradermal (in the skin) delivery of vaccine by Biojector in this study is deemed investigational but has been evaluated in humans before, and found safe and well tolerated in other trials. (
  • thats what they said when they found a monkey CMV strain 'that couldnt infect humans' in the oral polio vaccine, then years later, OOPS, it had mixed with polio to make a 'steal virus' that caused all sorts of serious illness, including cancer. (
  • RotaTeq is a genetically engineered vaccine containing five human-cow reassortment strains of rotavirus that were created at the Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania (CHOP), where strains of rotavirus that give cows diarrhea were combined with strains of rotavirus that cause diarrhea in humans. (
  • WEEV is endemic in western North America, where the virus is transmitted via mosquitoes from its reservoir in wild birds to humans and horses. (
  • However, it remains uncertain how the virus directly affects humans, which makes it all the more disconcerting. (
  • DNA vaccines have been licensed in veterinary medicine and have promise for humans. (
  • Vaccine development efforts in the past three decades have been unproductive and there is no vaccine approved for use in humans," said Bulir, who just finished his PhD in medical sciences at McMaster. (
  • formerly Marburg hemorrhagic fever ) is a severe illness of humans and non-human primates caused by either of the two marburgviruses , Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV). (
  • There is a clear need for a safe and effective vaccine should an outbreak of a SARS-like virus reoccur in humans. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV), a member of the family flaviviridae is the causative agent of acute encephalitis in humans leading to high mortality, especially in children. (
  • Simian foamy virus (SFV) can be transmitted from nonhuman primates (e.g., monkeys) to humans. (
  • Some of this DNA comes from Neanderthals or other relatives or ancestors of humans from before modern humans migrated out of Africa. (
  • In 2016 a DNA vaccine for the Zika virus began testing in humans at the National Institutes of Health. (
  • As of March 31, 2017 a DNA vaccine has been approved for Phase 2 clinical trials in humans. (
  • As the ZPIV vaccine contains inactivated Zika particles, the virus cannot replicate and cause disease in humans. (
  • A live attenuated vaccine, in which the virus is genetically altered as to not cause disease in humans, is undergoing phase 1 clinical trials. (
  • Intramuscular needle injections were used to deliver placebo, 2 doses of DNA followed by 2 doses of rMVA (DDMM), one dose of DNA followed by 2 doses of rMVA (DMM), or 3 doses of rMVA (MMM) to HIV-seronegative participants. (
  • The percentage of participants with local pain and/or tenderness ( A ) or any systemic symptom ( B ) following each vaccine dose is shown. (
  • Dose-sparing regimens and intradermal delivery have important implication for rapid clinical development of effective, well-tolerated and easy-to-distribute vaccines against MERS and other emerging coronaviruses. (
  • A similar vaccine candidate was previously shown to be safe and tolerable with a three-dose intramuscular injection regimen in a recently completed human phase 1 study and is currently in expanded studies of phase 1/2a trial. (
  • This Phase II follow-on trial is an open-label, single-dose, randomized trial of 32 patients to further explore the effect of the ChronVac-C® DNA vaccine administered by Inovio's MedPulser® electroporation delivery device. (
  • The therapy will be given two times, with four weeks in between, followed by SOC treatment after the final vaccine dose in treatment-naïve chronic HCV infected genotype-1 subjects. (
  • The vaccine showed no observable toxicity at the site of injection as well as at systemic level in Wistar rats when administered with 10X recommended dose. (
  • The vaccine was proven to contain more than 100,000 porcine circovirus 1 DNA molecules in each dose. (
  • Intradermal-electroporation delivery is an alternate route for vaccine administration that is immunogenic and potentially dose sparing, which are potential advantages for vaccine delivery in an outbreak setting and for more sensitive populations. (
  • The vaccine begins to protect you 1-2 weeks after your second dose. (
  • A standard dose of flu vaccine is 15 micrograms (mcg). (
  • That means that even with 12 times the dose people get for seasonal flu, healthy adults don't get a great response to the vaccine. (
