Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.
Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.
Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.
Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.
Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.
The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.
Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.
Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.
Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.
Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.

Mechanisms of viral interference with MHC class I antigen processing and presentation. (1/191)

Viruses are ubiquitous and dangerous obligate intracellular parasites. To facilitate recognition of virus-infected cells by the immune system, vertebrates evolved a system that displays oligopeptides derived from viral proteins on the surface of cells in association with class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex. Here we review the mechanisms counter-evolved by viruses to interfere with the generation of viral peptides, their intracellular trafficking, or the cell surface expression of class I molecules bearing viral peptides. This topic is important in its own right because the viruses that encode these proteins represent medically important pathogens, are potential vectors for vaccines or gene therapy, and provide strategies and tools for blocking immune recognition in transplantation, autoimmunity, and gene therapy. In addition, studies on viral interference provide unique insights into unfettered antigen processing and normal cellular functions that are exploited and exaggerated by viruses.  (+info)

Virioplankton: viruses in aquatic ecosystems. (2/191)

The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities.  (+info)

Viruses at the edge of adaptation. (3/191)

How vulnerable is the line that separates adaptation from extinction? Viruses, in particular RNA viruses, are well known for their high rates of genetic variation and their potential to adapt to environmental modifications (Drake and Holland, 1999; Domingo et al., 2000). Yet, fitness variations-both increases and decreases-can be spectacularly rapid, and the simple genetic stratagem of forcing virus multiplication to go through repeated genetic bottlenecks can induce fitness losses, at times near viral extinction. New information has been recently obtained on the two sides of the survival line: the edge of adaptation and the edge of extinction.  (+info)

Identification of distinct signaling pathways leading to the phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3. (4/191)

Infection of host cells by viruses leads to the activation of multiple signaling pathways, resulting in the expression of host genes involved in the establishment of the antiviral state. Among the transcription factors mediating the immediate response to virus is interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) which is post-translationally modified as a result of virus infection. Phosphorylation of latent cytoplasmic IRF-3 on serine and threonine residues in the C-terminal region leads to dimerization, cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation, association with the p300/CBP coactivator, and stimulation of DNA binding and transcriptional activities. We now demonstrate that IRF-3 is a phosphoprotein that is uniquely activated via virus-dependent C-terminal phosphorylation. Paramyxoviridae including measles virus and rhabdoviridae, vesicular stomatitis virus, are potent inducers of a unique virus-activated kinase activity. In contrast, stress inducers, growth factors, DNA-damaging agents, and cytokines do not induce C-terminal IRF-3 phosphorylation, translocation or transactivation, but rather activate a MAPKKK-related signaling pathway that results in N-terminal IRF-3 phosphorylation. The failure of numerous well characterized pharmacological inhibitors to abrogate virus-induced IRF-3 phosphorylation suggests the involvement of a novel kinase activity in IRF-3 regulation by viruses.  (+info)

Osteoclasts and giant cells: macrophage-macrophage fusion mechanism. (5/191)

Membrane fusion is a ubiquitous event that occurs in a wide range of biological processes. While intracellular membrane fusion mediating organelle trafficking is well understood, much less is known about cell-cell fusion mediating sperm cell-oocyte, myoblast-myoblast and macrophage-macrophage fusion. In the case of mononuclear phagocytes, their fusion is not only associated with the differentiation of osteoclasts, cells which play a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, but also of giant cells that are present in chronic inflammatory reactions and in tumours. Despite the biological and pathophysiological importance of intercellular fusion events, the actual molecular mechanism of macrophage fusion is still unclear. One of the main research themes in my laboratory has been to investigate the molecular mechanism of mononuclear phagocyte fusion. Our hypothesis has been that macrophage-macrophage fusion, similar to virus-cell fusion, is mediated by specific cell surface proteins. But, in contrast with myoblasts and sperm cells, macrophage fusion is a rare event that occurs in specific instances. To test our hypothesis, we established an in vitro cell-cell fusion assay as a model system which uses alveolar macrophages. Upon multinucleation, these macrophages acquire the osteoclast phenotype. This indicates that multinucleation of macrophages leads to a specific and novel functional phenotype in macrophages. To identify the components of the fusion machinery, we generated four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which block the fusion of alveolar macrophages and purified the unique antigen recognized by these mAbs. This led us to the cloning of MFR (Macrophage Fusion Receptor). MFR was cloned simultaneously as P84/SHPS-1/SIRPalpha/BIT by other laboratories. We subsequently showed that the recombinant extracellular domain of MFR blocks fusion. Most recently, we identified a lower molecular weight form of MFR that is missing two extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) C domains. Shortly after we cloned MFR, CD47 was reported to be a ligand for P84/SIRPalpha. We have since generated preliminary results which suggest that CD47 interacts with MFR during adhesion/fusion and is a member of the fusion machinery. We also identified CD44 as a plasma membrane protein which, like MFR, is highly expressed at the onset of fusion. The recombinant soluble extracellular domain of CD44 blocks fusion by interacting with a cell-surface binding site. We now propose a model in which both forms of MFR, CD44, and CD47 mediate macrophage adhesion/fusion and therefore the differentiation of osteoclasts and giant cells.  (+info)

Efficient oncolysis by a replicating adenovirus (ad) in vivo is critically dependent on tumor expression of primary ad receptors. (6/191)

Replicating adenoviruses (Ads) are designed to replicate in and destroy cancer cells, generating viral progeny that spread within the tumor. To address the importance of the primary cellular receptor for Ads, the coxsackievirus and Ad receptor (CAR), in permitting intratumoral spread of a replicating Ad, we have used a pair of tumor cell lines differing only in the expression of a primary receptor for Ad5. This novel system thus allowed the first direct evaluation of the relationship between the efficacy of a replicating Ad and the primary receptor levels of the host cell without the confounding influence of other variable cellular factors. We demonstrate that the absence of the primary cellular receptor on the tumor cells restricts the oncolytic potency of a replicating Ad both in vitro and in vivo. Based on these findings, it is apparent that the potential therapeutic advantages afforded by viral replication would be negated by poor intratumoral spread of the viral progeny due to the failure to infect neighboring tumor cells. Because a number of studies have reported that primary cancer cells express only low levels of CAR, our results suggest that strategies to redirect Ads to achieve CAR-independent infection will be necessary to realize the full potential of replicating Ads in the clinical setting.  (+info)

The dependence of viral parameter estimates on the assumed viral life cycle: limitations of studies of viral load data. (7/191)

Estimation of viral parameters, such as the basic reproductive number (R0) and infected cell life span, is central to the quantitative study of the within-host dynamics of viral diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. As these parameters can rarely be determined directly, they are usually estimated indirectly by fitting mathematical models to viral load data. This paper investigates how parameter estimates obtained by such procedures depend on the assumptions made concerning the viral life cycle. It finds that estimates of the basic reproductive number obtained using viral load data collected during the initial stages of infection can depend quite sensitively on these assumptions. The use of models which neglect the intracellular delay before virion production can lead to severe underestimates of R0 and, hence, to overly optimistic predictions of how efficacious treatment must be in order to prevent or eradicate the disease. These results are also of importance for attempts at estimating R0 from similar epidemiological data as there is a correspondence between within-host and between-host models. Estimates of the life span of infected cells obtained from viral load data collected during drug treatment studies also depend on the assumptions made in modelling the virus life cycle. The use of more realistic descriptions of the life cycle is seen to increase estimates of infected cell life span, in addition to providing a new explanation for the shoulder phase seen during drug treatment. This study highlights the limitations of what can be learnt by fitting mathematical models to infectious disease data without detailed independent knowledge of the life cycle of the infectious agent.  (+info)

Lung surfactant and reactive oxygen-nitrogen species: antimicrobial activity and host-pathogen interactions. (8/191)

Surfactant protein (SP) A and SP-D are members of the collectin superfamily. They are widely distributed within the lung, are capable of antigen recognition, and can discern self versus nonself. SPs recognize bacteria, fungi, and viruses by binding mannose and N-acetylglucosamine residues on microbial cell walls. SP-A has been shown to stimulate the respiratory burst as well as nitric oxide synthase expression by alveolar macrophages. Although nitric oxide (NO.) is a well-recognized microbicidal product of macrophages, the mechanism(s) by which NO. contributes to host defense remains undefined. The purpose of this symposium was to present current research pertaining to the specific role of SPs and reactive oxygen-nitrogen species in innate immunity. The symposium focused on the mechanisms of NO*-mediated toxicity for bacterial, human, and animal models of SP-A- and NO.-mediated pathogen killing, microbial defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen-nitrogen species, specific examples and signaling pathways involved in the SP-A-mediated killing of pulmonary pathogens, the structure and binding of SP-A and SP-D to bacterial targets, and the immunoregulatory functions of SP-A.  (+info)

