The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is found in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. It is required for DNA REPLICATION; DNA REPAIR; and GENETIC RECOMBINATION.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The temporal order in which the DNA of the GENOME is replicated.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A DNA-binding protein that consists of 5 polypeptides and plays an essential role in DNA REPLICATION in eukaryotes. It binds DNA PRIMER-template junctions and recruits PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and DNA POLYMERASES to the site of DNA synthesis.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Viruses that produce tumors.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
The origin recognition complex is a multi-subunit DNA-binding protein that initiates DNA REPLICATION in eukaryotes.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.

Human topoisomerase I promotes initiation of simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro. (1/23992)

Addition of purified human topoisomerase I (topo I) to simian virus 40 T antigen-driven in vitro DNA replication reactions performed with topo I-deficient extracts results in a greater than 10-fold stimulation of completed molecules as well as a more than 3-fold enhancement of overall DNA replication. To further characterize this stimulation, we first demonstrate that bovine topo I but not Escherichia coli topo I can also enhance DNA replication. By using several human topo I mutants, we show that a catalytically active form of topo I is required. To delineate whether topo I influences the initiation or the elongation step of replication, we performed delayed pulse, pulse-chase, and delayed pulse-chase experiments. The results illustrate that topo I cannot promote the completion of partially replicated molecules but is needed from the beginning of the reaction to initiate replication. Competitive inhibition experiments with the topo I binding T antigen fragment 1-246T and a catalytically inactive topo I mutant suggest that part of topo I's stimulation of replication is mediated through a direct interaction with T antigen. Collectively, our data indicate that topo I enhances the synthesis of fully replicated DNA molecules by forming essential interactions with T antigen and stimulating initiation.  (+info)

High level inhibition of HIV replication with combination RNA decoys expressed from an HIV-Tat inducible vector. (2/23992)

Intracellular immunization, an antiviral gene therapy approach based on the introduction of DNA into cells to stably express molecules for the inhibition of viral gene expression and replication, has been suggested for inhibition of HIV infection. Since the Tat and Rev proteins play a critical role in HIV regulation, RNA decoys and ribozymes of these sequences have potential as therapeutic molecular inhibitors. In the present study, we have generated several anti-HIV molecules; a tat-ribozyme, RRE, RWZ6 and TAR decoys and combinations of decoys, and tested them for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro. We used T cell specific CD2 gene elements and regulatory the HIV inducible promoter to direct high level expression and a 3' UTR sequence for mRNA stabilization. We show that HIV replication was most strongly inhibited with the combination TAR + RRE decoy when compared with the single decoys or the tat-ribozyme. We also show that the Tat-inducible HIV promoter directs a higher level of steady-state transcription of decoys and inhibitors and that higher levels of expression directly relate to increased levels of inhibition of HIV infection. Furthermore, a stabilization of the 3' end of TAR + RRE inhibitor transcripts using a beta-globin 3' UTR sequence leads to an additional 15-fold increase in steady-state RNA levels. This cassette when used to express the best combination decoy inhibitor TAR + RRE, yields high level HIV inhibition for greater than 3 weeks. Taken together, both optimization for high level expression of molecular inhibitors and use of combinations of inhibitors suggest better therapeutic application in limiting the spread of HIV.  (+info)

Enteroviral RNA replication in the myocardium of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis. (3/23992)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies dealing with the detection of enteroviral RNA in human endomyocardial biopsies have not differentiated between latent persistence of the enteroviral genome and active viral replication. Enteroviruses that are considered important factors for the development of myocarditis have a single-strand RNA genome of positive polarity that is transcribed by a virus-encoded RNA polymerase into a minus-strand mRNA during active viral replication. The synthesis of multiple copies of minus-strand enteroviral RNA therefore occurs only at sites of active viral replication but not in tissues with mere persistence of the viral genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated enteroviral RNA replication versus enteroviral RNA persistence in endomyocardial biopsies of 45 patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis. Using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, we established a highly sensitive assay to specifically detect plus-strand versus minus-strand enteroviral RNA in the biopsies. Plus-strand enteroviral RNA was detected in endomyocardial biopsies of 18 (40%) of 45 patients, whereas minus-strand RNA as an indication of active enteroviral RNA replication was detected in only 10 (56%) of these 18 plus-strand-positive patients. Enteroviral RNA was not found in biopsies of the control group (n=26). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that a significant fraction of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis had active enteroviral RNA replication in their myocardium (22%). Differentiation between patients with active viral replication and latent viral persistence should be particularly important in future studies evaluating different therapeutic strategies. In addition, molecular genetic detection of enteroviral genome and differentiation between replicating versus persistent viruses is possible in a single endomyocardial biopsy.  (+info)

Microtubule-dependent plus- and minus end-directed motilities are competing processes for nuclear targeting of adenovirus. (4/23992)

Adenovirus (Ad) enters target cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, escapes to the cytosol, and then delivers its DNA genome into the nucleus. Here we analyzed the trafficking of fluorophore-tagged viruses in HeLa and TC7 cells by time-lapse microscopy. Our results show that native or taxol-stabilized microtubules (MTs) support alternating minus- and plus end-directed movements of cytosolic virus with elementary speeds up to 2.6 micrometer/s. No directed movement was observed in nocodazole-treated cells. Switching between plus- and minus end-directed elementary speeds at frequencies up to 1 Hz was observed in the periphery and near the MT organizing center (MTOC) after recovery from nocodazole treatment. MT-dependent motilities allowed virus accumulation near the MTOC at population speeds of 1-10 micrometer/min, depending on the cell type. Overexpression of p50/dynamitin, which is known to affect dynein-dependent minus end-directed vesicular transport, significantly reduced the extent and the frequency of minus end-directed migration of cytosolic virus, and increased the frequency, but not the extent of plus end-directed motility. The data imply that a single cytosolic Ad particle engages with two types of MT-dependent motor activities, the minus end- directed cytoplasmic dynein and an unknown plus end- directed activity.  (+info)

Preclinical safety evaluation of human gene therapy products. (5/23992)

Human gene therapy products include naked DNA and viral as well as non-viral vectors containing nucleic acids. There is limited experience on the preclinical toxicity studies necessary for the safety evaluation of these products, which have been outlined in several recently released guidelines. Requirements for the preclinical safety evaluation of human gene therapy products are both specific and non-specific. All key preclinical studies should be performed in compliance with Good Laboratory Practices. Non-specific requirements are in fact common to all pharmaceutical products. Critical specific issues to be addressed are: the safety evaluation of the vector and the toxicity of the expressed protein(s), which are the two components of gene therapy products, the quality of the test article, the selection of animal species, and the verification that the administration method successfully transports the gene of interest, with the vector, to the target site(s). The treatment schedule should mimic the intended human therapeutic design. The host's immune response against the gene therapy product has to be evaluated to detect possible adverse effects and immune neutralization by antibodies. The biodistribution of the gene of interest is also essential and can be evaluated by molecular biology techniques, such as PCR. Specific confinement is required for the safe manipulation of viral vectors.  (+info)

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells. (6/23992)

8-Difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2-methoxyp hen yl)-1- piperazinyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (K-12) has recently been identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. In this study, we examined several combinations of K-12 and other antiretroviral agents for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cell cultures. Combinations of K-12 and a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, either zidovudine, lamivudine, or nevirapine, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected MT-4 cells. The combination of K-12 and the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (NFV) also synergistically inhibited HIV-1, whereas the synergism of this combination was weaker than that of the combinations with the RT inhibitors. K-12 did not enhance the cytotoxicities of RT and protease inhibitors. Synergism of the combinations was also observed in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The combination of K-12 and cepharanthine, a nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 production in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line chronically infected with the virus. In contrast, additive inhibition was observed for the combination of K-12 and NFV. These results indicate that the combinations of K-12 and clinically available antiretroviral agents may have potential as chemotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

Comparative study of the anti-human cytomegalovirus activities and toxicities of a tetrahydrofuran phosphonate analogue of guanosine and cidofovir. (7/23992)

Cidofovir is the first nucleoside monophosphate analogue currently being used for the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis in individuals with AIDS. Unfortunately, the period of therapy with the use of this compound may be limited due to the possible emergence of serious irreversible nephrotoxic effects. New drugs with improved toxicity profiles are needed. The goal of this study was to investigate the anticytomegaloviral properties and drug-induced toxicity of a novel phosphonate analogue, namely, (-)-2-(R)-dihydroxyphosphinoyl-5-(S)-(guanin-9'-yl-methyl) tetrahydrofuran (compound 1), in comparison with those of cidofovir. The inhibitory activities of both compounds on HCMV propagation in vitro were similar against the AD 169 and Towne strains, with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.17 microgram/ml for cidofovir and < 0.05 to 0.09 microgram/ml for compound 1. A clinical HCMV isolate that was resistant to ganciclovir and that had a known mutation within the UL54 DNA polymerase gene and a cidofovir-resistant laboratory strain derived from strain AD 169 remained sensitive to compound 1, whereas their susceptibilities to ganciclovir and cidofovir were reduced by 33- and 10-fold, respectively. Both compound 1 and cidofovir exhibited equal potencies in an experimentally induced murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in mice, with a prevention or prolongation of mean day to death at dosages of 1.0, 3.2, and 10.0 mg/kg of body weight/day. In cytotoxicity experiments, compound 1 was found to be generally more toxic than cidofovir in cell lines Hs68, HFF, and 3T3-L1 (which are permissive for HCMV or MCMV replication) but less toxic than cidofovir in MRC-5 cells (which are permissive for HCMV replication). Drug-induced toxic side effects were noticed for both compounds in rats and guinea pigs in a 5-day repeated-dose study. In guinea pigs, a greater weight loss was noticed with cidofovir than with compound 1 at dosages of 3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/day. An opposite effect was detected in rats, which were treated with the compounds at relatively high dosages (up to 100 mg/kg/day). Compound 1 and cidofovir were nephrotoxic in both rats and guinea pigs, with the epithelium lining the proximal convoluted tubules in the renal cortex being the primary target site. The incidence and the severity of the lesions were found to be dose dependent. The lesions observed were characterized by cytoplasm degeneration and nuclear modifications such as karyomegaly, the presence of pseudoinclusions, apoptosis, and degenerative changes. In the guinea pig model, a greater incidence and severity of lesions were observed for cidofovir than for compound 1 (P < 0.001) with a drug regimen of 10 mg/kg/day.  (+info)

Rubella virus-induced apoptosis varies among cell lines and is modulated by Bcl-XL and caspase inhibitors. (8/23992)

Rubella virus (RV) causes multisystem birth defects in the fetuses of infected women. To investigate the cellular basis of this pathology, we examined the cytopathic effect of RV in three permissive cell lines: Vero 76, RK13, and BHK21. Electron microscopy and the TUNEL assay showed that the cytopathic effect resulted from RV-induced programmed cell death (apoptosis) in all three cell lines, but the extent of apoptosis varied among these cells. At 48 h postinfection, the RK13 cell line showed the greatest number of apoptotic cells, the Vero 76 cell line was approximately 3-fold less, and BHK21 had very few. An increased multiplicity of infection and longer time postinfection were required for the BHK21 cell line to reach the level of apoptotic cells in Vero 76 at 48 h. Purified RV induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion, but not UV-inactivated RV or virus-depleted culture supernatant. Specific inhibitors of the apoptosis-specific proteases caspases reduced RV-induced apoptosis and led to higher levels of RV components in infected cells. To address the role of regulatory proteins in RV-induced apoptosis, the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL was transfected into RK13 cells. Although a high level of Bcl-2 family proteins was expressed, no protection was observed from apoptosis induced by RV, Sindbis virus, or staurosporine in RK13 cells. In BHK21 cells, however, increased expression of Bcl-XL protected cells from apoptosis. The observed variability in apoptotic response to RV of these cell lines demonstrates that programmed cell death is dependent on the unique properties of each cell and may be indicative of how selective organ damage occurs in a congenital rubella syndrome fetus.  (+info)

The regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and replication in primary monocytes was investigated by mutagenesis of recombinant proviral clones containing an env determinant required for the infectivity of monocytes. Virus replication was assayed by determination of reverse transcriptase activity in culture fluids and by recovery of virus from monocytes following cocultivation with uninfected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Three virus replication phenotypes were observed in monocytes: productive infection, silent infection, and no infection. Incorporation of the monocytetropic env determinant in a full-length clone incapable of infection or replication in primary monocytes (no infection) conferred the capacity for highly efficient virus replication in monocytes (productive infection). Clones with the env determinant but lacking either functional vpr or vpu genes generated lower replication levels in monocytes. Mutation of both vpr and vpu, however, resulted in nearly complete
Using the one-step growth technique the production of the virus T2 in its host, measured by latent period and burst size, was shown to depend on the nutritional environment of the host cell.. When E. coli, grown in broth, was transferred to a simple medium, single organic compounds such as some amino acids and nucleosides were found to increase or accelerate the synthesis of virus.. An antimetabolite of glutamic acid, an amino acid important for virus synthesis, was shown to be inhibitory.. Several naturally occurring amino acids, leucine, serine, and cysteine, inhibited virus synthesis in the simple medium.. A chemically defined mixture was found which supported a rate of virus synthesis very nearly comparable to that found for host cells in nutrient broth.. ...
Yes, this methods works when you know the virus you are incubating and have the right cells available. if you dont know what celltype your virus infects, youll have to try some systems, till you find one that supports virus replication in vitro ...
A single virus particle (virion) cannot replicate or express genetic material (DNA, RNA) without a host cell. Viral infection and virus replication involves six…
To investigate the effect of NP-41V and/or 210D on virus replication, recombinant viruses were generated with reverse-genetics as described previously [21]. For biosafety concerns, the four rescued viruses were performed using G1 (H9N2) backbones: rgG1-WT, rgG1-NP-V41I, rgG1-D210E, and rgG1- NP-V41I-D210E. MDCK cells were infected with rescued viruses at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.001, and incubated in the appropriate medium containing 2 mg/L N-p-tosyl-L-phenylalaninechloromethyl ketone-treated (TPCK) trypsin (Sigma, Saint Louis, MO, USA) at 33 or 37°C. At 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours post inoculation (hpi), supernatants were harvested and virus titers were determined using MDCK cells, as described previously [22]. As shown in Figure 3B, at 37°C, the D210E substitution in the NP protein significantly decreased the replication ability of rgG1-WT at early stages post infection (12 and 24 hpi (p , 0.05; n = 3), although all four viruses demonstrated comparable growth capability at ...
Endothelial cells are believed to play an important role in response to virus infection. Our previous microarray analysis showed that H9N2 virus infection and inactivated viral particle inoculation increased the expression of interferon-inducible transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In present study, we deeply investigated the expression patterns of IFITM1 and IFITM1-mediated antiviral response induced by H9N2 virus infection and inactivated viral particle inoculation in HUVECs. Epithelial cells that are considered target cells of the influenza virus were selected as a reference control. First, we quantified the expression levels of IFITM1 in HUVECs induced by H9N2 virus infection or viral particle inoculation using quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Second, we observed whether hemagglutinin or neuraminidase affected IFITM1 expression in HUVECs. Finally, we investigated the effect of induced-IFITM1 on the antiviral state in HUVECs by siRNA and
Mathematicians and scientists from two UK universities have collaborated to shed new light on the process of viral replication during an infection.. Experimentalists from the University of Leeds and mathematicians from the University of York devised a mathematical model that gives new insights into the molecular mechanisms behind virus assembly, helping to explain the efficiency of their operation.. Researchers from the Departments of Mathematics and Biology at the University of York have developed a theoretical basis for the speed and efficiency with which viruses assemble the protective proteins for their genetic information - in this case an RNA molecule - during an infection.. The team incorporated multiple specific contacts between the genomic RNA and the proteins in the containers, along with other details of real virus infections, into a mathematical model that demonstrates how these contacts act collectively to reduce the complexity of virus formation.. They thus solved a longstanding ...
In olden days, the replication level distribution (logged by keep-balance after each run) reflected the underlying storage devices replication. This was changed in #15305, perhaps inadvertently, while fixing the byte counters.
The objective: Binding viruses to designer ViroCatcher cells that cannot support viral replication to diagnose, attenuate, and prevent infection. What we intended to do: (1) Make our designer cell safe, (2) Express specific cell surface receptors and antibodies to catch the virus, (3) Transduce the signal after viruses attached for feedback control, and (4) Remove the viruses along with ViroCatcher itself. Anticipated results: the ViroCatcher is made safe for the bloodstream. When it is injected into the bloodstream, our ViroCatcher passively lies around letting viruses attach to it by using its 4 receptors: CD4 (for HIV), Integrin (for various viruses), Sialic Acid (for Influenza), and Antibodies (for Influenza). After enough viruses attach to it, or after a certain amount of time elapses, it removes itself from the bloodstream by calling macrophages to eat it up. ...
IFITMs are broad antiviral factors that block incoming virions in endosomal vesicles, protecting target cells from infection. In the case of HIV-1, we and others reported the existence of an additional antiviral mechanism through which IFITMs lead to the production of virions of reduced infectivity. However, whether this second mechanism of inhibition is unique to HIV or extends to other viruses is currently unknown. To address this question, we have analyzed the susceptibility of a broad spectrum of viruses to the negative imprinting of the virion particles infectivity by IFITMs. The results we have gathered indicate that this second antiviral property of IFITMs extends well beyond HIV and we were able to identify viruses susceptible to the three IFITMs altogether (HIV-1, SIV, MLV, MPMV, VSV, MeV, EBOV, WNV), as well as viruses that displayed a member-specific susceptibility (EBV, DUGV), or were resistant to all IFITMs (HCV, RVFV, MOPV, AAV). The swapping of genetic elements between resistant ...
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Recent studies have shown that replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is dependent on miR-122 expression.[20] miR-122 regulates HCV by binding directly to two adjacent sites close to the 5 end of HCV RNA.[21] Although these experiments were conducted using genotype 1a and 1b HCV RNA, the miR-122 binding sites are highly conserved across different genotypes, and miR-122 is also required for replication of infectious type 2a HCV.[22] As miRNAs generally function to repress gene expression by binding to 3UTR sites, this positive regulation of viral replication via a 5UTR represents a novel function for miR-122. The mechanism of regulation is not yet clear. miR-122 stimulates translation of HCV RNA, but not to a sufficient extent to explain its effects on viral replication, indicating that a second stage of the viral replication cycle must also be regulated.[23][24] HCV RNA synthesis is not affected by miR-122, suggesting that regulation of other processes such as RNA stability may occur.[25][26] ...
In vertebrates, successful host defense against viral infections relies heavily on the early production of IFN-α/β, which promotes an antiviral state in adjacent noninfected cells as well as the activation of antiviral cytotoxic lymphocytes (1). IL-12 and TNF-α are also critical cytokines involved in antiviral defense. IL-12 stimulates the proliferation of T cells as well as the production of IFN-γ by both NK and T cells, whereas TNF-α takes part in the activation of cellular immunity and in the induction of apoptosis of infected cells. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs)3 have been shown to be specialized in the production of high levels of IFN-α/β and TNF-α in response to a wide variety of viruses in both humans and mice (2).. The molecular mechanisms promoting the production of cytokines by pDCs in response to most viral infections are independent of productive viral replication within the pDC itself and rely on the detection of viral genomes from engulfed viral particles or apoptotic ...
Viruses need living cells for replication and production of virus progeny. Thus far, antiviral therapy primarily targets viral factors but often induces therapy resistance. New improved therapies attempt to targets cellular factors that are essential for viral replication.
Reproduction in Viruses or Replication of viruses are obligate intracellular parasite. They are reproduced only within a host cell. Viruses lack the enzyme for its replication. After reading this article you will know that how do viruses reproduce and its life cycle.
The genotype and phenotype of HSV2-gD27 are stable when the virus is passaged in human epithelial cells in vitro and during acute infection of mice.. HSV2-gD27 was propagated in B78H1-A10 mouse cells, which express human HVEM but not human nectin-1. HSV2-gD27 was not able to infect B78H1-C10 mouse cells, which express human nectin-1 but not HVEM, since the mutation in gD prevents its interaction with nectin-1 (33). To determine the sensitivity of the assay to detect WT virus mixed with HSV2-gD27, we infected B78H1-C10 cells with 400 PFU of WT virus (titrated in ARPE-19 cells) and 106 PFU of HSV2-gD27 (also titrated in ARPE-19 cells), either together or separately, and assayed the number of plaques on B78H1-C10 cells, which support replication of WT virus but not HSV2-gD27. Coinfection of B78H1-C10 cells with the two viruses resulted in a mean of 6.5 plaques, infection with WT virus alone yielded 5.5 plaques, and infection with HSV2-gD27 yielded no plaques. These data indicate that HSV2-gD27 does ...
Virus Activity is a free WordPress plugin uncovering the most active viruses of Windows, Mac and Android OS. It displays daily reports of the overall virus activity and the newest cyber infections detected by Kaspersky Labs, Norton, Avira, and similar security giants. This plugin adapts itself to your websites design automatically but it can also be configured according to needs. Let your visitors know about the latest viruses and help them protect their computers!. ... is designed to create awareness around the many HIV and AIDS issues and promotes messages of positive living with HIV
RNase L is a principle mediator of the innate antiviral response and is thus critically important for human health. Virus replication in higher vertebrates is r...
The search for inhibitors of viral replication is dependent on understanding the events taking place at the molecular level during viral infection. All the essential steps during the viral life cycle...
There are more than 25 drugs to control HIV, yet the virus remains one of the worlds biggest health problems. One of the many challenges with existing therapies is that a dormant version of the virus is always lurking in the background, ready to attack the immune system as soon as treatment is interrupted. _______________________________________…
The reason for using drugs from different families is because there is evidence of cross-resistance. That is, if a strain of HIV can defeat one NNRTI it might show resistance to all NNRTIs. An analogy to delaying resistance by administering three different classes of drugs simultaneously is that most people are capable of bunny hopping up one stair-step. Very few are capable of bunny hopping directly to the third step in one hop. In a similar way, a virus might mutate by random chance to defeat one antiviral mechanism. The chances of a virus simultaneously experiencing three mutations that defeat all three antiviral mechanisms is very, very ...
Hi! I am new around here but wanted to see if anyone else is using IVFAdvantage or Attain? I considered both but went with IVFAdvantage because I like
Plants have evolved very good defenses against viruses over the millennia, and we can take advantage of these natural protections against viruses for ourselves.
Plants have evolved very good defenses against viruses over the millennia, and we can take advantage of these natural protections against viruses for ourselves.
Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes discovered that an enzyme called SMYD2 could be a new therapeutic target for flushing out the HIV that hides in infected individuals. Overcoming this latent virus remains the most significant ...
Viruses are small infectious particles that cannot replicate on their own, but need to infect a cell in order to copy. Viral particles (called virions) consist of a protein envelope and a genetic material inside.
Panda Antivirus has found the following viruses in the message: Server : EXCHANGE02 Sent by : [email protected] Address : [email protected] To : [email protected] Subject : Re: Re: My details Date : 05/09/2003 08:48:07 Sent by You File : details.pif Virus : W32/Sobig.F - Deleted ...
I believe that turning forty gives me a lot of positivity in life and efficient growth mindset.I feel like Ive come up a milestone already.
Benefits that accrued to rice consumers under the expansion of tariff cuts merely benefited the usual suspects.The tariff-cutting virus is fast spreading like the Delta variant.
One digit Multiplication Activity 4. Free online multiplication activities to help kids learn the multiplication facts. 1st grade year 1 multiplication.
TY - JOUR. T1 - An interferon lambda 4-associated variant in the hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase affects viral replication in infected cells. AU - Bamford, Connor G.G.. AU - McLauchlan, John. PY - 2021/2/1. Y1 - 2021/2/1. N2 - Host IFNL4 haplotype status contributes to the development of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in individuals who are acutely infected with the virus. In silico studies revealed that specific amino acid variants at multiple sites on the HCV polyprotein correlate with functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IFNL4 locus. Thus, SNPs at the IFNL4 locus may select variants that influence virus replication and thereby the outcome of infection. Here, we examine the most significantly IFNL4-associated amino acid variants that lie in the lambda (L) 2 loop of the HCV NS5B RNA polymerase. L2 loop variants were introduced into both sub-genomic replicon and full-length infectious clones of HCV and viral replication was examined in the presence and absence ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immune activation driven by CTLA-4 blockade augments viral replication at mucosal sites in simian immunodeficiency virus infection. AU - Cecchinato, Valentina. AU - Tryniszewska, Elzbieta. AU - Ma, Zhong Min. AU - Vaccari, Monica. AU - Boasso, Adriano. AU - Tsai, Wen Po. AU - Petrovas, Constantinos. AU - Fuchs, Dietmar. AU - Heraud, Jean Michel. AU - Venzon, David. AU - Shearer, Gene M.. AU - Koup, Richard A.. AU - Lowy, Israel. AU - Miller, Chris J. AU - Franchini, Genoveffa. PY - 2008/4/15. Y1 - 2008/4/15. N2 - The importance of chronic immune activation in progression to AIDS has been inferred by correlative studies in HIV-infected individuals and in nonhuman primate models of SIV infection. Using the SIV mac251 macaque model, we directly address the impact of immune activation by inhibiting CTLA-4, an immunoregulatory molecule expressed on activated T cells and a subset of regulatory T cells. We found that CTLA-4 blockade significantly increased T cell activation and viral ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Viral genome replication. AU - Cameron, Craig Eugene. AU - Raney, Kevin D.. AU - Götte, Matthias. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Provides the first comprehensive review of viral genome replication strategies, emphasizing not only pathways and regulation but also the structure-function, mechanism, and inhibition of proteins and enzymes required for this process Currently, there is no single source that permits comparison of the factors, elements, enzymes and/or mechanisms employed by different classes of viruses for genome replication. As a result, we (and our students) often restrict our focus to our particular system, missing out on the opportunity to define unifying themes in viral genome replication or benefit from the advances in other systems. For example, extraordinary biological and experimental paradigms that have been established over the past five years for the DNA replication systems of bacteriophage T4 and T7 will likely be of great value to anyone interested in ...
Abstract: Glycosylation of host and viral proteins is an important posttranslational modification needed to ensure correct function of glycoproteins. For this reason, we asked whether inhibition of O-glycosylation during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro replication could affect HIV infectivity and replication rates. We used benzyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-galactopyranoside (BAGN), a compound that has been widely used to inhibit O-glycosylation in several cell lines. Pretreatment and culture of PHA-blast target cells with BAGN increased the percentage of HIV-infected cells (7.6-fold, p = 0.0115), the per-cell amount of HIV p24 protein (1.3-fold, p = 0.2475), and the viral particles in culture supernatants (7.1-fold, p = 0.0029) compared to BAGN-free cultures. Initiating infection with virus previously grown in the presence of BAGN further increased percentage of infected cells (30-fold, p , 0.0001), intracellular p24 (1.5-fold, p = 0.0433), and secreted viral particles (74-fold, p , ...
