Relating to the size of solids.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Viruses that produce tumors.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A cytosolic ribonucleoprotein complex that acts to induce elongation arrest of nascent presecretory and membrane proteins until the ribosome becomes associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It consists of a 7S RNA and at least six polypeptide subunits (relative molecular masses 9, 14, 19, 54, 68, and 72K).
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Genus of non-oncogenic retroviruses which establish persistent infections in many animal species but are considered non-pathogenic. Its species have been isolated from primates (including humans), cattle, cats, hamsters, horses, and sea lions. Spumaviruses have a foamy or lace-like appearance and are often accompanied by syncytium formation. SIMIAN FOAMY VIRUS is the type species.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Virus particles are non-enveloped. The nucleocapsid is 38 nanometers (nm) long and 15-22 nm in diameter. While particles have ... virus Rose leaf curl virus Sauropus leaf curl virus Senecio yellow mosaic virus Senna leaf curl virus Sida angular mosaic virus ... virus Jatropha mosaic Nigeria virus Jatropha mosaic virus Jatropha yellow mosaic virus Kudzu mosaic virus Leonurus mosaic virus ... Abutilon golden mosaic virus Abutilon mosaic Bolivia virus Abutilon mosaic Brazil virus Abutilon mosaic virus African cassava ...
Particles of clay and silt. Pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa and their cysts. (waterborne diseases) Salt, which makes ... Turbidity is how murky or hazy water seems due to suspended particles. The more suspended particles, the higher the turbidity. ... and screens and other devices are needed to catch suspended particles. Screens that trap particles and debris must be cleaned ... Raw water is water found in the environment that has not been treated and does not have any of its minerals, ions, particles, ...
Maxmen, A. (2010). "Virus-like particles speed bacterial evolution". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2010.507. Imhoff JF (2015). " ...
"Virus particles in early mouse embryos." Journal National Cancer Institute 51 (1973): 1041-1050. Print. Lewandowski, L.J., F.S ... "Interactions of early mouse embryos with oncogenic viruses-Simian virus 40 and polyoma. I. Ultrastructural studies." Journal ... "Virus particles in early mouse embryos" is still being cited 40 years later, according to Web of Science. Warner, J., M.M. ... "Analysis of a viral agent isolated from multiple sclerosis (MS) brain tissue: Characterization as a parainfluenza virus type I ...
Fine Particle POLLUTION. Figure 1. (tobacco smoke: 10 to 1000 nm; virus particles: 3 to 50 nm; bacteria: 30 to 30000 nm; ... 50 nm - upper size for airborne virus particles 50 nm - flying height of the head of a hard disk 65 nm - the average half-pitch ... greatest particle size that can fit through a ULPA filter[citation needed] 120 nm - diameter of a human immunodeficiency virus ... greatest particle size that can fit through a surgical mask 100 nm - 90% of particles in wood smoke are smaller than this.[ ...
"Cancer Cells Yield Virus-Like Particles". New York Times. 10 September 1971. p. 18. Harven, E.; Soligo, D.; Christensen, H. ( ... While at Sloan-Kettering, de Harven was part of a team which discovered "virus-like particles" in cells taken from patients ... De Tkaczevski, L; De Harven, E; Friend, C (1968). "Structure and leukemogenic activity of a murine leukemia virus". Journal of ... Tumour Viruses of Murine Origin. Novartis Foundation Symposia. pp. 193-213. doi:10.1002/9780470719275.ch10. ISBN 978-0-470- ...
... a three way dance for infectious particle production". Viruses. 6 (8): 3019-3054. doi:10.3390/v6083019. PMC 4147685. PMID ... Humans are the only natural host of the mumps virus, an RNA virus in the family Paramyxoviridae. The virus is primarily ... Infection of the lymph nodes leads to presence of the virus in blood, which spreads the virus throughout the body. Mumps ... Asymptomatic carriers of the mump virus can also transmit the virus. These factors are thought to be reasons why controlling ...
ISBN 978-94-007-2919-3. Maxmen A (2010). "Virus-like particles speed bacterial evolution". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2010.507. ... The virus called Mimivirus infects amoebae. Another virus, called Sputnik, also infects amoebae, but it cannot reproduce unless ... This suggests that the satellite virus could perform horizontal gene transfer between viruses, paralleling the way that ... perhaps cannibalized by the tiny virus as it packaged up particles sometime in its history. ...
... these virus particles often organized themselves into highly ordered arrays. Rod-shaped particles in the tobacco mosaic virus ... Modes of Aggregation of the Virus Particles". The Journal of General Physiology. 25 (1): 111-46. doi:10.1085/jgp.25.1.111. PMC ... while a body-centered cubic structure was formed from the almost spherical particles in the tomato Bushy Stunt Virus. In 1957, ... the authors deduced the face-centered cubic close-packing of virus particles. This type of ordered array has also been observed ...
"Virus particles set to help fight cancer , Health Research Council". Sarah Young on Twitter Sarah Young ... "Cross‐presentation of epitopes on virus‐like particles via the MHC I receptor recycling pathway." Immunology and cell biology ...
Virus particles are either bacilliform or isometric. The type of nucleocapsid incorporated into the virus structure determines ... Banana streak OL virus, Banana streak GF virus, Banana streak IM virus) and Nicotiana edwardsonii (Tobacco vein clearing virus ... Isometric particles are on average 45-50 nm in diameter and show icosahedral symmetry. The genomes of viruses from this family ... viruses that contain a reverse transcription stage in their replication cycle. This family contains all plant viruses with a ...
Tubular virus particles such as the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) can be used as templates to create nanofibers and nanotubes, ... Mineralized virus particles have been shown to withstand various pH values by mineralizing the viruses with different materials ... Most viruses have an outer capsule 20 to 300 nm in diameter. Virus capsules are remarkably robust and capable of withstanding ... Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark (June 1999). "Virus Particles as Templates for Materials Synthesis". Advanced Materials. 11 (8): ...
Each blister contains infectious virus particles (virions). Close contact, particularly abrasive contact as found in contact ... Infection with either type of the HSV viruses occurs in the following way: First, the virus comes in contact with damaged skin ... Herpes gladiatorum is a skin infection primarily caused by the herpes simplex virus. The virus infects the cells in the ... The virus moves to the nerve cells from where it can reactivate. Once the condition has recurred, it is normally a mild ...
Pisi A, Bellardi ME, Bernicchia A (1988). "Virus-like particles in Boletus edulis Bull. ex Fr. in Italy" (PDF). Phytopathologia ... ISBN 978-0-231-05695-3. Huttinga H, Wichers HJ, Dieleman van Zaayen A (1975). "Filamentous and polyhedral virus-like particle ... An unidentified species of virus was reported to have infected specimens found in the Netherlands and in Italy; fruit bodies ... affected by the virus had relatively thick stems and small or no caps, leading to the name "little-cap disease". Boletus edulis ...
Johnson JE, Chiu W (April 2000). "Structures of virus and virus-like particles". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 10 (2 ... In prokaryotes (see nucleoids) and viruses, the DNA is often densely packed and organized; in the case of archaea, by homology ...
After maturation of virus particles, the cell is lysed by lysins, holins, or a combination of the two. Because of the lack of ... The virus particles have a distinct shape; each virion has an icosahedral head that contains the viral genome, and is attached ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 3 May 2020. ... Maniloff, J.; Ackermann, H.W. (1998). "Taxonomy of bacterial viruses: establishment of tailed virus genera and the other ...
Epstein, M.A; Achong, B.G; Barr, Y.M (1964). "Virus Particles in Cultured Lymphoblasts from Burkitt's Lymphoma". The Lancet. ... Crawford, Dorothy H.; Rickinson, Alan; Johannessen, Ingólfur (2014-02-01). Cancer Virus: The Story of Epstein-Barr Virus. OUP ... He is best known for co-discovering the Epstein-Barr virus through use of electron microscopy. Achong was born in Trinidad and ... They published the discovery of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in The Lancet on 28 March 1964. Achong's role in the discovery of ...
Epstein MA, Achong BG, Barr YM (March 1964). "Virus Particles in Cultured Lymphoblasts from Burkitt's Lymphoma". Lancet. 1 ( ... In 1968 Michael A. Epstein, Bert Achong, and Yvonne Barr identified the first human cancer virus, called the Epstein-Barr virus ...
Virus particles enter the cell and uncoating occurs. The viral DNA is transported to the host cell nucleus, where it is ... Some of the viruses also have an outer envelope. The presence or absence of an envelope depends on whether they budded from the ... Packaging of the new genomes into virions occurs in the cytoplasm and the virus is released either by budding from the cell ... Iridoviridae is a family of viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes. Amphibians, fish, and invertebrates such as arthropods ...
Epstein, M. A.; Achong, B. G.; Barr, Y. M. (1964-03-28). "Virus particles in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt's lymphoma". ... March 28 - The Epstein-Barr virus is first described, by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in London. June 27 - Iain ... Guralnik, G. S.; Hagen, C. R.; Kibble, T. W. B. (1964). "Global Conservation Laws and Massless Particles". Physical Review ... Bjørken, B. J.; Glashow, S. L. (1964). "Elementary particles and SU(4)". Physics Letters. 11 (3): 255-257. Bibcode:1964PhL.... ...
Another strategy used by parasitoid Hymenoptera to protect their offspring is production of virus-like particles. VLPs are ... and the virus. The full genome of the virus is endogenous, dispersed among the genome of the wasp. The virus only replicates in ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export. Parasitoid wasps serve as hosts for the virus, and Lepidoptera serve as ... The female wasp injects one or more eggs into its host along with a quantity of virus. The virus and wasp are in a mutualistic ...
"Flushing toilets create clouds of virus-containing particles". Retrieved 4 July 2020. Li, Yun-yun (李云云); Wang, Ji- ... "Virus has multiple pathways into cells, Moderna vaccine clears safety hurdle in mouse study". Reuters. 12 June 2020. Retrieved ... Experts note that false test results or "reactivation" of the virus could also have caused these results. In May 2020 the Korea ... As of 18 May 2020, an official UN investigation into the origins of the COVID-19 virus, supported by over 120 countries, was ...
There is no evidence that these virus-like particles are the products of viral DNA as described in other parasitoid taxa. L. ... The venom released by L. heterotoma during oviposition contains virus-like particles that delay host larval development and ... Rizki, R. M.; Rizki, T. M. (1990). "Parasitoid virus-like particles destroy Drosophila cellular immunity". Proceedings of the ... "When parasitic wasps hijacked viruses: genomic and functional evolution of polydnaviruses". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 368 (1626 ...
Virus particles can range between 70-80 nm. Morphologically, the virus is a double stranded RNA virus that is composed of ten ... Disregarding infectivity, the number of inoculated virus particles is the significant factor that leads to apoptosis from avian ... infectious bursal disease virus, and chicken anemia virus. Avian reoviruses are also typically resistant to certain ... Virus neutralization identifies type-specific antibodies, which allows for differentiation between strains of viruses through ...
The virus is known to infect humans in natural settings. The virus particle is generally spherical with some filamentous forms ... as well as the species or strains Araguari virus, Aransas Bay virus (ABV), Bourbon virus, Jos virus (JOSV) and Upolu virus ( ... 2008), "[Isolation of influenza virus A (Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus), Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus), ... The virus particle is spherical or ovoid, with a range of sizes, from 75 nm × 85 nm to 120 nm × 140 nm. The genome has six RNA ...