Coursera - Virology II: How Viruses Cause DiseaseWEBRip | English | MP4 | 960 x 540 | VP8 ~670 kbps | 25 fpsVorbis | 128 Kbps | 48.0 KHz | 2 channels | 04:1...
HIV-AIDS. SARS. Ebola. Bird flu. Swine flu. Rabies. These are emerging infectious diseases where the viruses have jumped from one animal species into another and now infect humans. This is a phenomenon known as cross-species transmission and scientists are working to determine what drives it. Gary McCracken, a professor at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, is one of those scientists and has made a groundbreaking discovery into how viruses jump from host to host.
This fascinating book explores the hidden world of viruses-a world that we all inhabit. Here Carl Zimmer, popular science writer and author of Discover magazines award-winning blog The Loom, presents the latest research on how viruses hold sway over our lives and our biosphere, how viruses helped give rise to the first life-forms, how viruses are producing new diseases, how we can harness viruses for our own ends, and how viruses will continue to control our fate for years to come. In this eye-opening tour of the frontiers of biology, where scientists are expanding our understanding of life as we know it, we learn that some treatments for the common cold do more harm than good; that the worlds oceans are home to an astonishing number of viruses; and that the evolution of HIV is now in overdrive, spawning more mutated strains than we care to imagine. ...
A discovery by Melbourne researchers has solved a longstanding mystery of how viruses trigger protective immunity within our body.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has recently created a new grant program called Prophecy that is geared towards investigations into how viruses might evolve in order to improve efforts by biopharmaceuticals to head off health threats.
I do not see it there. It only shows Gag, Pro and Pol. At viralzone I see a gammaretro gnome is...
Many viruses and other disease agents that infect people originate in animals. These diseases are zoonotic, meaning they are caused by animal viruses that jumped to people and adapted to spread through the human population.. It might be tempting to start the viral origin search by testing sick animals at the site of the first known human infection, but wild hosts often dont show any symptoms. Viruses and their hosts adapt to each other over time, so viruses often dont cause obvious disease symptoms until theyve jumped to a new host species. Researchers cant just look for sick animals.. Another problem is that people and their food animals arent stationary. The place where researchers find the first infected person is not necessarily close to the place where the virus first emerged. In the case of COVID-19, bats were an obvious first place to look. Theyre known hosts for many coronaviruses and are the probable source of other zoonotic diseases like SARS and MERS.. For SARS-CoV-2, the virus ...
Many viruses and other disease agents that infect people originate in animals. These diseases are zoonotic, meaning they are caused by animal viruses that jumped to people and adapted to spread through the human population.. It might be tempting to start the viral origin search by testing sick animals at the site of the first known human infection, but wild hosts often dont show any symptoms. Viruses and their hosts adapt to each other over time, so viruses often dont cause obvious disease symptoms until theyve jumped to a new host species. Researchers cant just look for sick animals.. Another problem is that people and their food animals arent stationary. The place where researchers find the first infected person is not necessarily close to the place where the virus first emerged. In the case of COVID-19, bats were an obvious first place to look. Theyre known hosts for many coronaviruses and are the probable source of other zoonotic diseases like SARS and MERS.. For SARS-CoV-2, the virus ...
professor of biology at the University of Sydney, and his Australian colleagues decided to confront this mystery head on. Using viral genome data, they reconstructed the evolutionary history of 19 major virus families, each of which contained between 23 and 142 viruses found in diverse hosts ranging from mammals to fish to plants. They created phylogenetic, or evolutionary, trees for both the virus families and their host species and then compared them. They reasoned that if a virus had largely co-diverged with its host, evolving right alongside it, then the viruss phylogenetic tree should resemble its hosts: ancestral versions of the virus ought to have infected the hosts ancestors. But if the virus is jumping between species, the trees of the hosts and viruses will look different. How different depends on how many cross-species jumps are made ...
Viruses depend on host cells for replication, but how does a virus induce its host to transcribe its own genetic information alongside that of the virus, thus producing daughter viruses?
No New Virus Under the Sun?Most emergent viruses that are new to humans are regular inhabitants of other species. In some cases, the animal hosts have reached a peaceful coexistence with their viruses, as in the case of bats. In other cases, the viruses are as deadly in their wild animal hosts as ...
A virus is a pathogen that knows more about us than we do, and by understanding it, we can understand more about ourselves, explains Dr David Jacques, a structural biologist who was recruited to Single Molecule Science (SMS) at the end of 2017. David secured funding via an ARC Discovery Project grant - beginning in 2018 - to set up a new research group investigating the molecular interactions between a virus and its host.. It remains unclear exactly how viruses like HIV evade host defence mechanisms. David explains that to get a better understanding of how viruses manipulate the host and escape harm, you need to see the host and viral proteins together. A protein structure on its own doesnt tell you the full story. With a structure in complex with another protein, then youre starting to look at real interfaces, he says. We can literally see what is important to the virus, and this information can be used to focus drug development.. Before returning to Australia, David studied how ...
The video below will teach you to distinguish between viruses and bacteria and explain why its very important to know the difference.​
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Simulate the spread of an illness through a population. Using a safe, simulated disease agent, students model the transmission of a communicable viral disease, identify its origin …
Until now, we have concerned ourselves with the molecular details of how viruses replicate in our cells to produce hundreds of progeny per cell. Now we will broaden our view to take account of the fact that these repeated rounds of virus replication are occurring in a body made up of about a hundred trillion cells, including an elaborate immune system that tries to fight off the infection.. Virus infection in vertebrates results in two general types of immune response. The first is a rapid-onset innate response against the virus, which involves the synthesis of proteins called interferons and the stimulation of natural killer lymphocytes. In some cases, the innate response may be enough to prevent a large scale infection. However, if the infection proceeds beyond the first few rounds of viral replication, the adaptive immune response, kicks into high gear. The adaptive immune response itself has two components, the humoral response (the synthesis of virus-specific antibodies by B ...
We still dont know enough about how viruses evolve to predict what would happen in a twenty-first century viral pandemic. New research in insects provides a clue - in a well-connected and well-travelled world, we would expect viruses to evolve to become more infectious. If the media is to be believed, we are under the…
LiveScience: Scientists study how viruses jump from birds to humans, in order to understand the roots of a pandemic and develop defenses against it.
This program examines the molecular function and structure of viral genes, viral proteins, and virions, and the cellular factors that interact with these components to facilitate or impair viral infection. Faculty in this program area use a variety of biochemical, biophysical, cellular, genetic, immunological, and molecular approaches to understand how viruses and their genomes and gene products affect host defenses,
Molecular mechanisms that allow the Rhesus macaque CMV to cross species barriers shed light on how viruses can replicate in other species.
Cancer can be triggered by infectious diseases, especially in impoverished parts of the world. Scientists in the US and Africa are working to unravel how viruses and bacteria cause malignancies.
Crystal structure of a distinct viral capsid/ssDNA complex illuminates how viruses assemble into infectious virions Conference Paper ...
A Stanford ENT surgeon discusses how viruses can cause a loss of the sense of smell, and what can be done about it in the era of the coronavirus pandemic.
Type-I interferons (IFN-I) play an important role in the innate immune response to several retroviruses. They seem to be effective in controlling the in vivo infection, though many of the clinical signs of retroviral infection may be due to their continual presence which over-stimulates the immune system and activates apoptosis. IFN-I not only affect the immune system, but also operate directly on virus replication. Most data suggest that the in vitro treatment with IFN-I of retrovirus infected cells inhibits the final stages of virogenesis, avoiding the correct assembly of viral particles and their budding, even though the mechanism is not well understood. However, in some retroviruses IFN-I may also act at a previous stage as some retroviral LTRs posses sequences homologous to the IFNstimulated response element (ISRE). When stimulated, ISREs control viral transcription. HIV-1 displays several mechanisms for evading IFN-I, such as through Tat and Nef. Besides IFN-α and IFN-β, some other type I IFN,
ALPHARETTA, Ga., Sept. 24, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- ViveBios Transformational Specimen Storage and Transportation Device, ViveST™, Featured in Presentation at...
The novel technique, called helium ion microscopy (HIM), was used to image hard-to-see interaction between bacteria and viruses infecting bacteria, or so called bacteriophages. These phages are currently actively considered as a novel smart weapon against bacterial infections, which are becoming more and more difficult to treat with traditional antibiotics. The images demonstrated in clear images the different stages of how the phages in question attacked the bacteria (E. coli), for example showing the process where the virus has latched onto the bacterial surface, grabbing it with a tentacle like structure, and being in the process of injecting its genome into the bacterial cell ...
The National Collection of Pathogenic Viruses (NCPV) from European Collection of Cell Cultures (ECACC),Human Pathogenic Viruses The National Collection of Pathogenic Viruses (NCPV) preserves well characterised, authenticated human pathogenic viruses in a secure facility, and NCPV is able to supply the agents or nucleic acids derived from them, to the scientific community according to national and,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The scientists showed for the first time how the virus called Lambda evolved to find a new way to attack host cells, an innovation that took four mutations to accomplish. This virus infects bacteria, in particular the common E. coli bacterium. Lambda isnt dangerous to humans, but this research demonstrated how viruses evolve complex and potentially deadly new traits, noted Justin Meyer, MSU graduate student, who co-authored the paper with Richard Lenski, MSU Hannah Distinguished Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics.. We were surprised at first to see Lambda evolve this new function, this ability to attack and enter the cell through a new receptor--and it happened so fast, Meyer said. But when we re-ran the evolution experiment, we saw the same thing happen over and over.. ...
To put it plainly, Virology is the study of the types, behaviors and properties of viruses. We at Clinical Virology are devoted not only to understanding viruses, but also how viruses are discovered, diagnosed and treated by health care practitioners. In short we are devoted to helping health care practitioners understand and implement the latest discoveries and cutting edge treatments to more effectively handle and treat patients whom have come down with a virus. We believe that this bringing together of two worlds is absolutely essential to minimizing the damage from potentially deadly virus outbreaks. It is also vital for helping us understand and prepare for flu season each year. Imagine a day when doctors are able to accurately predict which flu strain will spread each year and vaccinate all vulnerable people? Flu season would become a thing of the past! ...
7. From Mobile Devices How Viruses effect your computer a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same Viruses are self-reproducing programs designed to move from computer to computer ...
Viruses manipulate the function of dendritic cells (DCs) to enhance their entry, spread, survival and transmission. This review summarises recently published work identifying how viruses alter the expression of receptors, antiviral molecules, disrupt signalling pathways, subvert trafficking pathways …
Viruses can only thrive and replicate inside the environment of a living cell of other organisms. Viruses adapt to the environment (the cell) they are in by infecting the entire cell. Viruses can infect other nearby cells by infecting its genetic code (either DNA or RNA) and spread. … This is how viruses replicate. ...