  • A per person dose of 180 mcg would sharply reduce the amount of vaccine available during a pandemic. (
  • Thus, two immunizations with 10-100 μg DNA appears to be the optimum dose. (
  • However a DTaP, HiB, and Prevnar vaccine dose contains 1.475mg. (
  • Vaccine is provided in sealed vials at 2mg/ml, and a single 1ml IM injection of 2mg GTU®-MultiHIV DNA IM (into the thigh) is required to deliver a 2mg dose. (
  • Recombinant vaccines are an efficient and safe alternative for formalin inactivated or live attenuated vaccines. (
  • While effective inactivated vaccines derived from JEV-infected mouse brain are available, their high cost and allergic reactivity have necessitated the need to develop recombinant vaccines for JE [1]. (
  • Our findings also show that antigen secretion determines the efficiency of DNA vaccines. (
  • In a study, recently published in the journal Vaccine , the researchers show that a novel chlamydial antigen known as BD584 is a potential vaccine candidate for the most common species of chlamydia known as Chlamydia trachomatis. (
  • The vaccine is derived from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) produced through recombinant DNA techniques from yeast cells. (
  • A DNA vaccine is a type of vaccine that transfects a specific antigen-coding DNA sequence onto the cells of an immunized species. (
  • This new POWV vaccine candidate, described in a paper published today in PLOS Neglected Infectious Diseases , is one of many emerging infectious disease DNA vaccine discoveries being advanced by the Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center at The Wistar Institute. (
  • Kar Muthumani, Ph.D., former associate professor and director of the Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases at The Wistar Institute, and senior author on the study, collaborated with the laboratory of David B. Weiner, Ph.D., executive vice president and director of Wistar's Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center, to design and test this synthetic DNA vaccine. (
  • To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of protection with an intradermally delivered coronavirus vaccine," said Ami Patel, Ph.D. , Caspar Wistar Fellow at the Vaccine & Immunotherapy Center and one of the lead authors of the paper. (
  • POWV is an RNA virus belonging to the flavivirus family, the same as Zika virus, but passed to people by ticks instead of mosquitoes. (
  • Feb. 17, 2016 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ:INO) announced today that preclinical testing of its synthetic vaccine for the Zika virus induced robust and durable immune responses, demonstrating the potential for a SynCon® vaccine to prevent and treat infections from this harmful pathogen. (
  • Health authorities have observed neurological and autoimmune complications potentially associated with Zika virus, including microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barre syndrome. (
  • In this pre-clinical study, DNA vaccine constructs targeting multiple Zika virus antigens were synthetically generated using Inovio's SynCon vaccine technology. (
  • First identified in Uganda, Zika virus subsequently spread to equatorial Asia and over the past two years has rapidly spread through the South Pacific, including Hawaii, and to South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. (
  • Because the Aedes species of mosquitoes that spread Zika virus is found throughout the world there is concern that outbreaks will spread to new countries. (
  • In February 2016 WHO stated that 39 countries had reported locally acquired circulation of the Zika virus since January 2007. (
  • The most common symptoms of Zika virus are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis. (
  • No vaccine or therapy currently exists for the Zika virus. (
  • DENV and Zika virus or other flaviviral infections. (
  • Whether this can be applied to the Zika virus (ZIKV) vaccinology remains an open question. (
  • Like Zika virus, POWV is a member of the family Flaviviridae. (
  • Zika Virus: What Have We Learnt Since the Start of the Recent Epidemic? (
  • Intranasally delivered DNA, even when adjuvanted and given as a fine droplet spray, was neither immunogenic nor protective in macaques. (
  • And so this is a signal that we might be facing challenges with producing an immunogenic vaccine using this particular virus. (
  • GeoVax pGA2/JS7 DNA (D) and MVA/HIV62 (M) vaccines encode noninfectious virus-like particles. (
  • One vaccine plasmid encoded nonreplicating SIVmac239 virus particles. (