Particle deposition. Notes[edit]. *^ a b c d e Osada, Y., Nakagawa, T., Membrane Science and Technology, New York: Marcel ... bacteria, macromolecules, proteins, larger viruses 2-1 nm. 0.1-5 kDa. nanofiltration. 3-20 bar. viruses, 2- valent ions[5] ... Membrane fouling and particle retention in a feed solution also builds up a concentration gradients and particle back flow ( ... Another testing method is the filtration of particles with defined size and their measurement with a particle sizer or by laser ...
These particles play an important role in influenza A virus replication. The influenza viral genome is composed of eight ... Virus genomes (either DNA or RNA) are extremely tightly packed into the viral capsid. Many viruses are therefore little more ... Baudin, F; Bach, C; Cusack, S; Ruigrok, R W (1994-07-01). "Structure of influenza virus RNP. I. Influenza virus nucleoprotein ... Play media 'RNP' can also refer to ribonucleoprotein particles. Ribonucleoprotein particles are distinct intracellular foci for ...
... "a vial of virus". Individual, physical particles are called "virions" or "virus particles". There are three plural forms of ... Similarly, the spellchecker built into the Mozilla Firefox browser accepts viruses but neither viri nor virii. Usage of virii ... the non-standard viri form (sometimes even virii) was well attested, generally in the context of computer viruses. Viri is also ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...
They replicate via structures called virus-like particles (VLPs). VLPs are not infectious like normal virions, but they ... Penicillium camemberti virus - GP1 Phaseolus vulgaris Tpv2-6 virus The genome of viruses from this family is unsegmented, -RT, ... Pseudoviridae is a family of viruses, which currently includes three genera. Viruses of the family are actually LTR ... June 2018). "Ortervirales: New Virus Order Unifying Five Families of Reverse-Transcribing Viruses". Journal of Virology. 92 (12 ...
The virus exits the host cell by nuclear egress, and budding. Birds, galliform birds, psittacine birds, chickens, turkeys, and ... Transmission routes are contact, contamination, and air borne particles. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. " ... Iltovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. ... The genus consists of the following two species: Gallid alphaherpesvirus 1 Psittacid alphaherpesvirus 1 Viruses in Iltovirus ...
Lee PP, Linial ML (1994). "Efficient particle formation can occur if the matrix domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... 1996). "Complete inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus Gag myristoylation is necessary for inhibition of particle budding ... 1990). "Myristoylation of gag proteins of HIV-1 plays an important role in virus assembly". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 6 (6 ... Tashiro A, Shoji S, Kubota Y (1990). "Antimyristoylation of the gag proteins in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells ...
J. S. Widada, J. R. Bonami: Characteristics of the monocistronic genome of extra small virus, a virus-like particle associated ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ...
... "the continued movement of the particles of earth". Even earlier, in 1768 John Bruckner described nature as "one continued web ... and from viruses and bdellovibrio to blue whales. ... "the continued movement of the particles of earth". Even earlier ...
There is a correlation between the size and density of a particle and the rate that the particle separates from a heterogeneous ... He discovered this when working with potato yellow-dwarf virus.[7]. This method was also used in Meselson and Stahl's famous ... has particles in order of density based on height. The object or particle of interest will reside in the position within the ... The particles' settling velocity in centrifugation is a function of their size and shape, centrifugal acceleration, the volume ...
The mature progeny particles then infect other cells to repeat the cycle. The genetics of the Ebola virus are difficult to ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
high-density lipoprotein particle. • extracellular region. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle. Biological process. • lipid ... "Large-scale candidate gene analysis of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus". J. Infect. Dis. 201 (9): 1371-80. doi ... very-low-density lipoprotein particle assembly. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle clearance. ...
1992)[156] (incompetent host for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus) but it is important for feeding the ticks,[157] as red deer and ... The use of nanotrap particles for their detection is being looked at and the OspA has been linked to active symptoms of Lyme.[ ... "The use of Nanotrap particles for biodefense and emerging infectious disease diagnostics". Pathogens and Disease. 71 (2): 164- ... "The use of Nanotrap particles for biodefense and emerging infectious disease diagnostics". Pathogens and Disease. 71 (2): 164- ...
Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Inhalation of tiny particles of infectious material (aerosol) is believed to be the most significant means of exposure. It is ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ... The Lassa virus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic. They therefore list it for ...
At first, an immature form of the virus particle is produced inside the ER, whose M-protein is not yet cleaved to its mature ... Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ... Viruses reach the stomach of the mosquito, and if the virus concentration is high enough, the virions can infect epithelial ... Yellow fever is caused by yellow fever virus, a 40- to 50-nm-wide enveloped RNA virus, the type species and namesake of the ...
After this time the cell plasma membrane becomes permeable, at 4-6 hours the virus particles assemble, and can sometimes be ... deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, Drosophila C virus, Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and Himetobi P virus. Several ... This family includes Infectious flacherie virus and SeIV-1 virus. Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. ... Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Equine rhinitis A virus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Genus: Aquamavirus ...
... typically proteins or other large biological entities such as viruses. Individual images of stained or unstained particles are ... Single particle analysis can be done on both negatively stained and vitreous ice-embedded cryo-EM samples. Single particle ... An extension of this technique uses single particle methods to build up a three-dimensional reconstruction of the particle. ... Pairs of particles corresponding to the same object at two different tilts (tilt pairs) are selected, and by following the ...
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter. Biofuels can be derived directly from plants (i.e. energy crops), or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes.[1] Renewable biofuels generally involve contemporary carbon fixation, such as those that occur in plants or microalgae through the process of photosynthesis. Other renewable biofuels are made through the use or conversion of biomass (referring to recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials). This biomass can be converted to convenient energy-containing substances in three different ways: thermal conversion, chemical conversion, and biochemical conversion. This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or ...
"Assembly of viroplasm and virus-like particles of rotavirus by a Semliki Forest virus replicon". Virology. 242 (2): 255-65. doi ... Viroplasms have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ... In animal cells, virus particles are gathered by the microtubule-dependent aggregation of toxic or misfolded protein near the ... The number and the size of viroplasms depend on the virus, the virus isolate, hosts species, and the stage of the infection. ...
Zu Rhein, G.M.; Chou, S.M. (1965). "Particles Resembling Papova Viruses in Human Cerebral Demyelinating Disease". Science. 148 ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... The JC virus or John Cunningham virus is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus). It was identified by ...
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[۶۱] ... "for his pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"[۱۰۷] ... "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the ... "for their fundamental work in الکترودینامیک کوانتومی, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles" ...
TEM micrograph with numerous rabies virions (small, dark grey, rodlike particles) and Negri bodies (the larger pathognomonic ... David D, Yakobson B, Rotenberg D, Dveres N, Davidson I, Stram Y (2002). "Rabies virus detection by RT-PCR in decomposed ... "Transmission of rabies virus from an organ donor to four transplant recipients" (PDF). N Engl J Med. 352 (11): 1103-11. doi ...
Anthrax is now known to be caused by a bacterium, and rabies is known to be caused by a virus. The microscopes of the time ... a virus, or a prion. At present, the science to understand this process is available but not the technology to perform it.[25] ... could reasonably be expected to show bacteria, but imaging of viruses had to wait until the development of electron microscopes ... Subunit/component / Peptide / Virus-like particle. *Toxoid. Administration. *Global: *GAVI Alliance. *Policy ...
... s are used in air purifiers to remove particles from air.[1] Airborne particles become charged as they attract ... Positive and negative ions produced by air conditioning systems have also been found by a manufacturer to inactivate viruses ... Negative ions, or anions, are particles with one or more extra electron, conferring a net negative charge to the particle. ... "Particles Removal by Negative ionic Air Purifier in Cleanroom". Aerosol and Air Quality Research. doi:10.4209/aaqr.2010.06.0048 ...
Group VII viruses[edit]. Both families in Group VII have DNA genomes contained within the invading virus particles. The DNA ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ...
... pathogens or particles. To engulf a particle or pathogen, a phagocyte extends portions of its plasma membrane, wrapping the ... Instead, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells. It recognises such cells by a ... membrane around the particle until it is enveloped (i.e. the particle is now inside the cell). Once inside the cell, the ... They can move freely, and capture cell debris, foreign particles, or invading microorganisms. They are produced by blood- ...
Purification of retrovirus particles using heparin affinity chromatography։ Methods Mol Biol 434 (434)։ 2008։ էջեր 1-11։ ISBN ... Mechanism of inhibitory effect of dextran sulfate and heparin on replication of human immunodeficiency virus in vitro»։ Proc. ... Cell surface heparin sulfate is a receptor for attachment of envelope protein-free retrovirus-like particles and VSV-G ...
... known for his prediction of the existence of a new particle, the Higgs boson, nicknamed the "God particle".[155] He won the ... He is an atheist, and the man who suggested to Richard Dawkins the analogy of viruses of the mind for religions; yet nowadays ... "Officially, the particle is called the Higgs boson, but its elusive nature and fundamental role in the creation of the universe ... I don't organize my life around that." In Search of the God Particle, by Ana Elena Azpurua, Newsweek Web Exclusive, March 24, ...
In segmented RNA viruses, "mating" can occur when a host cell is infected by at least two virus particles. If these viruses ... Some of the viruses evolved into DNA viruses to protect their genes from attack. Through the process of viral infection into ... Patrick Forterre has been working on a novel hypothesis, called "three viruses, three domains":[83] that viruses were ... they uncovered evidence that a simple DNA virus had acquired a gene from a completely unrelated RNA-based virus. Virologist ...
19S regulatory particleEdit. The 19S particle in eukaryotes consists of 19 individual proteins and is divisible into two ... certain Epstein-Barr virus gene products bearing this sequence can stall the proteasome, helping the virus propagate by ... Other regulatory particlesEdit. 20S proteasomes can also associate with a second type of regulatory particle, the 11S ... The 20S particle is assembled from two half-proteasomes, each of which consists of a seven-membered pro-β ring attached to a ...
Some viruses evade this by producing molecules which interfere with IFN production. For example, the Influenza A virus produces ... pathogens or particles. To engulf a particle or pathogen, a phagocyte extends portions of its plasma membrane, wrapping the ... Viruses[edit]. Type I interferons (IFN), secreted mainly by dendritic cells,[22] play a central role in antiviral host defense ... RNA silencing mechanisms are also important in the plant systemic response, as they can block virus replication.[40] The ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus is believed to be taken up by the autophagosome from the cytosol and translocated to the endosomes ... In microbiology, xenophagy is the autophagic degradation of infectious particles. Cellular autophagic machinery also play an ... A subset of viruses and bacteria subvert the autophagic pathway to promote their own replication.[63] Galectin-8 has recently ... "Subversion of cellular autophagosomal machinery by RNA viruses". PLoS Biol. 3 (5): e156. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030156. PMC ...
For virus-associated tumors, such as cervical cancer and a subset of head and neck cancers, epitopes derived from viral open ... macrophages and other particles. ... viruses, and other microorganisms. Lipids and nucleic acids are ... Some antigens start out as exogenous, and later become endogenous (for example, intracellular viruses). Intracellular antigens ...
A non-viral PDGF "bio patch" can regenerate missing or damaged bone by delivering DNA in a nano-sized particle directly into ... "Serum factor requirements of normal and simian virus 40-transformed 3T3 mouse fibroplasts". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 68 (3): ... The patch employs a collagen platform seeded with particles containing the genes needed for producing bone. In experiments, it ...
"Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 11 May 2020.. .mw ... The particles have large (~20 nm), club- or petal-shaped spikes on the surface (the "peplomers" ). The particles in electron ... Coronaviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. The viral genome is 26-32 kilobases in ...
In 1880 Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter created a very early precursor to fiber-optic communications, the Photophone, at Bell's newly established Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C. Bell considered it his most important invention. The device allowed for the transmission of sound on a beam of light. On June 3, 1880, Bell conducted the world's first wireless telephone transmission between two buildings, some 213 meters apart.[4][5] Due to its use of an atmospheric transmission medium, the Photophone would not prove practical until advances in laser and optical fiber technologies permitted the secure transport of light. The Photophone's first practical use came in military communication systems many decades later. In 1954 Harold Hopkins and Narinder Singh Kapany showed that rolled fiber glass allowed light to be transmitted. Initially it was considered that the light can traverse in only straight medium.[clarification needed][citation needed] Jun-ichi Nishizawa, a ...
A letter from over 200 scientists to the World Health Organization asks for further investigation into how the virus spreads. ... How a virus could spread this way: Through the respiratory route in which a person breathes in clouds of tiny virus particles ... What it is: A virus-filled particle of breath or spittle that comes out of the nose or mouth of an infected individual when ... What it is: A microscopic virus-packed particle thats also expelled from an infected persons mouth when breathing, speaking, ...
... found both as extracellular particles and budding particles from chronically-infected African green monkey kidney cells (brown ... Colorized transmission electron micrograph of Ebola virus particles (green) ... Ebola Virus Particles Colorized transmission electron micrograph of Ebola virus particles (green) found both as extracellular ... particles and budding particles from chronically-infected African green monkey kidney cells (brown). Image captured and color- ...
Ten-nanometer gold particles (Aurion Gold Sol, EMS) were added to the virus suspension to serve as fiduciary markers for ... 3A). Single- and double-stained virus particles had similar size ranges (Fig. 3B). However, significantly more apoE- than E2- ... Ultrastructural analysis of hepatitis C virus particles. Maria Teresa Catanese, Kunihiro Uryu, Martina Kopp, Thomas J. Edwards ... Particle sizes ranged from 45 to 86 nm in diameter, with a mean diameter of 68 nm (Fig. 5C). A total of 150 particles were ...
... it is increasingly straightforward and routine to determine the structures of icosahedral viruses to subnanometer resolutions ( ... Jiang W., Chiu W. (2007) Cryoelectron Microscopy of Icosahedral Virus Particles. In: Kuo J. (eds) Electron Microscopy. Methods ... 2004) Automatic particle selection: results of a comparative study. J. Struct. Biol. 145, 3-14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Adrian, M., Dubochet, J., Lepault, J., and McDowall, A. W. (1984) Cryo-electron microscopy of viruses. Nature 308, 32-36.PubMed ...
In the July 6 SN: Celebrating the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11, stone tool dates face scrutiny, ocean plastic goes deep, records of Inca taxation, erosion spurred plate tectonics and more. ...
Ebola virus-like particles protect from lethal Ebola virus infection.. Warfield KL1, Bosio CM, Welcher BC, Deal EM, ... Ebola virus-like particles protect from lethal Ebola virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Dec 23;100(26):15889-15894 ... Ebola virus-like particles protect from lethal Ebola virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Dec 23;100(26):15889-15894 ... Ebola virus-like particles protect from lethal Ebola virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Dec 23;100(26):15889-15894 ...
Chimeric Virus-like Particles (VLPs) decorated with VSPs and expressing model surface antigens, such as influenza virus ... Efficient oral vaccination by bioengineering virus-like particles with protozoan surface proteins. *Marianela C. Serradell1. ... Naskalska, A. & Pyrc, K. Virus-like particles as immunogens and universal nanocarriers. Pol. J. Microbiol. 64, 3-13 (2015). ... Ludwig, C. & Wagner, R. Virus-like particles-universal molecular toolboxes. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 18, 537-545 (2007). ...
The HORIBA SZ-100 and LA-960 particle size analyzers can measure the size of viruses and virus-like particles quickly and ... Particle Size Analysis of Viruses and Virus-Like Particles. A virus particle consists of several parts including the genetic ... Image of an influenza virus.. Virus-like particles (VLP) are meant to mimic the virus of interest in everything except the ... The HORIBA SZ-100 and LA-960 particle size analyzers can measure the size of viruses and virus-like particles quickly and ...
This is a colorized scanning electron micrograph of filamentous Ebola virus particles (green) attached to and budding from a ... Colorized Scanning Electron Micrograph of Filamentous Ebola Virus Particles (image). NIH/National Institute of Allergy and ... This is a colorized scanning electron micrograph of filamentous Ebola virus particles (green) attached to and budding from a ... Colorized Scanning Electron Micrograph of Filamentous Ebola Virus Particles (IMAGE) view more ...
... research could aid development of universal flu vaccineA vaccine that protects against a wide variety of influenza viruses (a ... An Intranasal Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Broadly Protects Mice from Multiple Subtypes of Influenza A Virus. mBio DOI: 10.1128/ ... "Virus-like particle vaccine protects mice from many flu strains ." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 22 Jul. 2015. Web. ... 2015, July 22). "Virus-like particle vaccine protects mice from many flu strains ." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. https ...
Although expression of Core as well as envelope proteins E1 and E2 results in the formation of virus-like particles in ... Although expression of Core as well as envelope proteins E1 and E2 results in the formation of virus-like particles in ... Maturation and release of HCV particles is tightly linked to the pathway of very-low-density lipoprotein biogenesis. ... Maturation and release of HCV particles is tightly linked to the pathway of very-low-density lipoprotein biogenesis. ...
... virus. The TBE E protein exists as a homodimer in the virus particle, which is converted to a trimer at the pH of fusion. ... and virus-like particles expressed in insect cell systems (10, 11) have been used as mimics to study virus-cell interactions. ... Hepatitis C virus glycoproteins mediate pH-dependent cell entry of pseudotyped retroviral particles. Mayla Hsu, Jie Zhang, Mike ... 2A). Particles lacking any virus gp (no envelope) failed to infect either cell type. Luciferase activity (relative light units ...
This paper reports on a complex structural analysis of the potato virus A coat protein using a set of complementary physico- ... potyviruses coat protein potato virus A virus-like particles physico-chemical methods small-angle X-ray scattering dextran ... Isolated Potato Virus A coat protein possesses unusual properties and forms different short virus-like particles, J. Biomol. ... Abbreviations: CP, coat protein, PVA, potato virus A, VLP, virus-like particles, SAXS, small-angle X-ray scattering, DS, ...
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of serious viral bronchiolitis in infants, young children, and the ... epitope and multiple site variants of this epitope within a versatile woodchuck hepadnavirus core-based virus-like particle ( ... the conformational F254-277 epitope must elicit antibodies that recognize the intact virus. A number of hybrid VLPs containing ...
Project E5 - Process development/control, production of proteins and virus particles * Project E6 - Pharmaceutical Development ... Project E5 - Process development/control, production of proteins and virus particles * Project E6 - Pharmaceutical Development ... virus particles) therapy, and the optimization and scale-up of cell cultivation systems (stem cells, insect cells) will be ... The IBPT works on platform technologies and methods for cell and particle-based therapy with the opportunity to optimize and ...
We used a combinatorial virus-like particle (VLP) technology and a model epitope from the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) to ... Palivizumab epitope-displaying virus-like particles protect rodents from RSV challenge. Jeanne H. Schickli,1 David C. Whitacre, ... Plaque assay. Ten-fold dilutions of virus in lung samples were made in Opti-MEM. 10-1, 10-2, and 10-3 dilutions of virus were ... I. A field trial of two inactivated respiratory virus vaccines; an aqueous trivalent parainfluenza virus vaccine and an alum- ...
The genetic aspects of influenza virus filamentous particle formation.. Smirnov YuA1, Kuznetsova MA, Kaverin NV. ... A lower buoyant density of the filamentous forms as compared to spherical particles allowed us to obtain a sufficiently pure ... We analysed the genetic content of reassortants between parent viruses differing in their ability to form filaments. The ... and spherical virions suggests that the infectious filamentous forms are probably represented by multigenomic particles or ...
To develop such a device, we fabricated nanochannels to transport virus particles through ultrashort laser cavities and ... Technologies that could quickly detect and identify virus particles would play a critical role in fighting bioterrorism and ... Gourley, Paul Lee; McDonald, Anthony Eugene & Hendricks, Judy K. Nanofluidic devices for rapid detection of virus particles., ... Technologies that could quickly detect and identify virus particles would play a critical role in fighting bioterrorism and ...
... chikungunya virus - virus-like particles - viral diseases - aedes albopictus - disease vectors - vaccines - vaccine development ... chimeric virus vaccines, DNA vaccines, adenoviral vectored vaccines, subunit protein vaccines and virus-like particle (VLP) ... chimeric virus vaccines, DNA vaccines, adenoviral vectored vaccines, subunit protein vaccines and virus-like particle (VLP) ... Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus (family Togaviridae) and is the causative agent of chikungunya fever ...
As states reopen and we give the virus more fuel, all bets are off. If you dont solve the biology, the economy wont recover. ... If a person coughs or sneezes, those 200,000,000 viral particles go everywhere. Some virus hangs in the air, some falls into ... The figure below shows that no matter your age (x-axis), you can have a little bit of virus or a lot of virus (y-axis). (ref) ... What is the role of asymptomatic people in spreading the virus?. Symptomatic people are not the only way the virus is shed. We ...
... fibers and other microscopic particles, according to new research from UC Davis and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai. ... Influenza viruses can spread through the air on dust, ... Airborne viruses can spread on dust, non-respiratory particles ... Influenza viruses can spread through the air on dust, fibers and other microscopic particles, according to new research from ... They treated paper facial tissues with influenza virus, let them dry out, then crumpled them in front of the automated particle ...
Influenza virus-like particle vaccine. A new type of vaccine against influenza, made with virus-like particles, has been shown ... Trivalent virus-like particle vaccine. Canine flu virus vaccine. Ultrasensitive virus detector. Rabies imported into the US. ... What is a virus-like particle, and how is it produced?. If you have been taking influenza 101, you know that new virus ... Influenza virus-like particles in insect and plant cells. PLoS Currents: Influenza. Transmission of 2009 H1N1 influenza virus ...
Stock video footage 4k Abstract cells virus dust particles background.. 00:00:23 4k. From $149. Royalty free. Download now on ...
Researchers at Northwestern University have developed a laser the size of a virus particle that can operate at room temperature ... Submission + - Researchers Create Working Laser the Size of a Virus Particle ( Submitted by Zothecula on Wednesday ... Zothecula writes: Researchers at Northwestern University have developed a laser the size of a virus particle that can operate ... Researchers Create Working Laser the Size of a Virus Particle. Archived Discussion. Load All Comments ...
Virus-like particles have the unique property of inducing protective immune responses but they lack the infectious capacities ... Mesothelin engineered on virus-like particles provides treatment clues for pancreatic cancer. 18.02.2008 ... Making a treatment vaccine of virus-like particles (VLPs) that contained mesothelin, researchers injected mice having ... of the original virus. Tumor growth in the immunized mice slowed and in some cases the tumor disappeared. The average life span ...
