The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by variable reproductive cycles. The genera include: LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS and RHADINOVIRUS.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
The period from about 5 to 7 years to adolescence when there is an apparent cessation of psychosexual development.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.

The amino-terminal C/H1 domain of CREB binding protein mediates zta transcriptional activation of latent Epstein-Barr virus. (1/2054)

Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is maintained as a nucleosome-covered episome that can be transcriptionally activated by overexpression of the viral immediate-early protein, Zta. We show here that reactivation of latent EBV by Zta can be significantly enhanced by coexpression of the cellular coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. A stable complex containing both Zta and CBP could be isolated from lytically stimulated, but not latently infected RAJI nuclear extracts. Zta-mediated viral reactivation and transcriptional activation were both significantly inhibited by coexpression of the E1A 12S protein but not by an N-terminal deletion mutation of E1A (E1ADelta2-36), which fails to bind CBP. Zta bound directly to two related cysteine- and histidine-rich domains of CBP, referred to as C/H1 and C/H3. These domains both interacted specifically with the transcriptional activation domain of Zta in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Interestingly, we found that the C/H3 domain was a potent dominant negative inhibitor of Zta transcriptional activation function. In contrast, an amino-terminal fragment containing the C/H1 domain was sufficient for coactivation of Zta transcription and viral reactivation function. Thus, CBP can stimulate the transcription of latent EBV in a histone acetyltransferase-independent manner mediated by the CBP amino-terminal C/H1-containing domain. We propose that CBP may regulate aspects of EBV latency and reactivation by integrating cellular signals mediated by competitive interactions between C/H1, C/H3, and the Zta activation domain.  (+info)

Epstein-barr virus regulates c-MYC, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity in Burkitt lymphoma. (2/2054)

Loss of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome from Akata Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells is coincident with a loss of malignant phenotype, despite the fact that Akata and other EBV-positive BL cells express a restricted set of EBV gene products (type I latency) that are not known to overtly affect cell growth. Here we demonstrate that reestablishment of type I latency in EBV-negative Akata cells restores tumorigenicity and that tumorigenic potential correlates with an increased resistance to apoptosis under growth-limiting conditions. The antiapoptotic effect of EBV was associated with a higher level of Bcl-2 expression and an EBV-dependent decrease in steady-state levels of c-MYC protein. Although the EBV EBNA-1 protein is expressed in all EBV-associated tumors and is reported to have oncogenic potential, enforced expression of EBNA-1 alone in EBV-negative Akata cells failed to restore tumorigenicity or EBV-dependent down-regulation of c-MYC. These data provide direct evidence that EBV contributes to the tumorigenic potential of Burkitt lymphoma and suggest a novel model whereby a restricted latency program of EBV promotes B-cell survival, and thus virus persistence within an immune host, by selectively targeting the expression of c-MYC.  (+info)

Anti-rheumatic compound aurothioglucose inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced HIV-1 replication in latently infected OM10.1 and Ach2 cells. (3/2054)

NF-kappaB is a potent cellular activator of HIV-1 gene expression. Down-regulation of NF-kappaB activation is known to inhibit HIV replication from the latently infected cells. Gold compounds have been effectively used for many decades in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. We previously reported that gold compounds, especially aurothioglucose (AuTG) containing monovalent gold ion, inhibited the DNA-binding of NF-kappaB in vitro. In this report we have examined the efficacy of the gold compound AuTG as an inhibitor of HIV replication in latently infected OM10.1 and Ach2 cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced HIV-1 replication in OM10.1 or Ach2 cells was significantly inhibited by non-cytotoxic doses of AuTG (>10 microM in OM10.1 cells and >25 F.M in Ach2 cells), while 25 microM of the counter-anion thioglucose (TG) or gold compound containing divalent gold ion, HAuCl3, had no effect. The effect of AuTG on NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression was confirmed by a transient CAT assay. Specific staining as well as electron microscopic examinations revealed the accumulation of metal gold in the cells, supporting our previous hypothesis that gold ions could block NF-kappaB-DNA binding by a redox mechanism. These observations indicate that the monovalent gold compound AuTG is a potentially useful drug for the treatment of patients infected with HIV.  (+info)