Over the millennia, pathogens have coevolved with their hosts and acquired the ability to intercept, disrupt, mimic, and usurp numerous signaling pathways of those hosts. The study of host/pathogen interactions thus not only teaches us about the intricate biology of these parasitic invaders but also provides interesting insights into basic cellular processes both at the level of the individual cell and more globally throughout the organism. Host/pathogen relationships also provide insights into the evolutionary forces that shape biological diversity. Here we review a few recent examples of how viruses, bacteria, and parasites manipulate tyrosine kinase-mediated and Rho guanosine triphosphatase-mediated signaling pathways of their hosts to achieve efficient entry, replication, and exit during their infectious cycles.. ...
Lexi Walls is a graduate student in Biochemistry. She utilizes microscopes to visualize the infection machinery of viruses at the nanoscopic level. These viral snapshots will improve our understanding of how viruses function and how best to inhibit their infection.…. ...
An orchid-growing friend of mine has successfully managed to cure a virussed strain of a particularly important orchid clone by using a mixture of human antiviral drugs. It was not easy or straightforward. His advice--seeds are almost always free of virus anyway, so dont be afraid to use virussed plants for breeding. Curing them is too much trouble. Lou ...
Harvard Medical School researchers have improved the design of tiny nanodiscs-synthetic models of cell membranes used to study proteins that control what enters and leaves a cell. The enhancements provide an unprecedented view of how viruses infect cells.. The new nanodiscs are more stable than previous versions and, for the first time, can be made in several precise sizes and shapes.. Get more HMS news here. We finally have a defined environment where we can study how viruses or other proteins interact with membrane proteins and get details as never seen before, said Gerhard Wagner, the Elkan Blout Professor of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology at HMS and senior author of the study.. The design improvements mean scientists can now watch under a microscope as viruses-in this case, polioviruses-dock with the nanodiscs, open a pore and inject their genetic material.. One of the major goals in virology is to understand step by step how viruses enter cells and to make a molecular ...
A team of researchers has solved the structure of a molecule that controls the ability of viruses of the paramyxovirus family, including the viruses that cause measles, mumps, and many human respiratory diseases, to fuse with and infect human cells. Determining the structure of this molecule and its role in the viral fusion mechanism may aid the development of drugs and vaccines that target these types of viruses, say the scientists, whose work was funded by NIGMS and NIAID, both parts of NIH.
Your immune system responds to the infection, and in the process of fighting, it produces chemicals called pyrogens that cause your body temperature to increase. This fever actually helps you to fight the infection by slowing down the rate of viral reproduction, because most of your bodys chemical reactions have an optimal temperature of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (37 degrees Celsius). If your temperature rises slightly above this, the reactions slow down. This immune response continues until the viruses are eliminated from your body. However, if you sneeze, you can spread thousands of new viruses into the environment to await another host.. ...
Standard influenza is typically spread by people sneezing or coughing virus-laden particles into the air, which others breath in. Another way is by touching infected surfaces and then scratching your nose, eyes, face or ears. Viruses can live up to two days on surfaces which is why it is important to wash your hands and wipe down door handles, keyboards, machines, counters and other areas regularly. Another way to protect from airborne viruses is to use a spray bottle or diffuser with essential oils or natural formula. A simple spritz in the air will help neutralize those airborne critters while making your office, home or car smell great. Dont use lysol to spritz unless critical as this product as some studies have shown that continual inhalation of these chemicals has potential side effects ...
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Our general aim is to understand the functioning of the immune system in pigs and other veterinary species. Our laboratory is focusing on phagocytes, in particular dendritic cells and macrophages but also neutrophils. These represent central cells in the innate immune response and are also essential to induce adaptive immune responses. With the tools available we are developing new vaccine adjuvants and vectors designed to induce specific types of immune responses in pigs to improve antibody and T-lymphocyte responses, both systemically and at mucosal surfaces. In addition, our research aims to understand the mechanisms of how viruses induce disease and evade the host immune response with a focus on phagocyte-pathogen interaction.. Projects:. ...
Narnavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Narnaviridae. Fungi serve as natural hosts. There are currently only two species in this genus including the type species Saccharomyces 20S RNA narnavirus. Genomes are linear and non-segmented. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by cell-to-cell movement. Fungi serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are parental and sexual. ICTV. Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viral Zone. ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: Narnavirus ...
In the last two decades, according to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, nearly half of the new pathogens that affect human and animal health have been viruses. As with the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in 2009, most of these diseases can quickly adapt and morph into nastier strains that resist attacks by vaccines and immune systems.. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), through a program called DARPA Prophecy, has tapped Harvard University and APL to develop methods to predict how, and how fast, these viral agents might mutate.. The current approach to dealing with viruses is reactive, explains Andrew Feldman, DARPA Prophecy project manager and principal investigator in the Research and Exploratory Development Department. Existing vaccines and therapies are designed to protect against viruses that are already out there, and new vaccines take years to develop. But we are trying to get out in front of emerging diseases by predicting how viruses ...
Virus infections can range from a brief, superficial interaction between the virus and its host to a lifelong infection from before birth. Many different tissues and organs may be affected. Although only a small minority of virus infections give rise to any disease symptoms, this minority is of major medical importance. This unit will provide you with an introduction to viral structure and function and explain how viruses subvert host cell function to generate viral factories. Details of the pathogenic mechanisms used by viruses to cause disease will be explained using examples such as the influenza virus and HIV. The design of viral vaccines will also be covered and their use in eradicating viral infections such as polio discussed.. ...
On Sunday, Aug. 13, 1961, The New York Times called a report by Roger Herriott a whole new dimension to the study of virus diseases.. A decade earlier, Dr. Herriott had separated the nucleic acid from the protein of a bacterial virus and found that the toxic but not the reproductive properties of the virus were carried by the protein component. This finding suggested the nucleic acid was important for viral reproduction, although there was no way of testing the theory at that time. Infections by free nucleic acid later were produced in laboratories by the viruses of polio, Eastern encephalitis, and several other diseases of humans, animals, and plants.. Dr. Herriotts discovery was a valuable clue to the puzzle of how viruses multiply. To continue his investigations, he received a grant from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis in 1954.. He also was part of a major national study in the early 1950s to find methods to sterilize human blood for transfusion.. In addition to his ...
UWS academic discovers that the HIRA protein has anti-virus properties which can increase our understanding of how viruses evade host cellular responses.
Hello everyone, Ive been doing loads of educational research just to try work out whats happening to me and possibly why. Years ago I had viral meningitis (about 28 years ago) and was really ill in hospital for 3 weeks but more recently under anaesthetic for an operation (which went wrong immediately and surgery was abandoned) due to the fact that the acid from my stomach filled my lungs and I ended up on a life support with asperation pneumonia and also had sepsis (that they didnt tell me about). Ive read a lot of research about how viruses and bacterial infections can be significant in ms. I was also extremely stressed with work at the time of my first major attack and have heard this can also be a massive trigger. Also my hubby has parkinsons and I attended a talk by a top neurologist at parkinsons UK recently who said research believes that parkinsons (as well as Ms) can start in the gut which reflected research Id read about gut flora and the gut/brain connection. my hubby and I have ...
If it looks like a duck and quacks like a duck, so the adage goes, it must be a duck. But if the duck gets infected by a virus so that it no longer looks or quacks like one, is it still a duck? For a team led by researchers from The Ohio State University and the University of Michigan studying how virus infections cause significant metabolic changes in marine microbes, the answer is no. They refer to the infected microbial cells as virocells, the name change reflecting the metabolic changes the cells have undergone. Read more ...
In this presentation, Australian disease ecologist Dr. Kristian Forbes explains how viruses transfer from animals to humans, which is the leading cause of new infectious diseases. Professor Forbes specializes in the study of viruses in bats,
If scientists could track the motion of a single molecule within a living cell it could reveal a world of information. Among other things, scientists could determine how viruses invade a cell or how proteins operate in the body. Such technology also could help doctors pinpoint the exact location of cancer cells in order to better focus treatment and minimize damage to healthy tissue. Outside the body, the technology could help speed up detection of such toxins as anthrax ...
The phone is [ringing] off the hook and I cant even keep track, said Chris Green, a former classroom teacher who started the outdoor school eight years ago.. He and his team have added seven new programs this year, all of which have been filling up. Theyve also partnered with a local Montessori school to offer a full-time option, where around 30 kids, split into two groups, will spend half the day in a classroom and the other half outdoors.. For me, its always made sense to have kids outside, Green said. And now it makes double the sense, because it has now shifted from an educational and developmental initiative, to a kind of preventative public health initiative.. .... Indeed, the appeal of open-air activities during the COVID-19 pandemic is rooted in science. Dr. Linsey Marr of Virginia Tech studies how viruses spread through the air. She said COVID-19 transmission by air is happening - theres really no question anymore.. When asked why theres a lower risk of transmission outside, ...
At the population level, the virus-host relationship is not set up to end with the complete elimination of either or both. Pathogen-resistant individuals w
... a physiological phenomenon of the lungs Health Purchasing Victoria, an Australian public authority High production volume ... HPV is human papillomavirus, a virus which causes human papillomavirus infection (HPV infection). HPV may also refer to: ...
... investigating physiological phenomena in plants and then studying the structure and function of plant-pathogenic viruses in the ... Synergism between potao virus x and potato virus y was studied in vivo by classical methods as well as by ultrastructural, i.e ... U. Pfl.-schutz 89,612-615,1982 Sarkar, S.: Tobacco mosaic virus: Mutants and strains. In THE PLANT VIRUSES (M.H.V.van ... were infected with viruses or with their RNA with a high efficiency and used for physiological investigations. ...
Physiological phenomena whether at the cellular or molecular level in living organisms are driven either directly or indirectly ... Later, the technique was made quantitative by densitometry and successfully used to monitor peroxidase activity in virus ... physiological basis for disease resistance, developmental physiology and screening for commercially important enzymes and many ... using qualitative zymoblot is an indication of a physiological disorder, inflammatory reaction or pathogenic infection. In all ...
Chronobiology - field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- ... Oncology - study of cancer processes, including virus or mutation, oncogenesis, angiogenesis and tissues remoldings. ... physiological, developmental, genetic) to environmental stresses. ... the mathematical modeling of biological phenomena.. *Systems ... Virophysics - study of mechanics and dynamics driving the interactions between virus and cells. ...
Stimulus generalization is another learning phenomenon that can be illustrated by conditioned taste aversion. This phenomenon ... A human who eats sushi for the first time and who happens to come down with an unrelated stomach virus may still develop a ... However, rats react to any change in physiological state as a sign of danger and avoided approaching these solutions. When one ... Although the human may know that the vomiting was due to a virus and not from eating the steak, the conditioned response in the ...
However, viruses do not metabolize and they require a host cell to make new products. Virus self-assembly within host cells has ... Instead of examining phenomena by attempting to break things down into components, a general living systems theory explores ... These complex processes, called physiological functions, have underlying physical and chemical bases, as well as signaling and ... Van Regenmortel MH (January 2007). "Virus species and virus identification: past and current controversies". Infection, ...
