A common, acute infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN). There is an increase in mononuclear white blood cells and other atypical lymphocytes, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and occasionally hepatomegaly with hepatitis.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.
A way of providing nursing care that is guided by the integration of the best available scientific knowledge with nursing expertise. This approach requires nurses to critically assess relevant scientific data or research evidence, and to implement high-quality interventions for their nursing practice.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A lipid phosphatase that acts on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate to regulate various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. It modulates CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL MIGRATION; and APOPTOSIS. Mutations in PTEN are associated with COWDEN DISEASE and PROTEUS SYNDROME as well as NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
An order of very small, fringed-wing INSECTS including many agricultural pests.
A genus of plant viruses in the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the type species. Transmission occurs by at least nine species of thrips.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.
A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.

Human topoisomerase I promotes initiation of simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro. (1/23992)

Addition of purified human topoisomerase I (topo I) to simian virus 40 T antigen-driven in vitro DNA replication reactions performed with topo I-deficient extracts results in a greater than 10-fold stimulation of completed molecules as well as a more than 3-fold enhancement of overall DNA replication. To further characterize this stimulation, we first demonstrate that bovine topo I but not Escherichia coli topo I can also enhance DNA replication. By using several human topo I mutants, we show that a catalytically active form of topo I is required. To delineate whether topo I influences the initiation or the elongation step of replication, we performed delayed pulse, pulse-chase, and delayed pulse-chase experiments. The results illustrate that topo I cannot promote the completion of partially replicated molecules but is needed from the beginning of the reaction to initiate replication. Competitive inhibition experiments with the topo I binding T antigen fragment 1-246T and a catalytically inactive topo I mutant suggest that part of topo I's stimulation of replication is mediated through a direct interaction with T antigen. Collectively, our data indicate that topo I enhances the synthesis of fully replicated DNA molecules by forming essential interactions with T antigen and stimulating initiation.  (+info)

High level inhibition of HIV replication with combination RNA decoys expressed from an HIV-Tat inducible vector. (2/23992)

Intracellular immunization, an antiviral gene therapy approach based on the introduction of DNA into cells to stably express molecules for the inhibition of viral gene expression and replication, has been suggested for inhibition of HIV infection. Since the Tat and Rev proteins play a critical role in HIV regulation, RNA decoys and ribozymes of these sequences have potential as therapeutic molecular inhibitors. In the present study, we have generated several anti-HIV molecules; a tat-ribozyme, RRE, RWZ6 and TAR decoys and combinations of decoys, and tested them for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro. We used T cell specific CD2 gene elements and regulatory the HIV inducible promoter to direct high level expression and a 3' UTR sequence for mRNA stabilization. We show that HIV replication was most strongly inhibited with the combination TAR + RRE decoy when compared with the single decoys or the tat-ribozyme. We also show that the Tat-inducible HIV promoter directs a higher level of steady-state transcription of decoys and inhibitors and that higher levels of expression directly relate to increased levels of inhibition of HIV infection. Furthermore, a stabilization of the 3' end of TAR + RRE inhibitor transcripts using a beta-globin 3' UTR sequence leads to an additional 15-fold increase in steady-state RNA levels. This cassette when used to express the best combination decoy inhibitor TAR + RRE, yields high level HIV inhibition for greater than 3 weeks. Taken together, both optimization for high level expression of molecular inhibitors and use of combinations of inhibitors suggest better therapeutic application in limiting the spread of HIV.  (+info)

Enteroviral RNA replication in the myocardium of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis. (3/23992)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies dealing with the detection of enteroviral RNA in human endomyocardial biopsies have not differentiated between latent persistence of the enteroviral genome and active viral replication. Enteroviruses that are considered important factors for the development of myocarditis have a single-strand RNA genome of positive polarity that is transcribed by a virus-encoded RNA polymerase into a minus-strand mRNA during active viral replication. The synthesis of multiple copies of minus-strand enteroviral RNA therefore occurs only at sites of active viral replication but not in tissues with mere persistence of the viral genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated enteroviral RNA replication versus enteroviral RNA persistence in endomyocardial biopsies of 45 patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis. Using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, we established a highly sensitive assay to specifically detect plus-strand versus minus-strand enteroviral RNA in the biopsies. Plus-strand enteroviral RNA was detected in endomyocardial biopsies of 18 (40%) of 45 patients, whereas minus-strand RNA as an indication of active enteroviral RNA replication was detected in only 10 (56%) of these 18 plus-strand-positive patients. Enteroviral RNA was not found in biopsies of the control group (n=26). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that a significant fraction of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis had active enteroviral RNA replication in their myocardium (22%). Differentiation between patients with active viral replication and latent viral persistence should be particularly important in future studies evaluating different therapeutic strategies. In addition, molecular genetic detection of enteroviral genome and differentiation between replicating versus persistent viruses is possible in a single endomyocardial biopsy.  (+info)

Microtubule-dependent plus- and minus end-directed motilities are competing processes for nuclear targeting of adenovirus. (4/23992)

Adenovirus (Ad) enters target cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, escapes to the cytosol, and then delivers its DNA genome into the nucleus. Here we analyzed the trafficking of fluorophore-tagged viruses in HeLa and TC7 cells by time-lapse microscopy. Our results show that native or taxol-stabilized microtubules (MTs) support alternating minus- and plus end-directed movements of cytosolic virus with elementary speeds up to 2.6 micrometer/s. No directed movement was observed in nocodazole-treated cells. Switching between plus- and minus end-directed elementary speeds at frequencies up to 1 Hz was observed in the periphery and near the MT organizing center (MTOC) after recovery from nocodazole treatment. MT-dependent motilities allowed virus accumulation near the MTOC at population speeds of 1-10 micrometer/min, depending on the cell type. Overexpression of p50/dynamitin, which is known to affect dynein-dependent minus end-directed vesicular transport, significantly reduced the extent and the frequency of minus end-directed migration of cytosolic virus, and increased the frequency, but not the extent of plus end-directed motility. The data imply that a single cytosolic Ad particle engages with two types of MT-dependent motor activities, the minus end- directed cytoplasmic dynein and an unknown plus end- directed activity.  (+info)

Preclinical safety evaluation of human gene therapy products. (5/23992)

Human gene therapy products include naked DNA and viral as well as non-viral vectors containing nucleic acids. There is limited experience on the preclinical toxicity studies necessary for the safety evaluation of these products, which have been outlined in several recently released guidelines. Requirements for the preclinical safety evaluation of human gene therapy products are both specific and non-specific. All key preclinical studies should be performed in compliance with Good Laboratory Practices. Non-specific requirements are in fact common to all pharmaceutical products. Critical specific issues to be addressed are: the safety evaluation of the vector and the toxicity of the expressed protein(s), which are the two components of gene therapy products, the quality of the test article, the selection of animal species, and the verification that the administration method successfully transports the gene of interest, with the vector, to the target site(s). The treatment schedule should mimic the intended human therapeutic design. The host's immune response against the gene therapy product has to be evaluated to detect possible adverse effects and immune neutralization by antibodies. The biodistribution of the gene of interest is also essential and can be evaluated by molecular biology techniques, such as PCR. Specific confinement is required for the safe manipulation of viral vectors.  (+info)

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells. (6/23992)

8-Difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2-methoxyp hen yl)-1- piperazinyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (K-12) has recently been identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. In this study, we examined several combinations of K-12 and other antiretroviral agents for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cell cultures. Combinations of K-12 and a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, either zidovudine, lamivudine, or nevirapine, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected MT-4 cells. The combination of K-12 and the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (NFV) also synergistically inhibited HIV-1, whereas the synergism of this combination was weaker than that of the combinations with the RT inhibitors. K-12 did not enhance the cytotoxicities of RT and protease inhibitors. Synergism of the combinations was also observed in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The combination of K-12 and cepharanthine, a nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 production in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line chronically infected with the virus. In contrast, additive inhibition was observed for the combination of K-12 and NFV. These results indicate that the combinations of K-12 and clinically available antiretroviral agents may have potential as chemotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

Comparative study of the anti-human cytomegalovirus activities and toxicities of a tetrahydrofuran phosphonate analogue of guanosine and cidofovir. (7/23992)

Cidofovir is the first nucleoside monophosphate analogue currently being used for the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis in individuals with AIDS. Unfortunately, the period of therapy with the use of this compound may be limited due to the possible emergence of serious irreversible nephrotoxic effects. New drugs with improved toxicity profiles are needed. The goal of this study was to investigate the anticytomegaloviral properties and drug-induced toxicity of a novel phosphonate analogue, namely, (-)-2-(R)-dihydroxyphosphinoyl-5-(S)-(guanin-9'-yl-methyl) tetrahydrofuran (compound 1), in comparison with those of cidofovir. The inhibitory activities of both compounds on HCMV propagation in vitro were similar against the AD 169 and Towne strains, with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.17 microgram/ml for cidofovir and < 0.05 to 0.09 microgram/ml for compound 1. A clinical HCMV isolate that was resistant to ganciclovir and that had a known mutation within the UL54 DNA polymerase gene and a cidofovir-resistant laboratory strain derived from strain AD 169 remained sensitive to compound 1, whereas their susceptibilities to ganciclovir and cidofovir were reduced by 33- and 10-fold, respectively. Both compound 1 and cidofovir exhibited equal potencies in an experimentally induced murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in mice, with a prevention or prolongation of mean day to death at dosages of 1.0, 3.2, and 10.0 mg/kg of body weight/day. In cytotoxicity experiments, compound 1 was found to be generally more toxic than cidofovir in cell lines Hs68, HFF, and 3T3-L1 (which are permissive for HCMV or MCMV replication) but less toxic than cidofovir in MRC-5 cells (which are permissive for HCMV replication). Drug-induced toxic side effects were noticed for both compounds in rats and guinea pigs in a 5-day repeated-dose study. In guinea pigs, a greater weight loss was noticed with cidofovir than with compound 1 at dosages of 3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/day. An opposite effect was detected in rats, which were treated with the compounds at relatively high dosages (up to 100 mg/kg/day). Compound 1 and cidofovir were nephrotoxic in both rats and guinea pigs, with the epithelium lining the proximal convoluted tubules in the renal cortex being the primary target site. The incidence and the severity of the lesions were found to be dose dependent. The lesions observed were characterized by cytoplasm degeneration and nuclear modifications such as karyomegaly, the presence of pseudoinclusions, apoptosis, and degenerative changes. In the guinea pig model, a greater incidence and severity of lesions were observed for cidofovir than for compound 1 (P < 0.001) with a drug regimen of 10 mg/kg/day.  (+info)

Rubella virus-induced apoptosis varies among cell lines and is modulated by Bcl-XL and caspase inhibitors. (8/23992)

Rubella virus (RV) causes multisystem birth defects in the fetuses of infected women. To investigate the cellular basis of this pathology, we examined the cytopathic effect of RV in three permissive cell lines: Vero 76, RK13, and BHK21. Electron microscopy and the TUNEL assay showed that the cytopathic effect resulted from RV-induced programmed cell death (apoptosis) in all three cell lines, but the extent of apoptosis varied among these cells. At 48 h postinfection, the RK13 cell line showed the greatest number of apoptotic cells, the Vero 76 cell line was approximately 3-fold less, and BHK21 had very few. An increased multiplicity of infection and longer time postinfection were required for the BHK21 cell line to reach the level of apoptotic cells in Vero 76 at 48 h. Purified RV induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion, but not UV-inactivated RV or virus-depleted culture supernatant. Specific inhibitors of the apoptosis-specific proteases caspases reduced RV-induced apoptosis and led to higher levels of RV components in infected cells. To address the role of regulatory proteins in RV-induced apoptosis, the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL was transfected into RK13 cells. Although a high level of Bcl-2 family proteins was expressed, no protection was observed from apoptosis induced by RV, Sindbis virus, or staurosporine in RK13 cells. In BHK21 cells, however, increased expression of Bcl-XL protected cells from apoptosis. The observed variability in apoptotic response to RV of these cell lines demonstrates that programmed cell death is dependent on the unique properties of each cell and may be indicative of how selective organ damage occurs in a congenital rubella syndrome fetus.  (+info)

The regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and replication in primary monocytes was investigated by mutagenesis of recombinant proviral clones containing an env determinant required for the infectivity of monocytes. Virus replication was assayed by determination of reverse transcriptase activity in culture fluids and by recovery of virus from monocytes following cocultivation with uninfected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Three virus replication phenotypes were observed in monocytes: productive infection, silent infection, and no infection. Incorporation of the monocytetropic env determinant in a full-length clone incapable of infection or replication in primary monocytes (no infection) conferred the capacity for highly efficient virus replication in monocytes (productive infection). Clones with the env determinant but lacking either functional vpr or vpu genes generated lower replication levels in monocytes. Mutation of both vpr and vpu, however, resulted in nearly complete
Using the one-step growth technique the production of the virus T2 in its host, measured by latent period and burst size, was shown to depend on the nutritional environment of the host cell.. When E. coli, grown in broth, was transferred to a simple medium, single organic compounds such as some amino acids and nucleosides were found to increase or accelerate the synthesis of virus.. An antimetabolite of glutamic acid, an amino acid important for virus synthesis, was shown to be inhibitory.. Several naturally occurring amino acids, leucine, serine, and cysteine, inhibited virus synthesis in the simple medium.. A chemically defined mixture was found which supported a rate of virus synthesis very nearly comparable to that found for host cells in nutrient broth.. ...
Yes, this methods works when you know the virus you are incubating and have the right cells available. if you dont know what celltype your virus infects, youll have to try some systems, till you find one that supports virus replication in vitro ...
A single virus particle (virion) cannot replicate or express genetic material (DNA, RNA) without a host cell. Viral infection and virus replication involves six…
To investigate the effect of NP-41V and/or 210D on virus replication, recombinant viruses were generated with reverse-genetics as described previously [21]. For biosafety concerns, the four rescued viruses were performed using G1 (H9N2) backbones: rgG1-WT, rgG1-NP-V41I, rgG1-D210E, and rgG1- NP-V41I-D210E. MDCK cells were infected with rescued viruses at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.001, and incubated in the appropriate medium containing 2 mg/L N-p-tosyl-L-phenylalaninechloromethyl ketone-treated (TPCK) trypsin (Sigma, Saint Louis, MO, USA) at 33 or 37°C. At 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours post inoculation (hpi), supernatants were harvested and virus titers were determined using MDCK cells, as described previously [22]. As shown in Figure 3B, at 37°C, the D210E substitution in the NP protein significantly decreased the replication ability of rgG1-WT at early stages post infection (12 and 24 hpi (p , 0.05; n = 3), although all four viruses demonstrated comparable growth capability at ...
Endothelial cells are believed to play an important role in response to virus infection. Our previous microarray analysis showed that H9N2 virus infection and inactivated viral particle inoculation increased the expression of interferon-inducible transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In present study, we deeply investigated the expression patterns of IFITM1 and IFITM1-mediated antiviral response induced by H9N2 virus infection and inactivated viral particle inoculation in HUVECs. Epithelial cells that are considered target cells of the influenza virus were selected as a reference control. First, we quantified the expression levels of IFITM1 in HUVECs induced by H9N2 virus infection or viral particle inoculation using quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Second, we observed whether hemagglutinin or neuraminidase affected IFITM1 expression in HUVECs. Finally, we investigated the effect of induced-IFITM1 on the antiviral state in HUVECs by siRNA and
Mathematicians and scientists from two UK universities have collaborated to shed new light on the process of viral replication during an infection.. Experimentalists from the University of Leeds and mathematicians from the University of York devised a mathematical model that gives new insights into the molecular mechanisms behind virus assembly, helping to explain the efficiency of their operation.. Researchers from the Departments of Mathematics and Biology at the University of York have developed a theoretical basis for the speed and efficiency with which viruses assemble the protective proteins for their genetic information - in this case an RNA molecule - during an infection.. The team incorporated multiple specific contacts between the genomic RNA and the proteins in the containers, along with other details of real virus infections, into a mathematical model that demonstrates how these contacts act collectively to reduce the complexity of virus formation.. They thus solved a longstanding ...
The objective: Binding viruses to designer ViroCatcher cells that cannot support viral replication to diagnose, attenuate, and prevent infection. What we intended to do: (1) Make our designer cell safe, (2) Express specific cell surface receptors and antibodies to catch the virus, (3) Transduce the signal after viruses attached for feedback control, and (4) Remove the viruses along with ViroCatcher itself. Anticipated results: the ViroCatcher is made safe for the bloodstream. When it is injected into the bloodstream, our ViroCatcher passively lies around letting viruses attach to it by using its 4 receptors: CD4 (for HIV), Integrin (for various viruses), Sialic Acid (for Influenza), and Antibodies (for Influenza). After enough viruses attach to it, or after a certain amount of time elapses, it removes itself from the bloodstream by calling macrophages to eat it up. ...
IFITMs are broad antiviral factors that block incoming virions in endosomal vesicles, protecting target cells from infection. In the case of HIV-1, we and others reported the existence of an additional antiviral mechanism through which IFITMs lead to the production of virions of reduced infectivity. However, whether this second mechanism of inhibition is unique to HIV or extends to other viruses is currently unknown. To address this question, we have analyzed the susceptibility of a broad spectrum of viruses to the negative imprinting of the virion particles infectivity by IFITMs. The results we have gathered indicate that this second antiviral property of IFITMs extends well beyond HIV and we were able to identify viruses susceptible to the three IFITMs altogether (HIV-1, SIV, MLV, MPMV, VSV, MeV, EBOV, WNV), as well as viruses that displayed a member-specific susceptibility (EBV, DUGV), or were resistant to all IFITMs (HCV, RVFV, MOPV, AAV). The swapping of genetic elements between resistant ...
Buy a McAfee Active Virus Defense Suite - subscription license (2 years) + 1st ye or other Security Suites & Antivirus at CDWG.com
Buy a McAfee Active Virus Defense Suite - subscription license (2 years) + 2 Year or other Security Suites & Antivirus at CDWG.com
Recent studies have shown that replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is dependent on miR-122 expression.[20] miR-122 regulates HCV by binding directly to two adjacent sites close to the 5 end of HCV RNA.[21] Although these experiments were conducted using genotype 1a and 1b HCV RNA, the miR-122 binding sites are highly conserved across different genotypes, and miR-122 is also required for replication of infectious type 2a HCV.[22] As miRNAs generally function to repress gene expression by binding to 3UTR sites, this positive regulation of viral replication via a 5UTR represents a novel function for miR-122. The mechanism of regulation is not yet clear. miR-122 stimulates translation of HCV RNA, but not to a sufficient extent to explain its effects on viral replication, indicating that a second stage of the viral replication cycle must also be regulated.[23][24] HCV RNA synthesis is not affected by miR-122, suggesting that regulation of other processes such as RNA stability may occur.[25][26] ...
In vertebrates, successful host defense against viral infections relies heavily on the early production of IFN-α/β, which promotes an antiviral state in adjacent noninfected cells as well as the activation of antiviral cytotoxic lymphocytes (1). IL-12 and TNF-α are also critical cytokines involved in antiviral defense. IL-12 stimulates the proliferation of T cells as well as the production of IFN-γ by both NK and T cells, whereas TNF-α takes part in the activation of cellular immunity and in the induction of apoptosis of infected cells. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs)3 have been shown to be specialized in the production of high levels of IFN-α/β and TNF-α in response to a wide variety of viruses in both humans and mice (2).. The molecular mechanisms promoting the production of cytokines by pDCs in response to most viral infections are independent of productive viral replication within the pDC itself and rely on the detection of viral genomes from engulfed viral particles or apoptotic ...
Viruses need living cells for replication and production of virus progeny. Thus far, antiviral therapy primarily targets viral factors but often induces therapy resistance. New improved therapies attempt to targets cellular factors that are essential for viral replication.
Reproduction in Viruses or Replication of viruses are obligate intracellular parasite. They are reproduced only within a host cell. Viruses lack the enzyme for its replication. After reading this article you will know that how do viruses reproduce and its life cycle.
The genotype and phenotype of HSV2-gD27 are stable when the virus is passaged in human epithelial cells in vitro and during acute infection of mice.. HSV2-gD27 was propagated in B78H1-A10 mouse cells, which express human HVEM but not human nectin-1. HSV2-gD27 was not able to infect B78H1-C10 mouse cells, which express human nectin-1 but not HVEM, since the mutation in gD prevents its interaction with nectin-1 (33). To determine the sensitivity of the assay to detect WT virus mixed with HSV2-gD27, we infected B78H1-C10 cells with 400 PFU of WT virus (titrated in ARPE-19 cells) and 106 PFU of HSV2-gD27 (also titrated in ARPE-19 cells), either together or separately, and assayed the number of plaques on B78H1-C10 cells, which support replication of WT virus but not HSV2-gD27. Coinfection of B78H1-C10 cells with the two viruses resulted in a mean of 6.5 plaques, infection with WT virus alone yielded 5.5 plaques, and infection with HSV2-gD27 yielded no plaques. These data indicate that HSV2-gD27 does ...
PositivelyPositive.ca is designed to create awareness around the many HIV and AIDS issues and promotes messages of positive living with HIV
RNase L is a principle mediator of the innate antiviral response and is thus critically important for human health. Virus replication in higher vertebrates is r...
The search for inhibitors of viral replication is dependent on understanding the events taking place at the molecular level during viral infection. All the essential steps during the viral life cycle...
There are more than 25 drugs to control HIV, yet the virus remains one of the worlds biggest health problems. One of the many challenges with existing therapies is that a dormant version of the virus is always lurking in the background, ready to attack the immune system as soon as treatment is interrupted. _______________________________________…
The reason for using drugs from different families is because there is evidence of cross-resistance. That is, if a strain of HIV can defeat one NNRTI it might show resistance to all NNRTIs. An analogy to delaying resistance by administering three different classes of drugs simultaneously is that most people are capable of bunny hopping up one stair-step. Very few are capable of bunny hopping directly to the third step in one hop. In a similar way, a virus might mutate by random chance to defeat one antiviral mechanism. The chances of a virus simultaneously experiencing three mutations that defeat all three antiviral mechanisms is very, very ...
Hi! I am new around here but wanted to see if anyone else is using IVFAdvantage or Attain? I considered both but went with IVFAdvantage because I like
Plants have evolved very good defenses against viruses over the millennia, and we can take advantage of these natural protections against viruses for ourselves.
Plants have evolved very good defenses against viruses over the millennia, and we can take advantage of these natural protections against viruses for ourselves.
Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes discovered that an enzyme called SMYD2 could be a new therapeutic target for flushing out the HIV that hides in infected individuals. Overcoming this latent virus remains the most significant ...
Viruses are small infectious particles that cannot replicate on their own, but need to infect a cell in order to copy. Viral particles (called virions) consist of a protein envelope and a genetic material inside.
Panda Antivirus has found the following viruses in the message: Server : EXCHANGE02 Sent by : [email protected] Address : [email protected] To : [email protected] Subject : Re: Re: My details Date : 05/09/2003 08:48:07 Sent by You File : details.pif Virus : W32/Sobig.F - Deleted http://www.pandasoftware.com ...
One digit Multiplication Activity 4. Free online multiplication activities to help kids learn the multiplication facts. 1st grade year 1 multiplication.
TY - JOUR. T1 - An interferon lambda 4-associated variant in the hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase affects viral replication in infected cells. AU - Bamford, Connor G.G.. AU - McLauchlan, John. PY - 2021/2/1. Y1 - 2021/2/1. N2 - Host IFNL4 haplotype status contributes to the development of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in individuals who are acutely infected with the virus. In silico studies revealed that specific amino acid variants at multiple sites on the HCV polyprotein correlate with functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IFNL4 locus. Thus, SNPs at the IFNL4 locus may select variants that influence virus replication and thereby the outcome of infection. Here, we examine the most significantly IFNL4-associated amino acid variants that lie in the lambda (L) 2 loop of the HCV NS5B RNA polymerase. L2 loop variants were introduced into both sub-genomic replicon and full-length infectious clones of HCV and viral replication was examined in the presence and absence ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immune activation driven by CTLA-4 blockade augments viral replication at mucosal sites in simian immunodeficiency virus infection. AU - Cecchinato, Valentina. AU - Tryniszewska, Elzbieta. AU - Ma, Zhong Min. AU - Vaccari, Monica. AU - Boasso, Adriano. AU - Tsai, Wen Po. AU - Petrovas, Constantinos. AU - Fuchs, Dietmar. AU - Heraud, Jean Michel. AU - Venzon, David. AU - Shearer, Gene M.. AU - Koup, Richard A.. AU - Lowy, Israel. AU - Miller, Chris J. AU - Franchini, Genoveffa. PY - 2008/4/15. Y1 - 2008/4/15. N2 - The importance of chronic immune activation in progression to AIDS has been inferred by correlative studies in HIV-infected individuals and in nonhuman primate models of SIV infection. Using the SIV mac251 macaque model, we directly address the impact of immune activation by inhibiting CTLA-4, an immunoregulatory molecule expressed on activated T cells and a subset of regulatory T cells. We found that CTLA-4 blockade significantly increased T cell activation and viral ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Viral genome replication. AU - Cameron, Craig Eugene. AU - Raney, Kevin D.. AU - Götte, Matthias. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Provides the first comprehensive review of viral genome replication strategies, emphasizing not only pathways and regulation but also the structure-function, mechanism, and inhibition of proteins and enzymes required for this process Currently, there is no single source that permits comparison of the factors, elements, enzymes and/or mechanisms employed by different classes of viruses for genome replication. As a result, we (and our students) often restrict our focus to our particular system, missing out on the opportunity to define unifying themes in viral genome replication or benefit from the advances in other systems. For example, extraordinary biological and experimental paradigms that have been established over the past five years for the DNA replication systems of bacteriophage T4 and T7 will likely be of great value to anyone interested in ...
Abstract: Glycosylation of host and viral proteins is an important posttranslational modification needed to ensure correct function of glycoproteins. For this reason, we asked whether inhibition of O-glycosylation during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro replication could affect HIV infectivity and replication rates. We used benzyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-galactopyranoside (BAGN), a compound that has been widely used to inhibit O-glycosylation in several cell lines. Pretreatment and culture of PHA-blast target cells with BAGN increased the percentage of HIV-infected cells (7.6-fold, p = 0.0115), the per-cell amount of HIV p24 protein (1.3-fold, p = 0.2475), and the viral particles in culture supernatants (7.1-fold, p = 0.0029) compared to BAGN-free cultures. Initiating infection with virus previously grown in the presence of BAGN further increased percentage of infected cells (30-fold, p , 0.0001), intracellular p24 (1.5-fold, p = 0.0433), and secreted viral particles (74-fold, p , ...
In vitro fitness assays are essential tools for determining viral replication fitness for viruses such as HIV-1. Various measurements have been used to extrapolate viral replication fitness, ranging from the number of viral particles per infectious unit, growth rate in cell culture, and relative fitness derived from multiple-cycle growth competition assays. Growth competition assays provide a particularly sensitive measurement of fitness since the viruses are competing for cellular targets under identical growth conditions. There are several experimental factors to consider when conducting growth competition assays, including the multiplicity of infection (MOI), sampling times, and viral detection and fitness calculation methods. Each factor can affect the end result and hence must be considered carefully during the experimental design. The protocol presented here includes steps from constructing a new recombinant HIV-1 clone to performing growth competition assays and analyzing the experimental ...
My research interests are centered on viruses, particularly influenza viruses, which are important human and animal pathogens causing widespread clinical and veterinary disease. My group focuses on the fundamental molecular mechanisms of influenza virus replication, aiming to understand the molecular determinants of host range and virulence of influenza viruses. By gaining further insights into the molecular aspects of influenza virus replication we hope to facilitate the development of novel strategies to combat influenza.. Specifically, we address questions ranging from how the influenza virus RNA polymerase transcribes and replicates the segmented negative-sense viral RNA genome in the nucleus of the infected cell to how the RNA genome is exported from the nucleus and assembles into infectious progeny virus particles. We are also interested in the role of host factors in viral replication as well as in understanding the effects of virus infection on the host cell, the molecular mechanisms of ...
RNA virus replication machineries.(A) RdRps of hepatitis C virus and reovirus. Hepatitis C virus is a (+)RNA virus from the Flaviviridae family, while reovirus
Viral and cellular factors responsible for parvovirus target cell specificity have been examined for two serologically indistinguishable strains of the minute virus of mice which infect mouse cells of dissimilar differentiated phenotype. Both the prototype strain and the immunosuppressive strain grow in and form plaques on monolayers of simian virus 40-transformed human fibroblasts, a finding that has allowed the comparison of several aspects of their virus-host cell interactions. Although closely related by antigenic and genomic criteria, both the prototype strain and the immunosuppressive strain are restricted for lytic growth in each others murine host cell, that is, in T cells and fibroblasts, respectively. The host range of each virus variant appears to be specified by a genetic determinant that is stably inherited in the absence of selection. In the restrictive virus-host interaction lytic growth is limited to a small or, in some cases, undetectable subset of the host cell population, and ...
figure 19.4. Adjunctive treatments of HIV-1 and other neurodegenerative disorders. A number of adjunctive therapies are being developed for treatment of HIV-1-associated cognitive impairments. These are directed at pathogenic mechanisms for disease, including those that affect viral replication, modulate neuroinflammation, interdict cell signaling events that lead to neuronal demise, or affect cell migration into the brain or the viral replication cycle (A). Novel approaches are now under development to harness the hosts own immune system to combat disease. These methodologies currently involve direct immunization strategies and novel nanoparticle delivery systems (B). GA, glatiramer acetate; MDM, monocyte derived macrophages; MP, mononuclear phagocyte; PAF, platelet-activating factor; PPARg, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.. multifactorial, in that a complex set of toxic reactions including inflammation, glutamatergic neurotoxicity, increases in iron and nitric oxide, ...
The identification of novel antiretroviral agents is required to provide alternative treatment options for HIV-1-infected patients. The screening of a phenotypic cell-based viral replication assay led to the identification of a novel class of 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazol-6-one (pyrrolopyrazolone) HIV-1 inhibitors, exemplified by two compounds: BI-1 and BI-2. These compounds inhibited early postentry stages of viral replication at a step(s) following reverse transcription but prior to 2 long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circle formation, suggesting that they may block nuclear targeting of the preintegration complex. Selection of viruses resistant to BI-2 revealed that substitutions at residues A105 and T107 within the capsid (CA) amino-terminal domain (CANTD) conferred high-level resistance to both compounds, implicating CA as the antiviral target. Direct binding of BI-1 and/or BI-2 to CANTD was demonstrated using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical ...
Inhibition of HIV-1 progeny virion release by cell-surface CD4 is relieved by expression of the viral Nef protein.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Abstract: A successful infection by a plant virus results from the complex molecular interplay between the host plant and the invading virus. Thus, dissecting the molecular network of virus-host interactions advances the understanding of the viral infection process and may assist in the development of novel antiviral strategies. In the past decade, molecular identification and functional characterization of host factors in the virus life cycle, particularly single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses, have been a research focus in plant virology. As a result, a number of host factors have been identified. These host factors are implicated in all the major steps of the infection process. Some host factors are diverted for the viral genome translation, some are recruited to improvise the viral replicase complexes for genome multiplication, and others are components of transport complexes for cell-to-cell spread via plasmodesmata and systemic movement through the phloem. This review summarizes ...
Transcription mapping studies and DNA sequence analysis of the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment predict that gene D8 encodes a protein 304 amino acids in length, with a molecular mass of 35,426 daltons, that is expressed at late times in infection. In order to determine whether the native D8 protein is required for virus propagation, we constructed a frameshift mutation in the D8 coding sequence. Virus containing this mutation were isolated and shown to replicate in a single-step growth experiment with wild type virus growth kinetics, demonstrating that the normal-length D8 protein is not essential for virus propagation in tissue culture. In order to investigate the synthesis of the wild-type and the mutant D8 proteins in virus-infected cells, we raised polyclonal antisera to a fusion protein consisting of a portion of the D8 coding sequence linked to the Escherichia coli trpE gene. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of the time course of D8 protein synthesis in cells infected with either ...