In vitro fitness assays are essential tools for determining viral replication fitness for viruses such as HIV-1. Various measurements have been used to extrapolate viral replication fitness, ranging from the number of viral particles per infectious unit, growth rate in cell culture, and relative fitness derived from multiple-cycle growth competition assays. Growth competition assays provide a particularly sensitive measurement of fitness since the viruses are competing for cellular targets under identical growth conditions. There are several experimental factors to consider when conducting growth competition assays, including the multiplicity of infection (MOI), sampling times, and viral detection and fitness calculation methods. Each factor can affect the end result and hence must be considered carefully during the experimental design. The protocol presented here includes steps from constructing a new recombinant HIV-1 clone to performing growth competition assays and analyzing the experimental ...
My research interests are centered on viruses, particularly influenza viruses, which are important human and animal pathogens causing widespread clinical and veterinary disease. My group focuses on the fundamental molecular mechanisms of influenza virus replication, aiming to understand the molecular determinants of host range and virulence of influenza viruses. By gaining further insights into the molecular aspects of influenza virus replication we hope to facilitate the development of novel strategies to combat influenza.. Specifically, we address questions ranging from how the influenza virus RNA polymerase transcribes and replicates the segmented negative-sense viral RNA genome in the nucleus of the infected cell to how the RNA genome is exported from the nucleus and assembles into infectious progeny virus particles. We are also interested in the role of host factors in viral replication as well as in understanding the effects of virus infection on the host cell, the molecular mechanisms of ...
RNA virus replication machineries.(A) RdRps of hepatitis C virus and reovirus. Hepatitis C virus is a (+)RNA virus from the Flaviviridae family, while reovirus
After releasing from the host cell, it infects new cells and can cause infections either for a short term or long term. Release of New Virus. 1 Summary of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) replication. In this article we will discuss about the replication cycle of rabies viruses. The team used the imaging facilities at EMBL and state-of-the art imaging techniques to determine the 3D architecture of SARS … This process of DNA replication is very similar to that which occurs in the host cell - which is not surprising as the virus is using mainly host machinery except for the involvement of the T antigen. Although DNA replication during the latent phase ensures the faithful duplication of 84% of the viral genomes in each cell cycle (Nanbo et al. 4) Assembly. The shell of the capsid disintegrates and the HIV protein called reverse transcriptase transcribes the viral RNA into DNA. In this stage, newly developed capsid proteins come together to form capsomers. After control is established and the ...
Viral and cellular factors responsible for parvovirus target cell specificity have been examined for two serologically indistinguishable strains of the minute virus of mice which infect mouse cells of dissimilar differentiated phenotype. Both the prototype strain and the immunosuppressive strain grow in and form plaques on monolayers of simian virus 40-transformed human fibroblasts, a finding that has allowed the comparison of several aspects of their virus-host cell interactions. Although closely related by antigenic and genomic criteria, both the prototype strain and the immunosuppressive strain are restricted for lytic growth in each others murine host cell, that is, in T cells and fibroblasts, respectively. The host range of each virus variant appears to be specified by a genetic determinant that is stably inherited in the absence of selection. In the restrictive virus-host interaction lytic growth is limited to a small or, in some cases, undetectable subset of the host cell population, and ...
figure 19.4. Adjunctive treatments of HIV-1 and other neurodegenerative disorders. A number of adjunctive therapies are being developed for treatment of HIV-1-associated cognitive impairments. These are directed at pathogenic mechanisms for disease, including those that affect viral replication, modulate neuroinflammation, interdict cell signaling events that lead to neuronal demise, or affect cell migration into the brain or the viral replication cycle (A). Novel approaches are now under development to harness the hosts own immune system to combat disease. These methodologies currently involve direct immunization strategies and novel nanoparticle delivery systems (B). GA, glatiramer acetate; MDM, monocyte derived macrophages; MP, mononuclear phagocyte; PAF, platelet-activating factor; PPARg, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.. multifactorial, in that a complex set of toxic reactions including inflammation, glutamatergic neurotoxicity, increases in iron and nitric oxide, ...
The identification of novel antiretroviral agents is required to provide alternative treatment options for HIV-1-infected patients. The screening of a phenotypic cell-based viral replication assay led to the identification of a novel class of 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazol-6-one (pyrrolopyrazolone) HIV-1 inhibitors, exemplified by two compounds: BI-1 and BI-2. These compounds inhibited early postentry stages of viral replication at a step(s) following reverse transcription but prior to 2 long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circle formation, suggesting that they may block nuclear targeting of the preintegration complex. Selection of viruses resistant to BI-2 revealed that substitutions at residues A105 and T107 within the capsid (CA) amino-terminal domain (CANTD) conferred high-level resistance to both compounds, implicating CA as the antiviral target. Direct binding of BI-1 and/or BI-2 to CANTD was demonstrated using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical ...
Inhibition of HIV-1 progeny virion release by cell-surface CD4 is relieved by expression of the viral Nef protein.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Abstract: A successful infection by a plant virus results from the complex molecular interplay between the host plant and the invading virus. Thus, dissecting the molecular network of virus-host interactions advances the understanding of the viral infection process and may assist in the development of novel antiviral strategies. In the past decade, molecular identification and functional characterization of host factors in the virus life cycle, particularly single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses, have been a research focus in plant virology. As a result, a number of host factors have been identified. These host factors are implicated in all the major steps of the infection process. Some host factors are diverted for the viral genome translation, some are recruited to improvise the viral replicase complexes for genome multiplication, and others are components of transport complexes for cell-to-cell spread via plasmodesmata and systemic movement through the phloem. This review summarizes ...
Transcription mapping studies and DNA sequence analysis of the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment predict that gene D8 encodes a protein 304 amino acids in length, with a molecular mass of 35,426 daltons, that is expressed at late times in infection. In order to determine whether the native D8 protein is required for virus propagation, we constructed a frameshift mutation in the D8 coding sequence. Virus containing this mutation were isolated and shown to replicate in a single-step growth experiment with wild type virus growth kinetics, demonstrating that the normal-length D8 protein is not essential for virus propagation in tissue culture. In order to investigate the synthesis of the wild-type and the mutant D8 proteins in virus-infected cells, we raised polyclonal antisera to a fusion protein consisting of a portion of the D8 coding sequence linked to the Escherichia coli trpE gene. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of the time course of D8 protein synthesis in cells infected with either ...
Viruses are obligate parasites and can only reproduce within host cells because they lack metabolic pathways to complete their replication cycles. Host factors required in viral replication are mainly those involved in lipid metabolism, cell cycle control and apoptosis, cell-to-cell interactions, immune system regulation, etc. Several inhibitors targeting viral polymerases have been designed. However, the rapid appearance of resistant mutants, as a direct consequence of the viral population structure, diminishes the efficacy of this kind of molecules. To elude the rapid loss of treatment efficiency due to the appearance of resistance mutations, cellular factors have been proposed as a promising therapeutic target to inhibit RNA(+) virus replication. In this review, we focus on those interactions between host factors and HCV replicase, to modulate either cellular metabolism or HCV polymerase activity.. ...
The small genome of polyomaviruses encodes a limited number of proteins that are highly dependent on interactions with host cell proteins for efficient viral replication. The SV40 large T antigen (LT) contains several discrete functional domains including the LXCXE or RB-binding motif, the DNA binding and helicase domains that contribute to the viral life cycle. In addition, the LT C-terminal region contains the host range and adenovirus helper functions required for lytic infection in certain restrictive cell types. To understand how LT affects the host cell to facilitate viral replication, we expressed full-length or functional domains of LT in cells, identified interacting host proteins and carried out expression profiling. LT perturbed the expression of p53 target genes and subsets of cell-cycle dependent genes regulated by the DREAM and the B-Myb-MuvB complexes. Affinity purification of LT followed by mass spectrometry revealed a specific interaction between the LT C-terminal region and ...
Insight on Protein That Blocks HIV Replication May Help Battle Viral Reservoir April 22, 2013 Insight on Protein That Blocks HIV Replication May Help Battle Viral Reservoir Re, team37262board
In Part III of our series on Strategies for Improving Viral Yield in Vaccine Manufacturing, we will examine the use of manufacturing strategies to improve viral yield and lower cost of production. Improving viral yield and lowering cost is critical for improving access to vaccines in the developing world where even minor medical expenses are prohibitive. Improving viral yield also enables a faster response time in case of a pandemic. Improving cell culture media is one way to increase virus yield and was examined in Part I titled Improving Media to Increase Virus Yield in Vaccine Production. In Part II titled Utilizing Bioreactors to Increase Virus Production in Vaccine Manufacturing, we discussed the role of bioreactors and accompanying technology as another way to achieve higher yield. In Part III we will look at additional strategies that can be employed as part of the manufacturing process to achieve higher yield and reduce cost.. In vaccine manufacturing keeping viruses stable during ...
We believe that it is necessary to address each of these problem areas in order to deliver a successful curative combination therapy for HBV. Any such cure needs to rapidly, completely and sustainably reduce HBV viral load to undetectable levels, stimulate and reactivate the patients immune response in order to enable the body to fight HBV, and inhibit the formation of and eliminate viral cccDNA in the infected liver cells.. Aggressive Suppression of HBV Replication. Determining the level of viral replication at the site of infection in the liver is difficult and invasive. Because of this, alternative measurements, which utilize blood as a surrogate, are typically used. This is not ideal, because significantly more virus can be found in the liver than in the bloodstream. Although current HBV therapies do lead to undetectable virus levels in the blood in some infected patients, it is believed that low-level viral replication continues to occur in infected liver cells. The likelihood of ...
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English: A simplified diagram of the Hepatitis C virus replication cycle. Created by User:GrahamColm (Photo credit: Wikipedia) ...
In a study published Wednesday in Nature Communications, researchers discovered that certain strains of H7N9 have mutated to become highly resistant to antivirals like Tamiflu while maintaining high levels of pathogenicity. This is not normal. Normally when a virus acquires drug-resistance through mutation, this mutation attenuates it, decreasing viral virulence or replication ability. The study…
A variety of different methods for the evaluation of antiviral agents in cell culture systems are briefly reviewed. It has been repeatedly noted that many test conditions such as the cell culture system, virus strain, virus challenge dose, virus input multiplicity of infection, and time of harvesting, etc., can substantially affect or even alter the test results, thus making comparative studies and unambiguous evaluations very difficult. Attempts are made to discuss previous test methods together with our recent studies with the aim to simplify test procedures and assay methods. Suggestions are proposed for in vitro evaluation of new antiviral agents. It is hoped that this review will alarm investigators to the problems of assaying new antiviral agents. If the suggestions made in this review can be followed, the screening of the enormous number of promising antiviral compounds may be made more efficiently in the near future.
Calcium spirulan, an inhibitor of enveloped virus replication, from a blue-green alga Spirulina, exhibits activity against a variety of viruses.
Accumulation of viral products such as RNA replication intermediates and viral proteins represents a potential stressor for host cells. Rapidly after detection, host cells respond by implementing multiple appropriated defense mechanisms, including innate immune and stress responses. The strongest response to several forms of stress, including viral infections, is a global reduction of protein synthesis which promotes cellular survival. Translation suppression is induced by the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2α), thereby causing stalling of translation initiation and accumulation of stalled pre-initiation complexes in cytosolic stress granules (SGs). Viruses do not package ribosomes and therefore fully rely on the utilization of the host translation machinery to ensure viral protein synthesis, replication and virus progeny production. As a consequence, virus survival depends on the establishment of a delicate and fine-tuned balance ...
Virus infection is a multistep process that has significant effects on the structure and function of both the virus and the host cell. The first steps of virus replication include cell binding, entry and release of the viral genome. Single-virus force spectroscopy (SVFS) has become a promising tool to understand the molecular details of those steps. SVFS data complemented by biochemical and biophysical, including theoretical modeling approaches provide valuable insights into molecular events that accompany virus infection. Properties of virus-cell interaction as well as structural alterations of the virus essential for infection can be investigated on a quantitative level. Here we review applications of SVFS to virus binding, structure and mechanics. We demonstrate that SVFS offers unexpected new insights not accessible by other methods. ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 23:283-293...Ken Komatsu,1 Masayoshi Hashimoto,1 Johji Ozeki,1 Yasuyuki Yamaji,1 Kensaku Maejima,1 Hiroko Senshu,1 Misako Himeno,1 Yukari Okano,1 Satoshi Kagiwada,2 and Shigetou Namba1...
Vaccines have provided considerable success in preventing viral disease, but they have modest or no therapeutic effect for individuals who are already infected. Consequently, our second arm of antiviral defense has been the development and use of antiviral drugs: they can stop an infection once it has started.. However, despite 50 years of research, our arsenal of antiviral drugs is dangerously small. Only about 30 antiviral drugs are available on the US market, most against herpesviruses and HIV-1. There are many reasons for this paucity of antiviral drugs. Compounds interfering with virus growth can adversely affect the host cell, leading to unacceptable toxicity. Many medically important viruses are dangerous, cannot be propagated in the laboratory or tested in animal systems. Another requirement often difficult to fulfill is that the drugs must completely block virus replication. Many acute virus infections are of short duration; by the time the patient feels ill, virus replication is ...
As shown above, early phase II studies strongly suggest that RBV is needed in protease inhibitor drug regimens. Patients who did not receive RBV in the PROVE trials and those with low-dose RBV (400-1000 mg) in the SPRINT-1 trial had increased viral breakthrough, higher relapse and lower SVR. This data strongly indicates that standard-dose RBV is needed to optimize response to these first generation protease inhibitors by reducing the development of resistance/breakthrough. It is also clear that the initial rapid decrease in HCV viral levels with protease combination therapy is because of inhibition of wild type virus that then leads to the uncovering of pre-existing resistant variants. Resistant variants are present in most patients at very low rates (,1%) and are usually detected after near complete suppression of the dominant, wild type virus. The continued replication of these variants can then lead to a virological breakthrough. To date, mutations conferring TVR-resistance have been ...
Viruses are among the simplest biological systems and are highly effective vehicles for the delivery of genetic material into susceptible host cells. Artificial viruses can be used as model systems for providing insights into natural viruses and can be considered a testing ground for developing artificial life. Moreover, they are used in biomedical and biotechnological applications, such as targeted delivery of nucleic acids for gene therapy and as scaffolds in material science. In a natural setting, survival of viruses requires that a significant fraction of the replicated genomes be completely protected by coat proteins. Complete protection of the genome is ensured by a highly cooperative supramolecular process between the coat proteins and the nucleic acids, which is based on reversible, weak and allosteric interactions only. However, incorporating this type of supramolecular cooperativity into artificial viruses remains challenging. Here, we report a rational design for a self-assembling ...