UC Davis researchers have developed a way to use the empty shell of a Hepatitis E virus to carry vaccines or drugs into the ... Cheng, Stark and colleagues prepared virus-like particles based on Hepatitis E proteins. The particles do not contain any virus ... Hepatitis E virus capsids can resist passing through the digestive system. These virus-like particles could be used to carry ... Hepatitis virus-like particles as potential cancer treatment. UC Davis researchers have developed a way to use the empty shell ...
Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of chikungunya virus particles (yellow). This alphavirus is composed of an RNA ... The virus, which is transmitted by mosquitoes, causes a rare form of viral fever. Symptoms include a high fever, rash and ... Caption: Chikungunya virus. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of chikungunya virus particles (yellow). This ... particle, particles, pathogen, pathogenic, pathogens, rna virus, tem, transmission electron micrograph, transmission electron ...
Virus particles in the blood stream. - CE8WYA from Alamys library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations ... Pneumonia caused by measles viruses, conceptual computer illustration. Measles virus, from the Morbillivirus group of viruses, ... Pneumonia caused by measles viruses, conceptual computer illustration. Measles virus, from the Morbillivirus group of viruses, ... particles, people, picture, red, reds, round, science, sciences, scientific, scientifically, shape, sick, sickly, sickness, ...
... particles from the coughs of flu patients found that particles small enough to remain airborne can contain detectable flu virus ... CIDRAP News) The role of aerosols in the transmission of flu viruses has been unclear and controversial, but a new study that ... of particles 1 to 4 microns in diameter, and 42% in particles smaller than 1 micron. Viable virus was found in aerosols from 2 ... influenza can generate particles in a wide range of particle sizes and that many particles are in a relatively small particle ...
Reporter virus particles (RVPs) are replication-incompetent virus particles engineered to express one or more reporter genes ... Alternatively, for structurally complex viruses such dengue and Zika viruses, RVPs are engineered to be antigenically identical ... "Dengue Reporter Virus Particles for measuring neutralizing antibodies against each of the four dengue serotypes". PLoS ONE. 6( ... "An enzymatic assay based on luciferase Ebola virus-like particles for evaluation of virolytic activity of antimicrobial ...
  • Coexpression of the Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) and matrix protein (VP40) in mammalian cells results in spontaneous production and release of virus-like particles (VLPs) that resemble the distinctively filamentous infectious virions. (
  • VLPs have been tested and found efficacious as vaccines for several viruses, including papillomavirus, HIV, parvovirus, and rotavirus. (
  • Chimeric Virus-like Particles (VLPs) decorated with VSPs and expressing model surface antigens, such as influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), are protected from degradation and activate antigen presenting cells in vitro. (
  • Due to this similarity (particular in terms of conformation) VLPs prove useful in the study of virus behavior and also vaccine development. (
  • The size of VLPs is similar to that of viruses and may be measured using either dynamic light scattering or laser diffraction technologies. (
  • The experimental vaccine is made from non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs) that stimulate an immune response, but that cannot replicate or cause disease. (
  • Here, we genetically inserted this epitope and multiple site variants of this epitope within a versatile woodchuck hepadnavirus core-based virus-like particle (WHcAg-VLP) to generate hybrid VLPs that each bears 240 copies of the RSV epitope in a highly immunogenic arrayed format. (
  • Making a treatment vaccine of virus-like particles (VLPs) that contained mesothelin, researchers injected mice having pancreatic cancer with this vaccine three times. (
  • Based on existing knowledge and data, we set out to generate a single-dose, non-replicating vaccine capable of forming EBOV-like particles (VLPs). (
  • Virus-like particles (VLPs) are molecules that closely resemble viruses, but are non-infectious because they contain no viral genetic material. (
  • Combinations of structural capsid proteins from different viruses can be used to create recombinant VLPs. (
  • VLPs derived from the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and composed of the small HBV derived surface antigen (HBsAg) were described in 1968 from patient sera. (
  • VLPs have been produced from components of a wide variety of virus families including Parvoviridae (e.g. adeno-associated virus), Retroviridae (e.g. (
  • Since VLPs cannot replicate, they provide a safer alternative to attenuated viruses. (
  • There are currently a selection of vaccines against human papilloma virus (HPV) such as Cervarix by GlaxoSmithKline along with Gardasil and Gardasil-9, produced by Merck & Co. Gardasil consists of recombinant VLPs assembled from the L1 proteins of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 expressed in yeast and is adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate. (
  • VLPs have also been used to develop a pre-clinical vaccine candidate against chikungunya virus. (
  • Expression of the complete ORF2 of human astrovirus serotype 1 (HAstV-1) in the baculovirus system led to the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) of around 38 nm. (
  • The expression of the genomes encoding the capsid proteins of a great number of RNA viruses giving rise to the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) has been accomplished in different heterologous expression systems, including the expression of the complete ORF2 of HAstV-2 in the vaccinia system ( 8 ). (
  • However, the development of NoV virus-like particles (VLPs) has enabled significant progress toward effective vaccine candidates designed to protect against multiple circulating NoV strains. (
  • We found that this second MV vectoring the hybrid VLPs displaying DIII-S on an unmodified HBsAg scaffold were immunogenic in MV-susceptible mice (HuCD46Ge-IFNar k o ), eliciting robust neutralizing responses (averages) against MV (1:1280 NT 90 ), hepatitis B virus (787 mIU/mL), and DV2 (1:160 NT 50 ) in all of the tested animals. (
  • Virus-like particles (VLPs) are protein-based structures that mimic viruses and bind to antibodies. (
  • Realizing that fine details about influenza VLPs were scant, a team of researchers who specialize in visualizing molecular structures developed a 3-D model based on the 1918 H1 pandemic influenza virus. (
  • Other researchers had produced VLPs for 1918 H1 influenza that successfully protected animals from different influenza viruses. (
  • During natural flavivirus infections, noninfectious virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of viral premembrane/membrane (prM/M) and envelope (E) proteins are produced in addition to mature, infectious virions ( 23 ). (
  • Expression of the NV genome in a baculovirus-silkworm expression system has produced recombinant NV virus-like particles (rNV-VLPs) that are morphologically and antigenically similar to native NV. (
  • In addition, surface charge and particle size distribution, which are important factors for explaining virus particle behavior during membrane filtration, were successfully evaluated by using rNV-VLPs. (
  • Virus-like particles (VLPs) are particles that lack the infectious genome of the parent virus but retain the ability to self-assemble. (
  • Transient expression of viral coat proteins in a variety of systems can be used to synthesize VLPs that are morphologically indistinguishable from the virus from which they have been derived. (
  • In this thesis, I have used VLPs to study virus maturation mechanisms.The main focus of this thesis has been the study of the maturation of Nudaurelia capensis omega virus (NωV), an insect virus. (
  • Mature VLPs purified from plants had a structure indistinguishable from the authentic virus at 2.7 Å resolution, as determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). (
  • Expression of the viral polyprotein leads to the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) in HeLa ( 48 ) and Huh-7 cells ( 23 ). (
  • The expression of coat protein-GFP hybrids permitted the formation of VLPs but the yield of particles is diminished compared to the yield obtained with unmodified coat protein. (
  • One promising area of investigation uses non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs) to mimic wild type viruses during vaccine construction. (
  • The recombinant Cap protein has the ability to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro , it is particularly opportunity to develop the PV2 VLPs vaccine in Escherichia coli ,( E.coli ), because where the cost of the vaccine must be weighed against the value of the vaccinated pig, when it was to extend use the VLPs vaccine of PCV2. (
  • Ruml, Tomáš 2014-04-01 00:00:00 Retroviral gag proteins, as well as fragments minimally containing the capsid (CA) and nucleocapsid (NC) subunits of Gag, are able to spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs). (
  • Here, we took advantage of an in vitro system for the generation of non-enveloped Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) VLPs derived from a self-assembling CA-NC subunit of Gag. (
  • In comparison with other viral vectors designed for targeted transgene delivery, this M-PMV VLP system represents the lowest risk of generating virus-associated pathology, as the VLPs do not contain any viral coding sequences and are formed in a cell-free system. (
  • The purified protein self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) when observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). (
  • These three subunit proteins co-assembled into CVA10 VLPs, which were visualized as spherical particles with a diameter of ˜30 nm under electron microscope. (
  • Using affinity grids, previously described to isolate proteins and macromolecular complexes for single-particle EM, we were able to purify enveloped particles directly from cell culture media. (
  • In addition to apolipoprotein (apo)E, HCV particles also incorporate apoB and apoA-I. In general, host apolipoproteins were more readily accessible to antibody labeling than HCV glycoproteins, suggesting either lower abundance or masking by host proteins. (
  • Combining the three-dimensional density map and bioinformatics of the protein components, the folds of the virus capsid shell proteins can be derived. (
  • The reason for this is that hydrates and proteins around the cell move together, causing the particle to meet with resistance, which in turn causes DLS measurements to yield a larger particle size. (
  • Although expression of Core as well as E1 and E2 envelope proteins produces virus-like particles in heterologous expression systems, there is increasing evidence that non-structural viral proteins and p7 are also required for the production of infectious particles, suggesting that HCV genome replication and virion assembly are closely linked. (
  • HIV readily forms pseudotypes with the envelope proteins of many different viruses. (
  • Cheng, Stark and colleagues prepared virus-like particles based on Hepatitis E proteins. (
  • By modifying the capsid proteins, UC Davis researchers show that they can attach molecules to the particle surface that target breast cancer cells. (
  • RVPs offer flexibility for different uses, as they are antigenically identical to wild-type virus, and can be engineered with various proteins or express mutant envelopes to study infectivity or antigenicity. (
  • Depending on the virus of interest and the desired application, RVPs can be pseudotypes, containing a heterologous self-assembling core (typically of lentiviral origin), as well as native envelope proteins corresponding to the studied virus. (
  • Alternatively, for structurally complex viruses such dengue and Zika viruses, RVPs are engineered to be antigenically identical to wild-type virus, using all of the structural proteins of the native virus. (
  • In the sera of patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), in addition to infectious particles, there is an excess (typically 1,000- to 100,000-fold) of empty subviral particles (SVP) composed solely of HBV envelope proteins in the form of relatively smaller spheres and filaments of variable length. (
  • Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) assembly also uses the envelope proteins of HBV to produce an infectious particle. (
  • Hepatitis delta virus (HDV), which is assembled using the envelope proteins of HBV, also depends upon this pre-S1 domain ( 26 ). (
  • Rotavirus particles function as immunological carriers for the delivery of peptides from infectious agents and endogenous proteins," Molecular Immunology , vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 269-278, 1991. (
  • Virus-like particles are composed of the characteristic building proteins of a virus which mimic the properties of the infectious viruses but lack the viral genome. (
  • This virus, from the Morbillivirus group of viruses, consists of an RNA (ribonucleic acid) core surrounded by an envelope studded with surface proteins haemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein, which are used to attach to and penetrate a host cell. (
  • They can be naturally occurring or synthesized through the individual expression of viral structural proteins, which can then self assemble into the virus-like structure. (
  • Because Hendrix characterizes viral proteins, particles and subunits that are too heavy to study using currently available mass spectrometers, Bier hopes that his data will help them discover new biology. (