Viruses are obligate parasites and can only reproduce within host cells because they lack metabolic pathways to complete their replication cycles. Host factors required in viral replication are mainly those involved in lipid metabolism, cell cycle control and apoptosis, cell-to-cell interactions, immune system regulation, etc. Several inhibitors targeting viral polymerases have been designed. However, the rapid appearance of resistant mutants, as a direct consequence of the viral population structure, diminishes the efficacy of this kind of molecules. To elude the rapid loss of treatment efficiency due to the appearance of resistance mutations, cellular factors have been proposed as a promising therapeutic target to inhibit RNA(+) virus replication. In this review, we focus on those interactions between host factors and HCV replicase, to modulate either cellular metabolism or HCV polymerase activity.. ...
The small genome of polyomaviruses encodes a limited number of proteins that are highly dependent on interactions with host cell proteins for efficient viral replication. The SV40 large T antigen (LT) contains several discrete functional domains including the LXCXE or RB-binding motif, the DNA binding and helicase domains that contribute to the viral life cycle. In addition, the LT C-terminal region contains the host range and adenovirus helper functions required for lytic infection in certain restrictive cell types. To understand how LT affects the host cell to facilitate viral replication, we expressed full-length or functional domains of LT in cells, identified interacting host proteins and carried out expression profiling. LT perturbed the expression of p53 target genes and subsets of cell-cycle dependent genes regulated by the DREAM and the B-Myb-MuvB complexes. Affinity purification of LT followed by mass spectrometry revealed a specific interaction between the LT C-terminal region and ...
Insight on Protein That Blocks HIV Replication May Help Battle Viral Reservoir April 22, 2013 Insight on Protein That Blocks HIV Replication May Help Battle Viral Reservoir Re, team37262board
In Part III of our series on Strategies for Improving Viral Yield in Vaccine Manufacturing, we will examine the use of manufacturing strategies to improve viral yield and lower cost of production. Improving viral yield and lowering cost is critical for improving access to vaccines in the developing world where even minor medical expenses are prohibitive. Improving viral yield also enables a faster response time in case of a pandemic. Improving cell culture media is one way to increase virus yield and was examined in Part I titled Improving Media to Increase Virus Yield in Vaccine Production. In Part II titled Utilizing Bioreactors to Increase Virus Production in Vaccine Manufacturing, we discussed the role of bioreactors and accompanying technology as another way to achieve higher yield. In Part III we will look at additional strategies that can be employed as part of the manufacturing process to achieve higher yield and reduce cost.. In vaccine manufacturing keeping viruses stable during ...
We believe that it is necessary to address each of these problem areas in order to deliver a successful curative combination therapy for HBV. Any such cure needs to rapidly, completely and sustainably reduce HBV viral load to undetectable levels, stimulate and reactivate the patients immune response in order to enable the body to fight HBV, and inhibit the formation of and eliminate viral cccDNA in the infected liver cells.. Aggressive Suppression of HBV Replication. Determining the level of viral replication at the site of infection in the liver is difficult and invasive. Because of this, alternative measurements, which utilize blood as a surrogate, are typically used. This is not ideal, because significantly more virus can be found in the liver than in the bloodstream. Although current HBV therapies do lead to undetectable virus levels in the blood in some infected patients, it is believed that low-level viral replication continues to occur in infected liver cells. The likelihood of ...
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English: A simplified diagram of the Hepatitis C virus replication cycle. Created by User:GrahamColm (Photo credit: Wikipedia) ...
In a study published Wednesday in Nature Communications, researchers discovered that certain strains of H7N9 have mutated to become highly resistant to antivirals like Tamiflu while maintaining high levels of pathogenicity. This is not normal. Normally when a virus acquires drug-resistance through mutation, this mutation attenuates it, decreasing viral virulence or replication ability. The study…
A variety of different methods for the evaluation of antiviral agents in cell culture systems are briefly reviewed. It has been repeatedly noted that many test conditions such as the cell culture system, virus strain, virus challenge dose, virus input multiplicity of infection, and time of harvesting, etc., can substantially affect or even alter the test results, thus making comparative studies and unambiguous evaluations very difficult. Attempts are made to discuss previous test methods together with our recent studies with the aim to simplify test procedures and assay methods. Suggestions are proposed for in vitro evaluation of new antiviral agents. It is hoped that this review will alarm investigators to the problems of assaying new antiviral agents. If the suggestions made in this review can be followed, the screening of the enormous number of promising antiviral compounds may be made more efficiently in the near future.
Calcium spirulan, an inhibitor of enveloped virus replication, from a blue-green alga Spirulina, exhibits activity against a variety of viruses.
Accumulation of viral products such as RNA replication intermediates and viral proteins represents a potential stressor for host cells. Rapidly after detection, host cells respond by implementing multiple appropriated defense mechanisms, including innate immune and stress responses. The strongest response to several forms of stress, including viral infections, is a global reduction of protein synthesis which promotes cellular survival. Translation suppression is induced by the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2α), thereby causing stalling of translation initiation and accumulation of stalled pre-initiation complexes in cytosolic stress granules (SGs). Viruses do not package ribosomes and therefore fully rely on the utilization of the host translation machinery to ensure viral protein synthesis, replication and virus progeny production. As a consequence, virus survival depends on the establishment of a delicate and fine-tuned balance ...
Virus infection is a multistep process that has significant effects on the structure and function of both the virus and the host cell. The first steps of virus replication include cell binding, entry and release of the viral genome. Single-virus force spectroscopy (SVFS) has become a promising tool to understand the molecular details of those steps. SVFS data complemented by biochemical and biophysical, including theoretical modeling approaches provide valuable insights into molecular events that accompany virus infection. Properties of virus-cell interaction as well as structural alterations of the virus essential for infection can be investigated on a quantitative level. Here we review applications of SVFS to virus binding, structure and mechanics. We demonstrate that SVFS offers unexpected new insights not accessible by other methods. ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 23:283-293...Ken Komatsu,1 Masayoshi Hashimoto,1 Johji Ozeki,1 Yasuyuki Yamaji,1 Kensaku Maejima,1 Hiroko Senshu,1 Misako Himeno,1 Yukari Okano,1 Satoshi Kagiwada,2 and Shigetou Namba1...
Vaccines have provided considerable success in preventing viral disease, but they have modest or no therapeutic effect for individuals who are already infected. Consequently, our second arm of antiviral defense has been the development and use of antiviral drugs: they can stop an infection once it has started.. However, despite 50 years of research, our arsenal of antiviral drugs is dangerously small. Only about 30 antiviral drugs are available on the US market, most against herpesviruses and HIV-1. There are many reasons for this paucity of antiviral drugs. Compounds interfering with virus growth can adversely affect the host cell, leading to unacceptable toxicity. Many medically important viruses are dangerous, cannot be propagated in the laboratory or tested in animal systems. Another requirement often difficult to fulfill is that the drugs must completely block virus replication. Many acute virus infections are of short duration; by the time the patient feels ill, virus replication is ...
As shown above, early phase II studies strongly suggest that RBV is needed in protease inhibitor drug regimens. Patients who did not receive RBV in the PROVE trials and those with low-dose RBV (400-1000 mg) in the SPRINT-1 trial had increased viral breakthrough, higher relapse and lower SVR. This data strongly indicates that standard-dose RBV is needed to optimize response to these first generation protease inhibitors by reducing the development of resistance/breakthrough. It is also clear that the initial rapid decrease in HCV viral levels with protease combination therapy is because of inhibition of wild type virus that then leads to the uncovering of pre-existing resistant variants. Resistant variants are present in most patients at very low rates (,1%) and are usually detected after near complete suppression of the dominant, wild type virus. The continued replication of these variants can then lead to a virological breakthrough. To date, mutations conferring TVR-resistance have been ...
Viruses are among the simplest biological systems and are highly effective vehicles for the delivery of genetic material into susceptible host cells. Artificial viruses can be used as model systems for providing insights into natural viruses and can be considered a testing ground for developing artificial life. Moreover, they are used in biomedical and biotechnological applications, such as targeted delivery of nucleic acids for gene therapy and as scaffolds in material science. In a natural setting, survival of viruses requires that a significant fraction of the replicated genomes be completely protected by coat proteins. Complete protection of the genome is ensured by a highly cooperative supramolecular process between the coat proteins and the nucleic acids, which is based on reversible, weak and allosteric interactions only. However, incorporating this type of supramolecular cooperativity into artificial viruses remains challenging. Here, we report a rational design for a self-assembling ...
Inhibition of HIV protease (HIVPR) or HIV reverse transcriptase (HIVRT) are two approaches to block viral replication. HIVPR is an aspartic acid protease that cleaves newly synthesized polyproteins at the appropriate places to create the mature protein components of an infectious HIV virion. Inhibition of its activity disrupts HIVs ability to replicate and infect additional cells. HIVRT is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that catalyzes the conversion/transcription of single-stranded RNA into DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA; hence, reverse transcription is the reverse of this. Discovery of small molecule inhibitors of these targets is facilitated by the use of ligand and receptor based screening using two different targeted libraries available from Life Chemicals available:. ...
In this note, the upstream process of analyzing viral preparations is addressed, as well as the use of multi-laser nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) as a cost and time efficient method to measure size, count virus particles, and correlate to infectious titer.
View Notes - MCDB Christoffersen Lecture#9 from MCDB 1a at UCSB. MCDB Christoffersen Lecture #9 Start of Chapter 16 Virus life cycles o Bacteriophages and HIV retrovirus Regulation of Gene
Our group Interaction of viruses with the host is fundamental to initiate an infection, and to complete a successful virus replication cycle. However, the outcome of this initiation depends up several factors of both virus and host origins. Among host responses, the most profound host-comeback is the induction of innate immune responses, mediated by the central players, interferon (IFN) signalling molecules.
Optimization of a high-throughput 384 well virus replication assay.A. Comparison of virus replication over time (cells/viral foci) following infection using a s
The present data demonstrate that primary HCs and CTBs isolated from full-term placentae are permissive to productive ZIKV infection by a contemporary strain currently circulating in the Americas. We also found that HCs respond to infection by triggering antiviral defense programs in the absence of overt cell death. In this limited study of five donors, we observed individual variability in kinetics and magnitude of virus replication, inflammation, and antiviral gene expression, likely reflecting differences in individual genetics (Querec et al., 2009, Thio, 2008). Though unlikely given the low number of cell passages PR 2015 has undergone, it is possible that minor cell culture adaptations or quasi-species may also be playing a role in donor-to-donor variability. These observations suggest that donors may have the capacity to restrict ZIKV at different stages of the viral replication cycle. This may also relate to observed differences in intrauterine transmission efficiency, where more ...
It has been a while since these posts, I should really make update posts more often.. So the infection system has been replaced with a Virology system.. A virus doesnt suddenly appear upon contact ingame, but they have a chance of appearing dormant when a player spawns.. There are several types of pathogens, those that spread via blood, contact, and airborne ...
DNA virus replication strategies (2) - Lecture from USCMED, Columbia recorded between 2007-2009. Good lecture in advanced e-learning presentation
In the fight against the viruses that invade everyday life, seeing and understanding the battleground is essential. Scientists at the Morgridge Institute for Research have, for the first time, imaged molecular structures vital to how a major class of viruses replicates within infected cells.
This model has been built with the differential expressions in Nowaks 1996 paper for population dynamics of immune responses to persistent viruses and is known to run in PCEnv and COR. The units have been checked and they are consistent. This particular CellML model is the 2nd model out of the 3 outlined in the paper. Note that the figures in the paper display the logged varibale values, and also certain parameters are unspecified and are left for the modeller to decide. Current parameterization portrays the interaction of uninfected cells x, infected cells y, free virus particles v, and CTL response z (model 2).. ...
In addition, P 0. And Javitt, integrated state to active replication в Inhibiting protease, a viral enzyme responsible for the adherence of viral proteins both before proviral integra- tion and as the viral particles recombine into functional proteins needed kefex viral maturation allergy to cipro and keflex Preventing viral assembly and budding out of the cell For more information, visit the Medscape quick refer- ence guide to antiretrovirals at www.
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A COVID-19 outbreak in the Kanienkeha:ka (Mohawk) community of Kahnawake on Montreals South Shore last week was a hard reminder for the communitys COVID-19 task force that the virus remains active and health measures need to remain in place.
Alexandria now has 6,260 cases of COVID-19, an increase of 470 cases since this time last week. The death toll from the virus remains at 82. There have also
R 82913: antiviral target on reverse transcriptase of HIV-1 revealed by above cpd; structure given in first source; RN given is for (S)-isomer
Viruses use fake proteins to hide in our cells Date: July 7, 2014 Source: Monash University Some viruses can hide in our bodies for decades and...
Actimetrics makes automated systems for animal behavioral testing. ClockLab, FreezeFrame, WaterMaze, LimeLight, Big Brother, LumiCycle, Cell- & MultiCycle,
Ive been reading a lot about CFIDs and fibro. Some theories are that is has a viral origin, EBV and HHV6 specifically.I have tested postive for both these viruses.....
The mysterious illness that is leaving children paraylzed in California may have spread to Arizona, according to one local family.
In fact, it is not restricted at all. You may compare the energies needed to remove one electron out of a solid; these are also meaningful, albeit in a different way, and known for a wide range of substances. But when you are talking about atoms, you want to measure atoms, and the only way to have an undisturbed lone atom is to put it in a gaseous state. And ...
Multiplication of numbers should be indicated by the multiplication sign (×) and may be used to express area (eg, a 15 × 35-cm2 burn), volume (eg, a 5.2 × 3.7 × 6.9-m3 cube), matrixes (eg, 2 × 2 table), magnification (×30 000), or scientific notation (eg, 3.6 × 109/L). |
A late protein is a viral protein that is formed after replication of the virus. One example is VP4 from simian virus 40 (SV40 ... "DNA Virus Replication". Daniels R, Sadowicz D, Hebert DN (July 2007). "A very late viral protein triggers the lytic release of ... "Organization of the major and minor capsid proteins in human papillomavirus type 33 virus-like particles". J. Gen. Virol. 76 (9 ...
... virus 3 Acidianus filamentous virus 6 Acidianus filamentous virus 7 Acidianus filamentous virus 8 Acidianus filamentous virus 9 ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. Dna templated ... Betalipothrixvirus is a genus of viruses in the order Ligamenvirales, in the family Lipothrixviridae. Archaea serve as natural ... There are currently six species in this genus including the type species Sulfolobus islandicus filamentous virus. Group: dsDNA ...
The treatment reduces viral replication in the liver, thereby reducing the viral load (the amount of virus particles as ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the hepadnavirus family.[36] The virus particle (virion) consists of an outer lipid ...
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. DNA-templated ... Viruses in Turriviridae have icosahedral geometries, and T=31 symmetry. The diameter is around 74 nm. Genomes are linear. ... Turriviridae is a family of viruses; it contains only one genus, Alphaturrivirus. The archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus serve as ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 13 August 2015. Viralzone: Turriviridae ICTV. ...
Pyrobaculum spherical virus Thermoproteus tenax spherical virus 1 Viruses in Globuloviridae are enveloped, with spherical ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Dna templated transcription is the method of transcription. Pyrobaculum and thermoproteus ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Häring M, Peng X, Brügger K, Rachel R, Stetter KO, Garrett RA, ... Globuloviridae is a family of viruses. Pyrobaculum and thermoproteus archaea serve as natural hosts. There are currently only ...
... presenting the first described case of exaptation of an enzyme for a virus capsid protein function. Viral replication is ... Thermoproteus tenax virus 1 Viruses in Alphalipothrixvirus are enveloped, with rod-shaped geometries. The diameter is around 38 ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015. Janekovic, D.; Wunderl, S.; Holz, I.; Zillig, W.; Gierl, A.; Neumann, H ... The TTV1 virion contains four virus-encoded proteins, TP1-4. The proteins do not display any sequence similarity to structural ...
Moradpour, D; Penin, F; Rice, CM (2007). "Replication of hepatitis C virus". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 5 (6): 453-63. doi: ... Nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) is a viral protein found in the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is an RNA polymerase, having the ... De-novo adds necessary primers for initiation of RNA replication. Several drugs either on the market or in various stages of ... O'Farrell, D; Trowbridge, R; Rowlands, D; Jäger, J (2003). "Substrate complexes of hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase (HC-J4): ...
Viral replication[edit]. Transmission electron micrograph of Chikungunya virus particles. The virus consists of four ... It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ... Chikungunya virus is passed to humans when a bite from an infected mosquito breaks the skin and introduces the virus into the ...
"DNA Virus Replication".. ... While many viruses (such as HIV)[1] are described as expressing ... In some, simpler viruses, this pattern of expression is clearly defined, while in those with more complex genomes, such as the ... On the other hand, the large T antigen is required and it acts to initiate replication directly. It binds the viral origin of ... HIV has two stages of protein expression but these are not as a result of two stages of transcription surrounding replication ...
... the virus undergoes replication. After replication, the P, L, and M proteins participate in forming the ribonucleocapsid. Once ... It functions as a processivity factor for the virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and promotes viral RNA synthesis. Viruses in ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). October 2018. Retrieved 6 February 2019 ... Respiratory tract infections are associated with member viruses such as human respiratory syncytial virus. There are five ...
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by ... Mycoplasmatales virus-laidlawii 2 (L2) (tentative) Mycoplasmatales virus-laidlawii 3 (L3) (tentative) Mycoplasmatales virus- ... This family is poorly studied and little is known about these viruses. The family has one genus, Plasmavirus, which has one ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed) (2003). 00.053. Plasmaviridae. In: ICTVdB-The ...
Margaret Hunt; University of South Carolina (2010). "RN Virus Replication Strategies". sc.edu. McGlynn P, Lloyd RG (August 1999 ... There are numerous exceptions, however-some viruses have genomes made of double-stranded RNA and other viruses have single- ... and viruses (There is debate as to whether viruses are living or non-living). All living cells contain both DNA and RNA (except ... During cell division these chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing each cell its own complete ...
Replication follows the ssDNA rolling circle model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits ... The type species is Turnip curly top virus. Viruses in Turncurtovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=1 ... Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 13 August 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Viralzone: Turncurtovirus ICTV ...
The HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon (HBV_epsilon) is an element essential for HBV virus replication. It is an RNA ... epsilon Duck HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon Hepatitis B virus PRE alpha Hepatitis B virus PRE beta Hepatitis B virus PRE ... "Hepatitis B virus replication". World J. Gastroenterol. 13 (1): 48-64. doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i1.48. PMC 4065876. PMID 17206754. ... Beck, J; Nassal, M (2003). "Efficient Hsp90-independent in vitro activation by Hsc70 and Hsp40 of duck hepatitis B virus ...
Replication follows the negative stranded RNA virus replication model. Negative stranded rna virus transcription, using ... The virus exits the host cell by budding, and tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral G glycoproteins to host ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Afonso, Claudio L.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Bányai, Krisztián; Bào, Yīmíng ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Unassigned Genus: Polemovirus Poinsettia latent virus Viruses in Polemovirus are non- ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic, and is lysogenic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. ... The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Commercial cultivars of euphorbia pulcherrima serve as the ...
Replication follows the negative stranded RNA virus replication model. Negative stranded RNA virus transcription, using ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export. Horses, sheep, cattle, rodents, birds, and humans serve as the natural ... Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral GP glycoproteins to host ... Currently, 16 viruses are assigned to eight species included in one genus in this family. Diseases associated with bornaviruses ...
Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of ... The virus exits the host cell by cell to cell movement. Fungi serve as the natural host. Hypovirus CHV1 is the only hypovirus ... Hypovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Hypoviridae. Fungi serve as natural hosts. There are currently four species in ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Peever, Tobin; Liu, Yir-Chung; Cortese, Paolo; Milgroom, Michael ( ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus ... Camelpox virus Cowpox virus Ectromelia virus Monkeypox virus Raccoonpox virus Skunkpox virus Taterapox virus Vaccinia virus ... Canarypox virus Fowlpox virus Juncopox virus Mynahpox virus Pigeonpox virus Psittacinepox virus Quailpox virus Sparrowpox virus ... Nile crocodilepox virus Genus: Leporipoxvirus Hare fibroma virus Myxoma virus Rabbit fibroma virus Squirrel fibroma virus Genus ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription, using the ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Tombusviridae Genus: Machlomovirus Maize chlorotic mottle virus Viruses in ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Wu, J. X.; Wang, Q; Liu, H; Qian, Y. J.; Xie, Y; Zhou, X. P. (2013). " ... The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ...
Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded rna virus transcription is the method of ... Viruses included in the genus Cystovirus are enveloped, with icosahedral and Spherical geometries, and T=13, T=2 symmetry. The ... Pseudomonas phage φ7, φ8, φ9, φ10, φ11, φ12, and φ13 have been identified and named, but other cystovirus-like viruses have ... In particular, the structural genes of cystoviruses are highly-similar to those used by a number of dsRNA viruses that infect ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... Botrytis virus F Viruses in Gammaflexiviridae are non-enveloped, with flexuous and Filamentous geometries. The diameter is ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Howitt, R. L.; Beever, R. E.; Pearson, M. N.; Forster, R. L. (2001). " ... "Genome characterization of Botrytis virus F, a flexuous rod-shaped mycovirus resembling plant 'potex-like' viruses". The ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... The virus exits the host cell by cell-to-cell movement. Fungi serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are parental and ... Narnavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Narnaviridae. Fungi serve as natural hosts. There are currently only two ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: Narnavirus ICTV ...
Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded rna virus transcription is the method of ... Group: dsRNA Order: Unassigned Family: Birnaviridae Genus: Blosnavirus Blotched snakehead virus Viruses in Blosnavirus are non- ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. ... Blosnavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Birnaviridae. Blotched snakehead fish serve as natural hosts. There is ...
Moss B (2006). "Poxviridae: the viruses and their replication". In Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, et al. (eds.). Fields ... Variola virus Smallpox was caused by infection with Variola virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus, the family ... While the Dryvax virus was cultured in the skin of calves and freeze-dried, ACAM2000s virus is cultured in kidney epithelial ... During the 19th century, the cowpox virus used for smallpox vaccination was replaced by vaccinia virus. Vaccinia is in the same ...
Replication follows the ssDNA rolling circle model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by pilus-mediated adsorption into the host cell. ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Viralzone: Chlamydiamicrovirus ... Chlamydiamicrovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Microviridae, in the subfamily Gokushovirinae. Various species of ...
Replication follows the negative stranded RNA virus replication model. Negative stranded RNA virus transcription, using ... The virus exits the host cell by budding, and tubule-guided viral movement. Fish serve as the natural host. "Viral Zone". ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral G glycoproteins to host ... Diseases associated with viruses of this genus include: breathing and swimming problems. Table legend: "*" denotes type species ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... Viruses include in the family Virgaviridae are characterized by unique alpha-like replication proteins. The following genera ... The virus exits the host cell by tripartite non-tubule guided viral movement, and monopartite non-tubule guided viral movement ... The name of the family is derived from the Latin word virga (rod), as all viruses in this family are rod-shaped. There are ...
Replication follows the positive-stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... Tulane Virus. PLoS One 8(3):e59817. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059817 "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". talk.ictvonline.org. ... Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus is a pathogen of rabbits that causes major problems throughout the world where rabbits are ... All viruses in this family possess a nonsegmented, polyadenylated, positive-sense, single-strand RNA genome around 7.5-8.5 ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method ... leaf virus Citrus tristeza virus Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 Mint virus 1 Raspberry leaf mottle virus Rehmannia virus ... Closterovirus Arracacha virus 1 Beet yellow stunt virus Beet yellows virus Blackcurrant closterovirus 1 Burdock yellows virus ... 1 Rose leaf rosette-associated virus Strawberry chlorotic fleck-associated virus Tobacco virus 1 Wheat yellow leaf virus "ICTV ...
Bryant M, Ratner L (1990). "Myristoylation-dependent replication and assembly of human immunodeficiency virus 1". Proc. Natl. ... Lee PP, Linial ML (1994). "Efficient particle formation can occur if the matrix domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... 1990). "Myristoylation of gag proteins of HIV-1 plays an important role in virus assembly". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 6 (6 ... Tashiro A, Shoji S, Kubota Y (1990). "Antimyristoylation of the gag proteins in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells ...
He discovered this when working with potato yellow-dwarf virus.[7]. This method was also used in Meselson and Stahl's famous ... gradient centrifugation to determine which isotope or isotopes of nitrogen were present in the DNA after cycles of replication. ... and viruses. Ultracentrifuges can also be used in the study of membrane fractionation. This occurs because ultracentrifuges can ... experiment in which they proved that DNA replication is semi-conservative by using different isotopes of nitrogen. They used ...
The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... whose concentration in the host cell determines when L switches from gene transcription to genome replication. Replication of ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
DNA replication. *DNA virus. G. *Gene. H. *Haplogroup. *Human genome. J. *J1 (Y-DNA) ...
Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the process of replication, transcription and translation of the ... Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, including protozoa, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method ... The virus exits the host cell by bacteria lysis. Enterobacteria serve as the natural host. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 ... Allolevivirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Leviviridae. Enterobacteria serve as natural hosts. There are currently only ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: Allolevivirus ICTV. ...
Vesicular stomatitis virusEdit. See also: Oncolytic virus. In 2000, researchers used the vesicular stomatitis virus, or VSV, to ... Logg CR, Tai CK, Logg A, Anderson WF, Kasahara N (20 May 2001). "A uniquely stable replication-competent retrovirus vector ... Neurofibromatosis, exposure to vinyl chloride, Epstein-Barr virus, ionizing radiation[1][2][3]. ... Epstein-Barr virus and ionizing radiation.[1][2][3] The evidence for mobile phone exposure is not clear.[3] The most common ...
They have developed a replication-competent vaccine against Lassa virus based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors ... Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ... The Lassa virus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic. They therefore list it for ...
Replication follows the dsDNA bidirectional replication model. Dna templated transcription, with some alternative splicing ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Ruminants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ... Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ... Deltapapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae. Ruminants serve as natural hosts. There are ...
2007). "Flaviviridae: The Viruses and Their Replication". In Knipe, D. M.; P. M. Howley (eds.). Fields Virology (5th ed.). ... Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ... Viruses reach the stomach of the mosquito, and if the virus concentration is high enough, the virions can infect epithelial ... Yellow fever is caused by yellow fever virus, a 40- to 50-nm-wide enveloped RNA virus, the type species and namesake of the ...
Data replication[edit]. The first release of IBM Notes included a generalized replication facility. The generalized nature of ... This class includes server and client backup software, anti-spam and anti-virus products, and e-discovery and archiving systems ... Originally, replication in Notes happened at document (i.e., record) level. With release of Notes 4 in 1996, replication was ... Replication between two servers, or between a client and a server, can occur over a network or a point-to-point modem ...
Virus RNA polymerases use VPg as primer. VPg as primer uses both minus and plus strand RNA synthesis. Picornavirus replication ... deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, Drosophila C virus, Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and Himetobi P virus. Several ... This family includes Infectious flacherie virus and SeIV-1 virus. Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. ... Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Equine rhinitis A virus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Genus: Aquamavirus ...
... can be infected by double-stranded DNA viruses that are unrelated to any other form of virus and have a variety of ... Kelman LM; Kelman Z (2004). "Multiple origins of replication in archaea". Trends Microbiol. 12 (9): 399-401. doi:10.1016/j.tim. ... the latter virus has the largest currently reported ssDNA genome. Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA interference ... One group is exemplified by the Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 ("Pleolipoviridae") infecting halophilic archaea[137] and the ...
MicroRNAs also play a role in replicating viruses such as HIV-1.[44] Novel HIV-1-encoded microRNA have been found to enhance ... DNA replication, transcription, and translation because of their highly regulated nature.[14] ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription.[6] ... "A novel HIV-1-encoded microRNA enhances its viral replication by targeting the TATA box region". Retrovirology. 11: 23. doi ...
... "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses."[31] ... Waga, S; Bauer, G; Stillman, B (April 1994). "Reconstitution of complete SV40 DNA replication with purified replication factors ... Stillman, B (December 1996). "Cell cycle control of DNA replication". Science. 274: 1659-64. Bibcode:1996Sci...274.1659S. doi: ... RNA interference (RNAi) and small-RNA biology; DNA replication; RNA splicing; signal transduction; genome structure; non-coding ...
"Interactions between Tat and TAR and human immunodeficiency virus replication are facilitated by human cyclin T1 but not ... and act as a negative regulator of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein. Two alternatively spliced ...
... for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected adults, adolescents and children above six years of age.[3] ... an HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitor which blocks the functioning of HIV integrase which is needed for viral replication. ...
The recruitment of cellular membranes and cytoskeleton to generate virus replication sites can also benefit viruses in other ... Viroplasms have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ... and Viroplasm Produced During Virus Replication". Advances in Virus Research. 70: 101-182. doi:10.1016/S0065-3527(07)70004-0. ... This is mostly shown for plant RNA viruses. Viroplasm is the location within the infected cell where viral replication and ...
Scientists have struggled to decide whether viruses are alive or not. Viruses lack common characteristics of a living cell, ... DNA replication, damage and repair - are considered to be the interphase portion of the cycle. While the M phase (mitosis and ... DNA replication, cell division, regeneration, specialization, and cell death. The cell cycle is divided into four distinct ... such as membranes, cell organelles, and the ability to reproduce by themselves.[6] Viruses range from 0.005 to .03 microns in ...
... directing the initiation of DNA replication for the virus as well as performing a transcriptional switch to allow for the ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... The JC virus or John Cunningham virus is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus). It was identified by ...
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[۶۱] ... "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of ویروس (زیستی)es"[۵۸] ... "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[۵۵] ...
The N protein contributes to viral replication, and coats the genomic RNA within the virion. Presently the soybean thrips ( ... Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV, previously: Soybean vein necrosis associated virus SVNaV) is a plant pathogenic virus of ... Portions of the virus that are believed to be critical for the spread of this virus, based on what is known for other members ... which is the only genus within this virus family that infects plants. Like other members of Bunyavirales, this virus is ...
regulation of centriole replication. • response to stress. • positive regulation of translation. • CENP-A containing nucleosome ... 1991). «Specific complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 rev and nucleolar B23 proteins: dissociation by the Rev ... 1995). «The cytotoxicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev: implications for its interaction with the nucleolar ... Identification of sequences important in the nucleolar localization of human immunodeficiency virus Rev: relevance of nucleolar ...
... crosslinks in virus DNA also appear to be removed by a recombinational repair process as occurs in SV40 virus infected ... The covalent linkage impedes replication fork progression. Thus unlinking the ICL is required before replication can resume. ... Psoralen monoadducts in the template DNA strand may also cause inaccurate replication bypass (translesion synthesis) that can ... "Repair of psoralen-treated DNA by genetic recombination in human cells infected with herpes simplex virus". Cancer Res. 41 (12 ...
Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... The RNA genome also has terminal noncoding regions, which are important in replication, and internal regions that encode virion ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ...
As arqueas poden ser infectadas por virus de ADN bicatenario que non están relacionados con ningún outro tipo de virus e teñen ... Kelman LM, Kelman Z (2004). "Multiple origins of replication in archaea". Trends Microbiol. 12 (9): 399-401. PMID 15337158. doi ... Pietilä MK, Roine E, Paulin L, Kalkkinen N, Bamford DH (2009). "An ssDNA virus infecting archaea; A new lineage of viruses with ... Ligamenvirales, virus que infectan arqueas. Ligazóns externas[editar , editar a fonte]. *. "Introduction to the Archaea". UCMP ...
Belyi, V. A.; Levine, A. J.; Skalka, A. M. (22 September 2010). "Sequences from Ancestral Single-Stranded DNA Viruses in ... Stanley N. Cohen; Annie C. Y. Chang (1 May 1973). "Recircularization and Autonomous Replication of a Sheared R-Factor DNA ... Koonin, Eugene V.; Dolja, Valerian V.; Morris, T. Jack (January 1993). "Evolution and Taxonomy of Positive-Strand RNA Viruses: ... Domingo, Esteban (2001). "RNA Virus Genomes". ELS. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0001488.pub2. ISBN 0470016175. ...
Mechanism of inhibitory effect of dextran sulfate and heparin on replication of human immunodeficiency virus in vitro»։ Proc. ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method ... Other viruses isolated from humans include the Syr-Darya valley fever virus and Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus. "Viral ... Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VHEV), a Theiler-like rat virus (TRV) (which has yet to be named) and Saffold virus ( ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the virus to host receptors, which ...
... passage of virus through the cell wall; (2) entry of virus or its nucleic acid into cells and then to replicative sites in ... The processes involved in plant virus replication may include (1) ... The processes involved in plant virus replication may include *(1). passage of virus through the cell wall; ... Stevens W.A. (1983) Plant Virus Replication. In: Virology of Flowering Plants. Tertiary Level Biology. Springer, Boston, MA. * ...
Source=Scaled up from Image:Virus Replication.svg by User:YK Times, who redrew from w:Image:Virusreplication.png using Adobe ... Scaled up from Image:Virus Replication.svg by User:YK Times, who redrew from w:Image:Virusreplication.png using Adobe ... DescriptionVirus Replication large.svg. A diagram of influenza viral cell invasion and replication. ... From Scheme of Influenza A virus replication (NCBI): "A virion attaches to the host cell membrane using Hemagglutinin(HA) and ...
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, relying on their host cells to provide the basic machinery to allow them to ... Major cellular structures involved in virus replication. Figure reprinted with permission from Harper DR (2011) Viruses: ... A general guide to viral replication strategies. Figure reprinted with permission from Harper DR (2011) Viruses: Biology, ... Differing effects of virus infections. Figure reprinted from Harper DR (2011) Viruses: Biology, Applications and Control, with ...
Cutaneous Dendritic Cells Promote Replication of Immunodeficiency Viruses. In: Ricciardi-Castagnoli P. (eds) Dendritic Cells in ... Mucosal Associate Lymphoid Tissue Perinatal Transmission Free Virus Fresh Skin Tonsillar Crypt These keywords were added by ... the skin-derived leukocytes have been used as a model for the mucosal leukocytes to study their interaction with virus and ...
Virus replication levels were recorded 12hpi by live microscopy. B. U6A cells or U6A-hSTAT2-FLAG or U6A-mSTAT2-FLAG cells were ... Mouse STAT2 restricts early dengue virus replication.. Ashour J1, Morrison J, Laurent-Rolle M, Belicha-Villanueva A, Plumlee CR ... By using STAT2(-/-) mice, we also demonstrate that mouse STAT2 restricts early dengue virus replication in vivo. These results ... that NS5-mediated IFN antagonism is essential for efficient virus replication. Moreover, we demonstrate that differences in NS5 ...
The virus enters the cell, replicates its genetic material, assembles new viruses and exits the host cell to find a new host. ... Replication of the influenza virus involves a host cell. ... The replication of influenza virus starts with the virus ... What is the Influenza Virus?. The influenza virus is responsible for the seasonal flu. There are three types of influenza virus ... Replication of Influenza Virus - Endocytosis to Budding. Medical Science / By Vasanth / Laboratory Testing, Identification & ...
Herein, we investigated the effects of meth on influenza A virus replication in human lung epithelial A549 cells. The cells ... However, little is known about whether meth has the ability to enhance influenza A virus replication, thus increasing severity ... Although the underlying mechanism responsible for the action of meth on attenuating virus replication requires further ... Influenza A virus infections frequently cause epidemics and pandemics of respiratory diseases among human populations. ...
Should something go awry however, the virus can cause mononucleosis or cancers of the lymph. The challenge is that its a ... Duke researchers detail how the Epstein-Barr virus manages to persist quietly inside the immune systems B cells in as many as ... Cancer-causing virus masters cells replication, immortality Epstein-Barr virus steers the B-cell to hide in plain sight ... Cancer-causing virus masters cells replication, immortality. Duke University. Journal. eLife. Funder. American Cancer Society ...
Replication and Maturation of Viruses. Virus-Host Interactions. Opposed to viruses with a plus-strand RNA genome, viruses with ... and Hantaan virus (Bunyaviridae), but also among plant viruses like Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; Tospovirus genus within ... Examples for these viruses can be found among many medically important viruses like Influenza virus (Orthomyxoviridae), Lasse ... Proteins translated from viral transcripts will support the ongoing replication and subsequent virus maturation, ultimately ...
Dengue virus (DENV)--a mosquito transmitted pathogen--is the causative agent of Dengue fever, the most important arboviral ... Molecular aspects of Dengue virus replication Future Microbiol. 2008 Apr;3(2):155-65. doi: 10.2217/17460913.3.2.155. ... genome replication and virus maturation, could help to develop such substances. Over the past several years, many important ... Dengue virus (DENV)--a mosquito transmitted pathogen--is the causative agent of Dengue fever, the most important arboviral ...
The research uses pioneering cryo-electron tomography to reveal the complex viral replication process in vivid detail, opening ... imaged molecular structures vital to how a major class of viruses replicates within infected cells. ... The viruses make replication compartments--essentially new organelles--in which the genome replication process takes place. The ... The replication compartments, or spherules, contain strands of RNA, the genetic code of the virus. Its in these spherules that ...
Resveratrol inhibition of varicella-zoster virus replication in vitro.. Docherty JJ1, Sweet TJ, Bailey E, Faith SA, Booth T. ... Resveratrol was found to inhibit varicella-zoster virus (VZV) replication in a dose-dependent and reversible manner. This ... The drug effectively limited VZV replication if added during the first 30 h of infection. Western blot analysis and real-time ... decrease in virus production in the presence of resveratrol was not caused by direct inactivation of VZV or inhibition of virus ...
The findings show that this manipulation of telomeres may explain how viruses like herpes are able to successfully replicate ... has found that an infection with herpes simplex virus 1 causes rearrangements in telomeres, small stretches of DNA that serve ... while also revealing more about the protective role that telomeres play against other viruses. ... Herpes virus rearranges telomeres to improve viral replication Findings lead to better understanding of how viruses replicate ...
... and the remaining membrane fuses with the cell to allow the virus core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate a new infection. ... Viruses 2010, 2, 972-986. AMA Style. Laliberte JP, Moss B. Lipid Membranes in Poxvirus Replication. Viruses. 2010; 2(4):972-986 ... virus assembly; exocytosis phospholipids; transmembrane proteins; virus entry; endocytosis; virus assembly; exocytosis ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Lipids in Virus Replication) ...
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Induces Formation of Stress Granules Whose Proteins Regulate HCV RNA Replication and Virus Assembly and ... 2008) Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication. Virology 374:240-248. ... mouse hepatitis virus and dengue virus) that subvert the autophagy machinery for their replication, co-localize with autophagy ... In Sindbis virus, tobacco mosaic virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and several bacterial infections, autophagy may ...
PTEN decreases HCV replication and the protein phosphatase activity of PTEN is essential for this function. PTEN interacts with ... This interaction is required for PTEN-mediated inhibition of HCV replication. This gives rise to a reduction in PTEN levels and ... and replication. We showed that PTEN inhibits HCV entry through its lipid phosphatase activity. PTEN has no effect on HCV RNA ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to severe liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Phosphatase and ...