Inhibition of HIV protease (HIVPR) or HIV reverse transcriptase (HIVRT) are two approaches to block viral replication. HIVPR is an aspartic acid protease that cleaves newly synthesized polyproteins at the appropriate places to create the mature protein components of an infectious HIV virion. Inhibition of its activity disrupts HIVs ability to replicate and infect additional cells. HIVRT is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that catalyzes the conversion/transcription of single-stranded RNA into DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA; hence, reverse transcription is the reverse of this. Discovery of small molecule inhibitors of these targets is facilitated by the use of ligand and receptor based screening using two different targeted libraries available from Life Chemicals available:. ...
In this note, the upstream process of analyzing viral preparations is addressed, as well as the use of multi-laser nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) as a cost and time efficient method to measure size, count virus particles, and correlate to infectious titer.
View Notes - MCDB Christoffersen Lecture#9 from MCDB 1a at UCSB. MCDB Christoffersen Lecture #9 Start of Chapter 16 Virus life cycles o Bacteriophages and HIV retrovirus Regulation of Gene
Our group Interaction of viruses with the host is fundamental to initiate an infection, and to complete a successful virus replication cycle. However, the outcome of this initiation depends up several factors of both virus and host origins. Among host responses, the most profound host-comeback is the induction of innate immune responses, mediated by the central players, interferon (IFN) signalling molecules.
Optimization of a high-throughput 384 well virus replication assay.A. Comparison of virus replication over time (cells/viral foci) following infection using a s
The present data demonstrate that primary HCs and CTBs isolated from full-term placentae are permissive to productive ZIKV infection by a contemporary strain currently circulating in the Americas. We also found that HCs respond to infection by triggering antiviral defense programs in the absence of overt cell death. In this limited study of five donors, we observed individual variability in kinetics and magnitude of virus replication, inflammation, and antiviral gene expression, likely reflecting differences in individual genetics (Querec et al., 2009, Thio, 2008). Though unlikely given the low number of cell passages PR 2015 has undergone, it is possible that minor cell culture adaptations or quasi-species may also be playing a role in donor-to-donor variability. These observations suggest that donors may have the capacity to restrict ZIKV at different stages of the viral replication cycle. This may also relate to observed differences in intrauterine transmission efficiency, where more ...
It has been a while since these posts, I should really make update posts more often.. So the infection system has been replaced with a Virology system.. A virus doesnt suddenly appear upon contact ingame, but they have a chance of appearing dormant when a player spawns.. There are several types of pathogens, those that spread via blood, contact, and airborne ...
DNA virus replication strategies (2) - Lecture from USCMED, Columbia recorded between 2007-2009. Good lecture in advanced e-learning presentation
In the fight against the viruses that invade everyday life, seeing and understanding the battleground is essential. Scientists at the Morgridge Institute for Research have, for the first time, imaged molecular structures vital to how a major class of viruses replicates within infected cells.
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Unser kompaktes Reaction Hybrid SLT 625 29 - noch nie haben Mountainbike-Abenteuer so viel Spaß gemacht! Es kommt mit einem robusten Newmen Laufradsatz mit griffigen Reifen mit Kevlar-Verstärkung auf den Markt, die Kilometer um Kilometer und rund um Uhr zuverlässige Dienste leisten. Den Schub des Bosch Antriebs der vierten Generation mit 625 Wh starkem Akku bringt nur eine Shimano XT 12-Gang Schaltung so präzise auf den Trail. Last, but not least: die hydraulischen XT Scheibenbremsen von Shimano mit 4-Kolben Konstruktion, die zu jeder Zeit volle Kontrolle über das Bike vermitteln. Also, wohin soll die Reise gehen? ...
This model has been built with the differential expressions in Nowaks 1996 paper for population dynamics of immune responses to persistent viruses and is known to run in PCEnv and COR. The units have been checked and they are consistent. This particular CellML model is the 2nd model out of the 3 outlined in the paper. Note that the figures in the paper display the logged varibale values, and also certain parameters are unspecified and are left for the modeller to decide. Current parameterization portrays the interaction of uninfected cells x, infected cells y, free virus particles v, and CTL response z (model 2).. ...
In addition, P 0. And Javitt, integrated state to active replication в Inhibiting protease, a viral enzyme responsible for the adherence of viral proteins both before proviral integra- tion and as the viral particles recombine into functional proteins needed kefex viral maturation allergy to cipro and keflex Preventing viral assembly and budding out of the cell For more information, visit the Medscape quick refer- ence guide to antiretrovirals at www.
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A COVID-19 outbreak in the Kanienkeha:ka (Mohawk) community of Kahnawake on Montreals South Shore last week was a hard reminder for the communitys COVID-19 task force that the virus remains active and health measures need to remain in place.
Alexandria now has 6,260 cases of COVID-19, an increase of 470 cases since this time last week. The death toll from the virus remains at 82. There have also
R 82913: antiviral target on reverse transcriptase of HIV-1 revealed by above cpd; structure given in first source; RN given is for (S)-isomer
Viruses use fake proteins to hide in our cells Date: July 7, 2014 Source: Monash University Some viruses can hide in our bodies for decades and...
Actimetrics makes automated systems for animal behavioral testing. ClockLab, FreezeFrame, WaterMaze, LimeLight, Big Brother, LumiCycle, Cell- & MultiCycle,
The Citrus tristeza virus replication signal is a regulatory element involved in a viral replication signal which is highly ... Page for Citrus tristeza virus replication signal at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, All stub articles, Molecular and ... Replication signals are required for viral replication and are usually found near the 5' and 3' termini of protein coding genes ... Cardiovirus cis-acting replication element (CRE) Coronavirus SL-III cis-acting replication element (CRE) Heron HBV RNA ...
Hepatitis C virus cis-acting replication element Yang, Y; Yi, M; Evans, DJ; Simmonds, P; Lemon, SM (October 2008). " ... In molecular biology, the Hepatitis A virus cis-acting replication element (CRE) is an RNA element which is found in the coding ... "Identification of a conserved RNA replication element (cre) within the 3Dpol-coding sequence of hepatoviruses". Journal of ... region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in Hepatitis A virus (HAV). It is larger than the CREs found in related Picornavirus ...
It is structurally similar to the Hepatitis A virus cis-acting replication element. Hepatitis A virus cis-acting replication ... In molecular biology, the Avian encephalitis virus cis-acting replication element (CRE) is an s an RNA element which is found ... element Yang, Y; Yi, M; Evans, DJ; Simmonds, P; Lemon, SM (October 2008). "Identification of a conserved RNA replication ... in the coding region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in Avian encephalitis virus (AEV). ...
The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cis-acting replication element (CRE) is an RNA element which is found in the coding region of the ... Page for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cis-acting replication element (CRE) at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Hepatitis C ... Hepatitis C alternative reading frame stem-loop Hepatitis C virus 3'X element Hepatitis C virus stem-loop VII Hepatitis C stem- ... Mutations in this family have been found to cause a blockage in RNA replication and it is thought that both the primary ...
In addition, geminivirus also utilizes rolling circle replication as its replication mechanism. It is a virus that is ... Some RNA viruses and viroids also replicate their genome through rolling circle RNA replication. For viroids, there are two ... Some DNA viruses replicate their genomic information in host cells via rolling circle replication. For instance, human ... Human Papillomavirus-16 (HPV-16) is another virus that employs rolling replication to produce progeny at a high rate. HPV-16 ...
AAV replication is dependent on a helper virus that is either an adenovirus or a herpesvirus that coinfects the cell. In the ... Varying from virus to virus, the coding region of the genome is 4-6 kilobases (kb) in length, and the termini are 116-550 ... After the replication fork is repositioned, replication continues toward the left end, using the newly synthesized DNA strand ... Rolling hairpin replication (RHR) is a unidirectional, strand displacement form of DNA replication used by parvoviruses, a ...
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an example of a replication defective, helper dependent ssRNA virus because it requires Hepatitis B ... The term satellite virus has been given to a large group of viruses that all require the presence of another virus to replicate ... A helper dependent virus, also termed a gutless virus, is a synthetic viral vector dependent on the assistance of a helper ... Naturally-occurring satellite viruses are also helper virus dependent, and can sometimes be modified to become viral vectors. ...
In nature, these viruses depend on another virus to provide replication machinery; adeno-associated virus can only replicate ... These viruses are nonenveloped, single-strand DNA (ssDNA) viruses. Within Parvoviridae, scAAV further belongs to the ... The ITRs located 5' and 3' of the viral genome serve as the origin of replication. Like the rep ORF, scAAV's cap ORF has been ... These can include presence of a helper virus infection (such as adenovirus) or other toxic events such as exposure to UV light ...
"Viral replication". THINKER BUG. Retrieved 2021-09-11. Brown, Jay C. (2017). "Herpes Simplex Virus Latency: The DNA Repair- ... During the lysogenic cycle, the virus genome is incorporated as prophage and a repressor prevents viral replication. ... Thus, while herpes viruses can enter both the lytic and lysogenic cycles, latency allows the virus to survive and evade ... An example of a virus that uses the lysogenic cycle to its advantage is the Herpes Simplex Virus. After first entering the ...
Poxvirus is unique from other DNA viruses in respect to its locale of replication in the cell. Poxvirus replicates in the ... Juncopox virus, Mynahpox virus, Psittacinepox virus, Sparrowpox virus, Starlingpox virus, Pigeonpox virus, Canarypox virus and ... Turkeypox virus is a virus of the family Poxviridae and the genus Avipoxvirus that causes turkeypox. It is one of the most ... Turkeypox virus, like other Avipoxviruses, is an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus with a large, linear genome of ...
... the virus is less likely to mutate compared to RNA viruses such as SARS-COV-2. As an Orthopoxvirus, MPV replication occurs ... research on this virus is minimal compared to other orthodox viruses. Most of the what is known about the monkeypox virus is ... the monkeypox virus is relatively large compared to other viruses. This makes it harder for the virus to breach the defenses of ... To evade host immune systems, and buy more time for replication; the monkeypox and other orthopox viruses has evolved to evade ...
"DNA Virus Replication". (Viral protein class). ... While many viruses (such as HIV)[1] are described as expressing ... In some, simpler viruses, this pattern of expression is clearly defined, while in those with more complex genomes, such as the ... On the other hand, the large T antigen is required and it acts to initiate replication directly. It binds the viral origin of ... HIV has two stages of protein expression but these are not as a result of two stages of transcription surrounding replication ...
... the virus undergoes replication. After replication, the P, L, and M proteins participate in forming the ribonucleocapsid. Once ... It functions as a processivity factor for the virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and promotes viral RNA synthesis. Viruses in ... Respiratory tract infections are associated with member viruses such as human respiratory syncytial virus. There are five ... Involved in regulating transcription and replication. When over expressed, has been shown to inhibit viral replication. F - ...
Because of this, the virus must bring all necessary enzymes for replication with it or encode the enzymes in its genome. The ... Over 100 of these genes are conserved in other viruses from the poxvirus family, such as Variola virus and Vaccinia virus. The ... Therefore, because the host cell proteins for DNA replication are present inside the nucleus, this virus has to bring or encode ... Additionally, the virus can spread to other skin areas of one's body through itching or rubbing the virus. It can also be ...
Many mechanisms of (-) DNA replication initiation in the SPLCV have been identified but this first step in the replication ... Examples include Sweet potato Golden vein associated virus (SPGVaV), Sweet potato mosaic virus, Ipomoea leaf curl virus (ILCV ... virus Sweet potato leaf curl Sichuan virus 1 Sweet potato leaf curl Sichuan virus 2 Sweet potato leaf curl South Carolina virus ... Sweet potato leaf curl virus Puerto Rico Sweet potato leaf curl Canary virus (SPLCCaV) Sweet potato leaf curl China virus ( ...
dsDNA viruses make use of several mechanisms to replicate their genome. Bidirectional replication, in which two replication ... As such, each virus realm represents at least one instance of viruses coming into existence. Within each realm, viruses are ... DNA viruses constitute two Baltimore groups: Group I: double-stranded DNA viruses, and Group II: single-stranded DNA viruses. ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. ...
... proteins not found in the virus particle, mainly enzymes for virus genome replication Viral nucleic acid (genome replication): ... Replication between viruses is greatly varied and depends on the type of genes involved in them. Most DNA viruses assemble in ... Like most viruses with RNA genomes, double-stranded RNA viruses do not rely on host polymerases for replication to the extent ... Viral replication is the formation of biological viruses during the infection process in the target host cells. Viruses must ...
For instance, Polyoma viruses utilize host cell DNA polymerases, which attach to a viral origin of replication if the T antigen ... The origin of replication (also called the replication origin) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is ... Viruses often possess a single origin of replication. A variety of proteins have been described as being involved in viral ... Certain bacteriophages and viruses, for example, can initiate DNA replication by homologous recombination independent of ...
Margaret Hunt; University of South Carolina (2010). "RN Virus Replication Strategies". McGlynn P, Lloyd RG (August 1999 ... There are numerous exceptions, however-some viruses have genomes made of double-stranded RNA and other viruses have single- ... and viruses (There is debate as to whether viruses are living or non-living). All living cells contain both DNA and RNA (except ... During cell division these chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing each cell its own complete ...
Orthoreoviruses and their replication. Fields virology, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007. p. 1854-915 ... yet three members of his family became ill with the virus. Orphan virus Xi River virus Cell-cell fusogens Chua KB, Crameri G, ... Melaka virus (MELV) is a bat-borne virus. It was first isolated in a human in Melaka, Malaysia in 2006. A bat reservoir was ... Melaka virus causes a non-fatal respiratory tract illness in humans. Melaka virus is a nonenveloped, segmented, double-stranded ...
Hepatitis B is one of a few known non-retroviral viruses which use reverse transcription as a part of its replication process. ... the woolly monkey hepatitis B virus), suggesting an ancient origin for this virus in primates. The virus is divided into four ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a partially double-stranded DNA virus, a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus and a member of the ... This family of viruses is the only member of the viral order Blubervirales. Viruses similar to hepatitis B have been found in ...
The HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon (HBV_epsilon) is an element essential for HBV virus replication. It is an RNA ... epsilon Duck HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon Hepatitis B virus PRE alpha Hepatitis B virus PRE beta Hepatitis B virus PRE ... "Hepatitis B virus replication". World J. Gastroenterol. 13 (1): 48-64. doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i1.48. PMC 4065876. PMID 17206754. ... Beck, J; Nassal, M (2003). "Efficient Hsp90-independent in vitro activation by Hsc70 and Hsp40 of duck hepatitis B virus ...
"Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021. ICTV ... Replication follows the dsDNA bidirectional replication model. DNA-templated transcription, with some alternative splicing ... Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral glycoproteins to host receptors, ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export, and existing in occlusion bodies after cell death and remaining ...
Replication follows the ssDNA rolling circle model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits ... Chlamydia virus Chp1 Chlamydia virus Chp2 Chlamydia virus CPAR39 Chlamydia virus CPG1 Viruses in Chlamydiamicrovirus are non- ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2021. ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by pilus-mediated adsorption into the host cell. ...
Replication follows the negative stranded RNA virus replication model. Negative stranded RNA virus transcription, using ... The virus exits the host cell by budding, and tubule-guided viral movement. Fish serve as the natural host. "Viral Zone". ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral G glycoproteins to host ... Diseases associated with viruses of this genus include: breathing and swimming problems. Perhabdovirions are enveloped, with ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... Viruses include in the family Virgaviridae are characterized by unique alpha-like replication proteins.[citation needed] The ... The virus exits the host cell by tripartite non-tubule guided viral movement, and monopartite non-tubule guided viral movement ... The name of the family is derived from the Latin word virga (rod), as all viruses in this family are rod-shaped. There are ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... Description of Plant Viruses Pringle CR. Virus Taxonomy - San Diego 1998. Virus Division News Arch Virol 143/7 (1998) p. 1453 ... The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 26 November ...
Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of ... Viruses in the family Totiviridae are non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses with icosahedral geometries, and T=2 symmetry ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021. ... The virus exits the host cell by cell-to-cell movement. Giardia lamblia protozoa, leishmania protozoa, protozoan trichomonas ...
Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of ... Echinochloa ragged stunt virus Rice ragged stunt virus "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 ... The virus exits the host cell by monopartite non-tubule guided viral movement. The virus is transmitted via a vector (delphacid ... Oryzavirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Reoviridae and subfamily Spinareovirinae. Member viruses ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2021. ICTV ... The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. ...
"Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2021. ICTV ... Replication follows the dsDNA bidirectional replication model. DNA-templated transcription, with some alternative splicing ... Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Human serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are contact. ...
B103 Bacillus virus Goe1 Salasvirus Bacillus virus Goe6 Bacillus virus Gxv1 Bacillus virus phi29 Bacillus virus PZA Viruses in ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. Replication follows ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021. ... Picovirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the order Caudovirales, in the family Salasmaviridae. Bacteria serve as natural hosts ...
Positive-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of replication. Translation takes place by leaky scanning and RNA ... which includes Bristol virus, Lordsdale virus, Toronto virus, Mexico virus, Hawaii virus and Snow Mountain virus. Most ... "Norwalk virus", the virus has also been called "Norwalk-like virus", "small, round-structured viruses" (SRSVs), Spencer flu and ... Medicine portal Viruses portal Norovirus cis-acting replication element Norovirus GII.4 Sydney "Norovirus (vomiting bug)". nhs. ...
Müller K, Mermod N (2000). "The histone-interacting domain of nuclear factor I activates simian virus 40 DNA replication in ... Ravichandran V, Sabath BF, Jensen PN, Houff SA, Major EO (2006). "Interactions between c-Jun, nuclear factor 1, and JC virus ...
... parainfluenza virus, influenza virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus. Subbarao K, McAuliffe J... Murphy B (2004). Prior ... infection and passive transfer of neutralizing antibody prevent replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in ... 11563-11567 Subbarao EK, London W, Murphy BR (1993). A single amino acid in the PB2 gene of influenza A virus is a determinant ... "The Influenza Viruses and their Vaccines - Seminar Notice". NIH Clinical Center. Retrieved 18 July 2019. Alexander C. Schmidt, ...
... replication properties and cell culture tropism from the swabs. They made available the virus to the wider scientific community ... A group of scientists based at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia isolated the virus from ... The RNP particles formed are roughly spherical and are organized in flexible helical structures inside the virus. Formation of ... N is physically colocalized with the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase early in the replication cycle and forms interactions ...
"Daxx is an H3.3-specific histone chaperone and cooperates with ATRX in replication-independent chromatin assembly at telomeres ... and transcription factor erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (ETS1). In the nucleus, the encoded protein functions as ...
"Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus syncytium formation and virus replication by castanospermine". Proceedings of the ... Land A, Braakman I (Aug 2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein in the endoplasmic ... Dedera DA, Gu RL, Ratner L (Mar 1992). "Role of asparagine-linked glycosylation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... Dewar RL, Vasudevachari MB, Natarajan V, Salzman NP (Jun 1989). "Biosynthesis and processing of human immunodeficiency virus ...
Torque teno pinniped virus 1 Torque teno pinniped virus 2 Torque teno pinniped virus 3 Torque teno pinniped virus 5, previously ... Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the ... named Torque teno zalophus virus 1 Torque teno pinniped virus 8 Torque teno pinniped virus 9 Viruses in Lambdatorquevirus are ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 23 May 2021. "ICTV ...
This information is protected by DNA repair mechanisms and propagated through DNA replication. Many viruses have an RNA genome ... Sierra S, Kupfer B, Kaiser R (December 2005). "Basics of the virology of HIV-1 and its replication". Journal of Clinical ...
This recombination is crucial to viral replication. DNA exonucleases have roles to play in DNA metabolism, such as: replication ... Most viruses, inject their host with linear DNA, and this gets incorporated into the host genome through the process of ... This offers the pathogen a great adaptive advantage on viruses exploring new niches. Vellani TS, Myers RS (April 2003). " ...
It has been proposed that the small size of RNA viruses is locked into a three-part relation between replication fidelity, ... The majority of RNA viruses lack an RNA proofreading facility, which limits their replication fidelity and hence their genome ... These viruses appear to have acquired a 3′-to-5′ exoribonuclease (ExoN) which has allowed for an increase in genome size. In ... This has also been described as the "Eigen paradox". An exception to the rule of small genome sizes in RNA viruses is found in ...
The disease is caused by the monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus in the genus Orthopoxvirus. The variola virus, the causative ... ACAM2000 is not recommended for potentially immunocompromised persons due to high replication competency of vaccinia while ... The BBC also made it clear that the genetic sequences of the virus, as far as is known, date back to a West African strain. On ... Diagnosis can be confirmed by testing a lesion for the virus's DNA. There is no known cure. A study in 1988 found that the ...
... with viral replication by protecting cells from virus infections. However, virus-encoded genetic elements have the ability to ... Viruses that inhibit IFN signaling include Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), dengue type 2 virus (DEN-2), and viruses of the ... Inhibited protein synthesis impairs both virus replication and infected host cells. In addition, interferons induce production ... Some viruses escape the anti-viral activities of interferons by gene (and thus protein) mutation. The H5N1 influenza virus, ...
This replication process also employs a sliding-back mechanism towards the 3' end of the genome that uses a repeating TTT motif ... Bacillus virus Φ29 (bacteriophage Φ29) is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophage with a prolate icosahedral head and a ... Φ29 forms a replication complex involving the p3 terminal protein, the dAMP nucleotide, and its own DNA polymerase to ... The Φ29 DNA packaging motor packages the phage genome into the procapsid during viral replication. The Φ29 packaging motor is ...
Bacterial replication in host cells causes endothelial cell proliferation and inflammation, resulting in mononuclear cell ... the organism smaller than a bacterium and larger than a virus) that causes this disease. He and others characterized the basic ... The characteristic rash observed in Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the direct result of this localized replication of ...
... unique in the sense that the genes encoding the structural proteins of the virus are constantly transcribed and DNA replication ... The viruses cannot survive in the extremely acidic and hot conditions that Sulfolobus lives in, and so the viruses use ... This was the first time that more than a single origin of DNA replication had been shown to be used in a prokaryotic cell. The ... The viruses infecting archaea like Sulfolobus have to use a strategy to escape prolonged direct exposure to the type of ...
AIDS is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Primary modes of HIV ... Depletion of macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients promotes viral replication that contributes to greater risks of HIV ... Borkow G, Bentwich Z (May 2002). "Host background immunity and human immunodeficiency virus protective vaccines, a major ... Contaminated water enables the spread of various waterborne-pathogens, including bacteria (E. coli, cholera), viruses ( ...
... a protein necessary for hepatitis C virus replication and assembly. Velpatasvir reaches highest blood plasma levels three hours ...
... s can be found in a large number of viruses with distinct genomic organizations and replication mechanisms. This table ... Many viruses that cause human disease express viroporins. These viruses include hepatitis C virus, HIV-1, influenza A virus, ... Carrasco L (August 1995). "Modification of membrane permeability by animal viruses". Advances in Virus Research. 45: 61-112. ... and sometimes viral replication can be partially rescued in the presence of another virus' viroporin. The most well-studied and ...
"Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2021. ICTV ... Replication follows the dsDNA bidirectional replication model. DNA-templated transcription, with some alternative splicing ... Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Rabbits serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are contact ...
Sung TL, Rice AP (January 2009). Hope TJ (ed.). "miR-198 inhibits HIV-1 gene expression and replication in monocytes and its ... "MicroRNA gene expression profile of hepatitis C virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma". Hepatology. 47 (4): 1223-32. doi: ...
In Canine minute virus NP1 has been shown to be essential for an early step in viral replication and is also required for the ... Bocaparvovirus is a genus of viruses in the subfamily Parvovirinae of the virus family Parvoviridae. Humans, cattle, and dogs ... "ICTV 10th Report (2018)". "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. ... species are now generally defined as a cluster of viruses that encode replication initiator proteins (called NS1) that have ...
These adducts and alterations represent lesions which, upon DNA replication cause the insertion of a mis-matched base in the ... Prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma in individuals exposed to aflatoxin, increases with co-infection of hepatitis B virus. ... those infected with hepatitis B virus were at a fourfold risk; and those with the aflatoxin bio-markers and infected with ... especially given co-infection with hepatitis B virus. These effects seem to be largely mediated by mutations at guanine in ...
... and the role of viruses as persistent symbionts in host genomes. As a consequence, the evolution of genetic content order is ... in contrast to former narratives in which error replication events (mutations) dominated. Beyond medical ethics and bioethics, ...
Member viruses have linear DNA genomes around 170-250 kb in length. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell ... macacapox virus Akhmeta virus Alaskapox virus Camelpox virus Cowpox virus Ectromelia virus Monkeypox virus Raccoonpox virus ... Skunkpox virus Taterapox virus Vaccinia virus †Variola virus Volepox virus Among the path of evolution of the Orthopoxvirus ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021. ...
However, in the context of overt viral replication against the background of immunodeficiency, the viruses that cause the ... Several viruses mediated the emergence of decoy cells, amongst which cytomegalovirus and polyomavirus. Decoy cells are virus ... The viruses that induce the emergence of decoy cells, may causes disease, but again mainly in immunocompromised individuals. ... BKVAN is a condition wherein overt replication of polyomavirus BK causes an interstitial inflammation in a kidney. Decoy cells ...
January 2018). "Merimepodib, an IMPDH inhibitor, suppresses replication of Zika virus and other emerging viral pathogens". ... and also shows activity against other viral diseases such as Zika virus and foot and mouth disease virus. Merimepodib was ... "Antiviral activity of merimepodib against foot and mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo". Molecular Immunology. 114: 226- ... Anti-RNA virus drugs, Antiviral drugs, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ...
Since this specific virus has never been cultured in vitro, the exact replication cycle has not been specifically identified. ... However, other viruses in the Alloherpesviridae family undergo genomic replication by utilizing the host cell's nucleus, ... The only case of successful transfections of an organism with the virus has been seen following the injection of the virus into ... Once the warmer months roll around, viral replication rates dramatically lower to the point of little to no replication, and ...
... or off-site replication off-site, such that once the systems are restored or synchronized, possibly via storage area network ... going in the event of a power failure fire prevention/mitigation systems such as alarms and fire extinguishers anti-virus ...
Suramin inhibits Zika virus replication by interfering with virus attachment and release of infectious particles. Albulescu IC ... Understanding and combating RNA viruses * Molecular biology of +RNA virus replication * Ultrastructure and function of viral ... Mutations in encephalomyocarditis virus 3A protein uncouple the dependency of genome replication on host factors ... Stress granule components G3BP1 and G3BP2 play a proviral role early in Chikungunya virus replication. Scholte FE, Tas A, ...
In this report, we systematically analyzed the effect of famotidine on viral proteases and virus replication. Leveraging a ... These results rule out famotidine as a direct-acting inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 replication and warrant further investigation of ... The in-vitro effect of famotidine on SARS-CoV-2 proteases and virus replication. *Madeline Loffredo ORCID: ... Ratia, K. et al. A noncovalent class of papain-like protease/deubiquitinase inhibitors blocks SARS virus replication. Proc. ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other primate lentiviruses are distinguished from the gammaretroviruses by ... Retroviruses must gain access to the host cell nucleus for subsequent replication and viral propagation. ... Nuclear export of Vpr is required for efficient replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in tissue macrophages J ... Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other primate lentiviruses are distinguished from the gammaretroviruses by ...
The role of the early secretory pathway in foot-and-mouth disease virus replication ... Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) induces rearrangements of host-cell membranes to generate vesicles that are believed to ... The cellular origin of these vesicles and the properties that make them favourable for replication are poorly understood. For ... and therefore likely to be dependent on Arf1 for replication. These results show that Sar1 and/or COPII vesicle formation is ...
RNA viruses: replication and structure Ribosomes: structure, function and biogenesis. Other Authors:. Federation of European ...
Infection experiments in ferrets reveal swine influenza viruses need their hemagglutinin antigen to become stabilized for ... Swine gamma viruses had higher average peak titers in MDCK cells. To evaluate replication capacities of the viruses in vitro, ... C) Virus replication in ST and MDCK cells inoculated at an MOI of 0.01 PFU/cell and quantified by TCID50. (D) Receptor binding ... influenza B viruses, and viruses used in this study by HAI assay. Viruses A/swine/Illinois/2A-1213-G15/2013 (G15), A/swine/ ...
title = "Subcelullar localization of proteins associated with Prune dwarf virus replication",. abstract = "Prune dwarf virus ( ... In this paper we demonstrate that PDV replication, is similar to that of Alfalfa mosaic virus and is strongly connected with ... In this paper we demonstrate that PDV replication, is similar to that of Alfalfa mosaic virus and is strongly connected with ... In this paper we demonstrate that PDV replication, is similar to that of Alfalfa mosaic virus and is strongly connected with ...
Suppression of hepatitis B virus replication mediated by hepatitis A-induced cytokine production. Publication. Publication. ... Suppression of hepatitis B virus replication mediated by hepatitis A-induced cytokine production. Liver, 21(1), 45-49. doi: ...
Thus, SNPs at the IFNL4 locus may select variants that influence virus replication and thereby the outcome of infection. Here, ... L2 loop variants were introduced into both sub-genomic replicon and full-length infectious clones of HCV and viral replication ... Our data demonstrate that while mutation of the NS5B L2 loop affects replication, individual IFNL4-associated variants have ... infection in individuals who are acutely infected with the virus. In silico studies revealed that specific amino acid variants ...
... and suggest that GLS inhibitors may be useful therapeutically to reduce replication of diverse viruses. ... as a critical enzyme for optimal adenovirus replication and demonstrate that GLS inhibition decreases replication of adenovirus ... However, the mechanism by which viruses reprogram glutamine metabolism and the metabolic fate of glutamine during adenovirus ... herpes simplex virus 1 and influenza A in cultured primary cells. Our findings show that adenovirus-induced reprogramming of ...
Targeting hepatitis B virus cccDNA by CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease efficiently inhibits viral replication. Antiviral Res. 2015;118:110- ... Deng W, Lu M. The role of microRNAs in hepatocyte metabolism and hepatitis B virus replication. Vriol Sin. 2016;31:472-79 ... Increased hepatocyte turnover and inhibition of woodchuck hepatitis B virus replication by adefovir in vitro do not lead to ... Inactivation of hepatitis B virus replication in cultured cells and in vivo with engineered transcription activator-like ...
The rate of replication is greater in XTC-2 cells than in BHK cells and this has been correlated with the appearance of virus ... Elliott, R.M., Arnold, M.K. and Kelly, D.C. (1979) The replication of frog virus 3 in an amphibian cell line (XTC-2) derived ... The replication of frog virus 3 in an amphibian cell line (XTC-2) derived from Xenopus laevis ... Frog virus 3 (FV3) has been demonstrated to replicate in a Xenopus laevis cell line, XTC-2. The virus has been titrated in XTC- ...