  • In contrast, HAs comprise less than half of the viral proteins of natural influenza viruses. (
  • The E1, E2, and core structural proteins are required for particle formation ( 5 , 6 ) but not for viral RNA replication or translation ( 7 , 40 ). (
  • Regulatory authorities require some measurements acquired during the development of viral preparations, including the state of aggregation within a viral preparation, the number of viable viruses and total viruses present, ratio of empty to filled capsids, and measurement of residual host-cell proteins. (
  • By superinfecting persistently SDeV-infected cells with reptarenaviruses and hartmaniviruses, or by transfecting their surface proteins, we could induce production of infectious SDeV particles. (
  • The possibility of utilizing TCV as a carrier for the presentation of foreign proteins on the particle surface was also explored by fusing the sequence of GFP to the C-terminus of the coat protein. (
  • Strikingly, the LD access for HCV core and NS5A proteins was restricted in PLIN2-deficient cells, which correlated with reduced formation of intracellular HCV particles that were less infectious and of higher density, indicating defects in maturation. (
  • Thus, PLIN2 expression is required for trafficking of core and NS5A proteins to LDs, and for formation of functional low-density HCV particles prior to ApoE incorporation. (
  • The project involves working as part of an interdisciplinary team with the final aim of computationally predict the folding and assembly properties of the virus like particle after its constituent proteins have been genetically modified to accomplish its purpose. (
  • The implications of these results and the possible role of other viral proteins in inOuenza virus morphogenesis are discussed. (
  • Influenza vaccines are now produced by growing the virus in fertilized eggs, then multiplying and inactivating it. (
  • The SZ-100 Nanoparticle Analyzer has been successfully applied to analyze transparent bioparticles, such as influenza viruses and vaccines, with good accuracy. (
  • A broad range of vaccine strategies have been proposed and described, including inactivated virus formulations, live-attenuated virus, chimeric virus vaccines, DNA vaccines, adenoviral vectored vaccines, subunit protein vaccines and virus-like particle (VLP) formulations. (
  • On episode #47 of the podcast "This Week in Virology", Vincent and Dick discuss influenza virus-like particle vaccines produced in insect and plant cells, rapid sharing of influenza research, and answer listener questions about cytomegalovirus, viral evolution and symbiosis and much more. (
  • UC Davis researchers have developed a way to use the empty shell of a Hepatitis E virus to carry vaccines or drugs into the body. (
  • These virus-like particles could be used to carry vaccines or drugs into the body through the oral route. (
  • Such particles could be used as vaccines that are delivered through food or drink. (
  • The idea is that you would drink the vaccine, and after passing through the stomach the virus-like particles would get absorbed in the intestine and deliver vaccines to the body. (
  • Lang, Rainer (2008): Virus-Like particle based vaccines: stabilization by freeze-drying and development of sustained relaese devices. (
  • The vaccines based on virus like particles represent one of the most appealing and cost effective approaches due to the intrinsic immunogenic properties as well as high safety profile. (
  • The modern approach for the development of vaccines is focused on the identification of the molecular entities from different organisms as candidates which can mimic the role of viruses. (
  • Thus, the viruses like particle based vaccines are potentially safer candidates for developing vaccines. (
  • Most of the virus like particle based vaccines are derived from the bacteria E.coli as the bacteria E. coli has many advantages, such as inexpensive culturing, high expression levels and easy large scale production. (
  • The virus like particle based vaccines is commercially available in market against the hepatitis B virus and human papillomavirus. (
  • The viruses like particle based vaccines against several other viruses are in clinical development. (
  • The progresses have been made in developing virus like particle vaccines against hepatitis C virus, Ebola, Lassa virus, Hantavirus and chikungunya virus. (
  • Currently there are 60 virus like particle vaccines in clinical trials and 5 virus like particle vaccines are commercially available in the market. (
  • The major pharmaceutical companies have recognized the promising future of the virus like particle vaccines and are widely supporting the manufacturing and production of such vaccines. (
  • Research suggests that VLP vaccines against influenza virus could provide stronger and longer-lasting protection against flu viruses than conventional vaccines. (
  • Production can begin as soon as the virus strain is sequenced and can take as little as 12 weeks, compared to 9 months for traditional vaccines. (
  • In early clinical trials, VLP vaccines for influenza appeared to provide complete protection against both the Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 and the 1918 flu pandemic. (
  • Vaccination with NoV VLP vaccines has been shown to both induce antibodies that block virus-derived VLP carbohydrate binding and protect against homologous viral challenge in a human clinical study. (
  • Vaccines against dengue virus (DV) are commercially nonexistent. (
  • In other words - just to repeat this - people who avoided vaccines spread less than 1/6th the number of flu virus particles compared to those who received flu shots. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease, with an estimated 170 million people infected worldwide. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen that infects the liver and establishes chronic infection in the majority of cases, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) over the course of many years. (
  • Bottcher, B., Wynne, S. A., and Crowther, R. A. (1997) Determination of the fold of the core protein of hepatitis B virus by electron cryomicroscopy. (
  • More than 170 million individuals are currently infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide and are at continuous risk of developing chronic liver disease. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • Hepatitis C virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus, and its ∼9.6-kb genome contains an open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of ∼3000 amino acids (aa) flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs) at both ends. (
  • HIV pseudotypes bearing native hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins (strain H and Con1) are infectious for the human hepatoma cell lines Huh-7 and PLC/PR5. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus classified in the family Flaviviridae . (
  • Hepatitis E virus is feco-orally transmitted, so it can survive passing through the digestive system, said Marie Stark, a graduate student working with Professor Holland Cheng in the UC Davis Department of Molecular and Cell Biology. (
  • Hepatitis E virus capsids can resist passing through the digestive system. (
  • In natural infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV), there is an excess of empty noninfectious subviral particles (SVP) that do not contain the viral capsid. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Hepatitis B virus" applicable to this article? (
  • Hepatitis C virus), Paramyxoviridae (e.g. (
  • We modified the hepatitis B small surface antigen (HBsAg, S) in order to display DV 2 DIII on a virus-like particle (VLP), thus generating the hybrid antigen DIII-S. Two varieties of measles virus (MV) vectors were developed to express DIII-S. The first expresses the hybrid antigen from an additional transcription unit (ATU) and the second additionally expresses HBsAg from a separate ATU. (
  • A 3V armored L-RNA of 2,248 bases containing six gene fragments-hepatitis C virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV1, SARS-CoV2, and SARS-CoV3), avian influenza virus matrix gene (M300), and H5N1 avian influenza virus (HA300)-was successfully expressed by the two-plasmid coexpression system and was demonstrated to have all of the characteristics of armored RNA. (
  • We analyzed the biochemical and ultrastructural properties of hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles produced in cell culture. (
  • The only known example of a human satellite virus is the hepatitis D virus (HDV), and it is generally thought to require hepatitis B virus (HBV) to form infectious particles. (
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV), the only known deltavirus until 2018, has been found only in humans, and its coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is linked with fulminant hepatitis. (
  • Roose K, De Baets S, Schepens B, Saelens X. Hepatitis B core-based virus-like particles to present heterologous epitopes. (
  • In hepatocytes, PLIN2 is the major protein coating lipid droplets (LDs), an organelle the hepatitis C virus (HCV) hijacks for virion morphogenesis. (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a deadly pathogen that has killed countless people worldwide. (
  • Potent neutralization of hepatitis A virus reveals a receptor mimic mechanism and the receptor recognition site. (
  • The under trial vaccine candidates itself represents the target antigen and those in which the virus like particle is used to present the foreign antigens to immune system. (
  • Whole Pichia pastoris yeast expressing measles virus nucleoprotein as a production and delivery system to multimerize Plasmodium antigens ," PLoS ONE , vol. 9, no. 1, Article ID e86658, 2014. (
  • These features of the system offer a solution to the problem of antigenic variation that plagues other antibody-based detection methods, since multiple antigens can be targeted simultaneously and molecules other than antibodies, such as cellular virus receptors (e.g. (
  • In an effort to provide a more specific diagnostic test, we developed virus-like particle (VLP) antigens with reduced cross-reactivity for both SLEV and WNV by identifying and mutating envelope protein amino acids within the cross-reactive epitopes of VLP expression plasmids. (
  • While valuable tools for diagnosing presumptive flaviviral infections, these assays use antigens prepared from virus-infected suckling mouse brains (SMB). (
  • Correlative analysis of the abundance of the different particle populations with infectivity, HCV RNA, and viral antigens suggests that infectious particles are likely to be present in the large ~60-nm HCV particle populations displaying a visible bilayer. (
  • Initial studies proved HBc virus-like particles to possess strong immunogenic properties, which can be conveyed to linked antigens. (
  • In the future, the HBc-based virus-like particles platform will probably continue to be used for the display of poorly immunogenic antigens, mainly because virus-like particle formation by HBc capsomers is compatible with nearly any available recombinant gene expression system. (
  • On episode #372 of the science show This Week in Virology , the TWiV-osphere introduces influenza D virus, virus-like particles encoded in the wasp genome which protect its eggs from caterpillar immunity, and a cytomegalovirus protein which counters a host restriction protein that prevents establishment of latency. (
  • Each particle consists of a ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome within a nucleocapsid (blue), which is surrounded by a glycoprotein envelope (yellow). (
  • Cells infected with AcFL, a recombinant baculovirus that expressed cDNA copies of the PLRV genome RNA, did not produce virus-like particles (VLP). (
  • HCV is an enveloped virus with a single-strand positive RNA genome that encodes a unique polyprotein of ~3,000 amino acids ( 14 , 15 ). (
  • Turnip crinkle virus (TCV), a member of the genus carmovirus of the Tombusviridae family, has a genome consisting of a single positive-sense RNA molecule that is encapsidated in an icosahedral particle composed of 180 copies of a single type of coat protein. (
  • Using [3H]8-MOP, the psoralen is found to enter the virus capsid and react throughout the viral genome, with approximately one psoralen modification per 100 bp of viral DNA. (
  • Nevertheless, the empty particles are stable, at least in vitro, and do not contain pores that might serve as channels for genome release. (
  • In cells, positive strand RNA viruses, such as Retroviridae, must selectively recognize their full-length RNA genome among abundant cellular RNAs to assemble and release particles. (
  • A virus particle consists of several parts including the genetic material (DNA or RNA), a protein coat that protects these genes, and in some cases an envelope of lipids that surrounds the protein coat when they are outside a cell. (
  • This paper reports on a complex structural analysis of the potato virus A coat protein using a set of complementary physico-chemical methods. (
  • Denaturation of the potato virus A coat protein molecules occurs in the presence of detergent concentrations that are seven times lower than that in albumins (5.2 and 35 mM), which confirms low stability of the potato virus A coat protein. (
  • Possible mechanism for protein particle formation through the interaction between unordered terminal domains and their transformation into β‑structures has been suggested. (
  • Potyvirus virion structure shows conserved protein fold and RNA binding site in ssRNA viruses. (
  • Heating-induced transition of Potyvirus Potato Virus A coat protein into beta-structure. (
  • β-Structure of the coat protein subunits in spherical particles generated by tobacco mosaic virus thermal denaturation. (
  • Self-assembly of protein from a flexuous virus. (
  • The TWiVodrome explains how a gag-like protein from a retrotransposon forms virus-like particles that carry mRNA within vesicles across the synapse. (