... foot and mouth disease virus, prions, and blue tongue virus), and plant viruses (tobacco and cucumber viruses) in a specific, ... Studies using these setups have been able to study dynamical phenomena like electroporation of membranes and ion translocation ... Apart from the increased stability of the electrode-cell interface, immobilization preserves the viability and physiological ... BERA has been used for the detection of human viruses (hepatitis B and C viruses and herpes viruses), veterinary disease agents ...
In contrast, these phenomena are mediated by humoral factors (such as hormones or cytokines) secreted by tumor cells or by an ... latent varicella-zoster virus in sensory ganglia), pancreatic tumors (leading to adipose nodular necrosis of subcutaneous ... The following diseases manifest by means of physiological dysfunction besides the categories above: membranous ...
Scientists have modified strains of viruses in order to study their behavior, as in the case of the H5N1 influenza virus. While ... These phenomena are known respectively as antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Microbial strains can also be differentiated by ... term refers to the collective descendants produced from a common ancestor that share a uniform morphological or physiological ... a virus, bacterium or fungus). For example, a "flu strain" is a certain biological form of the influenza or "flu" virus. These ...
The physiological interaction between DIPs and the host, and the effect of DIPs on the replication of infectious standard virus ... He gave his name to the Von Magnus phenomenon. In the 1950s, together with his wife the virologist Herdis von Magnus, he ... He warned however, that such viruses were stable and easily cultured and therefore the emergence of a new virus with a more ... "Incomplete Forms of Influenza Virus", in Kenneth M. Smith and Max A. Lauffer's Advances in Virus Research, Volume 2, Academic ...
"ICTV Virus Taxonomy 2009". Archived from the original on 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2013-10-02. Index of Viruses - ... In addition, the phenomenon of energy flow occurs in cells in processes that are part of the function known as metabolism. ... Physiological studies have traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology, but some principles of ... Version 4 is based on Virus Taxonomy, Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses, 8th ICTV Report of the International ...
The phenomenon has long been known in animals and plants. Heterosis appears to be largely due to genetic complementation, that ... Its use was key to defining most of the genes of the virus, and provided the foundation for the study of such fundamental ... "Physiological studies of conditional lethal mutants of bacteriophage T4D". Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 28: 375-394. ... Complementation tests can also be carried out with haploid eukaryotes such as fungi, with bacteria and with viruses such as ...
For a bacterium to bind, take up and recombine donor DNA into its own chromosome, it must first enter a special physiological ... ISBN 978-0-393-08881-6. Forterre P (2006). "Three RNA cells for ribosomal lineages and three DNA viruses to replicate their ... a phenomenon known as quorum sensing. Biofilms may be highly heterogeneous and structurally complex and may attach to solid ... Transduction of bacterial genes by bacteriophage appears to reflect an occasional error during intracellular assembly of virus ...
"Phenomena: A Science Salon. National Geographic. Archived from the original on 2016-12-25. Retrieved 2017-06-08.. ... Kurstak, Edouard; Kreuter, Jorg (1991). Virus of Invertebrates. CRC Press. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-8247-8469-0. .. ... Physiological Entomology. 8 (2): 151-166. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3032.1983.tb00344.x.. ... Other fatal diseases that have been identified in mass-rearing establishments include Rickettsia and three further viruses. The ...
Cinbis M, Aysun S: Alice in Wonderland syndrome as an initial manifestation of Epstein-Barr virus infection (case report). Br J ... Thus, when a patient reaches for an enlarged object, he or she is overcoming that physiological contraction. However, this ... The differences in visual phenomena, such as macropsia with slow motion versus macropsia without slow motion, may result from ... With regard to drug-induced or virus-induced macropsia, once the underlying problem, either drug abuse or viral infection, is ...
The phenomenon is termed sensitization of the metal centered complex (also referred to as antenna effect) and is quite complex ... Measurements can be done under physiological conditions in vitro with genetically encoded dyes, and often in vivo as well. The ... Traditional virus diagnostic procedures are being replaced by sensitive immunoassays with lanthanides. The time resolved ... These qualities are: water solubility, large thermodynamic stability at physiological pHs, kinetic inertness and absorption ...
Decades of research have shown the importance of primary relationships in both psychological and physiological well being. Yet ... More recently, Barack Obama's successful bid for the Presidency in 2008 exemplified a similar phenomenon, aided and accelerated ... in which subjects are quarantined and deliberately infected with a virus. Those who had contact in the prior two weeks with six ... phenomenon. Numerous studies underscore the importance of intimate relationships-and nothing in the conceptualization of ...
... cell phenomena, and immunity G05 - genetic processes G06 - biochemical phenomena, metabolism, and nutrition G07 - physiological ... viruses B05 - fungi B06 - plants B07 - archaea B08 - mesomycetozoea C - Diseases C01 - bacterial infections and mycoses C02 - ... chemical and pharmacologic phenomena G13 - genetic phenomena G14 - genetic structures H - Physical Sciences H01 - natural ... virus diseases C03 - parasitic diseases C04 - neoplasms C05 - musculoskeletal diseases C06 - digestive system diseases C07 - ...
This phenomenon was labeled "virus-induced gene silencing" (VIGS), and the set of such phenomena were collectively called post ... Studying the effects of this decrease can show the physiological role of the gene product. Since RNAi may not totally abolish ... Some viruses have evolved mechanisms for suppressing the RNAi response in their host cells, particularly for plant viruses.[80] ... Stram Y, Kuzntzova L (June 2006). "Inhibition of viruses by RNA interference". Virus Genes. 32 (3): 299-306. doi:10.1007/s11262 ...
This could be due to a variety of factors such as changes in physiological effect or changes in resource levels. The ants in ... In 2008, the chronic bee paralysis virus was reported for the first time in this and another species of ants, Camponotus vagus ... doi:10.1046/j.1365-2311.2000.00253.x. Moli, Francesco Le; Passetti, Maria (1978). "Olfactory Learning Phenomena and Cocoon ... One possibility is that monogynous nests due to environmental and physiological conditions may take up new queens. Sometimes in ...
... the virus bacteriophage T4, an RNA virus, and humans. The intermolecular forces likely responsible for self-recognition and ... In such a case, the phenomenon is referred to as intragenic complementation (also called inter-allelic complementation). ... that many proteins undergo regulation and perform their physiological function. The above definition follows a classical ... "Intragenic complementation and oligomerization of the L subunit of the sendai virus RNA polymerase". Virology. 304 (2): 235-245 ...
"RNA Viruses in Hymenopteran Pollinators: Evidence of Inter-Taxa Virus Transmission via Pollen and Potential Impact on Non-Apis ... Whilst the specific physiological mechanisms by which immunity is produced differ sharply between the individual and society, ... Social immunity differs from similar phenomena that can occur in groups that are not truly social (e.g. herding animals). These ... effort in social immune responses - physiological and genomic studies have shown that social conditions can lead to a reduction ...
Also pattern III patients tend to be negative under the MRZ-reaction (measles, rubeola and zoster viruses) Baló's concentric ... Lucchinetti investigations, in Baló's concentric sclerosis, the rings may be caused by a physiological hypoxia (similar to that ... discuss the link between concentric sclerosis and Liesegang's periodic precipitation phenomenon and propose a new mechanism ... and varicella zoster virus (VZV). Pattern III lesions were for sometime thought to be a MS nascent lesion, though it is not ...
... viruses, and their metabolites). Induced resistance of plants has two major modes of action: the SAR pathway and the ISR ... the phenomenon of multi-effect of induced factors; (4) the effects of chemical induction factors on environmental factors; (5) ... "acquired physiological immunity", "resistance displacement", "plant immune function" and "induced system resistance." Many ... forms of stimulus have been found to induce the plant to the virus, bacteria and fungi and other disease resistance including ...
The insects are also affected by the cricket paralysis virus, which has caused high levels of fatalities in cricket-rearing ... Yong, Ed (9 May 2014). "The Silence of the Crickets, The Silence of the Crickets". Phenomena: A Science Salon. National ... Physiological Entomology. 8 (2): 151-166. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3032.1983.tb00344.x. S2CID 85962428. Cade W. H. (1975). " ... Kurstak, Edouard; Kreuter, Jorg (1991). Virus of Invertebrates. CRC Press. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-8247-8469-0. Simon, Matt (30 May ...
The phenomenon of prohormone conversion was discovered by Donald F. Steiner while examining the biosynthesis of insulin in 1967 ... Furin plays a role in the activation of several different virus proteins, and inhibitors of furin have been explored as ... Therefore, it is not surprising that it plays a major role in many physiological processes and pathologies, including cancer. ...
This phenomenon is demonstrated during the cell cycle. In the cell cycle, Paraspeckles are present during interphase and during ... From a viral aspect, NEAT1 levels have an observable impact on infections within cells with many different RNA viruses, ... The main insight into their physiological function is their location. Prominent Paraspeckles are only found in a subpopulation ... March 2017). "NEAT1 modulates herpes simplex virus-1 replication by regulating viral gene transcription". Cellular and ...
This phenomenon occurs everywhere, all the time. It is a process known as radiant heat exchange, since radiant power × time ... Some physiological changes in human beings and other warm-blooded animals can also be monitored with thermal imaging during ... Thermal imaging can detect elevated body temperature, one of the signs of the virus H1N1 (swine influenza). ... This phenomenon may become clearer upon consideration of the formula: Incident Radiant Power = Emitted Radiant Power + ...
"Neural mechanisms of respiratory syncytial virus-induced inflammation and prevention of respiratory syncytial virus sequelae". ... With the exception of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, the patho-physiological basis of many of the disease groups ... "Elevated CSF levels of substance P and high incidence of Raynaud phenomenon in patients with fibromyalgia: new features for ... Respiratory syncytial and related viruses appear to upregulate SP receptors, and rat studies suggest that NK1RAs may be useful ...
1999). "Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States". Science. ... Invasion of long-established ecosystems by organisms from distant bio-regions is a natural phenomenon, which has likely been ... "Pseudo-nitzschia physiological ecology, phylogeny, toxicity, monitoring and impacts on ecosystem health". Harmful Algae. 14: ... Dispersal and subsequent proliferation of species is not solely an anthropogenic phenomenon. There are many mechanisms by which ...
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[۶۱] ... "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[۸۳] ... "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[۵۶] ... "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena ...
F50-F59) Behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors[edit]. *(F50) Eating disorders * ... F02.4) Dementia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. *(F03) Unspecified dementia. *(F04) Organic amnesic syndrome, ... F59) Unspecified behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors. (F60-F69) Disorders of ... 1.6 (F50-F59) Behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors ...
... including the Israeli acute paralysis virus and the black queen cell virus.[35] ... Karasov, William H.; Martinez del Rio, Carlos (2008). Physiological Ecology: How Animals Process Energy, Nutrients, and Toxins ... This relationship leads to a phenomenon known as "worker policing". In these rare situations, other worker bees in the hive who ... This phenomenon is also used to kill a queen perceived as intruding or defective, an action known to beekeepers as 'balling the ...
Several structures and phenomena in anatomy and physiology are named for him, including the Golgi apparatus, the Golgi tendon ... He is an atheist, and the man who suggested to Richard Dawkins the analogy of viruses of the mind for religions; yet nowadays ... Hermann Joseph Muller (1890-1967): American geneticist and educator, best known for his work on the physiological and genetic ... "for their discoveries regarding tunnelling phenomena in solids". Giaever is an institute professor emeritus at the Rensselaer ...