... , Journal ... Cellular Vimentin Regulates Construction of Dengue Virus Replication Complexes through Interaction with NS4A Protein. ...
Further, the limits of replication infidelity during replication of large RNA genomes and how decreased fidelity impacts virus ... Most RNA viruses lack the mechanisms to recognize and correct mutations that arise during genome replication, resulting in ... Infidelity of SARS-CoV Nsp14-exonuclease mutant virus replication is revealed by complete genome sequencing.. PLoS pathogens. ... of murine hepatitis virus results in a 15-fold decrease in replication fidelity. However, it is not known whether nsp14-ExoN is ...
The immunogenicity and efficacy of intranasally or parenterally administered replication-deficient vaccinia-parainfluenza virus ... The immunogenicity and efficacy of intranasally or parenterally administered replication-deficient vaccinia-parainfluenza virus ... The immunogenicity and efficacy of intranasally or parenterally administered replication-deficient vaccinia-parainfluenza virus ... The immunogenicity and efficacy of intranasally or parenterally administered replication-deficient vaccinia-parainfluenza virus ...
Herpes simplex virus requires poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity for efficient replication and induces extracellular signal- ... Herpes simplex virus requires poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity for efficient replication and induces extracellular signal- ... Herpes simplex virus requires poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity for efficient replication and induces extracellular signal- ... T1 - Herpes simplex virus requires poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity for efficient replication and induces extracellular ...
Replication-deficient recombinant adenoviruses expressing the human immunodeficiency virus Env antigen can induce both humoral ... Replication-deficient recombinant adenoviruses expressing the human immunodeficiency virus Env antigen can induce both humoral ...
Structures of influenza A virus RNA polymerase offer insight into viral genome replication ... Structures of influenza A virus RNA polymerase offer insight into viral genome replication ...
... and it showed a decreased replication capacity in vitro and in vivo when compared with its parent virus, GX0101. Further ... These results suggested that the 1.8-kb mRNA did not directly influence the oncogenesis but related to the replication ability ... The 1.8-kb mRNA was reported as one of the oncogenesis-related genes of Mareks disease virus (MDV). In this study, the ... Sun, A., Li, Y., Wang, J. et al. Deletion of 1.8-kb mRNA of Mareks disease virus decreases its replication ability but not ...
Virus release from donor cells was unaffected when cultures were gently shaken, whereas virus transfer to recipient cells was ... Regarding HIV replication, the importance of cell contacts has been demonstrated, but this phenomenon remains only partly ... In lymphoid cell lines, as well as in primary lymphocytes, viral replication was dramatically reduced in shaken cultures. To ... these results indicate that cell-to-cell transfer is the predominant mode of HIV spread and help to explain why this virus ...
Activation of heat-shock response by an adenovirus is essential for virus replication. In: Nature. 2000 ; Vol. 407, No. 6801. ... Thus, an essential function of Gam1 during virus replication is to activate host heat-shock responses with hsp40 as a primary ... Activation of heat-shock response by an adenovirus is essential for virus replication. / Glotzer, Jolanta B.; Saltik, Medlyha; ... Thus, an essential function of Gam1 during virus replication is to activate host heat-shock responses with hsp40 as a primary ...
... dc.creator. Arias Arias, Jorge ... In Vitro Inhibition of Zika Virus Replication with Amantadine and Rimantadine Hydrochlorides. es_ES. ... Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus in which human infection became relevant during recent outbreaks in Latin ... ZIKV replication was inhibited at drug concentrations well below cytotoxic levels of both compounds, as denoted by the high ...
Zinc is a negative regulator of hepatitis C virus RNA replication. In: Liver International. 2006 ; Vol. 26, No. 9. pp. 1111- ... Zinc is a negative regulator of hepatitis C virus RNA replication. Liver International. 2006 Nov;26(9):1111-1118. doi: 10.1111/ ... Zinc is a negative regulator of hepatitis C virus RNA replication. Kazuhisa Yuasa, Atsushi Naganuma, Ken Sato, Masanori Ikeda, ... Dive into the research topics of Zinc is a negative regulator of hepatitis C virus RNA replication. Together they form a ...
Computational models of different aspects of COVID-19
... and role of viruses in ecology is presented. ... Viral replication. Viruses are the smallest infectious agents ... One potential example of the use of viruses to cure disease is to employ a virus to kill a virus. A virus can become a ... Herpes and other viruses come with protein tool kits of their own. Most other viruses, such as the tobacco mosaic virus, have ... It is usually not expedient for a virus to kill its host, since this may cause the death of the virus. Viruses must have a ...
REPLICATION OF VIRUS ⇒ Genetic information for viral replication is contained in the viral nucleic acid… ...
Port Description: Document Replication. *Virus / Trojan: No Tip! Use our free Digital Footprint and Firewall Test to help ... Because protocol UDP port 4143 was flagged as a virus (colored red) does not mean that a virus is using port 4143, but that a ... Trojan or Virus has used this port in the past to communicate. ...
  • For swine influenza viruses isolated in 2009-2016, gamma-clade viruses had less stable HA proteins (activation pH 5.5-5.9) than pandemic clade (pH 5.0-5.5). (
  • Briefly, eight RNA polymerase I plasmids (for the synthesis of the eight influenza A viral RNAs) together with plasmids for the expression of the PB2, PB1, PA, and NP proteins derived from the influenza A virus strain A/WSN/33 (H1N1) were transfected into 293T cells. (
  • Cellular heat-shock responses, which are characterized as elevation and relocalization of heat-shock proteins, occur during replication of many viruses. (
  • Alternatively, as heat-shock proteins can facilitate protein folding, activating a heat-shock response might be a specific virus function ensuring proper synthesis of viral proteins and virions. (
  • In clinical studies, zinc has been closely related to the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C. However, the role of zinc in both viral replication and the expression of viral proteins remains unclear. (
  • Total RNAs were collected and subjected to real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in order to examine the level of HCV RNA replication, and Western blotting was performed to confirm the expression of viral proteins. (
  • The Bacillus subtilis phage phi29-encoded membrane protein p16.7 is one of the few proteins involved in prokaryotic membrane-associated DNA replication that has been characterized at a functional and biochemical level. (
  • The arrangement of these proteins and the RNA genome determine the structure of the rabies virus. (
  • They are expressed and autoprocessed to nonstructural proteins which assemble into a replication complex (RC) playing multiple essential roles on viral RNA replication and communication with the host components. (
  • It characterizes atlastin proteins as to change their interaction profile after virus infection and to be required for dengue virus replication. (
  • Viruses mount their attack by interacting with specific cell proteins as a way of penetrating the cell's defenses. (
  • In this study, we asked how the herpes simplex virus finds the specific proteins that it interacts with,' says Weitzman. (
  • Interferons are proteins made by host cells in response to pathogens such as viruses, acting as a signalling system to switch on pathways that can activate an immune response. (
  • This particle belongs to a class of molecules that sort and secrete proteins made by the cell, a rather useful tool for viruses that might want to hijack the cellular machinery for its own end. (
  • The Long-haul and vaccine adverse event knowledge-base is updated daily and provides the latest science-based research findings concerning the chronic conditions that long-haul sufferers experience and the research findings of basic and clinical researchers who are working to understand the causes of the damage that appear throughout the body from the virus and the spike proteins that are responsible for them. (
  • Viruses are extremely small and only contain enough genetic material to code for essential proteins required for replication within the host cell. (
  • Mutations in encephalomyocarditis virus 3A protein uncouple the dependency of genome replication on host factors phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα and oxysterol-binding protein. (
  • Most RNA viruses lack the mechanisms to recognize and correct mutations that arise during genome replication, resulting in quasispecies diversity that is required for pathogenesis and adaptation. (
  • Thus, identification of host genes involved in viral genome replication will facilitate the development of antiviral drugs. (
  • In this dissertation, I present how I designed and conducted genome-wide genetic screens to look for novel worm genes required for antiviral immunity and viral genome replication. (
  • To look for worm genes required for Orsay virus genome replication I used a triple mutant that carries the FR1gfp replicon transgene as reporter for loss of viral genome replication. (
  • The transgene-mediated viral genome replication also ensures that no false positive mutants will be picked up because of failure in virus genome replication initiation. (
  • Most importantly, I found that most of these 12 candidate genes also play essential role in directing the genome replication of Orsay virus, which naturally infects C. elegans . (
  • To my knowledge, this is the first work that has successfully led to the identification of critical worm factors required for viral genome replication. (
  • Together, these studies have raised the prospect of a direct antiviral effect of famotidine on SARS-CoV-2 replication. (
  • Amantadine and rimantadine are approved antivirals used against susceptible influenza A virus infections that have been shown to have antiviral activity against other viruses, such as dengue virus (DENV). (
  • Additionally, we demonstrate similar in vitro antiviral activity of these drugs against DENV-1 and yellow fever virus (YFV), although at higher drug concentrations for the latter. (
  • Gene therapy has the potential to control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients who do not respond to traditional antiviral therapy. (
  • Virus factories increase the efficiency of replication and at the same time protect viruses from antiviral defenses. (
  • Targeting the alphavirus virus replication process for antiviral development. (
  • Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate promotes dengue virus infection by decreasing IL-23-mediated antiviral responses. (
  • and describe antiviral treatment recommendations for patients with suspected or confirmed influenza for the 2022-2023 season, including during community co circulation of influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2. (
  • Antiviral drugs inhibit productive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication but do not eliminate the latent state of infection. (
  • There are no drugs or vaccines approved for the new virus, though research efforts are ongoing, but at least one Chinese hospital has started a clinical trial with an antiviral medication whose brand name is Kaletra and that has been most used in the United States to treat HIV patients. (
  • Currently, therapeutic interventions, including peg-interferon and oral antiviral treatment, can only suppress HBV DNA replication or reduce complications of cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma, but cannot cure CHB. (
  • It exerts its antiviral activity by selective inhibition at pyrophosphate-binding sites on virus-specific DNA polymerases at concentrations that do not affect cellular DNA polymerases, inhibiting DNA synthesis. (
  • Les principals limitacions d'aquesta teràpia són: la limitada arribada del virus al tumor després de l'administració sistèmica, la baixa dispersió intratumoral i la resposta immune antiviral. (
  • Our study provides new insights on the intrinsic antiviral properties of the HIF signalling pathway in SARS-CoV-2 replication that may be applicable to other respiratory pathogens and identifies new therapeutic opportunities. (
  • Alisporivir inhibits MERS- and SARS-coronavirus replication in cell culture, but not SARS-coronavirus infection in a mouse model. (
  • In contrast, Arf1 reduced infection by bovine enterovirus which is inhibited by Brefeldin-A, and therefore likely to be dependent on Arf1 for replication. (
  • Host IFNL4 haplotype status contributes to the development of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in individuals who are acutely infected with the virus. (
  • Thus, SNPs at the IFNL4 locus may select variants that influence virus replication and thereby the outcome of infection. (
  • However, the mechanism by which viruses reprogram glutamine metabolism and the metabolic fate of glutamine during adenovirus infection have remained elusive. (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important public health problem worldwide. (
  • In this study, we found that herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection induced extensive modification of tankyrase 1 but not tankyrase 2. (
  • In the early phase of infection, tankyrase 1 colocalized with ICP0 and thereafter localized within the HSV replication compartment, which was blocked in cells infected with the HSV-1 ICP0-null mutant R7910. (
  • Briefly, A549 and DF-1 cells were infected with the indicated viruses at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.001. (
  • Cell culture supernatants were collected at 24, 48, and 72 h post-infection and subjected to virus titration by use of plaque assays in MDCK cells. (
  • We report that cellular contacts drastically enhance productive viral transfer compared to what is seen with infection with free virus. (
  • Successful viral infection requires viruses to redirect host biochemistry to replicate the viral genome, and produce and assemble progeny virions. (
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus in which human infection became relevant during recent outbreaks in Latin America due to its unrecognized association with fetal neurological disorders. (
  • Background/Aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant global public health problem. (
  • SIV(mac)239 infection of Indian rhesus macaques expressing Mamu-B*08 may therefore provide an animal model for understanding CD8+ T cell-mediated control of HIV replication in humans. (
  • In this study, we examined how vaccination impacts SIV replication in RMs expressing the MHC-I allele Mamu-B*17 Approximately 21% of Mamu-B*17+ and 50% of Mamu-B*08+ RMs control chronic-phase viremia after SIVmac239 infection. (
  • Uptake of pathogens by dendritic cells may lead to cross-presentation of antigens or infection of these cells, which ultimately results in activation of virus-specific T cells in draining lymph nodes. (
  • The fusion of the rabies virus envelope to the host cell membrane (adsorption) initiates the infection process. (
  • Viral budding into the salivary gland and virus-induced aggressive biting-behavior in the host animal maximize chances of viral infection of a new host. (
  • First, using deep sequencing, we demonstrate that infection of human cells by the RNA virus dengue virus (DENV) or West Nile virus (WNV) does not result in the production of any virus-derived siRNAs or viral miRNAs. (
  • Significance of Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) and CMV (HHV-5) infection among subtype-C human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. (
  • All the viruses can cause acute disease but the highest numbers of deaths result from liver cancer and cirrhosis which occur decades after infection with hepatitis B or C. (
  • Annually, it causes 20 million infections and 70 000 deaths, with recent outbreaks of infection reported in Uganda, Sudan and Chad.2 Viral hepatitis is also an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV.3 It is estimated that chronic hepatitis B virus infection affects 5-20% of people living with HIV. (
  • 7. As of June 2016, none of the countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region has reported Zika virus infection but the risk remains considerable. (
  • It is estimated in 2018 that ~292 million individuals are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide, [ 1 ] with nearly 887,000 annual deaths due to complications from chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection like decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • Novel treatment of a Vaccinia virus infection from an occupational needlestick - San Diego, California, 2019. (
  • To replicate, viruses must deliver their own DNA into a cell's nucleus, so a viral infection entails a conflict between two genomesthe DNA of the host cell versus the foreign DNA of the virus. (
  • Because RNF8 normally inhibits viral replication, its destruction leaves the cell vulnerable to HSV-1 infection, as the virus takes over the cell's machinery. (
  • Burkitt's lymphoma arises due to an early infection with EBV virus resulting in infected B cells Footnote 4 Footnote 8 . (
  • Chronic hepatitis B infection, caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and exposure to aflatoxins is fundamental in the formation of HCC in developing countries. (
  • Mechanistic studies were undertaken to assess viability, replication efficacy, viral infection enhancement and cell death pathway induction in a selected panel of drugs. (
  • The viral sensitizers interact with infection, replication and cell death pathways to enhance efficacy of the OV. (
  • In addition to the samples from the 55 pediatric patients, people less than 21 years of age, who had laboratory-confirmed Ebola virus disease, we selected samples from 50 adult patients, more than 21 years of age, who had laboratory-confirmed infection. (
  • However, the amount of virus shed, and presumably infectivity, decreases rapidly by 3-5 days after onset in an experimental human infection model. (
  • In tumor cells, the virus can successfully replicate after infection, resulting in the production of more virus progeny, and ultimately induce immunogenic cell death (ICD). (
  • Obviously, the unseen fear is expressed in the measures against the virus itself - the cleansing, the gloves, the masks, the social isolation to shield us against infection. (