  • RVPs formed by pseudotyping contain the native form of the viral Envelope (or Spike) protein, but may not contain other structural elements from the original virus. (
  • HDV can be assembled using only the S protein of HBV, but the particles are noninfectious. (
  • T=1 icosahedral particles of amino terminally truncated brome mosaic virus (BMV) protein were created by treatment of the wild-type T=3 virus with 1M CaCl2 and crystallized from sodium malonate. (
  • A comparison of the BMV T=1 particles was made with the reassembled T=1 particles produced from the coat protein of trypsin treated alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV), another bromovirus. (
  • Such bits and parts, like the separate protein components of a virus, can be later quantified and examined chemically by a detector. (
  • Next, the particle was studded with protein segments known as Tat peptides, derived from the HIV-1 virus, which help the particle find the cell. (
  • Lepidopteran cells ( Spodoptera frugiperda ) produced isometric virus-like particles (VLP) when infected with a recombinant baculovirus Ac61 that contained the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) coat protein gene modified with an N-terminal histidine tag (P3-6H). (
  • Both the P3-6H and the FL particles were morphologically indistinguishable from particles of PLRV despite the fact that they lacked the P5 readthrough protein present in wild-type PLRV. (
  • These results suggest that P5 readthrough protein of PLRV may not be essential for cellular transport of virus through aphid vectors. (
  • at 1-39 aa) of PCV2 capsid protein (Cap) with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) T-cell epitope (1446-1460 aa), CSFV B-cell epitope (693-716 aa) and CSFV T-cell epitope conjugated with B-cell epitope. (
  • NωV has a pH-controlled maturation mechanism that involves a precise autocatalytic cleavage within the capsid protein that is accompanied by a dramatic decrease in the diameter of the particles. (
  • I used insect cell and plant-based transient expression of the NωV coat protein to produce procapsids and showed that reduction in pH results in cleavage of the coat protein and the concomitant decrease in particle diameter. (
  • This movie provides, for the first time, high-resolution information about the large conformational changes and protein rearrangements occurring during the maturation of this virus. (
  • Negative-stain electron microscopy revealed that the particles were spherical (~40- to 75-nm diameter) and pleomorphic and that some of them contain HCV E2 protein and apolipoprotein E on their surfaces. (
  • When chimeric transcripts containing the TMV OAS were co-expressed with TMV CP in vivo for 2-18h, helical TMV-like ribonucleoprotein particles of the predicted length were formed in high yield (up to 7.4µg/mg total bacterial protein). (
  • Fraenkel-Conrat H, Williams RC (1955) Reconstitution of active tobacco mosaic virus from its inactive protein and nucleic acid components. (
  • Durham ACH, Finch JT, Klug A (1971) States of aggregation of tobacco mosaic virus protein. (
  • Durham ACH (1972) Structures and roles of the polymorphic forms of tobacco mosaic virus protein. (
  • Sacher R, French R, Ahlquist P (1988) Hybrid brome mosaic virus RNAs express and are packaged in tobacco mosaic virus coat protein in vivo. (
  • The Generation of Turnip Crinkle Virus-Like Particles in Plants by the Transient Expression of Wild-Type and Modified Forms of Its Coat Protein. (
  • We have employed the CPMV-HT transient expression system to investigate the formation of TCV-like particles following the expression of the wild-type coat protein or modified forms of it that contain either deletions and/or additions. (
  • Our results confirm the importance of the N-terminus of the coat protein for the encapsidation of RNA and show that the coat protein's exterior P domain plays a key role in particle formation. (
  • We show that recombinant HBsAg particles with MPER (HBsAg-MPER) appended at the C-terminus of the S1 protein are recognized by 2F5 and 4E10 with high affinity compared to positioning the MPER at the N-terminus or the extracellular loop (ECL) of S1. (
  • Administration of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein nanoparticle vaccine in healthy women aged 18 to 35 years was both well tolerated as well as immunogenic. (
  • How viruses coordinate the intracellular trafficking of both RNA and protein components to the assembly sites of infectious particles at the cell surface remains a long-standing question. (
  • Colorized transmission electron micrograph of Ebola virus particles (green) found both as extracellular particles and budding particles from chronically-infected African green monkey kidney cells (brown). (
  • Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of chikungunya virus particles (yellow). (
  • Ebola virus particles, coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). (
  • 4k Abstract cells virus dust particles background. (
  • High case-fatality rates, as well as known aerosol infectivity, make Ebola virus a potential global health threat and possible biological warfare agent. (
  • Several laboratories have reported on the infectivity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotypes expressing chimeric HCV E1E2 gps encoding the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of VSV G gps, but with conflicting results ( 15 - 17 ). (
  • However, they noted that other factors, such as virus survival time and infectivity of airborne viruses, remain unclear. (
  • RVPs are most commonly used in neutralization assays, which measure the ability of serum or antibodies to prevent virus infectivity in vitro, with applications in vaccine development, antibody discovery, and serological testing. (
  • A related assay tests for antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), a phenomenon where non-neutralizing antibodies against viruses can increase infectivity through their binding to the cellular Fc receptor, aiding entry of the virus into host cells. (
  • The ~60-nm particles were characterized by a membrane bilayer (presumably an envelope) that is spatially separated from an internal structure (presumably a capsid), and they were enriched in fractions that displayed a high infectivity-to-HCV RNA ratio. (
  • The ~45-nm particles lacked a membrane bilayer and displayed a higher buoyant density and a lower infectivity-to-HCV RNA ratio. (
  • This study provides low-resolution ultrastructural information of particle populations displaying differential biophysical properties and specific infectivity. (
  • the size of EBOV particles, which have a uniform diameter of 80 nm, varies dramatically in length ranging from 600 to 1400 nm, and peak infectivity is associated with 805-nm particles [primary source]. (
  • Peak infectivity has been associated with particles of 665 nm for Lake Victoria marburgvirus (MARV) and 805 nm for ebolaviruses. (
  • In infected Huh-7.5.1 cells or PHH, LPCAT1 depletion increased production of the viral particles of lowest density and highest infectivity. (
  • Conclusions We have identified LPCAT1 as a modulator of liver lipid metabolism downregulated by HCV, which appears as a viral strategy to increase the triacylglycerol content and hence infectivity of viral particles. (
  • After vaccination with eVLPs, mice developed high titers of Ebola virus-specific antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies. (
  • A challenge of such an epitope-focused approach is that to be effective, the conformational F254-277 epitope must elicit antibodies that recognize the intact virus. (
  • Some authors have suggested that SVP might sop up neutralizing antibodies produced by the host and thus increase the ability of the infectious particles to reach susceptible cells ( 11 , 25 ). (
  • It was found that (a) sera raised to intact influenza A virus preparations contained both HA1- and HA-2 specific antibodies, (b) sera made to subviral particles of influenza A virus contained HA2-specific antibody but had little or no detectable HA1-specific antibody. (
  • c) the HA2-specific antibodies were partially cross-reactive with the HA2 of an influenza A virus of a different subtype, and (d) sera raised against two strains of untreated influenza B viruses contained antibodies which were cross-reactive with the HA2 as well as the NP of influenza A viruses. (
  • Human NoV challenge studies have identified carbohydrate histo-blood group antigen expression as an important human susceptibility factor for many strains and correspondingly, that antibodies which block carbohydrate virus binding represent a potential correlate of protection against NoV infection and illness. (
  • Those antibodies can similarly bind live influenza viruses, preventing them from infecting cells. (
  • This may be a bona fide breakthrough in virus detection: a Harvard group has reported specific detection of individual virus particles using silicon nanowires coupled to virus-specific antibodies. (
  • Protective virus-specific antibodies are elicited by the E glycoprotein, which contains both virus-specific and flavivirus cross-reactive epitopes. (
  • Vaccine immunogens derived from the envelope glycoproteins of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that elicit broad neutralizing antibodies remain an elusive goal. (
  • Prime:Boost immunization of the HBsAg-MPER particles in sequence with HIV envelope glycoprotein proteoliposomes (Env-PLs) did not raise neutralizing antibodies that could be mapped to the MPER region. (
  • Worldwide, 80 to 95% of adults have antibodies against the virus. (
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for CDC's Zika IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Zika MAC-ELISA) that utilizes VLP technology for in vitro qualitative detection of human IgM antibodies to Zika virus in serum. (
  • Previous work demonstrated that in vitro assembled core-like particles are similar in structure to the nucleocapsid core in the native virus. (
  • Here we demonstrate that in vitro assembled core-like particles can be inserted into viral glycoprotein-expressing cells to generate enveloped virus-like particles. (
  • The generation of enveloped virus-like particles containing an in vitro core and in vivo synthesized glycoproteins has applications for gene and drug delivery, medical imaging, and also basic mechanistic studies of virus assembly. (
  • Consequently, VLP-driven IgA responses were qualitatively superior to IgG responses in terms of the virus-neutralizing activity in vitro. (
  • The development of an HPV vaccine is hindered by the fact that high-risk HPV particles cannot be produced in vitro. (
  • Native tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) CP expressed in E. coli remains soluble but has a non-acetylated N-terminal Ser residue and, following extraction, is unable to package TMV RNA in vitro under standard assembly conditions. (
  • Pseudovirus particles can be assembled mono- or bi-directionally in vitro using virus-derived CP and chimeric ssRNAs containing the cognate TMV OAS, but otherwise of unlimited length and sequence. (
  • Rabbit sera made against these subviral particles and untreated virus were tested in a radioimmune precipitation assay using [35S]cysteine-labeled virus. (
  • Because human papillomavirus-infected women do not always mount protective antiviral immunity, we explored the interaction of human papillomavirus with Langerhans cells, which would be the first APCs the virus comes into contact with during infection. (
  • We determined that dendritic cells, normally targeted by vaccination procedures and Langerhans cells, normally targeted by the natural virus equally internalize human papillomavirus virus-like particles. (
  • However, in contrast to dendritic cells, Langerhans cells are not activated by human papillomavirus virus-like particles, illustrated by the lack of: up-regulating activation markers, secreting IL-12, stimulating T cells in an MLR, inducing human papillomavirus-specific immunity, and migrating from epidermal tissue. (
  • Particles are spherical, with spike-like projections, and heterogeneous in size ranging from 40 to 100 nm in diameter. (
  • The particle diameter of any bioparticle determined by dynamic light scattering is usually larger than that from an electron micrograph. (
  • The virus forms small round-shaped particles ranging from 50 to 80 nm in diameter. (
  • The RNA was found in 35% of particles larger than 4 microns in diameter, 23% of particles 1 to 4 microns in diameter, and 42% in particles smaller than 1 micron. (
  • The BMV particle, with a maximum diameter of 195 A, is made from distinctive pentameric capsomeres with large holes along the 3-fold axis, while the AlMV particle, of approximate maximum diameter 220 A, has subunits closely packed around the 3-fold axis, large holes along the 5-fold axis, and few contacts within pentamers. (
  • Particles that measured 115 to 125 nm in diameter budded from the lamella of endoplasmic reticulum and were studded on their inner surfaces with dense granules (approximately 12 nm) that gave them their unique ultrastructural morphology. (
  • Astroviruses are nonenveloped viruses whose capsid is around 28 to 41 nm in diameter and contains a plus-sense single-stranded RNA of around 6.9 kb organized in three open reading frames (ORFs) ( 20 , 32 , 37 ). (
  • Electron cryomicroscopy revealed two major particle populations of ~60 and ~45 nm in diameter. (
  • 100-nm-diameter vesicular particles that resemble exosomes. (
  • Native Megavirus icosasedral capsids are thus 520 nm in diameter, corresponding to a total particle diameter of 680 nm. (
  • Generation of recombinant virus-like particles of human and non-human polyomaviruses in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ," Intervirology , vol. 45, no. 4-6, pp. 308-317, 2002. (
  • This method produces recombinant virus-like particles that are noninfectious and contain predefined RNA ( 2 - 6 , 8 , 11 , 12 , 15 , 16 , 28 ). (