1D and movie S1) (17). Influenza virus is unusual among RNA viruses in that transcription and replication occur within the cell ... Replication of the influenza virus genome is distinct from transcription in that the RNA product is not capped or ... Organization of the Influenza Virus Replication Machinery. By Arne Moeller, Robert N. Kirchdoerfer, Clinton S. Potter, Bridget ... Organization of the Influenza Virus Replication Machinery. By Arne Moeller, Robert N. Kirchdoerfer, Clinton S. Potter, Bridget ...
DNA viruses have evolved very different replication strategies as well as a rich variety of molecular interactions with their ... DNA viruses have evolved very different replication strategies as well as a rich variety of molecular interactions with their ... DNA Plant and Animal Virus Replication. Crisanto Gutierrez, Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de ... Gutierrez, Crisanto, and Martinez‐Salas, Encarnacion(Dec 2001) DNA Plant and Animal Virus Replication. In: eLS. John Wiley & ...
... rendering males more vulnerable than females to this virus, according to research published in the February Journal of Virology ... Androgen enhances replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV), ... Androgen enhances replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV), ... Enhancement of hepatitis B virus replication by androgen and its receptor in mice. J. Virol. 86:1904-1910.). ... "Hepatitis B virus is one of the most important human pathogens," says Ou. "Approximately 350 million people worldwide are ...
Replication of hepatitis C virus in cell culture in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to ... Replication of hepatitis C virus in cell culture Biopolymers and Cell. 2009;25(1):44-49 DOI 10.7124/bc.0007C9 ... The technique for replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV) in cell culture has been modified and the susceptibility of the cells of ... The highest infection and replication efficacy have been found in cells of rat Gassers ganglion neurinoma. The peculiar ...
... which prevent the replication of several viruses, including the hepatitis C virus, dengue virus, and Sindbis virus (9-12). To ... The kinase inhibitor SFV785 dislocates dengue virus envelope protein from the replication complex and blocks virus assembly. ... The anti-influenza virus activity of FIT-039 was also examined. FIT-039 suppressed the replication of influenza virus H1N1 ( ... which suppressed the replication of HSV and other DNA viruses, including HCMV and HAdV. It also suppressed the replication of ...
We will highlight current research regarding the role of molecular biology of Junín virus in elucidating virus attenuation. We ... that have expanded knowledge about the pathogenesis and viral replication of Junín virus. We will review the pathogenesis of ... The virus is spread through the aerosolization of host rodent excreta and endemic to the humid pampas of Argentina. Recently, ... Junín virus in various animal models and the role of innate and adaptive immunity during infection. ...
The role of CpG dinucleotides in regulating virus replication kinetics. Sir Henry Dale Fellowships Year of award: 2018 ... There are two discrete regions in the genome of influenza A virus (IAV) that have high numbers of CG. These two regions are ... I will identify which proteins of an infected cell interact with these regions and characterise how ZAP affects IAV replication ... The avoidance of CG is mimicked in the genomes of viruses that cause infections because too many CGs activate the immune ...
Influenza A virus-generated small RNAs regulate the switch from transcription to replication. Jasmine T. Perez, Andrew Varble, ... 1988) Influenza virus RNA replication in vitro: Synthesis of viral template RNAs and virion RNAs in the absence of an added ... 2009) NS2/NEP protein regulates transcription and replication of the influenza virus RNA genome. J Gen Virol 90:1398-1407. ... 2E); these overall levels correlated with the extent of virus replication (Fig. S1A). Furthermore, H1N1 infection of human, ...
Biochemical and genetic evidence for the hepatitis B virus replication strategy Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Hepatitis B viruses synthesize their open circular DNA genomes by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. The details of ... It is now possible to propose a detailed strategy for reverse transcription by hepatitis B viruses that can be instructively ... this process have been examined with the use of mammalian hepatitis B viruses to map the sites for initiation and termination ...
The inhibition of virus replication reflected in the lowering of virus titers seen here is due to the DNAzyme activity of the ... inhibition of virus replication. In fact, no virus is detectable in plaque assays from 4 out of 6 mice used for the experiment ... The 3′-NCR is crucial for the virus replication as it binds the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and other proteins that initiate ... In the present invention, the applicant, for the first time, demonstrated the use of a DNAzyme to inhibit virus replication in ...
Buy the Paperback Book DNA Virus Replication by Alan J. Cann at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on ... Title:DNA Virus ReplicationFormat:PaperbackPublished:January 13, 2000Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English ... hepatitis B virus, EptsteinBarr virus or herpes simplex virus) - and it is difficult to overstate the importance of this group ... DNA viruses have always been the most important model systems for eukaryotic DNA replication. Add to this the clinical ...
Measles virus Replication Outline: Measles viruscontains negative stranded RNA and is 150-300 nm in diameter. On its surface it ... Measles Virus Replication in 3D Virtual Reality v1.2.1. By Amnim d.o.o.. Updated March 31, 2016 ... Measles virus Replication Outline:. Measles viruscontains negative stranded RNA and is 150-300 nm in diameter. On its surface ... Discussions on Measles Virus Replication in 3D Virtual Reality. There are no comments yet. ...
The Citrus tristeza virus replication signal is a regulatory element involved in a viral replication signal which is highly ... Replication signals are required for viral replication and are usually found near the 5 and 3 termini of protein coding genes ... Cardiovirus cis-acting replication element (CRE) Coronavirus SL-III cis-acting replication element (CRE) Heron HBV RNA ... Page for Citrus tristeza virus replication signal at Rfam v t e. ... "Mutational analysis of the replication signals in the 3- ...
Drugs used to treat HIV penetrate poorly into lymphatic tissues where most HIV replication takes place and there is persistent ... low-level virus replication in these tissues according to research... ... "We wanted to know why and thought that maybe the drugs were not getting into the tissues where most virus replication is ... "Identifying drugs for maximum penetration into lymph nodes to more effectively stop HIV virus replication." Medical News Today ...
  • Beclin-1, Atg4B, Atg5, and Atg12) are proviral factors required for translation of incoming hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and, thereby, for initiation of HCV replication, but they are not required once infection is established. (pnas.org)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to severe liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (nature.com)
  • More than 185 million people are estimated to be infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide 1 , leading to severe liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (nature.com)
  • The technique for replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV) in cell culture has been modified and the susceptibility of the cells of various origin to HCV upon their infection with HCV-containing sera has been compared. (doaj.org)
  • Discovery of Vaniprevir (MK-7009), a Macrocyclic Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4a Protease Inhibitor" "J. Med. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • CCR5 receptor antagonism inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in vitro. (harvard.edu)
  • The treatment of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) may be complicated by concomitant chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (wiley.com)
  • Although the hepatitis C virus (HCV) subgenomic replicon system has been widely used in the study of HCV, this system is available only for a few related genotypes. (nih.gov)
  • Lipid droplet-binding protein TIP47 regulates hepatitis C Virus RNA replication through interaction with the viral NS5A protein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The nonstructural protein NS5A has emerged as a new drug target in antiviral therapies for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The outer proteins of the virus both protect the viral genome (which may be deoxyribonucleic acid or, unlike cellular genomes, ribonucleic acid) and enable it to identify and infect suitable target cells. (els.net)
  • The initial interaction between a virus and its host cell is mediated by proteins (often with attached sugars) on the surface of the virus and by proteins and other structures on the host cell. (els.net)
  • Genes expressed later are generally for the proteins that make up the virus particle (structural proteins) or those involved in viral assembly. (els.net)
  • Type A influenza viruses are placed into subtypes, depending on the proteins lining the surface of the virus. (brighthub.com)
  • In a process called budding, the transmembrane proteins of the virus embed themselves in the host's cell membrane. (brighthub.com)
  • Eventually, the transmembrane proteins of the virus surround the nucleocapsid and break away from the host cell. (brighthub.com)
  • Using a new technique developed elsewhere called BH3 profiling that allowed them to test the critical cellular pro- and anti-apoptosis proteins individually, the team was able to see which of these the virus was controlling and then watch the transition from an uninfected cell to the active early infection phase to the latent infection in an immortal cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • Proteins translated from viral transcripts will support the ongoing replication and subsequent virus maturation, ultimately leading to the accumulation of enveloped virus particles. (wur.nl)
  • The product RNAs are then expelled from the spherule and used to make more proteins, or get packaged into new infectious particles to make the next generation of viruses. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is followed by the virus degrading a telomere protein called TPP1 - part of a complex of proteins responsible for protection called "telomere sheltering" - which results in the loss of the telomere repeat DNA signal. (eurekalert.org)
  • Finally, the virus uses a replication protein called ICP8 that works with the manipulated telomeric proteins to promote viral genomic replication. (eurekalert.org)
  • HCV NS3 to NS5B proteins are necessary and sufficient to establish membrane-bound replication complexes that catalyze RNA replication ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • I will identify which proteins of an infected cell interact with these regions and characterise how ZAP affects IAV replication, by making cells that don't have ZAP and determining how viruses replicate in them. (wellcome.ac.uk)
  • The researchers are investigating genes and proteins of the influenza viruses of swine, horses and birds to see how they activate downstream cellular signalling pathways. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Protease inhibitors, a class of drugs capable of disrupting enzymes that digest proteins, have been successfully used to thwart the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes AIDS. (news-medical.net)
  • One of the first steps in that process is the production of a long chain of proteins, all of which are needed for the virus to propagate. (news-medical.net)
  • Two enzymes, or proteases, clip the chain to release the individual proteins, the parts needed to assemble a mature virus. (news-medical.net)
  • We show that RNAi is an efficient approach in reducing the level of HBV transcripts and proteins and in suppression of HBV replication. (natap.org)
  • In this study, we present a series of experiments showing a significant reduction in hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcripts and proteins in cell culture, as well as in the viral replicative forms, induced by siRNA-producing vectors. (natap.org)
  • Therefore, using RNAi as an anti-HBV tool seems to have some important advantages: First, specifically targeting the viral transcripts and proteins severely impairs its replication and promotes its eradication, without activating nonspecific cellular responses, hence minimizing undesirable side effects. (natap.org)
  • The images generated in the study show flu virus proteins in the act of self-replication, highlighting the virus's vulnerabilities that are sure to be of interest to drug developers. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The free ends of this twisted loop are held by a flu-virus polymerase enzyme, which handles the two central tasks of viral reproduction: making new viral genomic RNA, and making the RNA gene-transcripts that will become new viral proteins. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Expression of the individual viral components of the replication machinery in cells demonstrates that the 3 viral proteins required for replication are sufficient to drive cytoplasmic phase separation. (asm.org)
  • Human hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a subviral satellite of hepatitis B virus, on which it is dependent for its envelope proteins ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Both proteins are found within the RNP core of mature virus ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • The replication proteins of tobamovirus participate not only in viral genome replication but also in counterdefense mechanisms against RNA silencing and other plant defense systems. (apsnet.org)
  • This review lists the host factors that interact with the replication proteins of tobamovirus and discusses how they influence multiplication of the virus. (apsnet.org)
  • Nonstructural (NS) proteins are not part of the virus coat and are thought to participate in the formation of these viral replication compartments (RCs). (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, we used tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) as a model for the flaviviruses and developed a stable human cell line in which the expression of NS proteins can be induced without viral RNA replication. (diva-portal.org)
  • We propose that the NS proteins drive the remodeling of ER membranes and that viral RNA, RNA replication, viral polymerase, and TBEV structural proteins are not required. (diva-portal.org)
  • Mpro is an enzyme that cuts out proteins from a long strand that the virus produces when it invades a human cell. (indiatribune.com)
  • RNAs 1 and 2 encode P1 and P2 proteins, respectively, which are required for replication of viral RNA [ 9 , 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400 multi-protein complex and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. (osti.gov)
  • Between the two CtBP family proteins, CtBP2 appears to restrict viral replication more than CtBP1 in human cells. (osti.gov)
  • Several of the major structural precursor proteins of VV are cleaved at a conserved Ala-Gly-X (where X is any amino acid) motif by the VV I7L core protein proteinase at a step, which is necessary for formation of mature virus particles. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Hence replication of a B-RNA molecule is tightly linked to its translation and/or at least one of the replicative proteins functions in cis only. (springer.com)
  • Franssen H, Leunissen J, Goldbach R, Lomonossoff G, Zimmern D (1984) Homologous sequences in non-structural proteins from cowpea mosaic virus and picornaviruses. (springer.com)
  • Argos P, Kamer G, Nickiin MJH, Wimmer W (1984) Similarity in gene organisation and homology between proteins of animal picornaviruses and a plant comovirus suggest common ancestry of these virus families. (springer.com)
  • Wellink J, Van Kämmen A (1989) Cell-to-cell transport of cowpea mosaic virus requires both the 58K/48K proteins and the capsid proteins. (springer.com)
  • 10:709-715, 1997) and demonstrate that this helicase sequence acts as an elicitor of HR in the absence of other viral proteins or RNA replication. (apsnet.org)
  • Cocking, E. C. (1966) An electron-microscopic study of the initial stages of infection of isolated tomato fruit protoplasts by tobacco mosaic virus. (springer.com)
  • Cocking, E. C. and Pojnar, E. (1969) An electron microscope study of the infection of isolated tomato fruit protoplast by tobacco mosaic virus. (springer.com)
  • Merkens, W. S. W., De Zoeten, G. A. and Gaard, G. (1972) Observation on ectodesmata and the virus infection process. (springer.com)
  • In a productive infection, recognition of external structures on the cell is followed by entry, alteration of cellular function to support a time‐dependent cycle of virus‐specific macromolecular synthesis, assembly of the next generation of virus particles, and release from the cell. (els.net)
  • However, while laboratory experiments focus on productive infections where the host cell is rapidly turned into a virus factory, many other types of infection exist, some of them allowing the virus to exist alongside its host for long periods of time. (els.net)
  • These allow the virus to select the nature of its target cell with great precision and at least to some extent to confirm its suitability before committing to infection. (els.net)
  • A generalised scheme of a (productive) virus infection, from entry to release. (els.net)
  • These results suggest that overcoming this restriction through transgenic mouse technology may help in the development of a long-sought immune-competent mouse model of dengue virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Distinct steps of the virus life cycle occur in association with the cytoskeleton or cytoplasmic membranes, which are often modified during infection. (nih.gov)
  • The virus is telling us--by voting with its most precious resource, its coding capacity--that this is the big job of infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • PHILADELPHIA - (Dec. 11, 2014) - A team of scientists, led by researchers at The Wistar Institute, has found that an infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes rearrangements in telomeres, small stretches of DNA that serve as protective ends to chromosomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • There is no vaccine for preventing HSV-1 infection and reactivation, and only a few effective treatments for the virus are available. (eurekalert.org)
  • the outermost membrane is lost during exocytosis, the middle one is lost just prior to cell entry, and the remaining membrane fuses with the cell to allow the virus core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate a new infection. (mdpi.com)
  • These results illustrate a previously unappreciated role for autophagy in the establishment of a viral infection and they suggest that different host factors regulate the translation of incoming viral genome and translation of progeny HCV RNA once replication is established. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, efforts to elucidate the details of the host-virus relationship during HCV infection are needed to develop efficient therapeutic strategies against this major human pathogen. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, another study showed that HCV infection is associated with less nuclear PTEN that favors HCV replication, suggesting a possible role of PTEN in regulating HCV replication 22 . (nature.com)
  • The highest infection and replication efficacy have been found in cells of rat Gasser's ganglion neurinoma. (doaj.org)
  • We will review the pathogenesis of Junín virus in various animal models and the role of innate and adaptive immunity during infection. (mdpi.com)
  • As public health officials around the world keep a nervous eye on the spread of avian influenza, the University of Saskatchewan's Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization (VIDO) has uncovered a key step in how the influenza virus causes infection . (emaxhealth.com)
  • Thus, the virus must prioritize its replicative cycle to bias mRNA synthesis early in infection, switching to the production of vRNA when new virions are to be assembled ( 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we report that mice deficient in Peli1 (Peli1-/-) were more resistant to lethal West Nile virus (WNV) infection and exhibited reduced viral loads in tissues and attenuated brain inflammation. (jci.org)
  • Collectively, our findings suggest a nonimmune regulatory role for Peli1 in promoting microglia activation during WNV infection and identify a potentially novel host factor for flavivirus cell entry and replication. (jci.org)
  • The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF- κ B) signaling was not activated in neurons after influenza virus infection. (hindawi.com)
  • Regulation of Positive-Strand Accumulation by Capsid Protein During Brome mosaic virus Infection In Planta. (harvard.edu)
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health problem that causes a wide spectrum of liver diseases, including acute or chronic HBV infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a 3.2-kb DNA virus, replicating almost exclusively in the liver.1 Although effective recombinant vaccines are available, HBV infection is still a major global health problem: Each year, acute and chronic HBV infection causes about 1 million deaths. (natap.org)
  • People with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection have more than double the risk of death if they have ongoing high-level HBV replication, indicating a need for prompt treatment, according to an analysis from the Temprano trial presented at an HIV and viral hepatitis co-infection session at the 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016) last month in Durban, South Africa. (aidsmap.com)
  • Temprano participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), which indicates HBV infection, and those who tested positive received hepatitis B 'e' antigen (HBeAg) tests and HBV DNA viral load tests to determine if there was ongoing active viral replication. (aidsmap.com)
  • In view of these findings, we suggest that, if activated, the innate immune response, like the adaptive immune response, has the potential to control viral replication during natural HBV infection. (rupress.org)
  • Based on the abundance of NKT cells in the liver and their ability to produce antiviral cytokines, it is possible that activated NKT cells might inhibit viral replication during HBV infection. (rupress.org)
  • In vitro infection and replication of hepatitis E virus in human h. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Thus, virus shed in the oral cavity in connection with a reactivated latent HSV-1 infection has great possibilities of being affected by snuff or derivatives of snuff. (diva-portal.org)
  • Scientists have successfully located the key protein that effectively blocks viral replication of the virus and even prevents cell death, which is a common occurrence due to the infection. (inquisitr.com)
  • Moreover, the findings make it clear why the effects of a Zika virus infection are so devastating. (inquisitr.com)
  • For a long time, despite the aftermath of a Zika virus infection being very bad, the detection of an infection could take months before the patient showed any adverse physical effects. (inquisitr.com)
  • The recently conducted study shows that the cunningly deceptive Zika virus has a multi-step approach of attack, one of which effectively hides the infection. (inquisitr.com)
  • Our results show that Zika virus has a weakness that we could potentially exploit to prevent or stop infection. (inquisitr.com)
  • In effect, we see that IFITM3 allows our cells to swallow up and quarantine the virus thereby stopping their own infection, and also the infection of neighboring cells. (inquisitr.com)
  • Even developed countries like the U.S., U.K., and Australia have all reported Zika virus infection in returning travelers. (inquisitr.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus infection initiates endoplasmic reticulum stress and an unfolded protein. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Encapsidation of the viral genome is an essential step in the life cycle of many plant viruses because efficient virus infection and spreading require production of virions. (mdpi.com)
  • The H9N2 virus poses a substantial infection risk to poultry ( 2 ) and has infected pigs and humans ( 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • During productive infection, CtBP-E1A interaction enhances viral replication in human cells. (osti.gov)