  • It is a commodity that we need a huge injection of right now to overcome the infection of fear that is inherent in a lockdown against a virus. (
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has licensed ACAM2000® , (Smallpox [Vaccinia] Vaccine, Live), a replication-competent vaccine, for active immunization against smallpox disease in persons determined to be at high risk for smallpox infection. (
  • In the event of a smallpox emergency, ACAM2000® would be made available to persons exposed to smallpox virus or who are at high risk of smallpox infection, depending on the circumstances of the event. (
  • natural infection of Ebola virus in NHPs. (
  • infection by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most serious problems of public health because of the great number of people infected by this etiological agent. (
  • HBV) and the resulting damage to human health and to identify the knowledge of the nursing staff on prevention measures used to avoid occupational infection by this virus and, further, to investigate the immunization situation of the nursing staff against HBV. (
  • In ferrets, a model for human adaptation, a relatively stable HA protein (pH 5.5-5.6) was necessary for efficient replication and airborne transmission. (
  • P1 protein) which anchored viral RNA and builds replication complex along with RNA depended polymerase. (
  • Bioinformatic analyzes based on 3D modeling and structure prediction revealed that P1 protein has a potential transmembrane domain which enables protein anchoring to tonoplast during replication complex assembly. (
  • Domingues P , Bamford CGG , Boutell C , McLauchlan J . Inhibition of hepatitis C virus RNA replication by ISG15 does not require its conjugation to protein substrates by the HERC5 E3 ligase. (
  • Our previous work demonstrated that genetic inactivation of the coronavirus exoribonuclease (ExoN) in nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14) of murine hepatitis virus results in a 15-fold decrease in replication fidelity. (
  • Here we report that expression of Gam1, a protein encoded by the avian virus CELO (ref. 11), elevates and relocalizes hsp70 and hsp40. (
  • Results: Iron salts and interferon-α suppressed HCV RNA replication and protein expression in both sO and O cells. (
  • Viruses can cause auto-immune diseases by leaving parts of their DNA in their host which may cause their protein-immune fingerprint to become embedded in the hosts' cell membranes. (
  • Transverse relaxation dispersion of the p7 membrane channel from hepatitis C virus reveals conformational breathing Abstract The p7 membrane protein encoded by hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembles into a homo-hexamer that selectively conducts cations. (
  • Nonstructural protein 1 of influenza A virus (NS1A) is a*conserved virulence factor comprised of an N-terminal double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding domain and a multifunctional C-terminal effector domain. (
  • In vitro cell expression of all RNP protein components with four of the eight influenza virus gene segments enabled structural determination of native influenza virus RNPs by means of cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM). (
  • In a recent study published in the journal Nature Microbiology on September 16, 2019, scientists reported a potentially successful new approach to stop cold viruses from replicating inside human cells - by blocking the formation of a protein that is vital to this process. (
  • We describe how viruses reorganize cellular membrane compartments and cytoskeleton to generate these 'mini-organelles' and how these rearrangements parallel cellular responses to stress such as protein aggregation and DNA damage. (
  • The intracellular ratio of leader RNA to N protein regulates the switch from transcription to replication. (
  • Plasma from both parents and one child have IgG antibody against the S1 protein and virus-neutralizing activity detected. (
  • By manipulating cell signals, the virus destroys a defensive protein designed to inhibit it. (
  • By describing the mechanism of this particular interaction between a virus and a cell protein, we have pinpointed key regulators of a cell's processes, and shed light on how a cell regulates its defenses. (
  • The D614G variant carries a mutation in the spike protein that makes it easier for the virus to dock onto human cells. (
  • The British virus, for example, is known to have not just one but often more than 14 mutations, eight of which occur in the spike protein. (
  • Georgia State University researchers report they found a new human protein , called RBBP6, that naturally inhibits replication of the Ebola virus that they hope will lead to a new drug. (
  • The CR2 region of the adenovirus E1A protein also interacts with pRB, E2F is released and the virus replicates. (
  • The decoy cell "looks like" the virus to the immune system of a healthy human, as the viral protein is released as a surface marker. (
  • ace (accessory cholera enterotoxin) which is a minor coat protein, zot (zonula occludens toxin) responsible for maturation and ctxAB without a known function in the phage replication cycle, but whose product is the cholera A-B enterotoxin (CT). (
  • A protein [virus protein, genome-linked by a capsid architecture with 32 distinct cup-shaped depressions. (
  • Abbreviations: VPg, virus protein, genome-linked. (
  • Importantly, inhibition of the immunophilin protein family with the compounds cyclosporine A, and the nonimmunosuppressive derivative alisporivir, resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of CoV replication in primary human nasal epithelial cell cultures, which recapitulate the natural site of virus replication. (
  • A virus consists of genetic material and a protein coat. (
  • We identify glutaminase (GLS) as a critical enzyme for optimal adenovirus replication and demonstrate that GLS inhibition decreases replication of adenovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and influenza A in cultured primary cells. (
  • On a direct comparison of FV vectors expressing the individual transgenes, entry inhibition using the maC46 transgene was found to be the most effective at blocking HIV replication. (
  • Sedimentation analysis of viral RNA extracted from drug-treated cultures showed inhibition of the genome RNA of rinderpest virus. (
  • We conclude that most, and perhaps all, human viruses have evolved to be resistant to inhibition by endogenous human miRNAs during productive replication and that dependence on a cellular miRNA, as seen with hepatitis C virus, is rare. (
  • How viruses have evolved to avoid inhibition by endogenous cellular miRNAs, which are generally highly conserved during metazoan evolution, remains to be determined. (
  • Due to the relatively low fidelity of their RNA polymerase, +RNA viruses exhibit genetic variation and rapid evolution, allowing them to readily adapt to new circumstances and - for example - emerge as human pathogens. (
  • Crystal structure of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of hepatitis C virus. (
  • Observations of branched-RNP structures in negative-stain electron microscopy and their putative identification as replication intermediates suggest a mechanism for viral replication by a second polymerase on the RNP template. (
  • RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of RNA tumor viruses. (
  • It is an acyclic nucleoside analogue of 2'-deoxyguanosine that inhibits viral replication in vitro and in vivo by competing with deoxyguanosine triphosphate for viral DNA polymerase, inhibiting DNA synthesis. (
  • We determined the frequency of different serotypes of dengue virus to highlight its hyperendemicity in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. (
  • Here, we report the in vitro effectiveness of both amantadine and rimantadine hydrochlorides against ZIKV replication, resulting in a dose-dependent reduction in viral titers of a ZIKV clinical isolate and two different ZIKV reference strains. (
  • ZIKV replication was inhibited at drug concentrations well below cytotoxic levels of both compounds, as denoted by the high selectivity indexes obtained with the tested strains. (
  • May 29, 2007 (Washington) - The investigational protease inhibitor telaprevir (Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Cambridge, MA, formerly VX-950) rapidly inhibits heptatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication, including resistant strains, within 12 weeks of the initiation of therapy. (
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus ( SARSr-CoV or SARS-CoV ) [note 1] is a species of virus consisting of many known strains phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) that have been shown to possess the capability to infect humans , bats , and certain other mammals . (
  • Two strains of the virus have caused outbreaks of severe respiratory diseases in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1), which caused the 2002-2004 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is causing the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 . (
  • Caliciviruses are similar to picornaviruses in the pres- image reconstruction of recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles ence of VPg and in sequence similarity of their RNA-directed (left). (
  • The aim of the present research was to determine the effect of almond skin extracts on herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replication. (
  • This laboratory study focused on herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), a common human virus that results in recurrent infections alternating with inactive periods. (
  • Acyclovir has demonstrated inhibitory activity against both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and is taken up selectively by infected cells. (
  • Inefficient human immunodeficiency virus replication in mobile lymphocytes. (
  • Two MHC class I molecules associated with elite control of immunodeficiency virus replication, Mamu-B*08 and HLA-B*2705, bind peptides with sequence similarity. (
  • This work highlights the relevance of the Mamu-B*08-positive SIV-infected Indian rhesus macaque as a model to examine elite control of immunodeficiency virus replication. (
  • The remarkable similarity of the peptide-binding motifs and repertoires for Mamu-B*08 and HLA-B*2705 suggests that the nature of the peptide bound by the MHC class I molecule may play an important role in control of immunodeficiency virus replication. (
  • BACKGROUND:It is generally accepted that CD8+ T cell responses play an important role in control of immunodeficiency virus replication. (
  • Sulfate fibroin, a novel sulfated peptide derived from silk, inhibits immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro. (
  • Frog virus 3 (FV3) has been demonstrated to replicate in a Xenopus laevis cell line, XTC-2. (
  • Here we show that a virus with a non-functional receptor binding site in its hemagglutinin, can replicate in cells expressing DC-SIGN. (
  • Also in the absence of sialic acids, which is the receptor for influenza A viruses, these viruses replicate in DC-SIGN expressing cells including human dendritic cells. (
  • Sheep pox virus initially adapted to replicate in primary lamb kidney cells was adapted to Vero cells by serial passages in monolayer cultures. (
  • After nine passages the virus was able to correctly replicate in Vero cells, virus titer achieved was 10(5.875) TCID50 (median tissue culture infective dose) ml(-1). (
  • Many viruses replicate and assemble in subcellular microenvironments called virus factories or 'viroplasm. (
  • It belongs to a class of drugs known as protease inhibitors because they block a key enzyme that helps viruses replicate. (
  • Biologists have long known that viruses hijack cellular processes to replicate themselves, while host cells have evolved intrinsic defense systems to resist viral invasion. (
  • The deletion of adenovirus E1A CR2 prevents the combination of E1A and pRB, and the virus cannot release E2F in normal cells, nor can it replicate. (
  • This is the main difference between a virus and a bacteria, as a virus can replicate in either one or both of these environments. (
  • Viruses can only replicate in the presence of a host cell. (
  • genus Alphacoronavirus ) is an enveloped, positive-sense, Next, we examined PEDV replication in MK-DI- single-stranded RNA virus ( 2 ). (
  • [2] [3] These enveloped , positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses enter host cells by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. (
  • The SARS-related coronavirus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus . (
  • The family Caliciviridae includes viruses with single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes of 7.4-8.3 kb. (
  • Besides, HBV-specific gRNAs and miR-HBV in gRNA-miR-HBV-gRNA ternary cassette could exert a synergistic effect in inhibiting HBV replication and destroying HBV genome in vitro and in vivo . (
  • The present experiments indicated that GX0101Δ(A+C) retained a low level of oncogenicity, and it showed a decreased replication capacity in vitro and in vivo when compared with its parent virus, GX0101. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other primate lentiviruses are distinguished from the gammaretroviruses by their ability to infect nondividing cells such as macrophages, an important viral reservoir in vivo. (
  • We recently reported that transient in vivo CD8+ cell depletion in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected elite controller (EC) macaques resulted in a brief period of viral recrudescence. (
  • The increased replication of the D614G variant was also confirmed in vivo , in a new mouse model first described in this study. (
  • the answer here appears to be yes as the cells will be irradiated post-expansion in order to abolish their replication ability and thus no in vivo cell growth. (
  • Available at . (
  • An international team involving researchers from the Institute of Virology and Immunology (IVI) of the Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office BLV and the University of Bern (Switzerland), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA), and the Friedrich-Loeffler Institute (Germany), has developed an approach that can accurately assess the transmissibility of new virus mutants. (
  • The results suggest swine influenza viruses containing both a stabilized HA and alpha-2,6 receptor binding in tandem pose greater pandemic risk. (
  • Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans. (
  • Most experts think that influenza viruses are spread mainly by large-particle respiratory droplets produced when people infected with influenza cough, sneeze or talk. (
  • Immunization of rhesus monkeys with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) recombinants expressing the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) or fusion (F) glycoproteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) was compared with an intranasallyadministered live, attenuated HPIV3 vaccine candidate, the cp45 derivative of the JS strain of wildtype HPIV3. (
  • In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. (
  • Inadvertent exposure to the virus Vaccinia, an orthopoxvirus used in biomedical research, can cause considerable injury and time lost from work. (
  • Laboratories should ensure that workers are informed of the risks associated with manipulation of vaccinia virus and should counsel workers about the potential benefits of vaccination received according to current guidelines. (
  • It contains vaccinia virus, which belongs to the poxvirus family, genus Orthopoxvirus . (
  • The vaccinia virus may cause rash, fever, and head and body aches. (
  • In certain groups of people, particularly those who are immunocompromised, complications from the vaccinia virus can be severe. (
  • Replication-competent smallpox vaccine consists of a live, infectious vaccinia virus that can be transmitted from the vaccine recipient to unvaccinated persons who have close contact with the inoculation site, or with exudate from the site. (
  • The virus replicates in epithe- ECs. (
  • Electron microscope observations have shown that FV3 replicates in the cytoplasm of XTC-2 cells and that the virus may leave the cell by budding at the plasma membrane. (
  • Altogether, these results indicate that cell-to-cell transfer is the predominant mode of HIV spread and help to explain why this virus replicates so efficiently in lymphoid organs. (
  • NMR spectroscopy and other techniques underpin research at the University of Southampton into how changes in the cell membrane play a pivotal role in how the Hepatitis C virus replicates. (
  • The researchers at IVI and in David E. Wentworth's laboratory at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta (USA) first demonstrated in human cell cultures from the upper respiratory tract, as well as from the nose, that the D614G variant binds more strongly and also replicates faster than the original virus. (
  • A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. (
  • Torque teno virus (TTV), a novel DNA virus resides in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and replicates when these cells get activated. (
  • SARS-coronavirus-2 replication in Vero E6 cells: replication kinetics, rapid adaptation and cytopathology. (
  • Growth kinetics of viruses in cell culture. (
  • The growth kinetics of the viruses was assessed as previously described ( 1 ). (
  • The results define a novel genetic and bioinformatics model for introduction and identification of multi-allelic mutations in replication competent viruses that will be powerful tools for testing the effects of decreased fidelity and increased quasispecies diversity on viral replication, pathogenesis, and evolution. (
  • The recent discovery of antisense transcripts, continuously expressed in both asymptomatic and leukaemic cells, opens new perspectives for understanding viral replication or pathogenesis. (
  • Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. (
  • Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. (
  • Extracts of elder berries have been shown to inhibit the replication of the influenza virus, making it a suitable herb for the treatment and prevention of the common cold and flu. (
  • These results suggest that actinomycin D inhibits rinderpest viral RNA replication. (
  • In Hepatitis B infections, more liver damage may be caused by the immune system's attack on the infested liver cells than by the actual virus. (
  • It might be the future of diagnostic testing for common infections, and could prove to be a crucial tool for understanding and fighting novel viruses. (
  • Takeuchi Y, Kikuchi T, Kimura M. Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with ECHO virus type 7 infections. (
  • Coronaviruses are RNA viruses and the respiratory infections they can cause in humans can range from mild to severe. (