1986). "Transactivation of the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat sequences by DNA viruses". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Planque S, Nishiyama Y, Taguchi H, Salas M, Hanson C, Paul S (June 2008). "Catalytic antibodies to HIV: Physiological role and ... "The Duesberg Phenomenon: A Berkeley virologist and his supporters continue to argue that HIV is not the cause of AIDS. A 3- ... Pollok RC (2001). "Viruses causing diarrhoea in AIDS". Novartis Found. Symp. 238: 276-83; discussion 283-8. doi:10.1002/ ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus is believed to be taken up by the autophagosome from the cytosol and translocated to the endosomes ... de Duve christened the phenomena "autophagy". Unlike Porter and Ashford, de Duve conceived the term as a part of lysosomal ... and that the process was not limited to injury states that functioned under physiological conditions for "reutilization of ... A subset of viruses and bacteria subvert the autophagic pathway to promote their own replication.[63] Galectin-8 has recently ...
By contrast, in vivo experiments can provide information about the physiological role of a protein in the context of a cell or ... Lectins typically play a role in biological recognition phenomena involving cells and proteins.[39] Receptors and hormones are ... Eukaryotes have 15,000, bacteria have 3,200, archaea have 2,400, and viruses have 42 proteins on average coded in their ... including assembled viruses;[58] a variant known as electron crystallography can also produce high-resolution information in ...
"Phenomena: Not Exactly Rocket Science How Chickens Lost Their Penises (And Ducks Kept Theirs)". Phenomena.nationalgeographic. ... Water is needed by many birds although their mode of excretion and lack of sweat glands reduces the physiological demands.[128] ... "Birds, Migration and Emerging Zoonoses: West Nile Virus, Lyme Disease, Influenza A and Enteropathogens". Clinical medicine & ... Turner, J. Scott (1997). "On the thermal capacity of a bird's egg warmed by a brood patch". Physiological Zoology. 70 (4): 470- ...
This involves using a non-infectious virus to shuttle a gene into a part of the retina. Recombinant adeno-associated virus ( ... This is known as the blue field entoptic phenomenon (or Scheerer's phenomenon). ... Dinculescu Astra; Glushakova Lyudmyla; Seok-Hong Min; Hauswirth William W (2005). "Adeno-associated virus-vectored gene therapy ... Main article: Adeno associated virus and gene therapy of the human retina ...
In this case, the host-cell receptor is envisioned as an internal image of the virus, and the anti-idiotype antibodies can ... Omega-3 may inhibit production of interferon gamma and other cytokines which cause the physiological symptoms of depression. ... Finally, IgA deficiency is also sometimes associated with the development of autoimmune and atopic phenomena. ... While major depression is not necessarily an autoimmune disease, some of its physiological symptoms are inflammatory and ...
Levandowsky, M. Physiological Adaptations of Protists. In: Cell physiology sourcebook : essentials of membrane biophysics. ... Recent papers have proposed the use of viruses to treat infections caused by protozoa.[65][66] ... Early researchers (e.g., Calkins) have interpreted phenomena related to chromidia (chromatin granules free in the cytoplasm) in ...
Apoptosis and autophagy are both forms of programmed cell death, but necrosis was long seen as a non-physiological process that ... Cook, B (1998). "Developmental neuronal death is not a universal phenomenon among cell types in the chick embryo retina". ... as a cell-death backup to apoptosis when the apoptosis signaling is blocked by endogenous or exogenous factors such as viruses ... Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation but has also been associated with physiological as well ...
Rosen MJ, Kunjappu JT (2012). Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena (4th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p. 1. ... effects of exposure to Influenza B Virus". Chemosphere. 59 (2): 235-46. Bibcode:2005Chmsp..59..235M. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere. ... Physiological response to water immersion. *Tissue. *Underwater vision. Circulatory. system. *Blood shift ...
The pathophysiology of HIV/AIDS involves, upon acquisition of the virus, that the virus replicates inside and kills T helper ... a phenomenon never before observed. Avery was initially skeptical of Griffith's findings and for some time refused to accept ... is the study of the disordered physiological processes that cause, result from, or are otherwise associated with a disease or ... establishing cytology as the focus of physiological research, while Julius Cohnheim pioneered experimental pathology in medical ...
This phenomenon was labeled "virus-induced gene silencing" (VIGS), and the set of such phenomena were collectively called post ... Studying the effects of this decrease can show the physiological role of the gene product. Since RNAi may not totally abolish ... Some viruses have evolved mechanisms for suppressing the RNAi response in their host cells, particularly for plant viruses.[81] ... Other functions for RNAi in mammalian viruses also exist, such as miRNAs expressed by the herpes virus that may act as ...
and Related Phenomena 80(1996) 313-316" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 January 2009. Retrieved 8 ... January 2012). "DNA damage after acute exposure of mice skin to physiological doses of UVB and UVA light". Arch Dermatol Res. ... These fluids could contain deadly viruses or other contamination.. Ultraviolet aids in the detection of organic material ...
Cervical cancer nearly always involves human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.[42][43] HPV is a virus with numerous strains, ... In becoming wider, the cervix also becomes shorter, a phenomenon known as effacement.[28] ... which are considered physiological rather than pathological.[16]:411 Both gland openings and Nabothian cysts are helpful to ... inflammation may be caused by the herpes simplex virus. Inflammation is often investigated through directly visualising the ...
... sun rise despite the same physiological phenomenon. Kuhn[113] and Feyerabend[114] acknowledge the pioneering significance of ... a b Watson did enough work on Tobacco mosaic virus to produce the diffraction pattern for a helix, per Crick's work on the ... It might predict the outcome of an experiment in a laboratory setting or the observation of a phenomenon in nature. The ... Albert Einstein once observed that "there is no logical bridge between phenomena and their theoretical principles."[76] Charles ...
Some viruses also exhibit a dormant phase, called viral latency, in which the virus hides in the body in an inactive state. For ... An organic disease is one caused by a physical or physiological change to some tissue or organ of the body. The term sometimes ... However, association and causality are two very different phenomena, as a third cause might be producing the disease, as well ... a stage in the history of a pathological condition that begins with anatomical or physiological changes that are sufficient to ...
"The Viruses That Make Us: A Role For Endogenous Retrovirus In The Evolution Of Placental Species". University of California, ... Immune memory in insects was discovered through the phenomenon of priming. When insects are exposed to non-lethal dose or heat ... as used in immunology is problematic as acquired immune responses can be both adaptive and maladaptive in the physiological ... These antigens are different from those on the surface of bacteria or on the surface of virus-infected host cells ("non-self" ...
This phenomenon is known as elastic scattering, and the electron (or lighthouse) is known as the scatterer. A regular array of ... Membrane proteins are a large component of the genome, and include many proteins of great physiological importance, such as ion ... X-ray crystallography has proven possible even for viruses and proteins with hundreds of thousands of atoms, through improved ... Synchrotrons were originally designed for use by high-energy physicists studying subatomic particles and cosmic phenomena. The ...
PDF) Known and unknown phenomena of nonlinear behaviors in the power harvesting mat and the transverse wave speaker. . Noiz ... 2017-12-06). «A Stretchable and Transparent Nanocomposite Nanogenerator for Self-Powered Physiological Monitoring» ACS Applied ... Virus-based piezoelectric energy generation» Nature Nanotechnology (6): 351-356 doi:10.1038/nnano.2012.69 ISSN 1748-3387 . Noiz ...
"Apoptosis induced by Oropouche virus infection in HeLa cells is dependent on virus protein expression". Virus Research. 149 (1 ... Boehm I (June 2006). "Apoptosis in physiological and pathological skin: implications for therapy". Current Molecular Medicine. ... In addition to its importance as a biological phenomenon, defective apoptotic processes have been implicated in a wide variety ... Many viruses encode proteins that can inhibit apoptosis.[103] Several viruses encode viral homologs of Bcl-2. These homologs ...
"Top Strip Club" lists in some media have demonstrated that U.S.-style striptease is a global phenomenon and that it has also ... There are many physiological responses during sexual activity, including a relaxed state created by prolactin, as well as ... More than 30 different bacteria, viruses, and parasites can be transmitted through sexual activity. Bacterial STIs include ... Sexual activity usually results in sexual arousal and physiological changes in the aroused person, some of which are pronounced ...
An initial link to the Epstein-Barr virus saw the illness acquire the name "chronic Epstein-Barr virus syndrome".[1]:29[80] ... "The Journal of Physiological Sciences. 65 (6): 483-498. doi:10.1007/s12576-015-0399-y. PMC 4621713 . PMID 26420687.. ... concluded that these were psychosocial phenomena caused by either mass hysteria on the part of the patients or altered medical ... "Absence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in UK patients with chronic fatigue syndrome". Retrovirology. 7 (1 ...
fingers turning white or blue when cold (Raynaud's phenomenon). Criteria for individual diagnosis. Some people, especially ... Thus triggers may include viruses, bacteria, allergens (IgE and other hypersensitivity), and can be aggravated by environmental ... studies show that social support is a modulating factor which buffers against SLE-related damage and maintains physiological ... Raynaud's phenomenon, and psychiatric symptoms. Males tend to have more seizures, kidney disease, serositis (inflammation of ...
"Virus Physiological Phenomena" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Virus Physiological Phenomena" was ... "Virus Physiological Phenomena" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Virus Physiological Phenomena" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Virus Physiological Phenomena". ...
Virus Physiological Phenomena* Substances * Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Grant support * Canadian Institutes of Health ... The specific NR(s) targeted by a particular virus are likely to be reflective of the tissue tropism of the virus in question. ... While the specific NRs targeted by these viruses vary, the strategies used to target them are common. This is accomplished at ... Due to these unique properties, diverse families of viruses have evolved strategies to exploit NRs in order to regulate ...
Although this may seem a straightforward task, it is complicated by the fact that large viruses do not represent a distinctive ... In this article we have attempted to describe some structural aspects of large viruses. ... Virus Physiological Phenomena * Viruses / chemistry* * Viruses / genetics * Viruses / ultrastructure* Substances * Viral ... notably herpes simplex virus (HSV) and phage T4. The two techniques used to provide rigorous analyses of virus structures are X ...
Virus Physiological Processes [G06.590.875]. *Virus Replication [G06.590.875.780]. *Virus Physiological Phenomena [G06.920] ... "Virus Replication" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Transcription Is Inhibited by TRIM69 in the Interferon-Induced Antiviral State. J Virol. 2019 12 15 ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Virus Replication" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by ...
Addiction is a complex phenomenon. Genetic, physiological, cultural and socioeconomic factors all appear to play a role. Now, ... But according to the CDC, pet rats can carry and pass along a type of hantavirus - the Seoul virus - that can make their owners ...
Physiological Phenomena [G07]. *Physiological Processes [G07.700]. *Virus Shedding [G07.700.915]. Below are MeSH descriptors ... The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal ... "Virus Shedding" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Virus Shedding" by people in this website by year, and whether ...
Virus Physiological Processes [G06.590.875]. *Virus Release [G06.590.875.776]. *Virus Physiological Phenomena [G06.920] ... Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS ... "Virus Release" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid p1 confers ESCRT pathway dependence. J Virol. 2010 Jul; 84(13):6590-7. ...
Bacterial Physiological Phenomena; *Virus Physiological Phenomena; Axonal Transport; Bacterial Toxins/*metabolism; Blood-Brain ... Some viruses and bacterial toxins interact with membrane receptors that are present at nerve terminals to enter the axoplasm. ... A hitchhikers guide to the nervous system: the complex journey of viruses and toxins. Salinas, S.; Schiavo, G.; Kremer, E. J. ... A hitchhikers guide to the nervous system: the complex journey of viruses and toxins. ...
Physiological insulin resistance (2); Dawn Phenomenon (1) * Physiological insulin resistance (3); Clarification of FBG (1) ... The knowledge of seasonality of corona-viruses is well known - despite the mantra. Where did the idea that this virus evolving ... The virus goes on vacation in the Summer. It gets to work in the Autumn. Its real now for you, youre playing catch up. This ... The virus goes on vacation in the Summer. It gets to work in the Autumn. . There are weird things about this that I dont ...
Life Science I examines the basic principles of biological phenomena. Cell structure, cell function, and cell division will be ... Next, students examine anatomical and physiological features of plants and animals. Additional topics covered will include ... At the end of the semester, morphology of protists, bacteria, and viruses will be examined. ...