  • In summary, the indicator-expressing viruses provided an efficient means for real-time monitoring of viral replication thus allowing high‑throughput elucidation of the role of host factors in PRRSV infection. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, replication‑competent IFN-expressing viruses may be good candidates for development of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines, which are capable of reversing subverted innate immune responses and may induce more effective adaptive immunity against PRRSV infection. (mdpi.com)
  • However, this replication appeared to be monocyte-dependent and was not enhanced by lymphocyte blastogenesis induced by the addition of concanavalin A. In white-tailed deer infected with either EHD virus serotype 2 or BT virus serotype 10, virus could be isolated consistendy from PBM cells only from postinfection day 4 through 8, although they remained viremic through post-infection day 21. (bioone.org)
  • The first line of defence against viral infection is the interferon (IFN) response, which must be overcome by a virus for successful replication. (bl.uk)
  • Cells stimulated into the antiviral state by IFN treatment were protected against BUNV infection but addition of IFN 6 hours (or later) post infection had little effect on the replication cycle. (bl.uk)
  • However, addition of IFN immediately following infection conferred restriction on BUNV replication by initially increasing viral protein synthesis and then by blocking translation of positive sense viral RNA. (bl.uk)
  • The tools that we need to fight off virus infection are programmed into our cells as a result of evolution," he says. (asm.org)
  • AV-C did block Zika replication in the cells when administered as late as 16 hours post-infection. (asm.org)
  • For Chikungunya, however, the molecule failed to block replication when given just two hours post-infection. (asm.org)
  • Five of the vaccinees controlled viral replication and had undetectable plasma viremia after 5 wk of infection. (rupress.org)
  • Together, our studies of B1 and B12 present novel evidence that a paralogous kinase-pseudokinase pair can exhibit a unique epistatic relationship in a virus, and orchestrate yet-to-be-discovered nuclear events during infection. (unl.edu)
  • The Q-PCR assay proved more sensitive than reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and immunofluorescence assays (IFA) for detecting LAC virus infection of mosquitoes. (ajtmh.org)
  • Experimentally proven infection of Culex pipiens L . mosquitoes with West Nile fever virus via the Lake Pallas Rana ridibunda frog and its transmission via bites. (ajtmh.org)
  • A preliminary report on infection of the lizard, Takydromus tachydromoides , with Japanese encephalitis virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Studies on Japanese encephalitis virus infection of reptiles. (ajtmh.org)
  • Resolution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was believed to be attributed to the cytotoxic T cell-mediated killing of infected hepatocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, in young adults and in older adolescents, nearly half of the cases of primary infection with the virus result in infectious mononucleosis (IM). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Primary infection is serologically characterized by the appearence of anti-virus capsid antigen (VCA) IgM and anti-early antigen (EA) IgM and transient development of anti-EA IgG in approximately 80% of infected individuals. (bloodjournal.org)
  • For TSWV and Influenza A virus this process is currently being further investigated in vitro , using purified virus particles supplied with (mutant) cap-donor molecules to identify preferential cap-donor molecule sequences (topic 1). (wur.nl)
  • In vitro cell expression of all RNP protein components with four of the eight influenza virus gene segments enabled structural determination of native influenza virus RNPs by means of cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM). (sciencemag.org)
  • The catalytic DNA molecule inhibits JEV replication in vitro in cultured cells and in vivo in the mouse brain. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Previous studies demonstrated that both human H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza viruses infect microglia, astrocytes, and neuronal cell lines in vitro , inducing production of proinflammatory cytokines and ultimately leading to cell apoptosis or cytopathy [ 14 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Analysis of virus expression in vitro and in vivo using the highly sensitive quantitative methods developed during the last 10 years is at present an absolute requirement for addressing the pathogenic mechanisms of viral infections and the virus-host interactions at the molecular level. (asm.org)
  • Attenuation of influenza virus infectivity with herbal-marine compound (HESA-A): an in vitro study in MDCK cells," Virology Journal , vol. 9, article 44, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • This assay made it possible to manipulate in vitro the composition of the RNP and then test in vivo the ability of the complex to initiate RNA-directed RNA synthesis and go on to achieve genome replication. (asm.org)
  • We expect that further in vitro modifications of these RNP complexes should help define the in vivo requirements for what we define as the initiation of HDV genome replication. (asm.org)
  • All of the North American EHD and BT viruses (EHD virus serotypes 1 and 2, and BT virus serotypes 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17) replicated in vitro in cultures of white-tailed deer PBM cells. (bioone.org)
  • In the in vitro infections of white-tailed deer erythrocytes, the EHD and BT viruses were associated with pits in the erythrocyte membrane. (bioone.org)
  • Our studies indicated that the UTRs are not essential for NDV replication in vitro. (umd.edu)
  • Moreover, studies on the HN UTRs replaced with corresponding NP UTRs virus suggested that UTRs can be exchanged between NDV mRNAs without affecting the replication of virus in vitro and in vivo. (umd.edu)
  • We investigated the inhibitory effect of morphine on replication of HSV in vitro . (academicjournals.org)
  • Primer-DNA formation during simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Studies of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication in vitro have identified a small (approximately 30-nucleotide) RNA-DNA hybrid species termed primer-DNA. (asm.org)
  • Herein, we present an investigation of the stages at which primer-DNA functions during SV40 DNA replication in vitro. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we established an in vitro coculture model to determine the relative contribution and balance between the cytolytic and noncytolytic effector functions that HBV-specific CD8 + T cells use to control HBV replication. (jimmunol.org)
  • 20 21 After immortalization, LCLs spontaneously switch to lytic replication in vitro and are easily inducible by chemical treatment, 22 demonstrating that B cells are permissive for lytic replication. (bloodjournal.org)
  • An improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the different steps of the DENV replication cycle, for example, genome replication and virus maturation, could help to develop such substances. (nih.gov)
  • One of several goals in the Ahlquist Lab is to understand genome replication for positive strand RNA viruses, the largest genetic class of viruses that includes many human pathogens such as the Zika, Dengue, SARS, and Chikungunya viruses. (eurekalert.org)
  • And why the focus on genome replication? (eurekalert.org)
  • The majority of the virus genome, typically on the order of 75 percent, is given over to genome replication," Ahlquist says. (eurekalert.org)
  • The viruses make replication compartments--essentially new organelles--in which the genome replication process takes place. (eurekalert.org)
  • Expression of svRNA correlates with the accumulation of vRNA and a bias in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity from transcription toward genome replication. (pnas.org)
  • The small, 195-amino-acid form of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) antigen (δAg-S) is essential for genome replication, i.e., for the transcription, processing, and accumulation of HDV RNAs. (asm.org)
  • After transfection of these RNPs into human cells, we detected HDV genome replication, as assayed by Northern analysis or immunofluorescence microscopy. (asm.org)
  • Our interpretation is that the input δAg-S is necessary for the RNA to undergo limited amounts of RNA-directed RNA synthesis, RNA processing, and mRNA formation, leading to de novo translation of δAg-S. It is this second source of δAg-S which then goes on to support genome replication. (asm.org)
  • The small 195-amino-acid (aa) form, δAg-S, is essential for genome replication ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • First, δAg-L can act as a dominant-negative inhibitor of genome replication ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Attempts to achieve genome replication by transfection of cells with viral cDNAs have been successful, but only when the cDNA encodes a functional δAg-S protein ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • While much valuable information can be gained about HDV genome replication by the use of cDNA transfections, there are obvious inadequacies when it comes to studying the early events of RNA-directed RNA synthesis. (asm.org)
  • Most RNA viruses lack the mechanisms to recognize and correct mutations that arise during genome replication, resulting in quasispecies diversity that is required for pathogenesis and adaptation. (jcvi.org)
  • This interaction is required for PTEN-mediated inhibition of HCV replication. (nature.com)
  • Krajcsi P and Wold WS (1998) Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor and interferon triggered responses by DNA viruses. (els.net)
  • Inhibition of protein kinase C promotes dengue virus replication. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Results of the inhibition and activation on viral entry/replication and host cell survival were examined. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Recently, nucleoside analogs, which directly affect viral replication by inhibition of its reverse transcriptase activity, were shown to be highly effective in the clearance of HBV-DNA from serum. (natap.org)
  • Different batches of one brand of snuff were tested for inhibition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) production. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, this concept was challenged by a series of studies in HBV transgenic mice ( 10 , 11 ) and HBV-infected chimpanzees ( 12 , 13 ), which revealed the mechanism of noncytolytic inhibition of HBV replication, i.e., that HBV-specific CD8 + T cells could inhibit HBV replication without lysis of infected hepatocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Butler, P. J. G. and Durham, A. C. H. (1977) Tobacco mosaic virus protein aggregation and the virus assembly. (springer.com)
  • Detection of transcript properties and location of the gene encoding the virus inclusion body protein. (springer.com)
  • Daubert, S. D., Bruening, G. and Najarian, R. C. (1978) Protein bound to the genome RNAs of cowpea mosaic virus. (springer.com)
  • Erikson, J. W. and Bancroft, J. B. (1981) Melting of viral RNA by coat protein : assembly strategies for elongated plant viruses. (springer.com)
  • A minor virus envelope protein M2 acts as a ion channel making the inside of the virion more acidic. (wikimedia.org)
  • PTEN decreases HCV replication and the protein phosphatase activity of PTEN is essential for this function. (nature.com)
  • Mathews MB (1996) Interactions between viruses and the cellular machinery for protein synthesis. (els.net)
  • The L RNA segment encodes the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L polymerase) [ 9 ] and the small (11 kDa) RING finger protein Z that is the arenavirus equivalent to the matrix protein found in many other negative strand RNA viruses [ 10 , 11 , 12 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Studying the genetic code reveals patterns made by the four building blocks of our genetic make-up (adenine cytosine guanine and thymine - A, C, G and T). For example, in the human genome, G hardly ever follows C. The avoidance of CG is mimicked in the genomes of viruses that cause infections because too many CGs activate the immune response, via a protein called ZAP. (wellcome.ac.uk)
  • What is clearly not possible is to summarize the enormous research effort involving these diverse viruses in a single volume and this is circumvented by concentrating on the theme of protein -protein interactions in DNA virus replication. (indigo.ca)
  • After the virus binds to the host membrane, the viral plasma membrane fuses with the host membrane with the help of the Fusion protein. (slideme.org)
  • Replication signals are required for viral replication and are usually found near the 5' and 3' termini of protein coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein-RNA complex (N-RNA) is used as the template by L for transcription of the viral mRNAs and for RNA replication. (asm.org)
  • Besides figuring out how the Zika virus works, scientists were also able to discover a protein that has shown to reduce Zika's ability to infect brain cells in both humans and mice. (inquisitr.com)
  • Additionally, the protein, called interferon-induced protein 3 (IFITM3), can even prevent the cell die-off associated with the virus, reported Science Daily . (inquisitr.com)
  • Incidentally, the tiny protein is produced naturally within our bodies and works in defending our bodies against the virus, noted Abraham Ross, who is part of the research team. (inquisitr.com)
  • After experimenting with the protein, researchers realized it could reliably block the replication of the Zika virus in healthy cells. (inquisitr.com)
  • As expected, the protein altered the cell membrane, making it a lot tougher for the virus to break through, reported News Medical . (inquisitr.com)
  • In other words, cells with lower amounts of IFITM3 protein were not just easily broken through by the virus, but became the breeding ground, noted another member, George Savidis. (inquisitr.com)
  • Interestingly, besides arresting the spread of Zika virus, the IFITM3 protein has also shown promise in blocking emerging viruses such as dengue and Ebola. (inquisitr.com)
  • To test the effect of apoptosis on the distribution of replication-competent HSV expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP), HSV was injected intratumorally following pre-treatments with 1) saline, 2) TRAIL or 3) paclitaxel plus TRAIL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These are second antiretroviral drugs group that stops the HIV virus from replicating itself within the T-cells by restraining the reverse transcriptase protein. (womenhealthzone.com)
  • Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) RNAs 1 and 2 with deletions in their 3′ non‑translated regions (NTRs) have been previously shown to be encapsidated into virions by coat protein (CP) expressed from RNA3, indicating that the 3′ NTRs of RNAs 1 and 2 are not required for virion assembly. (mdpi.com)
  • The OAS of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has been studied most extensively and shown to be located within the movement protein (MP)-coding sequence [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Glycan heterogeneity of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein was demonstrated by proteomics. (osti.gov)
  • A recombinant virus, rBUNdelNSs, that is unable to express the NSs protein, does not inhibit cellular transcription and is thus a strong IFN inducer. (bl.uk)
  • To aid screening, recombinant BUNV that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) were employed, including an NSs deletion virus with GFP fused to the Gc, rBUNGceGFPdelNSs, that I created and characterised. (bl.uk)
  • More detailed studies revealed PKR to restrict BUNV RNA and protein synthesis, but when PKR was knocked-down in IFN competent A549 cells viral replication was not blocked in cells pre-treated with IFN. (bl.uk)
  • Control experiments using cell lysates with equivalent protein concentrations but no virus did not perturb the uniform alignment of the LC. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Complete deletions of 5' HN UTR down regulated its transcription, translation levels and incorporation of HN protein into virus particle, therefore, attenuated the pathogenicity of NDV in chickens. (umd.edu)
  • Characterization of vaccinia virus A12L protein : its proteolysis and functional analyses in virus replication. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Next, we compared the protein expression of A12L with D13L, an internal scaffolding protein, to investigate the role of A12L in virus assembly. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Our previous work demonstrated that genetic inactivation of the coronavirus exoribonuclease (ExoN) in nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14) of murine hepatitis virus results in a 15-fold decrease in replication fidelity. (jcvi.org)
  • This difference is determined by the haemagglutinin (HA) protein since reciprocal reassortant viruses with swapped HAs behave similarly with respect to growth on BHK21 cells as the parental virus from which their HA gene is derived. (wur.nl)
  • This 58K protein possibly helps in directing the B-RNA-encoded replication complex to the M-RNA. (springer.com)
  • Peters SA, Voorhorst WGB, Wery J, Wellink J, Van Kämmen A (1992) A regulatory role for the 32K protein in proteolytic processing of cowpea mosaic virus polyproteins. (springer.com)
  • In vivo administration of LPS or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Since large amounts of fresh skin are more readily available, the skin-derived leukocytes have been used as a model for the mucosal leukocytes to study their interaction with virus and potential roles in viral pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Recently, significant progress has been achieved with the development of new technologies (e.g. reverse genetics) that have expanded knowledge about the pathogenesis and viral replication of Junín virus. (mdpi.com)
  • We will also summarize current knowledge on Junín virus pathogenesis focusing on the recent development of vaccines and potential therapeutics. (mdpi.com)
  • This mixture of birds and mammals, some for which little associated influenza pathogenesis data exists, provided a unique opportunity to study the ecology, host range, and transmission potential of H9N2 virus. (cdc.gov)
  • The roles of the intergenic sequences (IGS) and untranslated regions (UTR) in Newcastle disease virus (NDV) transcription and pathogenesis are not clear. (umd.edu)
  • In summary, my research identifies for the first time the role of noncoding regions in NDV replication and pathogenesis and provides novel methods for the development of attenuated live vaccines for NDV. (umd.edu)
  • The results define a novel genetic and bioinformatics model for introduction and identification of multi-allelic mutations in replication competent viruses that will be powerful tools for testing the effects of decreased fidelity and increased quasispecies diversity on viral replication, pathogenesis, and evolution. (jcvi.org)
  • HBV-specific CD8 + T cells are believed to play a critical role in the control of HBV replication but are also implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease by destruction of infected liver cells ( 1 , 3 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell proliferation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Androgen enhances replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV), rendering males more vulnerable than females to this virus, according to research published in the February Journal of Virology . (asm.org)
  • In medical virology, the availability of methods and strategies able to address in vivo the relationship between virus expression and disease outcome is playing a crucial role in pathogenic research. (asm.org)
  • In virology, these approaches have shown that a number of events in the life cycle of many viruses (as well as those driving virus-host interactions) are more complex than originally defined. (asm.org)
  • Baltimore, D. (1971) Expression of animal virus genomes. (springer.com)
  • Seven basic replication strategies exist based on genome type (including DNA or RNA and single‐ or double‐stranded genomes) but these may vary widely within a specific type. (els.net)
  • Some viruses have genomes in multiple parts (segments) and must have ways to make sure that all of the necessary segments are packaged. (els.net)
  • Plus-stranded RNA viruses induce membrane proliferations that support the replication of their genomes. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatitis B viruses synthesize their open circular DNA genomes by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. (sciencemag.org)
  • For viruses with RNA genomes, those that carry out RNA synthesis in the cytoplasm outnumber those that do so in the nucleus by about 10:1. (asm.org)
  • However, it is not known how viruses encoding large viral RNA genomes such as the Coronaviridae (26 to 32 kb) balance the requirements for genome stability and quasispecies diversity. (jcvi.org)
  • Further, the limits of replication infidelity during replication of large RNA genomes and how decreased fidelity impacts virus fitness over time are not known. (jcvi.org)
  • 3. "Influenza virus Replication or Flu Life Cycle. (brighthub.com)
  • RNA viruses need to carry or produce their own polymerase to make RNA from an RNA template, since such enzymes are not present at useful levels in cells. (els.net)
  • Some RNA viruses do this by using their viral genome as an mRNA when they enter their host cell, whereas those that require transcription to produce mRNAs have to carry a suitable (and often rather large) polymerase within the virus particle. (els.net)
  • Opposed to viruses with a plus-strand RNA genome, viruses with a negative-strand, segmented RNA genome are only infectious and able to trigger a multiplication cycle in cells in the additional presence of the viral nucleoprotein (N) and the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). (wur.nl)
  • Observations of branched-RNP structures in negative-stain electron microscopy and their putative identification as replication intermediates suggest a mechanism for viral replication by a second polymerase on the RNP template. (sciencemag.org)
  • We propose that svRNA triggers the viral switch from transcription to replication through interactions with the viral polymerase machinery. (pnas.org)
  • Each of the eight RNA segments is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (NP) and associates with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, composed of polymerase subunits PA, PB1, and PB2) to form a viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, the machinery responsible for both transcription and replication ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • New insights on how subunits of the influenza virus polymerase co-evolve to ensure efficient viral RNA replication are provided by a study published October 3 in the PLOS Pathogens journal, by researchers from the Institut Pasteur and the CNRS (French National Center for Scientific Research). (pasteur.fr)
  • Enhancing fundamental knowledge about the RNA-polymerase of influenza viruses, which is an enzyme that consists of three subunits (i.e., a heterotrimer) and ensures transcription and replication of the viral genome, is essential to reach the goal of better prevention and treatment of disease. (pasteur.fr)
  • They showed that the polymerase subunits co-evolve to ensure not only optimal inter-subunit cooperation within the heterotrimer, but also proper levels dimerization - the process by which pairs of heterotrimers attach together -- which appears to be essential for efficient viral RNA replication. (pasteur.fr)
  • Their observations reveal that influenza polymerase dimerization as a feature that can restrict the reassortment of genomic viral RNA segments, a major evolutionary mechanism of influenza viruses, and could become an attractive target for antiviral drug development. (pasteur.fr)
  • Aside from its importance in ordinary infections, the flu polymerase contains some of the key "species barriers" that keep, for example, avian flu viruses from infecting mammals. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The model includes details of how the viral polymerase binds to its RNA, how it accomplishes the tricky task of viral gene transcription, and how a separate copy of the viral polymerase assists in carrying out RNP replication. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In molecular biology, the Hepatitis A virus cis-acting replication element (CRE) is an RNA element which is found in the coding region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in Hepatitis A virus (HAV). (wikipedia.org)