  • A Phase 1 Randomized, Observer-Blinded, Dose-Ranging Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of Monovalent A/Indonesia/05/05 (H5N1) Virus-Like Particle (VLP) Avian Influenza Antigen (Recombinant) in Healthy Young Adults With and Without Adjuvant 2. (
  • Both antibody-displaying human cells and virus particles bound antigen specifically. (
  • RNase-resistant, noninfectious virus-like particles containing exogenous RNA sequences (armored RNA) are good candidates as RNA controls and standards in RNA virus detection. (
  • When MDBK ceUs were infected with these mutant viruses, they produced noninfectious virus particles at 39.5°C. The efficiency of particle formation at 39.5°C was essentiaUy the same for both wild-type (wt) and Is virus-infected cells. (
  • When compared with the wt virus produced at either 33 or 39.5°C or the ts virus formed at 33°C, these noninfectious virus particles were lighter in density and lacked spikes on the envelope. (
  • Thermal conversion of filamentous potato virus X into spherical particles with different properties from virions. (
  • A lower buoyant density of the filamentous forms as compared to spherical particles allowed us to obtain a sufficiently pure population of filaments. (
  • In addition to providing a rapid, inexpensive and convenient system to produce, protect and recover chimeric gene transcripts of any length or sequence, this E. coli system also offers a rapid approach for studying the molecular requirements for plant virus "self-assembly" in vivo. (
  • An open letter signed by 239 researchers addressed to the World Health Organization, published Monday in Clinical Infectious Diseases , calls for attention and guidance around a third route of transmission: tiny respiratory particles that float in the air and are called aerosols and that, the researchers state, could be responsible for infecting someone who comes along and breathes them in. (
  • Dec 2, 2010 (CIDRAP News) The role of aerosols in the transmission of flu viruses has been unclear and controversial, but a new study that analyzed the size and content of particles from the coughs of flu patients found that particles small enough to remain airborne can contain detectable flu virus. (
  • Viable virus was found in aerosols from 2 of 11 volunteers who had viable virus on nasopharyngeal swabs. (
  • The researchers said the results show that coughing flu patients emit aerosols that contain flu virus and that respirable particles (smaller than 4 microns) contain much of the viral RNA. (
  • Sampling devices that can collect a wide size range of virus-containing aerosols and maintain the viability of the collected viruses are needed. (
  • Exercise generates millions of respiratory aerosols during a test, many of a size reported to have virus-carrying potential. (
  • Fig. 2 from the study: Viral shedding: (A) infectious influenza virus (fluorescent focus counts) in NP swabs and fine aerosols and (B) RNA copies in NP swabs, coarse, and fine aerosols. (
  • Most public health organizations, including the WHO, do not recognize airborne transmission except for aerosol-generating procedures performed in healthcare settings," the letter states, "Hand-washing and social distancing are appropriate, but in our view, insufficient to provide protection from virus-carrying respiratory microdroplets released into the air by infected people. (
  • Unlike a droplet, smaller aerosol particles can remain suspended in the air. (
  • The investigators noted that the fraction of respirable particles that contained influenza RNA, 65%, was higher than the 42% to 53% range found in previous aerosol sampling studies that were conducted in healthcare facilities. (
  • The group concluded that in some cases, coughing flu patients release airborne particles that contain potentially infectious virus, which they say supports the view that aerosol transmission is possible. (
  • She said the findings add important information about the size distribution of infectious aerosol particles from coughs. (
  • To improve our understanding of the mechanisms of airborne transmission of viruses, air sampling technologies that can detect the presence of aerosolized viruses, effectively collect them and maintain their viability, and determine their distribution in aerosol particles, are needed. (
  • Such aerosol particles of varying sizes are a common component of breath, and they are a typical mode of transmission for respiratory viruses like COVID-19 to spread to other people and surfaces. (
  • Two types of laser beam particle counters were used to measure aerosol concentration at the front, back and sides of a person riding an exercise bike. (
  • C and D) Scatter plots and Spearman correlation coefficients of infectious virus plotted against RNA copies for (C) NP swabs and for (D) fine-aerosol samples. (
  • Virus-like particles (VLP) are meant to mimic the virus of interest in everything except the genetic material. (
  • Our methods are designed to mimic the methodology used by virus TEM experts manually operating the microscope. (
  • This is a colorized scanning electron micrograph of filamentous Ebola virus particles (green) attached to and budding from a chronically infected VERO E6 cell (blue) (25,000x magnification). (
  • Advances in our understanding of the various molecular mechanisms by which infectious HCV particles are formed are summarized. (
  • To overcome the lack of a conventional cell culture system for the propagation of infectious HCV particles, pseudotype viruses expressing the HCV envelope gps have been generated. (
  • Our study constitutes an initial approach toward understanding the structural characteristics of infectious HCV particles. (
  • Objective HCV is intimately linked with the liver lipid metabolism, devoted to the efflux of triacylglycerols stored in lipid droplets (LDs) in the form of triacylglycerol-rich very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs): (i) the most infectious HCV particles are those of lowest density due to association with triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins and (ii) HCV-infected patients frequently develop hepatic steatosis (increased triacylglycerol storage). (
  • Ebola virus-like particles protect from lethal Ebola virus infection. (
  • The selective association of a virus with a target cell is usually determined by an interaction between the viral gps and specific cell-surface receptor(s) and is an essential step in the initiation of infection. (
  • Vincent, Alan, Dickson and Rich answer listener questions about XMRV, yellow fever vaccine, virus-like particles, West Nile virus, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and human endogenous retroviruses, multiplicity of infection, and how to make a poxvirus. (
  • The study found that the viral RNA in the particles can remain airborne and thus could be inhaled deep into the lungs, which poses infection control challenges in health facilities. (
  • At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), laser and biology specialists have teamed up to create a new platform and experiments to analyze the components and structure of viruses, such as the one causing the current COVID-19 infection. (
  • In this pilot work, the scientists will employ surrogate viruses, the properties of which are similar to that of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that is responsible for causing the COVID-19 infection but can be safely used by laboratory staff. (
  • These highly infectious viruses were, until recently, commonly thought to cause a mild, self-limiting disease in healthy individuals, but increasing epidemiology shows that the incidence and severity of illness due to NoV infection is substantial and similar to diseases where immunization is widely recommended. (
  • The technique they developed could help scientists learn more about how to deliver drugs via nanoparticles-which are about the same size as viruses-as well as how to prevent viral infection from occurring. (
  • If we understand what is happening to the virus before it gets to your cells," said Welsher, "then we can think about ways to prevent infection altogether. (
  • Next, a discussion about the newest and most important strategies for virus particles modification including genetic, chemical, and self-assembly/encapsulation engineering towards the development of new virus particles for biomedical applications, including targeted delivery and therapy, molecular imaging for disease detection, vaccine development, and bacterial infection control. (
  • Transcription of a full-length cDNA clone of TMV RNA also resulted in high levels of CP expression and assembly of sufficient intact genomic RNA to initiate virus infection of susceptible tobacco plants. (
  • The first generation HBsAg-MPER particles represent a unique means to present HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein neutralizing determinants to the immune system. (
  • 2016) " Development of a liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry method for the quantitation of viral envelope glycoprotein in Ebola virus-like particle vaccine preparations ," Clinical Proteomics, 13(1) (18), doi: 10.1186/s12014-016-9119-8. (
  • On the left is a 1918 H1 influenza virus-like particle (VLP) as seen by cryo-electron microscopy. (
  • We determined the structure of AiV-1 empty particle to a resolution of 4.2 angstrom using cryo-electron microscopy. (
  • Crowther, R. A. (1971) Procedures for three-dimensional reconstruction of spherical viruses by fourier synthesis from electron micrographs. (
  • The picture below is an electron micrograph of an influenza virus. (
  • Using a manifold-based analysis of experimental diffraction snapshots from an X-ray free electron laser, we determine the three-dimensional structure and conformational landscape of the PR772 virus to a detector-limited resolution of 9 nm. (
  • What Kevin has done that is really different is that he can capture a three-dimensional view of a virus-sized particle attacking a living cell, whereas electron microscopy is in two-dimensions and on dead cells," Yang said. (
  • Following the motion of the particle allowed us to trace very fine structures with a precision of about 10 nanometers, which typically is only available with an electron microscope," Welsher said. (
  • When aphids ( Myzus persicae ) were fed on, or injected with, purified PLRV, or VLP of either type (FL or P3-6H) and examined by electron microscopy, no differences were observed among treatments for particle endocytosis, transcellular transport, or exocytosis at the aphid midgut or accessory salivary glands. (
  • Viral spread via air currents has been documented in certain indoor environments: at a restaurant in Guangzhou, China, where people sitting downstream from an air conditioner caught COVID-19, and at a March choir practice in Washington state, where many choir members got sick with coronavirus after likely breathing in tiny airborne particles generated by individuals who were infected but symptom-free at the time. (
  • It's really shocking to most virologists and epidemiologists that airborne dust, rather than expiratory droplets, can carry influenza virus capable of infecting animals," said Professor William Ristenpart of the UC Davis Department of Chemical Engineering, who helped lead the research. (
  • Using an automated particle sizer to count airborne particles, they found that uninfected guinea pigs give off spikes of up to 1,000 particles per second as they move around the cage. (
  • Contributing to the debate was the concern that airborne viruses, if drawn deep into the lungs, might lead to more severe illness. (
  • While other studies have demonstrated that individuals with influenza can generate particles in a wide range of particle sizes and that many particles are in a relatively small particle size (less than 1 micron) that can remain airborne for long periods of time I believe this is one of the first studies to demonstrate the viability of such particles," Brosseau said. (
  • Collection, Particle Sizing and Detection of Airborne Viruses. (
  • Due to current technological deficiencies, accurate determination of the presence of airborne viruses is challenging. (
  • The latest developments in sampling and detection methodologies for airborne viruses, their limitations, factors that can affect their performance, and current research needs, are discussed in this review. (
  • The addition of an eight amino acid HIV-1 gp41 envelope incorporation motif further increased scFvFc expression on human cells and incorporation into lentiviral particles. (
  • SVP are typically present in a 1,000- to 100,000-fold excess relative to the infectious particles ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • Viruses were harvested from the culture medium by centrifugation at 1,000 × g , and the cell debris was discarded. (
  • It may contain 10 8 viable particles but may have 10 11 total particles with only 1 in 1,000 of those total viruses being viable. (
  • Particles, obtained by ultracentrifugation of the supernatants of 293T cells transfected with both Ebola GP and VP40 or VeroE6 cells infected with EBOV, were negatively stained with uranyl acetate to reveal the ultrastructure. (
  • Ebola virus (EBOV), isolate Makona, was the causative agent of the West African epidemic devastating predominantly Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone from 2013-2016. (
  • GP and VP40 form EBOV-like particles and elicit protective immune responses. (
  • Given the increasing urbanization of Africa and the globalization of air traffic, measures need to be put in place to control the next emergence of Ebola virus (EBOV). (
  • The decision to use MVA as an EBOV vaccine platform was, in part, based on its parent, vaccinia virus, which has been successfully used in ring vaccinations to contain local outbreaks during the eradication of smallpox 13 . (