Virus-host interaction is a complex phenomenon and often is virus- and host cell-specific. Exciting new insights into the ... Viruses can replicate very fast and may affect any metabolic and physiological function of the host cell. Therefore, it has ... hepatitis B virus, herpes virus, dengue virus and influenza virus infections. The majority of recent advances in antiviral drug ... hepatitis B virus, herpes virus, dengue virus and influenza virus infections. The majority of recent advances in antiviral drug ...
In psychology, this materialist theory aims to reduce all psychological phenomena to physiological laws of how the brain works ... It often proceeds by reducing complex phenomena to their more elementary chemical and physical components: viruses, genes, ...
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, a physiological phenomenon of the lungs. * Health Purchasing Victoria ... 99 percent of cervical cancers are caused by a virus called HPV virus," said Dr. Shahin. Like other viruses, there are hundreds ... 99 percent of cervical cancers are caused by a virus called HPV virus," said Dr. Shahin. Like other viruses, there are hundreds ... 99 percent of cervical cancers are caused by a virus called HPV virus," said Dr. Shahin. Like other viruses, there are hundreds ...
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, a physiological phenomenon of the lungs. * Health Purchasing Victoria ... Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection by certain types of human papillomavirus. Available ... However, human papilloma virus (HPV) indication is growing at the highest CAGR of 12.4% from 2017 to 2023, as it is the most ... The HPV vaccine is the best protection against the HPV virus and the cancers it causes. All boys and girls between 11 and 12 ...
... serum immunoconglutinin titers in patients with acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection may represent a physiological ... This may cause clonal expansion of the immunoglobulin secreting cells and may explain the above phenomenon. Alternately, the M ... Antibodies against hepatitis delta virus and hepatitis A virus were negative. HCV antibody was negative. Hepatitis C RNA was ... Ebstein Barr virus IgM was negative and IgG was positive. He had a negative antinuclear antibody and a negative antismooth ...
Exosome secretion by cells seems to be a physiological phenomenon that occurs spontaneously. In fact, in the early 1980s, ... Later, it became clear that small vesicles sized at approximately 100 nm (i.e., virus size) and carrying FasL were responsible ... Similar to other exosomes, TEX are involved in a broad variety of cellular functions and participate in physiological as well ... for apoptosis of activated, FAS-expressing T cells (8). Studies of this phenomenon using cultured tumor cells showed that these ...
Not a single visible phenomenon of cell-division gives even a remote suggestion of qualitative division. All the facts, on the ... Its purpose is, however, as obvious as its physiological explanation is difficult. It is the end of mitosis to divide every ... Virus Wind Power Women Scientists X-Rays Youth Zoology ... (more topics) ... Physiological (62) , Purpose (317) , Regard (304) , Scarcely (74) , Sense (770) , Substance (248) , System (537) , Tributary (3 ...
Courses in microbial genetics focus on the genetic phenomena and genetic changes in various microbes, such as bacteria or ... This often involves studying the molecular mechanisms for these changes, such as gene transfer and other physiological ... bacterial viruses. ...
Phenomena of interest which may be measured may be indicative of physiological or non-physiological processes, such as blood ... The sample could be a lysate of a virus or pathogenic organism in an appropriate aqueous medium, where the genomic ... Besides physiological fluids, other liquid samples may be employed where the component(s) of interest may be either liquids or ... Other phenomena which may be detected include changes in color, light absorption or transmission, fluorescence, change in ...
Developmental Biology, Issue 79, Eukaryota, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, C. elegans, cell culture, ... Importantly, the viral components of this systems are solely derived from Ebola virus and not from other viruses (as is, for ... Tetracistronic minigenomes, which consist of Ebola virus non-coding regions, a reporter gene, and three Ebola virus genes ... This study provides an excellent example that can be applied to other viruses to interrogate host-virus interaction. ...
Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years. ... Parainfluenza Virus 2, Human. A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as ... Dengue is caused by a virus transmitted from the bite of an infected mosquito. The purpose of this study is to und... ...
Virus Diseases, Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis, Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena, HIV ... Isolation of Fidelity Variants of RNA Viruses and Characterization of Virus Mutation Frequency ... RNA viruses use RNA dependent RNA polymerases to replicate their genomes. The intrinsically high error rate of these enzymes is ... We hypothesized this may be due to a reduced replication capacity of the virus. Here we present a novel method for assessing ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena [‎3]‎. Maternal-Child Nursing [‎1]‎. Mauritania [‎2]‎. Measles [‎17]‎. ...
Crow deaths were observed after West Nile virus (WNV) was introduced into North America, and this phenomenon has subsequently ... or by altering the physiological host responses such as fever. ... Assaying for Infectious Virus. Infectious virus was assayed by ... West Nile virus: epidemiology and ecology in North America. Adv Virus Res. 2003;61:185-234. DOIPubMed ... Protection against West Nile virus induced by a previous injection with dengue virus. Am J Epidemiol. 1971;94:596-607.PubMed ...
... and this phenomenon has subsequently been used to monitor the spread of the virus. To investigate potential differences in the ... Crow deaths were observed after West Nile virus (WNV) was introduced into North America, ... or by altering the physiological host responses such as fever. ... Assaying for Infectious Virus. Infectious virus was assayed by ... West Nile virus: epidemiology and ecology in North America. Adv Virus Res. 2003;61:185-234. DOIPubMed ...
RESULTS: Forty percent (6,341/15,985) of participants were positive for influenza viruses using virus isolation (2007-2009) and ... This phenomenon occurs with multiple strains of IAV, is dependent on influenza NS1 protein, and can be modulated by SUMOylation ... that ultimately cause global transcriptional downregulation of physiological transcripts, an effect influencing antiviral ... Heartland virus epidemiology, vector association, and disease potentialExternal. Brault AC, Savage HM, Duggal NK, Eisen RJ, ...
Semliki Forest virus (SFV), vaccinia], or promoter shut-off, a poorly understood phenomenon by which promoters within viral ... Physiological conditions at the site of gene transfer could thus further regulate transgene expression from viral vectors. ... Immune responses to viruses: Practical implications for the use of viruses as vectors for experimental and clinical gene ... Helper virus-free herpes simplex virus type 1 amplicon vectors for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-enhanced ...
1F), and respiratory syncytial virus (data not shown). Thus, we established that the observed phenomenon was true for infection ... To examine the physiological significance of our observation, we tested for apoptosis in two airway epithelial cell lines, A549 ... mumps virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs), and Newcastle disease virus (18). Sendai virus (SeV) is ... The hPIV3 virus was propagated in CV1 cells (22). Virus infections were carried out as described for Sendai virus with a ...
  • At the end of the semester, morphology of protists, bacteria, and viruses will be examined. (
  • Courses in microbial genetics focus on the genetic phenomena and genetic changes in various microbes, such as bacteria or bacterial viruses. (
  • Microbial contamination refers to the polluting of air, objects and soil by bacteria, parasites, viruses or fungi. (
  • The pathogenic microorganisms considered include bacteria, microbial eukaryotes, and viruses. (
  • This conclusion is in agreement with similar conclusions derived from non-pathogenic model species of bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses. (
  • The ecological impact of viruses on microbial food webs, however, may be influenced by evolutionary processes, including the ability of bacteria to evolve resistance to viruses and the theoretical prediction that this resistance should be accompanied by a fitness cost. (
  • Our study provides the first evidence for a COR in marine bacteria, and suggests that Synechococcus production may be influenced by the composition of co-occurring viruses. (
  • It is now clear that bacteria utilize the PAS for a number of biological reasons ( 7 ), a phenomenon that has recently been extended to viruses ( 21 , 24 ). (
  • The behavior of the filterable viruses in air and the longevity of the spores of bacteria, molds, and fungi, however, are only imperfectly understood. (
  • Barriers to infection act at multiple levels to prevent viruses, bacteria, and parasites from commandeering host cells for their own purposes. (
  • Interactions between invertebrates and their diverse pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, range from obligate parasitism to various associations that may result in disease. (
  • More specifically, infections due to viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites continue to create havoc and lead to a great morbidity which hinders development in resource-limited countries. (
  • He postulated that RNA tumour viruses made DNA copies which then integrated into host chromosomal DNA, analogous to integration of prophage in bacteria. (
  • Viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites as well as dangerous chemicals are all examples of antigens. (
  • Medical literature from the past 5 years shows more than 100 different causes of itching including infection with bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, and various other pathogens and parasites (Phillips 1992). (
  • Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES. (
  • There is evidence that they are Involved In the processes of cell division and growth, that they participate In the transmission of hereditary characters, and that they are important constituents of viruses. (
  • Biological psychology is concerned primarily with the relationship between psychological processes and the underlying physiological events-or, in other words, the mind-body phenomenon. (
  • Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES, including the interactions with the cells they infect. (
  • The sexual processes include bacterial transformation, eukaryotic meiotic sex and virus multiplicity reactivation. (
  • Owing to their small genome sizes, viruses lack the machinery for their replication and other processes and are mostly dependent on the host for these functions. (
  • Irritating fumes from chemical processes maybe not only offensive to the senses,but also cause physiological injury. (
  • The functions of proteins are vast and many, because they are virtually required for all cellular processes of normal physiological functioning. (
  • Carbohydrates in living cells and organisms are involved in various physiological and pathogenic processes through specific interactions with proteins. (
  • Our studies aim to provide novel insights into the basic mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation as well as its role in many physiological and pathological processes. (
  • These trVLPs can continuously infect cells expressing the Ebola virus proteins responsible for genome replication and transcription, allowing us to safely model multiple infectious cycles under biosafety level 2 conditions. (
  • Working with the components of mutants of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) he analysed the behaviour of their coat proteins. (
  • Zentralblatt 77, 1-49,1958 Sarkar, S.: Interaction and mixed aggregation of proteins from tobacco mosaic virus strains. (
  • Mutant viruses that do not encode these proteins are highly attenuated in vivo. (
  • The data in figure 1 are results from monkeys that were immunized with several doses of a recombinant attenuated vaccinia virus (modified vaccinia Ankara) that expresses many of the structural proteins of SIV. (
  • VirHostNet integrates an extensive and original literature-curated dataset of virus-virus and virus-host interactions (2671 non-redundant interactions) representing more than 180 distinct viral species and one of the largest human interactome (10,672 proteins and 68,252 non-redundant interactions) reconstructed from publicly available data. (
  • The present study was undertaken to study co-evolving amino acids in the non-structural proteins of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an important arbovirus. (
  • Viroporins are a group of transmembrane proteins with low molecular weight that are encoded by many animal viruses. (
  • Viroporins are a family of low-molecular weight hydrophobic transmembrane proteins encoded by animal viruses. (
  • By testing other CFTR mutants, G551D, D572N, and 1410X, we have shown this phenomenon is common to other misfolded proteins and not related to loss of CFTR activity. (
  • The presence of misfolded proteins did not affect cell surface attachment of virus or influence expression levels from promoter transgene cassettes in plasmid transfection studies, indicating exploitation occurs at the level of virion trafficking or processing. (
  • Endogenous retrovirus (ERV) genomes integrated into the chromosomal DNA of the host were first detected in chickens and mice as Mendelian determinants of Gag and Env proteins and of the release of infectious virus particles. (
  • Cells that surrounded the virus-infected cells showed translocation of β 4 subunit proteins to nuclei in response to spreading infection. (