  • Here we have shown that GagM buds from cells infected and transfected with MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM respectively and forms virus-like particles. (
  • Cells transfected and infected with DNA-GagM and MVA-GagM respectively, expressed high levels of GagM and produced budding virus-like particles. (
  • Besides, the capacity of particles containing HCcAg.120 to interact with nucleic acids could be used in the development of DNA vaccines and viral vectors based on these particles. (
  • The recombinant SFV-based vaccines consisted of suicidal particles and a naked layered DNA/RNA construct. (
  • Only recombinant SFV particles administered twice gave full protection against neuronal degeneration and encephalitis induced by two of the three challenge strains, and partial protection against the highly virulent strain, whereas the other vaccines tested gave lower levels of partial protection. (
  • Semliki Forest virus expression system: production of conditionally infectious recombinant particles. (
  • The DENV DNA vaccine directs the synthesis and assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) and induces immune responses similar to those elicited by live-attenuated vaccines, and its flexibility permits the fast deployment of vaccine to combat emerging viruses, such as Sylvatic genotype viruses. (
  • GeoVax technology approach uses recombinant DNA or recombinant viruses to produce virus-like particles (VLPs) in the person being vaccinated. (
  • Two weeks after receiving three immunizations, both doses of pV-D4ME DNA were shown to confer effective protection against lethal DENV-4 challenge. (
  • Two different doses of the vaccine will be tested. (
  • But studies with previous H7 vaccines have shown poor responses in healthy adults who get a total of 180 micrograms of vaccine divided into two 90 microgram doses, said Michael Osterholm, director of the Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota. (
  • Over one million doses of Johnson & Johnson COVID - 19 vaccine donated from the United States arrived. (
  • Upon supplementation with Emulsigen-D, the vaccine formulation conferred complete protection against lethal challenge. (
  • Bovine serum is another potentially lethal excipient found mostly in MMR and rotavirus vaccines. (
  • Infected cells taken from diseased monkeys have also been feared to have tainted a smallpox vaccine. (
  • In 1983, Enzo Paoletti and Dennis Panicali at the New York Department of Health devised a strategy to produce recombinant DNA vaccines by using genetic engineering to transform ordinary smallpox vaccine into vaccines that may be able to prevent other diseases. (
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  • 2020) A novel synthetic DNA vaccine elicits protective immune responses against Powassan virus. (
  • Thus, genetically engineered vaccines, including DNA vaccine and live vector engineered vaccines, have been developed. (
  • Rotarix is a genetically engineered vaccine that GSK created by isolating human rotavirus strain infecting a child in Cincinnati and using African Green monkey kidney cells to produce the original viral seed stock from which all Rotarix vaccine has been made. (
  • These results are encouraging for the future development of a tetravalent vaccine that could provide efficient protection against all four serotypes of the virus. (
  • The subsequent development of cidofovir and related molecules and of letermovir for cytomegalovirus infections and the recent approval of tecovirimat for the treatment of smallpox have expanded the range of available countermeasures against DNA viruses, but therapies are still lacking for many important DNA viral diseases. (
  • The combination of the codon-optimized vaccine and dermal electroporation delivery is a worthy candidate for further development. (
  • Intradermal delivery of synthetic DNA vaccines has significant advantages for rapid clinical development. (
  • The positive results of this study are important not only for the advancement of this MERS vaccine but also for development of other vaccines. (
  • Inovio's Zika program builds on its extensive previous preclinical development experience with flavivirus-related vaccines. (
  • The drug maker confirmed its presence in both the cell bank and the seed from which the vaccine is derived, suggesting its presence from the early stages of vaccine development, she said. (