  • Observations of infections with and illness due to parainfluenza, mumps and respiratory syncytial viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. (
  • Impact of respiratory virus infections on persons with chronic underlying conditions. (
  • Ribavirin is used clinically in combination with interferon for hepatitis C, in aerosol form for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and as potential prophylaxis and/or treatment of Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever, hantavirus infections, and arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers. (
  • The Ebolavirus genus includes 5 different viruses that result in different case-fatality rates: Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Bundibugyo virus cause fatal infections, but neither Tai Forest virus nor Reston virus has been associated with human fatalities. (
  • For example, nosocomial Ebola virus disease infections mostly occur in adults working on hospital wards, and children are not usually caregivers for Ebola virus disease patients. (
  • While there are many viruses that cause disease, the most common types are human and animal infections. (
  • The 1.8-kb mRNA was reported as one of the oncogenesis-related genes of Marek's disease virus (MDV). (
  • Recent progresses in BAC cloning and mutagenesis technology make it possible to identify specific genes important for MDV replication and oncogenesis. (
  • It is not possible to determine whether heat-shock response is essential for virus replication, because the implicated viral genes (such as Ad5 E1A, ref. 10) also control other essential replication steps. (
  • It is concluded that viruses are non-living entities, similar to seeds and spores whose functions include carrying genes from one plant or animal to another. (
  • Scientists have known for about a decade that some more aggressive types of cancer express high levels of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), an action usually triggered by the presence of viruses. (
  • Strikingly, we found that several autophagy-related genes, including TMEM41B, MINAR1, and the immunophilin FKBP8, were common host factors required for pan-CoV replication. (
  • However, deletion of the two copies of the 132-bp repeat region in a pathogenic MDV demonstrated that the virus was still pathogenic [ 11 ]. (
  • Did God Make Pathogenic Viruses? (
  • The account of Noah and the flood is often criticised by the claim that God must have wanted pathogenic viruses in the world: because they exist today, God must have brought them on the ark. (
  • CONCLUSIONS:Together, our data suggest that Mamu-B*08-restricted CD8+ T cell responses effectively control replication of pathogenic SIV(mac)239. (
  • Although three filoviruses have been identified in result in the emergence of more pathogenic viruses in animals in Asia, 3,4 RESTV is the only filovirus isolated humans and/or livestock. (
  • Retinoic acids are known to inhibit EBV replication in vitro and induce epithelial cell differentiation. (
  • The virus can infect B-cells and epithelial cells Footnote 1 Footnote 3 Footnote 4 . (
  • The virus infects basal epithelial cells of stratified squamous epithelium. (
  • Suramin inhibits Zika virus replication by interfering with virus attachment and release of infectious particles. (
  • L2 loop variants were introduced into both sub-genomic replicon and full-length infectious clones of HCV and viral replication was examined in the presence and absence of exogenous IFNλ4. (
  • Construction and characterization of infectious intragenotypic and intergenotypic hepatitis C virus chimeras. (
  • In earlier studies we cloned the full length genome of a virulent MDV strain, GX0101, into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and reconstituted the infectious virus, bac-GX0101. (
  • This finding, from studies in human cell cultures, may represent a broader targeting strategy used by other viruses, and may lay the scientific groundwork for developing more effective treatments for infectious diseases. (
  • Young children also might shed virus several days before illness onset, and children can be infectious for 10 or more days after onset of symptoms. (
  • Can better methods be developed to detect infectious airborne influenza virus? (
  • Here we show that hamsters inoculated via the intranasal route with the same infectious virus dose of prototypical SARS-CoV-2 administered in a different volume present with different clinical signs, weight loss and viral shedding, with a reduced volume resulting in reduced severity of disease similar to that obtained by a 500-fold reduction in challenge dose. (
  • Pharmacological activation of HIF with the prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor FG-4592 significantly reduced the levels of infectious virus in the upper and lower respiratory tract. (
  • The MERS- and SARS-coronaviruses, the alphavirus Chikungunya virus, and the flavivirus Zika virus are prominent examples of such (re)emerging +RNA viruses with a serious impact on human health and society. (
  • This is an electron microscopic image of Zika virus found in the cytoplasm of a neuron in a fetal brain. (
  • Purification of highly active alphavirus replication complexes demonstrates altered fractionation of multiple cellular membranes. (
  • The cellular origin of these vesicles and the properties that make them favourable for replication are poorly understood. (
  • Separation of murine cellular and murine leukaemia virus DNA polymerases. (
  • Learning details of how cells respond to viruses helps us to understand key cellular machinery better,' says study leader Matthew D. Weitzman, PhD, of the Center for Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. (
  • Like other viruses, HSV-1 is known to manipulate cellular processes in order to infect cells, but the specific mechanisms by which it acts on the DNA repair pathway were previously unknown. (
  • Identification of cellular inhibitors in opposition to Chikungunya virus replication by a cDNA expression cloning combined with MinION sequencing cDNA expression cloning has been confirmed to be a robust technique inside the search for cellular parts that administration virus replication. (
  • Bovine leukaemia virus antisense transcription is required for viral replication" Unpublished master's thesis, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgique , 2019. (
  • Antisense transcription thus plays a crucial role in viral replication. (
  • Analysis of complete genome sequences from SARS-ExoN mutant viral clones revealed unique mutation sets in every genome examined from the same round of replication and a total of 100 unique mutations across the genome. (
  • All viruses were sequenced to confirm the absence of unwanted mutations. (
  • How dangerous are new mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 virus? (
  • We report here the engineering and recovery of nsp14-ExoN mutant viruses of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that have stable growth defects and demonstrate a 21-fold increase in mutation frequency during replication in culture. (
  • China is currently reporting a total of 44,653 cases of the respiratory virus and 1,113 deaths. (
  • Some of these viruses invade the upper respiratory tract - the nose and the throat - while others invade the lower respiratory tract and can lead to pneumonia. (
  • Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States. (
  • Furthermore, we find that the Vpr NES is required for efficient HIV replication in tissue macrophages present in human spleens and tonsils. (
  • Pandemic influenza A viruses can emerge from swine, an intermediate host that supports adaptation of human-preferred receptor-binding specificity by the hemagglutinin (HA) surface antigen. (
  • In approximately 1999, gamma viruses split into two branches: swine gamma (1A.3.3.3) and swine viruses that later contributed the hemagglutinin (HA) gene to the 2009 human pandemic virus (1A.3.3.2). (
  • Genome-to-genome analysis highlights the effect of the human innate and adaptive immune systems on the hepatitis C virus. (
  • Cell-to-cell viral transfer facilitates the spread of lymphotropic retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), likely through the formation of "virological synapses" between donor and target cells. (
  • Certain major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) alleles are associated with spontaneous control of viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques (RMs). (
  • Characterization of murine sarcoma virus (Kirsten) transformation of mouse and human cells. (
  • Many alphaviruses , including chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are known human pathogens that lack specific and effective antivirals or vaccines available. (
  • The issue of whether viruses are subject to restriction by endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) and/or by virus-induced small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in infected human somatic cells has been controversial. (
  • Second, to more globally assess the potential of small regulatory RNAs to inhibit virus replication, we used gene editing to derive human cell lines that lack a functional Dicer enzyme and that therefore are unable to produce miRNAs or siRNAs. (
  • ENTERIC cytopathogenic human orphan (ECHO) viruses. (
  • These guidelines update previous CDC recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of tuberculosis (TB) among adults and children coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States. (
  • These guidelines update previous CDC recommendations for treating and preventing active tuberculosis (TB) among adults and children coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (1-3). (
  • The evolutionary dynamics of human influenza B virus. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a blood-borne virus typically transmitted via sexual intercourse, shared intravenous drug paraphernalia, and during the birth process or via human milk (vertical transmission). (
  • Electron microscopy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 virions. (
  • In addition, a supplemental new drug application (sNDA) has been approved for Triumeq tablet, lowering the minimum weight that a child with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be prescribed this medicine to 25kgs from 40kgs. (
  • In addition to today's regulatory milestones, an application to approve the new dispersible tablet of the fixed dose combination of abacavir, dolutegravir and lamivudine for the treatment of paediatric patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and to extend the current approved Marketing Authorisation of Triumeq tablets to include a paediatric indication for children is currently under review by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). (
  • A newly published investigation of molecular and biochemical mechanisms revealed that CADs are injurious to human cells, not to the virus. (
  • Herein, we conducted 2 independent genome-wide CRISPR/Cas-9 knockout (KO) screens to identify MERS-CoV and HCoV-229E host dependency factors (HDFs) required for HCoV replication in the human Huh7 cell line. (
  • A rapid emergence of 323L but not 614G was observed in a non-human primate model of COVID-19 using a starting virus with P323 and D614 in the dominant genome sequence and 323L and 614G in the minor variant population. (
  • This will facilitate the development of strategies to combat these pathogens, for example by identifying inhibitors of virus replication or improving the technology to develop +RNA virus-based vaccine vectors. (
  • Our findings show that adenovirus-induced reprogramming of glutamine metabolism through MYC activation promotes optimal progeny virion generation, and suggest that GLS inhibitors may be useful therapeutically to reduce replication of diverse viruses. (
  • NRTIs and integrase inhibitors interfere with the action of the two enzymes to prevent the virus from replicating and further infecting cells. (
  • The cytoplasmic replication of +RNA viruses can be explosive, with dramatic consequences for the architecture and functioning of the infected cell. (
  • Influenza virus ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) are central to the viral life cycle and in adaptation to new host species. (
  • E1 deleted adenoviruses are considered to be replication-defective and are used as shuttle vectors in gene therapy or vaccination for gene therapy and vaccine immunization. (
  • Since E1A 13S is essential for the transport of YB-1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, adenoviruses lacking E1A13S expression have replication defects in normal cells. (
  • Positive-stranded RNA (+RNA) viruses, the largest group of viruses, are important pathogens of humans and animals. (
  • Prune dwarf virus (PDV) is one of the most dangerous pathogens of fruit trees worldwide. (
  • The effect of actionomycin D on the replication of rinderpest virus in Vero cells was studied by following the viral RNA synthesis using labelled uridine as well as by infectivity titration. (
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a wide-spread gene silencing mechanism that control diverse biological functions and triggered by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) processed from the viral genome or its replication intermediates. (
  • These results rule out famotidine as a direct-acting inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 replication and warrant further investigation of its molecular mechanism of action in the context of COVID-19. (
  • Isolation and characterization of a primate sarcoma virus: mechanism of rescue. (
  • Frequently after 2009, HA and other gene segments from H1N1pdm viruses transmitted from humans to swine, generating diverse reassortant viruses. (
  • HLA-B27- and -B57-positive HIV-infected humans have long been associated with control of HIV replication, implying that CD8(+) T cell responses contribute to control of viral replication. (
  • Rhinovira are the most common viral infective agents in humans, and a causative agent of the common cold (about 49.12159% of the cases of the common cold are caused by this virus). (
  • Theories being investigated are that the virus, similar to other coronaviruses, originated in bats and spilled over into humans through an intermediary host animal. (
  • Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans. (
  • Huang said that there might be multiple places where the virus was first transmitted to humans. (
  • Our data demonstrate that while mutation of the NS5B L2 loop affects replication, individual IFNL4 -associated variants have modest but consistent effects on replication in both the presence and absence of IFNλ4. (
  • Mamu-B*17+ Rhesus Macaques Vaccinated with env, vif, and nef Manifest Early Control of SIVmac239 Replication. (
  • Most disease-causing bacteria and viruses, which exist in encyclopedic profusion, serve no useful "purpose" whatever except to infect other creatures and to make their lives more difficult or shorter. (
  • Birds are the preferred host of WNV, and the American robin is an important amplifier host since it develops enough virus in its serum to infect feeding mosquitoes. (
  • The released offspring of the virus further infect uninfected tumor cells and continue to spread the virus. (
  • RNA viruses, such as the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, are in a life-and-death race the moment they infect a cell. (
  • DNA tumor viruses : control of gene expression and replication / edited by Michael Botchan, Terri Grodzicker, Phillip A. Sharp. (
  • Studies on reverse transcriptase of RNA tumor viruses III. (
  • After releasing the progeny virus, it infects surrounding tumor cells and destroys the tumor through the cascade amplification effect, thereby obtaining better results. (
  • Tumor or tissue-specific promoters can control E1A-mediated virus replication so that it can only be expressed in tumor cells, but is low or not expressed in normal cells. (
  • The virus has been titrated in XTC-2 cells by plaque assay, but the efficiency of plaquing is lower than in minnow or hamster cells. (
  • One technique is a hybrid system called a "viral replication assay" that combines PCR with a more traditional culture method for increased sensitivity. (
  • He also plans to extend his research into other viruses, which may act on different pathways than HSV-1 does. (
  • We hypothesized that evolutionarily distinct CoVs may exploit similar host factors and pathways to support their replication cycles. (
  • Over the following ten years, WNV spread throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico and the Carribbean. (
  • While hepatitis A and E viruses are spread through the oro-faecal route, B and C viruses are transmitted through exposure to blood, sexual intercourse, and from an infected pregnant mother to her unborn child. (
  • The spread of SARS-CoV-2 viruses can be studied better in other animals rather than mice. (
  • Over the next days and weeks we continued to sound that alarm loud and clear and we continued giving countries the strategies, the guidance and the tools they needed to prepare for, prevent, detect and respond to the spread of this new virus. (
  • Inflammation in lymph nodes is of interest as it may permit HIV replication and spread. (
  • However, it is not known how viruses encoding large viral RNA genomes such as the Coronaviridae (26 to 32 kb) balance the requirements for genome stability and quasispecies diversity. (
  • Further, the limits of replication infidelity during replication of large RNA genomes and how decreased fidelity impacts virus fitness over time are not known. (
  • Rabies virus belongs to the order Mononegavirales, viruses with a nonsegmented, negative-stranded RNA genomes. (
  • The rabies virus infects the central nervous system of mammals, ultimately causing disease in the brain and death. (
  • Because lyssaviruses have a linear single-negative-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) must be transcribed to permit virus replication. (
  • The cells may be delivered as a vaccination by intramuscular injection following irradiation to avoid cell replication. (
  • Therefore, the vaccination site requires special care to prevent the virus from spreading. (
  • As a replication-deficient vaccine, it can be used for vaccination of people 18 years and older with certain immune deficiencies or conditions, such as HIV or atopic dermatitis. (
  • Coronaviruses and arteriviruses display striking differences in their cyclophilin A-dependence during replication in cell culture. (
  • However, it is not known whether nsp14-ExoN is required for replication fidelity of all coronaviruses, nor the impact of decreased fidelity on genome diversity and fitness during replication and passage. (
  • Surgical masks may help prevent infected people from making others sick with seasonal viruses, including coronaviruses, according to new research that could help settle a fierce debate spanning clinical and cultural norms. (