  • These results indicate that, in contrast to the poliovirus polymerase, the CPMV polymerase is not able to accept oligo(U) as a primer and in addition support the concept that translation and replication are linked. (springer.com)
  • Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry analysis of 16 patients with acute infectious mononucleosis (IM) and 25 healthy seropositive donors was performed to detect lytic replication gene products in B lymphocytes of the peripheral blood. (bloodjournal.org)
  • By using STAT2(-/-) mice, we also demonstrate that mouse STAT2 restricts early dengue virus replication in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibitions of PKC by a PKC-specific chemical inhibitor or siRNA suppressed NS5 phosphorylation in vivo, increased viral replication and reduced viability of the DENV-infected cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Moreover, while the rationale for the development of new antiviral compounds is a direct consequence of a precise understanding of virus life cycle, identification of the virologic correlates of disease progression in vivo using quantitative methods has had a major role in the planning of effective treatments in viral infections of humans. (asm.org)
  • To understand whether autophagy can indeed enhance HBV replication in vivo , we generated HBV transgenic mice with liver-specific knockout of the Atg5 gene, a gene critical for the initiation of autophagy. (asm.org)
  • Our results thus demonstrate that autophagy is important for HBV replication in vivo and raise the possibility of targeting this pathway to treat HBV patients. (asm.org)
  • However, whether autophagy can indeed enhance HBV replication in vivo remains unclear. (asm.org)
  • To resolve this discrepancy and to understand whether autophagy indeed affects HBV replication in vivo , we decided to use HBV transgenic mice that we previously established in our laboratory for studies. (asm.org)
  • This creates a virus reservoir in contrast to lytic virus replication, which is thought to be restricted to differentiated epithelial cells in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Tenofovir inhibits the replication of HSV clinical isolates in human embryonic fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and organotypic epithelial 3D-rafts, decreases HSV replication in human lymphoid and cervical tissues ex vivo , and delays HSV-induced lesions and death of topically treated HSV-infected mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In Sindbis virus, tobacco mosaic virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and several bacterial infections, autophagy may have a protective function by restricting intracellular pathogen replication or by ensuring the survival of infected and/or uninfected cells ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Ca-SP was found to inhibit the replication of several enveloped viruses, including Herpes simplex virus type 1, human cytomegalovirus, measles virus, mumps virus, influenza A virus, and HIV-1. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been associated with the genesis of leukoplakias, epithelial atypia, and oral cancer. (diva-portal.org)
  • Surprisingly, in the CAPRISA 004 trial a significant 51% reduction of the risk of acquisition of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), a common HIV-1 copathogen which facilitates HIV transmission, was also observed ( Cates, 2010 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, relying on their host cells to provide the basic machinery to allow them to replicate. (els.net)
  • Most DNA viruses infecting eukaryotic cells replicate in the nucleus (with the exception of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses) while most RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm (since the DNA replication machinery within the nucleus it usually of little use to them). (els.net)
  • Viruses alter the cellular machinery to facilitate the production of the next generation of viruses, and repress cellular and immunological controls that attempt to prevent this. (els.net)
  • Simple DNA viruses can use (or induce the production of) the cellular DNA synthetic machinery, whereas more complex viruses carry genes for the enzymes they need, making the process of replication more efficient. (els.net)
  • The research, published June 27 in the journal eLife , uses pioneering cryo-electron tomography to reveal the complex viral replication process in vivid detail, opening up new avenues to potentially disrupt, dismantle or redirect viral machinery. (eurekalert.org)
  • To survive, the influenza virus hijacks the host animal or human's cellular machinery and forces it to make more copies of the virus. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Like HIV, the SARS virus multiplies rapidly, hijacking the machinery of the cells it infects to clone itself over and over again. (news-medical.net)
  • The data from this study give us a much clearer picture of the flu virus replication machinery. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Viruses cannot replicate without the machinery and metabolism of cells (human cells, in the case of HIV), which is why viruses infect cells. (aidsmap.com)
  • RNA viruses that replicate in the cell cytoplasm typically concentrate their replication machinery within specialized compartments. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE RNA viruses compartmentalize their replication machinery to evade detection by host pattern recognition receptors and concentrate the machinery of RNA synthesis. (asm.org)
  • How the replication machinery that forms this inclusion remains associated in the absence of a membrane has been an enduring mystery. (asm.org)
  • Early/late gene expression (transcription) and the DNA replication stages can occur either in the cytoplasm (poxviruses) or in the nucleus of the infected cell. (els.net)
  • Then they drilled down still further, discovering elements within the HBV genome which are recognized by the host's activated androgen receptor, which then boosts viral gene expression and replication. (asm.org)
  • Northern blot hybridization with rabies virus gene probes revealed that the rates of viral transcription and replication were reduced by as much as 10-fold in the mutant viruses when the N was not phosphorylated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Drugs that activate those existing systems suggest a promising novel approach to treating dangerous infections by Zika and other viruses, say researchers from the Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute at Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU), in Portland. (asm.org)
  • An AG/A site mutation abrogated the ability of the transfected A12L gene to rescue the conditional mutant under non-permissive conditions, indicating that its proteolysis at the AG/A site is required during viral replication. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The ability or inability of six other influenza virus strains to grow on BHK21 cells appears to be similarly dependent on the nature of the HA gene since reassortant PR8 viruses containing the HA of these strains grow to similar titres as the parental virus from which the HA gene was derived. (wur.nl)
  • However, the growth to low titres of a seventh influenza strain was not due to the nature of the HA gene since a reassortant PR8 virus containing this HA grew efficiently on BHK21 cells. (wur.nl)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that the HA gene often primarily determines influenza replication efficiency on BHK21 cells but that in some strains other genes are also involved. (wur.nl)
  • Upon activation, these immune cells were shown to produce cytokines, such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, which suppressed HBV gene expression and replication without destroying the infected hepatocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Since 2005-2006, however, the widespread emergence of the S31N mutation in the M2 gene conferring adamantane resistance has greatly reduced the usefulness of these agents in treating A/H3N2 viruses ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • The E119V substitution found in the neuraminidase (NA) gene of several of these strains is one of the most common mutations associated with high levels of oseltamivir resistance in A/H3N2 viruses ( 14 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • These three viruses had identical HA gene sequences, whereas there were two additional mutations (S31N in the M2 gene and T242I in the noncatalytic region of the NA gene) in the two resistant viruses that were absent in the WT isolate. (asm.org)
  • In these individuals, lytic replication of EBV is probably restricted by immunologic and gene regulatory mechanisms, whereas in the absence of immunologic control, reflected here by IM patients, the production of infectious virus becomes visible in PBLs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) elicits a hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco plants that carry the N gene. (apsnet.org)
  • To inhibit feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication by RNAi, we generated a lentiviral vector expressing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) that targeted the gag gene of FIV (shGag). (go.jp)
  • By a combination of virus yield assays, Western blotting and fluorescence techniques, three cell lines that inducibly express PKR, viperin or MTAP44 were shown to restrict BUNV replication. (bl.uk)
  • Strategies of transcriptional genomic organization of different DNA virus families. (els.net)
  • The nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA virus vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is capable of transcribing its genomic RNA initially in the absence of any apparent specialized replication compartment ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Rabies virus nucleoprotein (N) plays vital roles in regulation of viral RNA transcription and replication by encapsidation of the nascent genomic RNA. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Zika virus genomic RNA (red stain) in cerebral cortex of an infant (case-patient no. 66, gestational age 26 wk). (cdc.gov)
  • Desiree Benefield, a postdoctoral researcher in the Ahlquist Lab at the Morgridge Institute, says all positive strand RNA viruses rely on host membrane rearrangement and the formation of replication compartments in order to copy their genome. (eurekalert.org)
  • For positive-strand RNA viruses, RNA replication occurs in a virus-induced membrane-associated replication organelle. (asm.org)
  • Compatibility of lyotropic liquid crystals with viruses and mammalian cells that support the replication of viruses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We report a study that investigates the biocompatibility of materials that form lyotropic liquid crystals (LCs) with viruses and mammalian cells that support the replication of viruses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mouse STAT2 restricts early dengue virus replication. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, our data suggest that RNAi may provide a powerful therapeutic tool, acting both on replication-competent and on replication-incompetent HBV. (natap.org)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/873640029 Title: Replication competent viruses for cancer therapy : summarizes the molecular principles of modern viral therapy for cancer Author: Pablo Hernáiz Driever Publisher: Basel : Karger, 2001. (worldcat.org)
  • It reviews many of the replication-competent viruses currently being investigated for therapeutic use including herpes simplex virus, adenovirus, reovirus, parvovirus, vaccinia virus and Newcastle disease virus, and demonstrates how this approach is being translated to the clinic.Illustrating how virus-host interactions can be exploited for therapy, this book opens up new and promising perspectives for the treatment of cancer. (worldcat.org)
  • To by-pass these tissue barriers, we tested if the larger void spaces (poor in IM content) induced by tumor cell apoptosis enhance the distribution of replication-competent herpes simplex virus (HSV) in tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In conclusion TRAIL or paclitaxel plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis enhances the distribution of replication-competent HSV in MDA-MB-435S tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We will also test if apoptosis-induction enhances the therapeutic efficacy of replication-competent HSV. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The RNPs are responsible for viral transcription and replication as well as assembly of the genome segments into progeny virions ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Both viral transcription and replication are reduced when the rabies virus nucleoprotein is not phosphorylated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the present study, we mutated the serine (S) at position 389 to alanine (A), glycine (G), aspartic acid (D), asparagine (N), glutamic acid (E), and glutamine (Q) and examined the effects of these mutations on rabies virus transcription and replication in the minigenome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mutation of the serine to each of the other amino acids resulted in the synthesis of an unphosphorylated N and reduction of viral transcription and replication in the minigenome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mutations from S to A and S to D also resulted in reduction of both viral transcription and replication in full-length infectious viruses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Taken together, these results provide definitive evidence that N phosphorylation plays an important role in the processes of rabies virus transcription and replication. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The influenza virus infects a host cell, replicates within the host cell and spreads to nearby cells. (brighthub.com)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus takes control of the body's immune B-cells so that it can hide in plain sight. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a paper appearing in the open access journal eLife , a team of researchers from Duke's School of Medicine details just how the Epstein-Barr virus manages to persist so well inside the immune system's B cells, a type of white blood cell that is normally responsible for recognizing and responding to foreign invaders. (eurekalert.org)
  • The virus actually taps into the B cell's normal protection against apoptosis," the programmed cell death that takes B cells out of circulation, Luftig said. (eurekalert.org)
  • For TSWV efforts are made to mimick this process, and eventually reconstitute viral RNPs and enveloped virus particles in mammalian cells (topic 2). (wur.nl)
  • Whereas the maturation pathway of TSWV in thrips seems to resemble those from the animal-infecting (bunya-) viruses in that enveloped virus particles eventually escape from the cell surface, TSWV particles accumulate and retain in large ER-derived vesicles in plant cells. (wur.nl)
  • Scientists at the Morgridge Institute for Research have, for the first time, imaged molecular structures vital to how a major class of viruses replicates within infected cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • DNA viruses have evolved very different replication strategies as well as a rich variety of molecular interactions with their host cells. (els.net)
  • DePamphilis ML (1996) DNA Replication in Eukaryotic Cells. (els.net)
  • a) Thin section transmission electron microscopy photomicrograph of Junín virus (JUNV) Candid#1 budding from the surface of Vero E6 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • 32. A method of treatment of Japanese Encephalitis and related infectious diseases in animals comprising the steps of introducing said catalytic DNA molecule of claim 25 into infected cells under conditions suitable for cleavage and reduction of infectious Japanese Encephalitis virus or other infectious micro-organisms. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These results indicated that PKC may act as a restricting mechanism that modulates the DENV replication and represses the viral outburst in the host cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, pre-treatment of Vero cells with ATA for up to 72 h also resulted in effective suppression of ZIKV replication with similar IC 50 . (frontiersin.org)
  • Mavigner M, Zanoni M, Tharp GK, Habib J, Mattingly CR, Lichterfeld M, Nega MT, Vanderford TH, Bosinger SE, Chahroudi A. Pharmacological Modulation of the Wnt/ß-Catenin Pathway Inhibits Proliferation and Promotes Differentiation of Long-Lived Memory CD4+ T Cells in Antiretroviral Therapy-Suppressed Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques. (harvard.edu)
  • It was revealed that Ca-SP selectively inhibited the penetration of virus into host cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Scientists at the Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have made a major advance in understanding how flu viruses replicate within infected cells. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Similar structures have been observed in cells infected with related viruses, including rabies virus (RABV [ 4 , 5 ]), Ebola virus ( 6 ), and measles virus ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • however, if the cells already contain δAg-S, then replication occurs ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • To determine whether an activated innate immune system can also inhibit HBV replication, in this study we activated natural killer T (NKT) cells in the liver of HBV transgenic mice by a single injection of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), a glycolipid antigen presented to Vα14 + NK1.1 + T cells by the nonclassical major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule CD1d. (rupress.org)
  • Based on these results, we conclude that α-GalCer inhibits HBV replication by directly activating NKT cells and by secondarily activating NK cells to secrete antiviral cytokines in the liver. (rupress.org)
  • The increase in our understanding of the molecular biology of malignant cells and viruses has now enabled researchers to design viruses that are capable of selectively destroying cancer cells and spare normal surrounding tissue. (worldcat.org)
  • A genotype 2a replicon was constructed by isolating the consensus sequence of JFH-1, transfecting G418-selectable subgenomic transcripts into Huh7 cells, and estimating the replication efficiency. (nih.gov)
  • New York, July 8 (IANS) In a fight against Covid-19 pandemic, the researchers have found several existing compounds that block replication of the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) within human cells grown in the laboratory. (indiatribune.com)
  • Without Mpro, the virus cannot replicate and infect new cells. (indiatribune.com)
  • Essentially, the virus heads straight to the brain's progenitor cells, blocking around 20 percent of them from forming new neurons. (inquisitr.com)
  • This work represents the first look at how our cells defend themselves against Zika virus' attack. (inquisitr.com)
  • HIV treatment with medications controls the virus by stopping the reproduction process within the cells. (womenhealthzone.com)
  • It is another antiretrovirals group that stops the HIV virus from entering the cells. (womenhealthzone.com)
  • We characterized an H9N2 virus from a pet market in Bangladesh and demonstrated replication in samples from pet birds, swine tissues, human airway and ocular cells, and ferrets. (cdc.gov)
  • To specifically dissect the role of CtBP interaction with E1A, we engineered a mutation (DL→AS) within the CtBP-binding motif, PLDLS, and investigated the effect of the mutation on immortalization and Ras cooperative transformation of primary cells and viral replication. (osti.gov)
  • The interaction enhances viral replication in human cells. (osti.gov)
  • The constructs, which expressed Rluc, GFP, DsRed, efficiently produced progeny viruses and mimicked the parental virus in both MARC-145 cells and porcine macrophages. (mdpi.com)
  • The influence of these materials on the ability of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to infect human epitheloid cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells was examined by two approaches. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Second, VSV was incubated in LC phases of either C(14)AO + D or DSCG for 4 h, and the concentration (titer) of infectious virus in the LC was determined by dilution into cell culture medium and subsequent inoculation of HeLa cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Washington, DC - May 2, 2017 - The cells of vertebrates have evolved pathways that act like an internal defense, inhibiting viral infections by preventing replication of the pathogens. (asm.org)
  • In lab experiments, the researchers treated human fibroblasts with AV-C and, six hours later, infected the cells with one of the three viruses. (asm.org)
  • Remarkably, vaccinees expressing MHC-I (MHC class I) alleles previously associated with viral control completely suppressed acute phase replication of the challenge virus, implicating CD8(+) T cells in this control. (iavi.org)
  • On a more positive note, our results suggest that MHC-I-restricted CD8(+) T cells contribute to the protection induced by the live-attenuated SIV vaccine and demonstrate that vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cell responses can control replication of heterologous challenge viruses. (iavi.org)
  • Electron microscopy observation in cellular section indicated that there was no virus present in treated cells as compared with control untreated infected cells. (academicjournals.org)
  • Effect of natural and chimeric haemagglutinin genes on influenza A virus replication in baby hamster kidney cells. (wur.nl)
  • Although particular influenza virus strains replicate efficiently in BHK21 cells the general use of these cells for influenza vaccine production is prohibited by the poor replication of most strains, including model strain A/PR/8/34 [H1N1] (PR8). (wur.nl)
  • This method of producing the HA1 domain as fusion to a heterologous HA2 domain could possibly also be used for the production of HA1 domains of other viruses to enable the use of BHK21 cells as a generic platform for veterinary influenza vaccine production. (wur.nl)
  • A similar reduction was observed when TIP47 was knocked down in cells harboring an autonomously replicating HCV RNA (subgenomic replicon), indicating that TIP47 is required for efficient HCV RNA replication. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The relative role of cytolytic and noncytolytic functions of virus-specific CD8 + T cells during interaction with HBV-producing hepatocytes is not well understood. (jimmunol.org)
  • By using HLA-A2 matched effector cells (CD8 + T cell line or clone) and target cells supporting full HBV replication, we demonstrate that virus-specific CD8 + T cells can inhibit HBV replication in HBV-producing hepatocytes with minimal cell lysis. (jimmunol.org)
  • These results provide direct evidence that virus-specific CD8 + T cells efficiently control HBV replication by noncytolytic mechanisms, and this effect is mediated by IFN-γ and TNF-α. (jimmunol.org)
  • So far, the route of transmission between B cells and the production of progeny virus in the epithelial tissue has remained unclear. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We have previously reported that hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes and CD4 + helper T lymphocytes can inhibit HBV replication in the liver of HBV transgenic mice by secreting interferon (IFN)-γ when they recognize viral antigen. (rupress.org)
  • Once bound to the host cell, viruses enter by a range of mechanisms, often involving uptake into vacuoles, although other routes such as fusion with the cell membrane may be used. (els.net)
  • Viruses that require a lipid envelope (enveloped viruses) can acquire this from a range of cellular sources, including the plasma membrane or internal membranes. (els.net)
  • Acquisition of lipid at the plasma membrane allows the virus to exit from the cell by budding. (els.net)
  • Eventually, the virus is encapsulated into a vesicle that detaches from the cell membrane and enters the cytoplasm. (brighthub.com)
  • This causes the virus to push itself toward the membrane of the vesicle until the two merge. (brighthub.com)
  • The various parts of the virus come together at the host's cell membrane. (brighthub.com)
  • As the viruses assemble, they begin to attach to the cell membrane. (brighthub.com)
  • Modification of intracellular membrane structures for virus replication. (nih.gov)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum membrane is modified by viral and cellular factors to generate a membranous web that is the major site of viral RNA replication. (nature.com)
  • Nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses, which include some of the most significant human, animal, and plant pathogens extant, form inclusions that are sites of RNA synthesis and are not circumscribed by a membrane. (asm.org)
  • For NNS RNA viruses, the replication compartment is a cytoplasmic inclusion that is not circumscribed by a cellular membrane. (asm.org)
  • To study how TBEV induces membrane remodeling, we developed an inducible stable cell system expressing the TBEV NS polyprotein in the absence of viral RNA replication. (diva-portal.org)
  • Viruses are intracellular parasites that use the host cell they infect to produce new infectious progeny. (nih.gov)
  • On the basis of their success, the researchers have received an $8 million grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to develop protease inhibitors that would block key enzymes in the SARS virus and hamper its advance. (news-medical.net)
  • Furthermore, mutations from S to A, S to D, and S to E were also incorporated into the full-length infectious virus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Interpretation of the data from the minigenome system and the full-length infectious virus indicates that phosphorylation of rabies virus N is necessary for replication. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To examine H9N2 replication in bird species, we inoculated 5 finches, 5 parakeets, and 6 chickens oculonasally with 10 5 log 10 50% egg infectious doses (log 10 EID 50 ) of Env/9306 ( Technical Appendix ). (cdc.gov)
  • We have constructed a series of recombinant PRRS viruses using an infectious PRRSV cDNA clone (pCMV-P129). (mdpi.com)
  • The infectious recombinant viruses containing increased/decreased length of F-HN and HN-L IGS were recovered and the transcription and pathogenicity of mutants were characterized. (umd.edu)
  • In order to produce infectious virus progeny, vaccinia virus (VV) undergoes morphogenic proteolysis to regulate the structural rearrangements of virus particles. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Holness CL, Lomonossoff GP, Evans D, Maule AJ (1989) Identification of the initiation codons for translation of cowpea mosaic virus middle component RNA using site-directed mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone. (springer.com)
  • The replication compartments, or spherules, contain strands of RNA, the genetic code of the virus. (eurekalert.org)
  • The new use of cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) has allowed the scientists to see replication compartments in unprecedented detail, says Benefield. (eurekalert.org)
  • What is most important to understand is the concentration of a drug actually inside an HIV-infected cell in the compartments where most of the virus is actually produced," said Fletcher. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Here we show that replication compartments of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) have the properties of liquid-like compartments that form by phase separation. (asm.org)
  • In this article, we present evidence that the VSV replication compartments form through phase separation. (asm.org)
  • 1979) Translation of plant virus messenger RNAs. (springer.com)
  • Here we describe examples of influenza A virus-derived small viral RNAs (svRNAs). (pnas.org)
  • The 5′ and 3′ non‑translated regions (NTRs) of these four RNAs are highly structured and contain elements that are important for replication and translation. (mdpi.com)
  • Cardiovirus cis-acting replication element (CRE) Coronavirus SL-III cis-acting replication element (CRE) Heron HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon Satyanarayana T, Gowda S, Ayllón MA, Albiach-Martí MR, Dawson WO (August 2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • These data suggest that the 3′ NTR of AlMV sgRNA4 contains potential elements necessary for virus encapsidation. (mdpi.com)
  • However, RNA elements involved in encapsidation and thus representing the origin of assembly (OAS) have been investigated for only a few viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Measles virus genome encapsidation is essential for viral replication and is controlled by the intrinsically disordered phosphoprotein (P) maintaining the nucleoprotein in a monomeric form (N) before nucleocapsid assembly. (ens-lyon.fr)
  • The constant threat of pandemic influenza is highlighted by the emergence of novel pandemic H1N1 viruses in 2009 ( 2 ) and the potential for highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses to gain human-to-human transmissibility ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In Bangladesh, subtype H9N2 viruses are unique reassortants, containing genes from highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N3) viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • To address this issue in macaques, we administered a live-attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine and challenged with a highly pathogenic heterologous isolate. (iavi.org)
  • Our results indicate that vaccine induction of highly effective CTLs can result in the containment of replication of a highly pathogenic immunodeficiency virus. (rupress.org)
  • Overall, these results demonstrate that ATA has potent inhibitory activity against ZIKV replication and may be considered as a potential anti-ZIKV therapy for future clinical evaluation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Glycyrrhizin, a component found within licorice, has inhibitory activity against hepatitis A virus. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Forty antiviral compounds were screened for inhibitory effect on hepatitis A virus (HAV) antigen expression in the human hepatoma cell line PLC/PRF/5. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Interactions with some cellular factors, however, are inhibitory to virus multiplication and contribute to host range restriction of tobamovirus. (apsnet.org)
  • Nicotine had an inhibitory effect, while aromatic additions to snuff were found to have no major inhibitory effect on HSV replication. (diva-portal.org)
  • A single miRNA exhibits both an inhibitory effect on the antiviral response and an antiviral effect on viral replication. (sciencemag.org)
  • Then using this virus, we tested the hypothesis that cellular VRKs can complement B1 function, and discovered a VRK2 role in facilitating DNA replication in the absence of B1. (unl.edu)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is one of the recently emerging vector-borne viruses in humans and is responsible for severe congenital abnormalities such as microcephaly in the Western Hemisphere. (frontiersin.org)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus within the Flaviviridae family. (frontiersin.org)
  • Zika virus was initially isolated from Uganda in 1947 and viral infections only occurred sporadically in Africa and Asia until 2007. (frontiersin.org)
  • The dreaded Zika virus could soon have an effective antivirus. (inquisitr.com)
  • Scientists at the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) working on finding out ways to combat the Zika virus have made a remarkable breakthrough that should pave the way for a synthetic antivirus, which will limit the virus' spread in the affected person. (inquisitr.com)
  • Researchers have been able to figure out what the Zika virus does to the human body. (inquisitr.com)
  • The scientists zeroed in on the IFITM3 after working with the dengue virus and other such pathogens that are closely related to Zika, reported NDTV . (inquisitr.com)
  • We think this also reduces the levels of cell death caused by Zika virus. (inquisitr.com)
  • IFITM3 pretty much keeps Zika virus stuck in no man's land, where it can't do anything to harm us. (inquisitr.com)
  • Ever since the first confirmed reports of Zika virus about 12 months ago, its spread has slow but persistent. (inquisitr.com)
  • Although there aren't millions of Zika virus patients out there, according to official sources, the virus has now hit the shores of 52 countries, including Brazil, Cuba, Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines. (inquisitr.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed in April that Zika virus is responsible for the high number of babies born with birth defects in the countries where the virus has an active presence. (inquisitr.com)
  • Localization of Zika virus RNA by in situ hybridization in brain tissues from infants with microcephaly. (cdc.gov)
  • In a new study published this week in mBio , the scientists report on a novel compound that triggers a cell's innate antiviral system, inhibiting replication of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue viruses. (asm.org)
  • Moss B (1990) Regulation of vaccinia virus transcription. (els.net)
  • Vv, vaccinia virus. (rupress.org)
  • Interestingly, our characterization of the adapted viruses reveals that mutations correlating with a loss of function of the vaccinia B12 pseudokinase provide a striking fitness enhancement to this virus. (unl.edu)
  • Our data indicate that B12 is not a global repressor, but inhibits vaccinia replication in the absence of the B1 kinase. (unl.edu)
  • Schacker teamed up with Ashley Haase, M.D., Regents' Professor and Head of Microbiology, and Courtney Fletcher, Pharm.D., dean of the College of Pharmacy at the University of Nebraska Medical Center to measure drug levels and find the impact on HIV-1 replication in those tissues. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This information will contribute to our understanding of viral replication and provide insight on how to control it. (eurekalert.org)
  • HA2 promotes fusion of the virus envelope and the endosome membranes. (wikimedia.org)
  • Similarly, cytoplasmic replication of some DNA viruses occurs in association with modified cellular membranes. (nih.gov)
  • We describe how viruses modify intracellular membranes, highlight similarities between the structures that are induced by viruses of different families and discuss how these structures could be formed. (nih.gov)
  • In a mitochondrion infected with the virus, the space between those membranes is expanded and filled up with spherules, round vesicles about 50 nanometers in size. (eurekalert.org)
  • Moss, B. Lipid Membranes in Poxvirus Replication. (mdpi.com)
  • Flaviviruses are known to cause remodeling of intracellular membranes into small cavities, where replication of the viral RNA takes place. (diva-portal.org)
  • Similar to other flaviviruses, TBEV exploits intracellular membranes to build RCs for viral replication. (diva-portal.org)
  • NS5A is critically involved in viral RNA replication that takes place at newly formed membranes within the endoplasmic reticulum (membranous web) and assists viral assembly in the close vicinity of lipid droplets (LDs). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, none of these vaccine regimens have been successful in the containment of replication of the pathogenic simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) that induce chronic disease progression. (rupress.org)
  • Gaard, G. and DeZoeten, G. A. (1979) Plant virus uncoating as a result of virus cell wall interactions. (springer.com)
  • A diagram of influenza viral cell invasion and replication. (wikimedia.org)
  • Movement between hosts is entirely passive, but once they encounter a suitable host cell viruses can begin a cycle that can produce hundreds of new viruses within a very short time. (els.net)
  • Once within the cell, viruses move to specific sites where they can replicate. (els.net)
  • Viruses can escape from vacuoles within the cell by diverting the cell's attempts to digest them. (els.net)
  • Viruses replicate at various locations within the cell. (els.net)
  • Some plant viruses actually package each segment separately, relying on each target cell being infected multiple times. (els.net)
  • Viruses without a lipid envelope are often released by active cell lysis or simply by the disintegration of a dying cell. (els.net)
  • The replication of influenza virus starts with the virus entering a host cell. (brighthub.com)
  • Then, the contents of the virus enters the cell cytoplasm. (brighthub.com)
  • A new virus cell has been replicated, and it will search for a host cell. (brighthub.com)
  • From within, the virus manages to ramp up the B-cell's reproduction of itself, while at the same time helping the cell resist its own self-destruct signals. (eurekalert.org)
  • The findings, which will be published in the Dec. 24 edition of the journal Cell Reports , show that this manipulation of telomeres may explain how viruses like herpes are able to successfully replicate while also revealing more about the protective role that telomeres play against other viruses. (eurekalert.org)
  • Among the viruses Lieberman and his lab have decided to study is HSV-1, a particularly aggressive virus that replicates in the nucleus of a healthy cell where chromosomes and their telomeres reside. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the case of plant DNA viruses, there is a cell wall that imposes restrictions on viral release. (els.net)
  • Budding is the stage when newly formed virus exits the host cell. (slideme.org)
  • You can see that the virus does not reproduce on its own but instead 'tricks' the host cell into making millions of copies of the virus. (ck12.org)
  • Such structures were first observed in the cell bodies of neurons from humans infected with rabies virus and were termed Negri bodies. (asm.org)
  • Recent studies indicate that hepatitis B virus (HBV) may induce autophagy to enhance its replication in cell cultures. (asm.org)
  • We also demonstrated that autophagy can enhance HBV replication primarily at the step of viral DNA replication in cell cultures ( 17 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Subsequent to our report, another group also reported that autophagy induced by HBV positively affected HBV replication in cell cultures but primarily at the step of envelopment ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Though rituximab is an invaluable drug in the treatment of B-cell lymphomas, we believe that the use of such agents with potentially long-lasting effects on B lymphocytes requires extended vigilance for accelerated replication of hepatitis B and C viruses. (wiley.com)
  • Researchers from Children's National Medical Center have found that an alternate, "escape" replication process triggered by apoptosis-the process of cell death or "cell suicide"-appears to be common in human herpesviruses (HHV). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Our findings suggest that most if not all HHV types can sense that the host cell is dying, which prompts them to launch an emergency replication process," said lead author Alka Prasad, PhD, a post-doctoral fellow in the Center for Cancer and Immunology Research of the Children's Research Institute at Children's National. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Herpesviruses have genes that try to prevent apoptosis, but when the viruses cannot block the host cell from undergoing apoptosis, they apparently launch this alternate process to reproduce before the cell dies-suggesting that these herpesviruses are not simply destructive 'cell-bombs' but more nuanced organisms that engage in a dialogue with the host cell. (medicalxpress.com)
  • If the viruses didn't have this emergency alternative way of reproducing then, if the cell they were living in died, they would have no chance of making additional viruses. (medicalxpress.com)
  • These new findings build on earlier research led by Children's National that showed HHV-8 to have an alternate replication path triggered when the host cell undergoes apoptosis and that this process generates a high volume of virus but with a lower infectivity rate. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In agreement, the attachment of the virus to the host cell and penetration of the virus to the cell nuclei were found to be inhibited as was the synthesis of viral DNA. (diva-portal.org)
  • Once this virus enters your body it attacks the T Cell and starts replicating the copies of it and damages the immune system to defend against the virus. (womenhealthzone.com)
  • Using these approaches, we found that the LC containing C(14)AO + D caused inactivation of virus as well as cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recently, encouraging AIDS vaccine trials in macaques have implicated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the control of the simian human immunodeficiency virus SHIV89.6P that induces acute CD4 + T cell depletion. (rupress.org)
  • La Crosse (LAC) virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus ) small (S) segment negative-sense RNA genome (vRNA), positive-sense full-length RNA complement (vcRNA), and subgenomic mRNA were assayed in infected cell cultures and female Aedes (Ochlerotatus) triseriatus mosquito tissues using quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). (ajtmh.org)
  • RNA copy numbers per cell were quantified and vRNA correlated to virus titer in cell culture medium. (ajtmh.org)
  • However, studies in HBV transgenic mice and HBV-infected chimpanzees revealed that T cell control of HBV replication also involves cytokine-mediated noncytolytic mechanisms. (jimmunol.org)
  • shGag transfer significantly inhibited viral replication in cell lines that were chronically infected with FIV, i.e., the 3201/UK8 low , 3201/UK8 high , FL4, and CRFK/FIV cell lines. (go.jp)
  • Ultimately, you could have birds that are both avian influenza resistant and Newcastle disease virus resistant," said Mr West. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Characterization of avian H5N1 influenza viruses from poultry in Hong Kong. (canarydatabase.org)
  • Avian influenza A(H9N2) virus is endemic among poultry throughout Eurasia ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammals. (asm.org)
  • The recent appearance of an avian influenza A virus in seals suggests that viruses are transmitted from birds to mammals in nature. (asm.org)
  • To examine this possibility, avian viruses of different antigenic subtypes were evaluated for their ability to replicate in three mammals-pigs, ferrets, and cats. (asm.org)
  • In each of these mammals, avian strains replicated to high titers in the respiratory tract (10(5) to 10(7) 50% egg infective doses per ml of nasal wash), with peak titers at 2 to 4 days post-inoculation, similar to the pattern of human and other mammalian viruses in these animals. (asm.org)
  • One avian H1N1 virus initially replicated poorly in pigs, but was adapted to this host and even transmitted to other pigs. (asm.org)
  • Replication of the avian viruses occurred in the respiratory tracts of mammals, whereas, in birds, they replicate in the intestinal tract as well. (asm.org)
  • These studies suggest that influenza A viruses currently circulating in avian species represent a source of viruses capable of infecting mammals, thereby contributing to the influenza A antigenic pool from which new pandemic strains may originate. (asm.org)
  • Rabies virus N is phosphorylated, and previous studies demonstrated that mutation of the phosphorylated serine at position 389 to alanine resulted in reduction of viral transcription and/or replication of a rabies virus minigenome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Growth curve studies indicated that production of the mutant virus with the S-to-A mutation (L16A) was as much as 10,000-fold less than that of the wild-type virus (L16). (biomedsearch.com)
  • We report here the engineering and recovery of nsp14-ExoN mutant viruses of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that have stable growth defects and demonstrate a 21-fold increase in mutation frequency during replication in culture. (jcvi.org)
  • Analysis of complete genome sequences from SARS-ExoN mutant viral clones revealed unique mutation sets in every genome examined from the same round of replication and a total of 100 unique mutations across the genome. (jcvi.org)
  • A single point mutation (W9A) in NS5A that disrupts the interaction with TIP47 but preserves proper subcellular localization severely decreased HCV RNA replication. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Thirty days after inoculation, no significant difference was observed in the RT activities but virus with a mutation in the target region of shGag was detected in approximately 21% of the replicated viruses. (go.jp)
  • The details of this process have been examined with the use of mammalian hepatitis B viruses to map the sites for initiation and termination of DNA synthesis and to explore the consequences of mutations introduced at short, separated direct repeats (DR1 and DR2) implicated in the mechanisms of initiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • When viruses mutate, as they frequently do, thwarting the action of drugs, the mutations typically occur in these sidechains. (news-medical.net)
  • Mutations at key points on the enzyme have enabled the virus to infect new species in the past. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • however, some of the mutations found in the clones might be important in conferring higher replication phenotypes. (nih.gov)
  • CTLs from all of these five macaques rapidly selected for escape mutations in Gag, indicating that vaccine-induced CTLs successfully contained replication of the challenge virus. (rupress.org)
  • We also utilized the ΔB1 virus in an experimental evolution assay to perform an unbiased search for suppressor mutations and identify novel pathways involving B1. (unl.edu)
  • Our group previously characterized sequentially emerging NAI resistance mutations in A/California/7/2004 (H3N2)-like viruses shed over 1 year by a young child who had undergone bone marrow transplantation ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Influenza A/California/7/2004 (H3N2)-like viruses containing single (E119V) or double (E119V-I222V) NA mutations, as well as a wild-type (WT) isolate, were isolated from an immunocompromised child ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Several components of the virus are free floating in the cytoplasm. (brighthub.com)
  • In the cytoplasm, the new viruses are assembled. (brighthub.com)
  • For Influenza this process occurs in the nucleus whereas for TSWV, and most other segmented (-)RNA viruses this happens in the cytoplasm. (wur.nl)
  • RNA viruses typically establish specialized organelles in the cytoplasm in which RNA synthesis occurs ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Rapid detection and quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg viruses, Lassa virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. (ajtmh.org)
  • The interactions that have positive and negative impacts on virus multiplication should have been maintained and lost, respectively, during adaptation of the viruses to their respective natural hosts. (apsnet.org)
  • We will highlight current research regarding the role of molecular biology of Junín virus in elucidating virus attenuation. (mdpi.com)
  • US - Researchers from the University of Georgia have used molecular biology to devise a way to stop viruses such as Newcastle disease replicating in poultry. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Transcription Is Inhibited by TRIM69 in the Interferon-Induced Antiviral State. (harvard.edu)
  • This document provides methods and materials related to vesicular stomatitis viruses. (patents.com)
  • The antiviral effect is sequence-specific and does not depend on active viral replication. (natap.org)
  • These studies will allow the team to identify the genes that enable the virus to cause disease, laying the groundwork for antiviral drug development. (emaxhealth.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated ATA as a potential antiviral drug against ZIKV replication. (frontiersin.org)
  • This gives rise to a reduction in PTEN levels and intracellular lipid abundance, which may in turn regulate HCV replication. (nature.com)
  • To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. (hindawi.com)
  • The genome of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is divided among two positive strand RNA molecules. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, the JFH-1 replicon RNA replicated efficiently without G418 selection in a transient replication assay. (nih.gov)
  • Kasamatsu H and Nakanishi A (1998) How do animal DNA viruses get to the nucleus? (els.net)
  • The virus is encoded by eight individual single-stranded segments of RNA with negative polarity that localize to the nucleus upon viral entry ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome forms a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) minichromosome that persists in the nucleus of virus-infected hepatocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the parallel B12 pathway to restrict virus replication is less clear. (unl.edu)
  • Gutierrez C (1999) Geminivirus DNA replication. (els.net)