  • INO ), a leader in the development of therapeutic and preventive vaccines against cancers and infectious diseases, announced today that its partner, ChronTech Pharma AB (formerly Tripep AB), has initiated a Phase IIb clinical study of its ChronVac-C® DNA vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV), delivered by Inovio's proprietary electroporation DNA vaccine delivery technology, in combination with standard of care. (
  • Therefore, supplementation of rabies DNA vaccine, pgp.LAMP-1 with alum would lead to development of a non-toxic, efficacious, stable and affordable vaccine that can be used to combat high numbers of fatal rabies infections tormenting developing countries. (
  • The Wistar Institute is an international leader in biomedical research with special expertise in cancer and infectious disease research and vaccine development. (
  • The development of Jembrana disease vaccine is an important effort to prevent losses in the Bali cattle industry in Indonesia. (
  • Development of a suicidal DNA vaccine for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). (
  • These results were presented by Dr. Niranjan Y. Sardesai, Inovio Sr. VP of Research and Development, at the Biochemical and Molecular Engineering XVII Conference in Seattle in a talk titled 'Engineering Effective Consensus DNA Vaccines. (
  • Inovio's SynCon technology enables rapid development of vaccines that can cover multiple subtypes simultaneously with a single formulation. (
  • In addition, the SARS experience highlighted the importance of having pretested, safe, and effective vectors on hand that can be used to accelerate initial steps of vaccine development should other new pathogenic agents emerge. (
  • Conclusive data on the effect of these factors are therefore important for the design of DNA-based vaccines and their further development for practical use. (
  • However, there have been some major failures in vaccine development and we still do not have highly effective licensed vaccines for tuberculosis, HIV, respiratory syncytial virus, and other major infections of global significance. (
  • citation needed] A purified inactivated vaccine is currently under development by the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. (
  • In 2002 laboratory space, equipment and personnel were acquired and work on an HIV-1 vaccine development plan began, and in May 2006 human clinical trials of the drug began. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major contributors to the global disease burden with many experts recognizing the requirement of an effective vaccine to bring a durable end to these viral epidemics. (
  • Total health costs associated with hepatitis C virus in the U.S. are estimated at more than $15 billion per year. (
  • To this end, we describe here a detailed approach that was applied in a study of 15 healthy adults, who were immunized with hepatitis B vaccine. (
  • The portion of the hepatitis B gene which codes for HBsAg is cloned into yeast, which is then cultured to produce hepatitis B vaccine. (
  • Hillerman, chief of vaccines at Merck not only validated Bernice Eddy's discovery but he admitted that all Merck's vaccines contain cancer viruses and other viruses and that their Hepatitis vaccine caused the AIDS epidemic in the US. (
  • However, the DNA vaccine encoding 6K-E1 provided limited protection against challenge with a heterologous strain. (
  • Further analysis also revealed that the virus has a slow-moving an archetypal strain that drug manufacturers and regulators failed to monitor. (
  • If an unexpected strain, as in the 1997 H5N1 Hong Kong outbreak, or even a pandemic emerges, appropriate vaccines may take too long to prepare. (
  • There hasn't been enough time to produce even the seed strain to make H7N9 vaccine, let alone small batches of a prototype vaccine for testing. (
  • So researchers haven't had a chance to see how a vaccine against this new flu strain might work in people. (
  • So in a best case scenario, each person would need twice as much vaccine to protect against a new virus as he or she would get to protect against a seasonal flu strain. (
  • H9N2 viruses are distinct from the deadly Asian strain of H5N1 but are regarded as having the potential to evolve into a pandemic strain. (
  • Pregabalin mail order (CNN) - Federal health authorities recommended Monday that doctors suspend using Rotarix, one of two vaccines licensed in the United States against rotavirus, saying the vaccine is contaminated with material from a pig virus. (
  • Before rotavirus vaccine became available, the disease was blamed for more than 50,000 hospitalizations and several dozen deaths per year in the United States, she said. (
  • Both vaccines are given by mouth to infants to prevent rotavirus disease, which is marked by severe diarrhea and dehydration. (