EBP2, a human protein that interacts with sequences of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 important for plasmid maintenance. (4/2054)

The replication and stable maintenance of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA episomes in human cells requires only one viral protein, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1). To gain insight into the mechanisms by which EBNA1 functions, we used a yeast two-hybrid screen to detect human proteins that interact with EBNA1. We describe here the isolation of a protein, EBP2 (EBNA1 binding protein 2), that specifically interacts with EBNA1. EBP2 was also shown to bind to DNA-bound EBNA1 in a one-hybrid system, and the EBP2-EBNA1 interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation from insect cells expressing these two proteins. EBP2 is a 35-kDa protein that is conserved in a variety of organisms and is predicted to form coiled-coil interactions. We have mapped the region of EBNA1 that binds EBP2 and generated internal deletion mutants of EBNA1 that are deficient in EBP2 interactions. Functional analyses of these EBNA1 mutants show that the ability to bind EBP2 correlates with the ability of EBNA1 to support the long-term maintenance in human cells of a plasmid containing the EBV origin, oriP. An EBNA1 mutant lacking amino acids 325 to 376 was defective for EBP2 binding and long-term oriP plasmid maintenance but supported the transient replication of oriP plasmids at wild-type levels. Thus, our results suggest that the EBNA1-EBP2 interaction is important for the stable segregation of EBV episomes during cell division but not for the replication of the episomes.  (+info)

Genetic evidence that EBNA-1 is needed for efficient, stable latent infection by Epstein-Barr virus. (5/2054)

Replication and maintenance of the 170-kb circular chromosome of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) during latent infection are generally believed to depend upon a single viral gene product, the nuclear protein EBNA-1. EBNA-1 binds to two clusters of sites at oriP, an 1, 800-bp sequence on the EBV genome which can support replication and maintenance of artificial plasmids introduced into cell lines that contain EBNA-1. To investigate the importance of EBNA-1 to latent infection by EBV, we introduced a frameshift mutation into the EBNA-1 gene of EBV by recombination along with a flanking selectable marker. EBV genomes carrying the frameshift mutation could be isolated readily after superinfecting EBV-positive cell lines, but not if recombinant virus was used to infect EBV-negative B-cell lines or to immortalize peripheral blood B cells. EBV mutants lacking almost all of internal repeat 3, which encode a repetitive glycine and alanine domain of EBNA-1, were generated in the same way and found to immortalize B cells normally. An EBNA-1-deficient mutant of EBV was isolated and found to be incapable of establishing a latent infection of the cell line BL30 at a detectable frequency, indicating that the mutant was less than 1% as efficient as an isogenic, EBNA-1-positive strain in this assay. The data indicate that EBNA-1 is required for efficient and stable latent infection by EBV under the conditions tested. Evidence from other studies now indicates that autonomous maintenance of the EBV chromosome during latent infection does not depend on the replication initiation function of oriP. It is therefore likely that the viral chromosome maintenance (segregation) function of oriP and EBNA-1 is what is required.  (+info)

Expression of EBNA-1 mRNA is regulated by cell cycle during Epstein-Barr virus type I latency. (6/2054)