  • As obligate parasites, viruses exploit host-cell machinery to glycosylate their own proteins during replication. (
  • Viral envelope proteins from a variety of human pathogens including HIV-1, influenza virus, Lassa virus, SARS, Zika virus, dengue virus, and Ebola virus have evolved to be extensively glycosylated. (
  • Some viruses and bacterial toxins interact with membrane receptors that are present at nerve terminals to enter the axoplasm. (
  • Lectin-dependent enhancement of Ebola virus infection via soluble and transmembrane C-type lectin receptors. (
  • The chemokines and their receptors constitute many important physiological functions in the human body. (
  • Discovering the phenomenon of oligomerization of the G-protein coupled receptors, increased the complexity in terms of functionality and dynamics significantly, amplifying both challenges and possibilities related to these receptors. (
  • Mavigner M, Zanoni M, Tharp GK, Habib J, Mattingly CR, Lichterfeld M, Nega MT, Vanderford TH, Bosinger SE, Chahroudi A. Pharmacological Modulation of the Wnt/ß-Catenin Pathway Inhibits Proliferation and Promotes Differentiation of Long-Lived Memory CD4+ T Cells in Antiretroviral Therapy-Suppressed Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques. (
  • Studies of this phenomenon using cultured tumor cells showed that these vesicles were produced in abundance and induced a variety of functional alterations in immune cells. (
  • Exosome secretion by cells seems to be a physiological phenomenon that occurs spontaneously. (
  • Cellwall-free protoplasts of plant cells (mainly of tobacco and Chinese cabbage) were infected with viruses or with their RNA with a high efficiency and used for physiological investigations. (
  • Vol.6, 435-456, Academic Press, New York, 1977 Matthews, R.E.F. & Sarkar, S.: A light-induced structural change in chloroplasts of Chinese cabbage cells infected with turnip yellow mosaic virus. (
  • Infection of several human cell lines with Sendai virus (SeV) or human parainfluenza virus 3, two prototypic paramyxoviruses, caused slow apoptosis, which was markedly accelerated upon blocking the action of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3 kinases) in the infected cells. (
  • But these outcomes as well as survival of the infected cells and the efficacy of virus replication are initially determined by host-virus interactions at the cellular level, a topic that can be experimentally addressed using cells in culture. (
  • Under some physiological or pathological conditions, cells will follow its own course to terminate its own life. (
  • The investigators found that the estrogen reduced the levels of flu virus in the cells from female donors, but not male donors. (
  • Animals that were previously infected with 1 B clade strain were protected to various degrees against challenge with a second B clade strain [46], but the superinfecting virus always infects, as evidenced when sensitive methods are used to detect its genome in peripheral blood cells [46, 47]. (
  • Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. (
  • The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. (
  • How Viruses Invade Cells. (
  • Identification of a 39,000-dalton protein in cells transformed by the FBJ murine osteosarcoma virus. (
  • Viroporins are involved in destroying the morphology of host cells and disturbing their biological functions to complete the life cycle of the virus. (
  • As a consequence of long-term evolution, animal viruses have acquired the ability to damage the normal physiological functions of their host cells after infection to ensure their replication and the completion of their life cycles. (
  • Currently, viroporins are important in promoting virus replication and in disrupting the electrochemical equilibrium in host cells. (
  • In addition, other studies have demonstrated that viroporins are involved in destroying the shape of host cells and in disturbing their normal physiological functions to ensure completion of the entire viral life cycle. (
  • HIV-1 infects T cells through an envelope protein called gp120, which binds to CD4 on the target cell, in addition to CCR5, CXCR4 or both, depending on the strain of the virus in question. (
  • Integration of viral DNA into host DNA was first discerned for the prophage of the temperate bacteriophage lambda by Andre Lwoff in 1950 and for the simian DNA virus SV40 in cultured mammalian cells in 1968 [ 8 ]. (
  • In cells overexpressing the β 4 subunit, dengue virus replication was inhibited. (
  • β 4 subunit abundance was increased, and it translocated to the nucleus, in cells treated with IFN-β, infected with dengue virus (DENV), or transfected with poly(I:C), a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA. (
  • Lindahl's early research focused initially on two topics, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and spontaneous DNA damage that originated endogenously (within cells). (
  • CRISPR-Cas9 Genetic Analysis of Virus-Host Interactions. (
  • Exciting new insights into the molecular pathogenesis and host-virus interactions have been gained over the past few decades. (
  • Methods: The literature related to various aspects of virus-host interactions: new insights and advances in drug development was collected from several scientific research related databases such as Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, AGRICOLA, and Medline, etc. (
  • Lastly, the antimicrobial protection hypothesis provides insight into a potential physiological role for Aβ peptides , but how Aβ/microbial interactions affect AD pathogenesis during aging awaits further validation. (
  • Towards this goal, deciphering virus-host molecular interactions opens new perspectives to understand the biology of infection and for the design of new antiviral strategies. (
  • Virus-virus, virus-host and host-host protein-protein interactions were integrated from 10 external public databases. (
  • Virus-Virus and Virus-Host protein-protein interactions were also extracted from literature (Literature Curated Interactions) and curated from databases (Database Curated Interactions). (
  • A ) In each Baltimore group (dsDNA, ssDNA, dsRNA, ssRNA−, ssRNA+, retro transcribed), for each viral family, the number of virus-host protein-protein interactions (ppi) and the associated number of viral (v) and host cellular protein (h) interactors, the number of virus-virus protein-protein interactions (ppi) and the associated number of viral (v) interactors are given. (
  • As a result, studies of carbohydrate-protein interactions not only provide valuable information for the understanding of biological phenomena. (
  • We are broadly interested in post-transcriptional gene regulation and its role in stem cell biology and in virus-host interactions. (
  • 3. mRNA 3' processing regulation in virus-host interactions. (
  • Due to these unique properties, diverse families of viruses have evolved strategies to exploit NRs in order to regulate expression of their own genes and to optimize the cellular milieu to facilitate the viral lifecycle. (
  • Tetracistronic minigenomes, which consist of Ebola virus non-coding regions, a reporter gene, and three Ebola virus genes involved in morphogenesis, budding, and entry (VP40, GP 1,2 , and VP24), can be used to produce replication and transcription-competent virus-like particles (trVLPs) containing these minigenomes. (
  • Conversely, many host genes have been incorporated into large DNA viruses, such as herpesviuses and poxviruses, as well as oncogene-bearing retroviruses. (
  • Interestingly, the transcripts of ~70% of genes in all eukaryotes have alternative 3' ends that are formed by cleavage/polyadenylation at different sites, a phenomenon called mRNA alternative polyadenylation (APA). (
  • Given their limited genome capacities, viruses often suppress host gene expression and hijack the host cell factors for expressing viral genes. (
  • Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes genes to be expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. (
  • The majority of recent advances in antiviral drug discovery were possible due to the developments in allied fields such as in vitro virus cultivation technology, molecular biology of viral-genome-encoded enzymes, complete-genome-sequence-based studies of viruses and identification of suitable targets for antiviral drugs in viral genomes. (
  • Although Lindahl was intrigued by the findings, he was more impressed by the phenomenon of endogenous DNA damage, which introduces thousands of potentially mutagenic lesions into a single mammalian genome each day. (
  • Regulation of Positive-Strand Accumulation by Capsid Protein During Brome mosaic virus Infection In Planta. (
  • Adv. in Protein Chemistry 18, 37-121, 1963) Sarkar, S.: Relative infectivity of tobacco mosaic virus and its nucleic acid. (
  • 33, 435-446, 1976 Sarkar, S.& Smitamana, P.: A truly coat-protein-free mutant of tobacco mosaic virus. (
  • Naturwissenschaften 68, 145-147, 1981 Sarkar, S. & Smitamana, P.: A proteinless mutant of tobacco mosaic virus: Evidence against the role of a viral coat protein for interference. (
  • The first lentiviral vectors were derived from human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) but were pseudotyped by using the envelope glycoproteins from other viruses such as the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G), a fusion protein used to improve infection efficiency. (
  • When IRF-3 was absent or its activation by the RIG-I pathway was blocked, SeV established persistent infection, as documented by viral protein production and infectious virus production. (
  • Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 blocks fusion of sensitive but not resistant viruses by partitioning into virus-carrying endosomes. (
  • BLAST and IPI cross-reference databases were used to link protein interactor identification numbers to NCBI (viruses) and ENSEMBL protein accession numbers ( e ! (
  • Virus-virus and virus-host protein-protein interaction methods summary. (
  • What is the physiological function of amyloid-beta protein? (
  • Insights into the physiological function of the ß-amyloid precursor protein: Beyond Alzheimer's disease. (
  • In order to perform their functions, viruses have mastered motif mimicry based hijacking strategy wherein small motifs of the virus mimic host protein motifs. (
  • viruses virus, parasite with a noncellular structure composed mainly of nucleic acid within a protein coat. (
  • 24. The animal of claim 19, wherein the G protein of the vesicular stomatitis virus is replaced with an envelope protein of a virus other than VSV. (
  • 25. The animal model of claim 20, wherein the G protein of the vesicular stomatitis virus is replaced with an envelope protein of Ebola or Hepatitis C virus. (
  • In this review, we summarize the virus infection mechanisms by introducing the topology of enterovirus non-structural protein 2B and its biological features as a viroporin to provide new ideas for studying and developing novel antiviral intervention methods and drugs. (
  • In this case, the University of Arizona researchers' model might suggest that upon infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the spike protein on the coat of the virus would inhibit the pain response and allow for them to go about their day normally, while infecting other individuals. (
  • Rapose A. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection: prolonged viral shedding and the role of corticosteroids. (
  • Using model infection systems with pseudotyped and authentic glycosylated viruses, we demonstrated that MBL indeed enhances infection of Ebola, Hendra, Nipah and West Nile viruses in low complement conditions. (
  • Mechanistic studies with Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviruses confirmed that MBL binds to N-linked glycan epitopes on viral surfaces in a specific manner via the MBL carbohydrate recognition domain, which is necessary for enhanced infection. (
  • HPV is human papillomavirus, a virus which causes human papillomavirus infection (HPV infection). (
  • Here, we report that specific manipulations of the cellular response to virus infection can cause prevention of apoptosis and consequent establishment of persistent infection. (
  • Although virus infection activated PI3 kinase, as indicated by AKT activation, its blockage did not inhibit JNK activation or IRF-3 activation. (
  • The host response to virus infection is a complex process. (
  • Thus, both the virus and the cell are equally important partners in determining the fate of infection at the cellular level. (
  • Although infection of the central nervous system by pathogens such as viruses may increase AD risk, it is yet to be determined whether this phenomenon is applicable to all cases of sporadic AD and whether it is a primary trigger for AD onset. (
  • Interestingly, the zoochlorellae are resistant to virus infection when they exist as endosymbionts, because the viruses are excluded from the paramecium host. (
  • Cell-cell contact promotes Ebola virus GP-mediated infection. (
  • It is induced by infection with a transforming virus. (
  • Ultrastructural changes in alveolar macrophages (AM) in the lungs of mice were examined at intervals from 0 to 24 hr after aerosol infection with Staphylococcus aureus and compared to the phagocytic events in lungs exposed to Sendai virus 7 days earlier. (
  • More specifically, the present invention provides a disease model of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus infection with C. elegans and methods for studying disease phenomenon. (
  • Here we have used models of cystic fibrosis (CF) to test whether subcellular stress increases susceptibility to adeno-associated virus (AAV) infection. (
  • Most of these viruses were originally discovered in honey bees, either through symptoms or diseases associated with infection. (
  • For small DNA tumour viruses, the full replication cycle occurs via non-integrated circular viral genomes, whereas viral integration into host DNA usually leads to abortive infection and sometimes to cell transformation. (