  • Public health officials in countries where the incidence of rotavirus is more severe may decide that the benefits of continuing to use the vaccine outweigh any concerns raised by the contamination, she said. (
  • The FDA just posted Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee Meeting Background Material Porcine Circovirus and Rotavirus Vaccines on their site with more informaion. (
  • WASHINGTON, May 6 (Reuters) - Pieces of DNA from two pig viruses were found in Merck & Co Inc's (MRK.N) rotavirus vaccine, but there was no evidence of a safety risk , U.S. health officials said on Thursday. (
  • There's no proof that Paul Offit extracted Rotavirus germs from his own kazoo, but based on vaccine manufacturing drug company safety track records there's no proof he didn't. (
  • And for all you who seem to think you are experts on vaccines, the rotavirus vaccine is taken orally, it is a live virus vaccine, so it purposefully infects your kids. (
  • Powers that be: Pig viruses contaminate rotavirus vaccines. (
  • On March 22, 2010, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officials adhering to the precautionary principle advised American doctors to suspend use of Rotarix vaccine until the agency finds out why DNA from a swine virus (porcine circovirus 1 or PCV1) was found in the live rotavirus vaccine. (
  • A rotavirus vaccine also came under fire for using this excipient . (
  • A 2010 study published in the Journal of Virology found that the rotavirus vaccine contains a live simian virus, with researchers noting a 96 percent matching certainty. (
  • A rotavirus vaccine was in a bit of hot water a few years back after regulators found out that the treatment contained very high levels of porcine circovirus 1. (
  • The push is on to get as many newborn babies as possible vaccinated for rotavirus in the U.K., as health officials unveil a new vaccine program that they claim will reduce hospital admissions for the stomach bug. (
  • Based on the figures, the risk of dying from these vaccine complications is likely higher than the risk of dying from rotavirus, which is relatively low. (
  • We plan to initiate phase I human testing of our Zika vaccine before the end of 2016. (
  • As of August 2016 no DNA vaccines had been approved in the US for human use. (
  • Manufacturing the vaccines in volume remained unsolved as of August 2016. (
  • In this review, we will discuss the limitations and the strategies of using DNA as a vector to develop prophylactic T cell-mediated vaccines against HIV-1 and HCV. (
  • We evaluated Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus that is highly attenuated in primates, as a topical respiratory vaccine vector with SARS-CoV as a test pathogen. (
  • citation needed] On February 27, 2021, an EUA was issued by the US FDA for the Janssen COVID-19 DNA vector vaccine, following EMA recommendation of the AstraZeneca DNA vector vaccine. (
  • Another vaccine platform makes use of Adenovirus as a vector and phase 1 studies will be complete in 2019. (
  • Recently, Vero cell derived inactivated JE vaccine has also been licensed. (
  • There is also a need for improvements in rapid selection and deployment against newly emergent viral strains and synthetic DNA vaccines represent an important tool to reach this goal. (
  • Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health, said "a substantial amount" of the DNA was found in the vaccine. (
  • Proper steps are taken by the researchers while preparing therapeutics in order to cure the Viral disease, such as they are involved in preparation of various Viral vaccines and therapeutics. (
  • Unlocking the potential of mRNA vaccines and therapeutics: a manufacturing perspective. (
  • Learn about the current dynamics in the RNA therapeutics/vaccines market, the general production processes for these platforms, as well as challenges and strategies to overcome them. (
  • Experts tackle lingering coronavirus vaccine fears. (
  • The international outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002-2003 highlighted the need to develop pretested human vaccine vectors that can be used in a rapid response against newly emerging pathogens. (
  • Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, work to develop a vaccine against the coronavirus diseases SARS and MERS had established knowledge about the structure and. (
  • In January 2020, the company announced initiation of efforts to develop a vaccine against novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Viral vaccines" applicable to this article? (