  • The recent Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa, which took more than 10,000 lives in 2014, highlighted the critical need for robust treatment and prevention options to combat this highly virulent pathogen. (
  • Sleat DE, Turner PC, Finch JT, Butler PJG, Wilson TMA (1986) Packaging of recombinant RNA molecules into pseudovirus particles directed by the origin-of- assembly sequence from tobacco mosaic virus RNA. (
  • In the absence of native HCV particles, truncated version(s) of the E2 gp ( 7 , 8 ), E1E2 gp-liposomes ( 9 ), and virus-like particles expressed in insect cell systems ( 10 , 11 ) have been used as mimics to study virus-cell interactions. (
  • In this context, engineering questions related to the development of licensed nano and micro-particulate transport systems l for therapy, the development of licensed reaction systems for cell-based and nanoparticulate (virus particles) therapy, and the optimization and scale-up of cell cultivation systems (stem cells, insect cells) will be addressed. (
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus (family Togaviridae ) and is the causative agent of chikungunya fever. (
  • The Czermak group is working on the characterization and optimization of GMP-compliant processes for the expansion and harvesting of stem cells for therapy as well as on the characterization and optimization of processes for the production and purification of oncological measles viruses for cancer therapy. (
  • Measles virus particle, computer illustration. (
  • Importantly, the VLP-driven IgA response preferentially targeted virus-neutralizing epitopes located in the receptor-binding domain. (
  • Research Corridor has published a new research study titled "Virus Like Particles Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis and Forecast, 2017 - 2025" . (
  • Virus Like Particles Market estimates have also been provided for the historical years 2015 & 2016 along with forecast for the period from 2017 - 2025. (
  • This approach allowed for rapid in situ purification of virions and increased particle density that were instrumental for cryo-EM and cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET). (
  • A difference in the UV-inactivation kinetics between filaments and spherical virions suggests that the infectious filamentous forms are probably represented by multigenomic particles or partial heterozygotes. (
  • To develop such a device, we fabricated nanochannels to transport virus particles through ultrashort laser cavities and measured the lasing output as a sensor for virions. (
  • The particles are composed of pentameric capsomeres from the wild-type virions which have reoriented with respect to the original particle pentameric axes by rotations of 37 degrees , and formed tenuous interactions with one another, principally through conformationally altered C-terminal polypeptides. (
  • In these spikeless particles, HA could not be detected at the limit of 0.2% of the HA present in wt virions. (
  • Primary source:'Virions are bacilliform in shape, but particles can also appear as branched, circular, U or 6- shaped and long filamentous forms (Fig. 1). (
  • As regulators become increasingly stringent in demanding a fuller understanding of whole virus preparations, researchers and manufacturers are looking beyond well-known characterization methodologies. (
  • Human flavivirus infections appear to provide lifelong immunity to the infecting virus, yet only temporally transient protection to heterologous flavivirus infections ( 14 ). (
  • Family members differ in length of virion particles, but seem to be very similar in morphology. (
  • The surface of the AiV-1 virion has a unique topology distinct from other related viruses from the Picornaviridae family. (
  • A vaccine that protects against a wide variety of influenza viruses (a so-called universal flu vaccine) is a critical public health goal given the significant rates of illness and death caused by seasonal influenza and the potentially devastating effects of a pandemic influenza strain. (
  • Now, researchers from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, have devised a way to induce protective immunity in mice against a wide array of influenza viruses. (
  • In the new study, the NIAID scientists vaccinated mice with the VLP cocktail, then exposed them to lethal doses of several different influenza viruses. (
  • Influenza viruses can spread through the air on dust, fibers and other microscopic particles, according to new research from the University of California, Davis and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Influenza viruses" applicable to this article? (
  • The research group, in NIAID's Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, is continuing its work by comparing its VLP data to data from other natural influenza viruses. (
  • Together, our data suggest that eVLPs represent a promising vaccine candidate for protection against Ebola virus infections and a much needed tool to examine the genesis and nature of immune responses to Ebola virus. (
  • Virus-like particles have the unique property of inducing protective immune responses but they lack the infectious capacities of the original virus. (
  • Furthermore, Virus like particles are able to induce both innate and adaptive immune responses in humans. (
  • HCV purified from plasma has been reported to exist in association with plasma lipoproteins, suggesting that the virus may use the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) to gain entry into cells ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • They were also able to infect cells from these particles released from the virus-contaminated paper tissues. (
  • By using a fluorescent marker, they could show that virus-like particles carrying LXY-30 could home in on breast cancer cells both in a laboratory dish and in a mouse model of breast cancer. (
  • Reporter virus particles (RVPs) are replication-incompetent virus particles engineered to express one or more reporter genes upon infecting susceptible cells. (
  • Cells and viruses. (
  • Unique virus-derived particles have been developed that can kill human blood cancer cells in the laboratory and eradicate the disease in mice with few side effects. (
  • doi: 10.1038/bcj.2013.23 ), the researchers used a specific method and dose of UV light to transform regular replicating viruses into unique particles that could no longer replicate and spread, but could still enter cancer cells efficiently, kill them, and stimulate a strong immune response against the cancer. (
  • These virus-like particles bud from cells like native virus, are similar in size to the native virus, and can enter cells to release the contents of the core-like particle into the cytoplasm of the cell. (
  • Virus-like particles can be used to infect cells with biological and non-biological cargoes. (
  • Virus-like particles were observed in the giant cells of a mammary adenoma of a snow leopard kept in captivity. (
  • The challenge in imaging these events is that viruses and nanoparticles are small and fast, while cells are relatively large and immobile," said Kevin Welsher, a postdoctoral researcher in Princeton's Department of Chemistry and first author on the study. (
  • Welsher added that such basic research could lead to new strategies for keeping viruses from entering cells in the first place. (
  • The researchers then let loose the particles into a dish containing skin cells known as fibroblasts. (
  • A procedure has been developed for the determination of the concentration of infective Newcastle disease virus (NDV) based on the enumeration of singly infected and distributed HeLa cells which are visualized by staining with fluorescent antibody. (
  • There was a linear relationship between virus concentration and the number of infected cells. (
  • Here we describe a discovery platform that utilizes self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vectors for the surface display of high-affinity single-chain variable region (scFv) antibody fragments on human cells and lentivirus particles. (
  • Ebola virus enters host cells by macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (
  • In addition, it induced significantly more natural killer and cytotoxic T cells, as well as an increase in interferon gamma (IFN-γ) secretion, which are vital for virus clearance. (
  • From Cells to Virus Particles: Quantitative Methods to Monitor RNA Packaging. (
  • With the rapid progresses in both instrumentation and computing, it is increasingly straightforward and routine to determine the structures of icosahedral viruses to subnanometer resolutions (6-10 Å) by cryoelectron microscopy and image reconstruction. (
  • Knowledge of the structures of the BMV wild-type and T=1 particles now permit us to propose a tentative model for that process. (
  • -Virus particles of the same type had been thought to have identical structures, like a mass-produced toy, but a new visualization technique developed by a Purdue University researcher revealed otherwise. (
  • The present report describes the preparation of asymmetric polystyrene- block -poly( t -butyl acrylate) (PS- b -PtBA) particles having virus-like surface structures. (
  • Virus detection and immunization both require exquisite molecular recognition of virus-specific structures. (
  • The virus causes a severe, and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas and chimpanzees). (
  • The size of viruses ranges from a few tens to a few hundreds of nm, which is equal to 1/100 to 1/1000 of the cell (a few to a few tens of μm in size) of any other common living organism. (
  • The size of these particles can either be too large for dynamic light scattering to measure or present a difficult challenge for the lower resolution of that technique. (
  • The result below for an influenze virus reported a mean size of 127.6 nm, with good repeatability. (
  • Particle size distribution for an influenza virus as measured by the SZ-100. (
  • Size results for the influenza virus. (
  • The LA-960 Particle Size Analyzer measuring range stretches from 10 nanometers to 5 millimeters. (
  • Particle size distribution and results for a VLP material as measured by the LA-960. (
  • The HORIBA SZ-100 and LA-960 particle size analyzers can measure the size of viruses and virus-like particles quickly and accurately. (
  • Crumpling the tissues released up to 900 particles per second in a size range that could be inhaled, they found. (
  • Researchers at Northwestern University have developed a laser the size of a virus particle that can operate at room temperature. (
  • Measuring particle size distribution of nanoparticle enabled medicinal products, the joint view of EUNCL and NCI-NCL. (
  • The particle size distribution (PSD) and the stability of nanoparticles enabled medicinal products (NEP) in complex biological environments are key attributes to assess their quality, safety and effic. (
  • According to Eric Esarey, BELLA Center director, the ultimate aim of creating laser-plasma acceleration methods is to decrease the cost and size of particle accelerators that may serve in an array of capacities for the research, industrial, and medical communities. (
  • Panasonic Corporation has verified that nano-size charged water particles generated by applying a high voltage to water, which is referred to as nanoe™, has a suppression effect on pet (dog, cat) related allergens, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. (
  • A high voltage is applied across the atomizing electrode and the facing electrode to generate nanoe™ charged water particles of 5 to 20 nanometers (nm) in size. (
  • 1: Nano-size charged water particles generated by applying a high voltage to water. (
  • Deprotection of t -butyl moieties led to the formation of daughter particles with a size in the range of tens of nanometres. (
  • The first part describes the basic characteristics of viral particles regarding their chemical composition and size, as well as their structure and assembly/disassembly abilities. (
  • The Cap-like particles had a size and shape that resembled the authentic Cap. (
  • Porcine circoviruses (PCVs), classified as a member of the family Circoviridae, are small icosahedral non-enveloped viruses (size ~17 nm) containing a circular single-stranded DNA molecule of about 1.7 kb. (
  • RNA-directed RNA polymerase, C-terminal domain / Picornavirus capsid / Superfamily 3 helicase of positive ssRNA viruses domain profile. (
  • RNA dependent RNA polymerase / Peptidase S1, PA clan / RdRp of positive ssRNA viruses catalytic domain profile. (
  • Caspar DLD (1963) Assembly and stability of the tobacco mosaic virus particle. (
  • Fraenkel-Conrat H (1957) Degradation of tobacco mosaic virus with acetic acid. (
  • Bloomer AC, Butler PJG (1986) Tobacco mosaic virus: structure and self-assembly. (
  • Zimmern D, Wilson TMA (1976) Location of the origin for viral reassembly on tobacco mosaic virus RNA and its relation to stable fragment. (
  • Zimmern D (1977) The nucleotide sequence at the origin for assembly on tobacco mosaic virus RNA. (
  • The width of the final particle was about 100 nanometers. (
  • The bacteriophage T7 procapsid structure and the DNA packaging apparatus at the portal vertex was reconstructed using single particle cryo-EM and the new Focused Asymmetric Reconstruction (FAR) image processing technique developed by Wen Jiang, a Purdue University associate professor of biological sciences. (
  • In his pursuit of improved imaging, Jiang studied the bacteriophage T7, a virus that infects bacteria. (
  • We describe such a vaccine for the treatment of cat allergy, consisting of the major cat allergen Fel d1 coupled to bacteriophage Qβ-derived virus-like particles (Qβ-Fel d1). (
  • In the new study, UC Davis engineering graduate student Sima Asadi and Ristenpart teamed up with virologists led by Dr. Nicole Bouvier at Mt. Sinai to look at whether tiny, non-respiratory particles they call "aerosolized fomites" could carry influenza virus between guinea pigs. (