  • found that β 4 abundance and nuclear localization were increased in a cardiac cell line in response to treatment with type I interferon (IFN) or infection with dengue virus. (
  • There is a reason why people sweat when they are sick with an infection or virus, this is known as fever. (
  • This a physiological process that does not lead to disease: "portal vein endotoxinemia of gut origin in minute amounts is a normal physiological phenomenon", and "the mesenteric lymph node is the most reliable site to culture for the purposes of monitoring bacterial translocation" (2) . (
  • For phage therapy-the treatment of bacterial infections using bacterial viruses-a key issue is the conflict between apparent ease of clinical application, on the one hand, and on the other hand, numerous difficulties that can be associated with undertaking preclinical development. (
  • There was no apparent alteration in the process of bacterial ingestion in macrophages from the 2 experimental groups, but bacterial degradation was rarely observed within phagosomes of macrophages from virus-treated mice at any of the time intervals studied. (
  • Differential counts indicated a decrease in the percent of AM in virus-treated groups following bacterial challenge. (
  • Satyabrata Sarkar, (born 1928 in Uttarpara near Calcutta), is a scientist, investigating physiological phenomena in plants and then studying the structure and function of plant-pathogenic viruses in the Max-Planck-Institute for Biology in Tübingen and at the University of Hohenheim in Germany. (
  • Disease is almost always the result of poor husbandry and environment coupled with the onslaught of a pathogenic agent - microbe, virus or parasite. (
  • Background: Viruses are the most devastating pathogens of almost all life forms including humans and animals. (
  • The Paramyxoviridae includes major human and animal pathogens, such as measles virus, mumps virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs), and Newcastle disease virus ( 18 ). (
  • We demonstrate that the combination of heat and humidity inactivates a range of RNA viruses, including both viral pathogens and common viral pathogen surrogates, after deposition on N95 respirators and achieves the necessary virus inactivation detailed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines to validate N95 respirator decontamination technologies. (
  • It is an important biological phenomenon in multicellular organisms, appearing not only in ontogenetic process but also in normal physiology or disease. (
  • That was the year that Peyton Rous was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology for the isolation of his eponymous virus published in 1911, representing a record 55 year incubation period between reporting a discovery and the award [ 6 ]. (
  • Gen. Genetics 103, 244-247, 1968 Sarkar, S.: Use of protoplasts for plant virus studies. (
  • Pearson HA, Peers C. Physiological roles for amyloid ß peptides. (
  • Thus, the essential role played by NRs in the replication cycles of such diverse viruses underscores the importance of understanding their functions in the context of specific infections. (
  • Although this may seem a straightforward task, it is complicated by the fact that large viruses do not represent a distinctive class of organisms and any grouping under this heading will include a range of unrelated viruses with different structures, replication strategies, and host types. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Virus Replication" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Virus Replication" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Virus Replication" by people in Profiles. (
  • Burton EM, Goldbach-Mansky R, Bhaduri-McIntosh S. A promiscuous inflammasome sparks replication of a common tumor virus. (
  • CCR5 receptor antagonism inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in vitro. (
  • The recognition of the importance of Rous's discovery after such a long delay was largely owing to the cell transformation assay in monolayer culture of chick embryo fibroblasts reported by Temin & Rubin [ 7 ] in 1958 which enabled quantitative experimental studies of virus replication and cell transformation. (
  • We are investigating how viruses target mRNA 3' processing and the functional significance of this inhibition on viral replication. (
  • Soucek et al ( 8 ) have suggested that a physiological effect of Aβ during aging is neuroprotection, secondary to its ability to induce hypoxia inducible factor-1α. (
  • However, iNOS has many physiological functions [ 8 ] and may induce ischemic tolerance in the brain [ 9 - 11 ]. (
  • Other physiological states that can induce hyperhidrosis are obesity, excessive heat and fever. (
  • Annexin A2 extracellular translocation and virus interaction: A potential target for antivirus-drug discovery. (
  • This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane. (
  • Therefore, all that is psychological is first physiological. (
  • But when just the right physiological, psychological, and social factors come together, we get what Kravetz calls a "strange contagion": a perfect storm of highly common social viruses that, combined, form a highly volatile condition. (
  • There are no approved vaccines or specific treatments for the disease caused by these viruses, and work with infectious Ebola viruses is restricted to biosafety level 4 laboratories, significantly limiting the research on these viruses. (
  • Therefore, the tetracistronic trVLP assay represents the most comprehensive lifecycle modeling system available for Ebola viruses, and has tremendous potential for use in investigating the biology of Ebola viruses in future. (
  • Induction of Cell-Cell Fusion by Ebola Virus Glycoprotein: Low pH Is Not a Trigger. (
  • He remained at the institute until 1978, when he went to the University of Gothenburg, where he served as a professor of medical and physiological chemistry . (
  • Since the discovery of the typical CRISPR loci in the 1980s, well before their physiological role was revealed, their variable sequences have been used as a complementary typing tool in diagnostic, epidemiologic, and evolutionary analyses of prokaryotic strains. (
  • In recent past, several new antiviral drugs have been developed, which have high therapeutic effectiveness against life-threatening viral diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B virus, herpes virus, dengue virus and influenza virus infections. (
  • A closely related virus that circulates in Australia (Kunjin [KUN]) has never been associated with outbreaks of human or animal diseases, including bird diseases, nor have bird deaths been reported from enzootic transmission foci in Africa, where a virus that shares 96.5% nucleotide identity with the NY99 strain has previously been isolated ( 16 , 17 ). (
  • In particular, we provide comprehensive review of either completed or ongoing clinical trials using MSCs for virus-associated diseases focusing on HIV, hepatitis B virus and COVID-19 virus. (
  • The latter involve mechanical and physiological injuries caused by chemicals, nutritional disturbances, inherited abnormalities (genetic diseases), tumors, predation, and the actions of other invertebrates. (
  • Food webs are replete with similar symbiotic organisms, and we suspect the predator catalyst mechanism is capable of generating blooms for other endosymbiont-targeting viruses. (
  • Finally, the research potential of in vivo (host organisms) and in vitro (cell lines) serial passages of bee viruses is discussed, from the perspective of the host-virus landscape changes and potential transmission routes for emerging bee virus infections. (
  • This often involves studying the molecular mechanisms for these changes, such as gene transfer and other physiological activities. (
  • Molecular subtype of infectious bronchitis virus in broiler flocks in Jordan. (
  • FBJ murine osteosarcoma virus: identification and molecular cloning of biologically active proviral DNA. (
  • Once attached, they impart molecular messages that can dramatically impact our physiological functioning at the cellular and systemic levels. (
  • Overall, our data set can inform the design and validation of effective heat-based decontamination strategies for N95 respirators and other porous surfaces, especially for emerging viruses that may be of immediate and future public health concern.IMPORTANCE Shortages of personal protective equipment, including N95 respirators, during the coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have highlighted the need to develop effective decontamination strategies for their reuse. (
  • We exposed four virus surrogates across a range of structures and phylogenies, including two bacteriophages (MS2 and phi6), a mouse coronavirus (murine hepatitis virus [MHV]), and a recombinant human influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (IAV), to heat treatment for 30 min in multiple deposition solutions across several temperatures and relative humidities (RHs). (
  • Phase I trial of intranasal and endobronchial administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2)-CFTR vector in adult cystic fibrosis patients: a two-part clinical study. (
  • Favre D, Provost N, Blouin V, Blancho G, Chérel Y, Salvetti A, Moullier P. Immediate and long-term safety of recombinant adeno-associated virus injection into the nonhuman primate muscle. (
  • Owing to their abundance and diversity, it is generally perceived that viruses are important for structuring microbial communities and regulating biogeochemical cycles. (
  • Genetic, physiological, cultural and socioeconomic factors all appear to play a role. (
  • Meta- and Orthogonal Integration of Influenza "OMICs" Data Defines a Role for UBR4 in Virus Budding. (
  • His studies on the physiological background of the mechanism of flowering of higher plants revealed some interaction between the role of vernalisation (mainly cold treatment) and the direct effect of the plant hormone Gibberellic acid. (
  • In conclusion, this editorial argues that the physiological role of Aβ is to improve memory ( Figure 1 ), and it is only when Aβ levels are markedly increased that they result in dementia as predicted by the "Amyloid Hypothesis. (
  • This work provides strong support for the physiological role that cross priming plays in normal cell-mediated immune responses. (
  • As the focus of research increasingly falls upon the physiological role of mitophagy within the cell, it is important to consider the wider meaning of results obtained to date in order to better understand the physiological role of mitophagy. (
  • That is because the virus is highly dependent on its natural host, humans, and there aren't good models to study the effect of the virus in relation to the disease. (
  • Viruses can replicate very fast and may affect any metabolic and physiological function of the host cell. (
  • Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Transcription Is Inhibited by TRIM69 in the Interferon-Induced Antiviral State. (
  • In a preferred embodiment the animal model is C. elegans and the animal virus is vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). (
  • 19. An animal model for studying disease mechanisms comprising C. elegans infected with vesicular stomatitis virus. (
  • Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL). (
  • Fatigue is a normal phenomenon as well as being associated with almost all chronic disease states. (
  • In particular, the present invention provides a nonhuman animal model system for studying disease mechanisms wherein the nonhuman animal model is infected with an animal virus. (
  • 18. An animal model for studying disease mechanisms comprising C. elegans infected with an animal virus. (
  • Although we know the basic biology of the virus that causes AIDS (HIV-1), our information on how the virus causes the disease is limited. (
  • viruses are that disease is the direct consequence of the work of some outside agent, be it germ or virus. (
  • This is particularly important in health care settings for reducing exposure to respiratory viruses, like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19. (
  • Doctors say they too are seeing many more patients with hair loss, a phenomenon they believe is indeed related to the coronavirus pandemic, affecting both people who had the virus and those who never became sick. (
  • Addiction is a complex phenomenon. (
  • Virus-host interaction is a complex phenomenon and often is virus- and host cell-specific. (
  • Dengue is caused by a virus transmitted from the bite of an infected mosquito. (
  • Environmental factors affecting the transmission of respiratory viruses. (
  • Illness severity, viral shedding, and antibody responses in infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus. (
  • Another competing hypothesis could be that by blocking VEGF-A signaling, the virus dampens the immune system to allow for more efficient invasion of tissue. (
  • Virus Physiological Phenomena" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Virus Release" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV ) is a group of common viruses that cause infections in both men and women. (
  • Furthermore, in phase II trials, there has been little difference between virus loads for immunized and control subjects among vaccinees undergoing breakthrough infections [13, 14]. (
  • Among these infections, HIV, Treponema pallidum , T. gondii , the rubella virus and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 need a rigorous monitoring. (
  • TRIM23 mediates virus-induced autophagy via activation of TBK1. (
  • Its occurrence is a normal biological phenomenon, and it has been recognized as a balancing factor in nature. (
  • I first came across an endogenous factor which functionally complemented env -defective Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) during my doctoral studies in 1966. (
  • There is little evidence yet of endogenous versions of delta-retroviruses related to human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and bovine leukosis virus. (
  • Key elements of this unique prokaryotic defense system are small CRISPR RNAs that guide nucleases to complementary target nucleic acids of invading viruses and plasmids, generally followed by the degradation of the invader. (