  • The COVID-19 pandemic created a paradigm shift in modern healthcare, where regulations, protocols, and mindsets had to be reworked in just a matter of months to keep up with the pace of the virus. (
  • The "Stop the Transmission, Crush the Pandemic - Masks, distance, sanitation and ventilation to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus" advisory highlights the important role well-ventilated spaces play in diluting the viral load of infected air in poorly ventilated houses, offices and other closes spaces and said ventilation can decrease the risk of transmission from one infected person to the other. (
  • Results presented in this work showed that a truncated HCcAg variant covering the first 120 aa (HCcAg.120) with a 32 aa N-terminal fusion peptide (6xHistag-Xpress TM epitope) interacts with plasmid DNA vaccine. (
  • Preliminary testing of the Merck product has found no evidence of the porcine circovirus 1 DNA, she said. (
  • Experts have also raised concerns about the use of porcine vero cells in vaccine production. (
  • BBC News reports that the U.K. Department of Health will begin administering the oral drop-based vaccine Rotarix, which is manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), to children beginning in September 2013, even though the controversial vaccine has previously been found to harbor viral fragments of a swine virus known as porcine circovirus 1, or PCV1. (
  • Porcine (pig) gelatin - protects vaccines from freeze drying or heat, and can cause severe allergic reactions. (
  • An excipient found in polio vaccine, for example, contains cells from African green monkeys. (
  • SV40 was the 40th virus found in rhesus monkey kidney cells when these cells were used to make the polio vaccine. (
  • This virus contaminated both the Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) created by Dr. Jonas Salk and the Oral or 'Live' Polio Vaccine (OPV) created by Dr. Albert Sabin. (
  • In 1961, SV40 was discovered by Dr. Bernice Eddy of the National Institute of Health, Division of Biologics when she took the material used to grow polio vaccines and injected it into hamsters. (
  • Children being fed sugar cubes with the oral polio vaccine. (
  • Upon the discovery that SV40 was an animal carcinogen that had found its way into the polio vaccines, a new federal law was passed in 1961 that required that no vaccines contain this virus. (
  • However, this law did not require that SV40 contaminated vaccines be thrown away or that the contaminated seed material (used to make all polio vaccines for the next four decades) be discarded. (
  • In addition, it has been alleged that there have been SV40-contaminated batches of oral polio vaccine administered to some children until the end of the 1990's. (
  • We showed that human-codon optimized DNA vaccines improved the expression and production of VLPs in vitro compared with non-codon optimized DNA vaccines. (
  • Interestingly, the buoyant density of VLPs containing HCcAg.120 in CsCl gradients changed from 1.15-1,17 g mLˉ 1 to 1.30-1.34 g mLˉ 1 after addition of plasmid DNA to assembly reactions. (
  • Remarkably, addition of either plasmid DNA or tRNA to assembly reactions leaded to heterogeneous and larger VLPs formation than those observed in HCcAg.120 assembly reactions. (
  • The DNA was adsorbed onto gold microspheres for administration by a gene gun. (
  • 4. Chen H., Wilcox G., Kertayadnya G., Wood C.: Characterization of the Jembrana disease virus tat gene and the cis- and trans-regulatory elements in its long terminal repeats. (
  • These are plasmids that usually consist of a strong viral promoter to drive the in vivo transcription and translation of the gene (or complementary DNA) of interest. (
  • mRNA - Also known as messenger ribonucleic acid, mRNA is the only active ingredient in the vaccine . (
  • This symposium highlights current efforts to develop new a forms of prevention and therapy for DNA virus infections. (
  • The worldwide HIV epidemic highlights the importance of developing an affordable, globally successful vaccine for HIV prevention. (
  • However, following virus challenge, significant differences in the rate of virus removal from the bloodstream and the presence of virus replication in the liver were found between the groups. (
  • 5 and 15 min postchallenge (p.c.) and no virus replication was detected in the liver at 4 days p.c. (
  • Eleven loci encoding trans-acting factors are required for transient complementation of human cytomegalovirus oriLyt-dependent DNA replication. (