Expression of EBNA-1 protein is required for the establishment and maintenance of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome during latent infection. During type I latency, the BamHI Q promoter (Qp) gives rise to EBNA-1 expression. The dominant regulatory mechanism for Qp appears to be mediated through the Q locus, located immediately downstream of the transcription start site. Binding of EBNA-1 to the Q locus represses Qp constitutive activity, and repression has been reported to be overcome by an E2F family member that binds to the Q locus and displaces EBNA-1 (N. S. Sung, J. Wilson, M. Davenport, N. D. Sista, and J. S. Pagano, Mol. Cell. Biol. 14:7144-7152, 1994). These data suggest that the final outcome of Qp activity is reciprocally controlled by EBNA-1 and E2F. Since E2F activity is cell cycle regulated, Qp activity and EBNA-1 expression are predicted to be regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Proliferation of the type I latently infected cell line, Akata, was synchronized with the use of the G2/M blocking agent nocodazole. From 65 to 75% of cells could be made to peak in S phase without evidence of viral reactivation. Following release from G2/M block, EBNA-1 mRNA levels declined as the synchronized cells entered the G1 phase of the cell cycle. As cells proceeded into S phase, EBNA-1 mRNA levels increased parallel to the peak in cell numbers in S phase. However, EBNA-1 protein levels showed no detectable change during the cell cycle, most likely due to the protein's long half-life as estimated by inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide. Finally, in Qp luciferase reporter assays, the activity of Qp was shown to be regulated by cell cycle and to be dependent on the E2F sites within the Q locus. These findings demonstrate that transcriptional activity of Qp is cell cycle regulated and indicated that E2F serves as the stimulus for this regulation.  (+info)

Macrophages are the major reservoir of latent murine gammaherpesvirus 68 in peritoneal cells. (7/2054)

B cells have previously been identified as the major hematopoietic cell type harboring latent gammaherpesvirus 68 (gammaHV68) (N. P. Sunil-Chandra, S. Efstathiou, and A. A. Nash, J. Gen. Virol. 73:3275-3279, 1992). However, we have shown that gammaHV68 efficiently establishes latency in B-cell-deficient mice (K. E. Weck, M. L. Barkon, L. I. Yoo, S. H. Speck, and H. W. Virgin, J. Virol. 70:6775-6780, 1996), demonstrating that B cells are not required for gammaHV68 latency. To understand this dichotomy, we determined whether hematopoietic cell types, in addition to B cells, carry latent gammaHV68. We observed a high frequency of cells that reactivate latent gammaHV68 in peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) derived from both B-cell-deficient and normal C57BL/6 mice. PECs were composed primarily of macrophages in B-cell-deficient mice and of macrophages plus B cells in normal C57BL/6 mice. To determine which cells in PECs from C57BL/6 mice carry latent gammaHV68, we developed a limiting-dilution PCR assay to quantitate the frequency of cells carrying the gammaHV68 genome in fluorescence-activated cell sorter-purified cell populations. We also quantitated the contribution of individual cell populations to the total frequency of cells carrying latent gammaHV68. At early times after infection, the frequency of PECs that reactivated gammaHV68 correlated very closely with the frequency of PECs carrying the gammaHV68 genome, validating measurement of the frequency of viral-genome-positive cells as a measure of latency in this cell population. F4/80-positive macrophage-enriched, lymphocyte-depleted PECs harbored most of the gammaHV68 genome and efficiently reactivated gammaHV68, while CD19-positive, B-cell-enriched PECs harbored about a 10-fold lower frequency of gammaHV68 genome-positive cells. CD4-positive, T-cell-enriched PECs contained only a very low frequency of gammaHV68 genome-positive cells, consistent with previous analyses indicating that T cells are not a reservoir for gammaHV68 latency (N. P. Sunil-Chandra, S. Efstathiou, and A. A. Nash, J. Gen. Virol. 73:3275-3279, 1992). Since macrophages are bone marrow derived, we determined whether elicitation of a large inflammatory response in the peritoneum would recruit additional latent cells into the peritoneum. Thioglycolate inoculation increased the total number of PECs by about 20-fold but did not affect the frequency of cells that reactivate gammaHV68, consistent with a bone marrow reservoir for latent gammaHV68. These experiments demonstrate gammaHV68 latency in two different hematopoietic cell types, F4/80-positive macrophages and CD19-positive B cells, and argue for a bone marrow reservoir for latent gammaHV68.  (+info)

Role for gamma interferon in control of herpes simplex virus type 1 reactivation. (8/2054)

Observation of chronic inflammatory cells and associated high-level gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production in ganglia during herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) latent infection in mice (E. M. Cantin, D. R. Hinton, J. Chen, and H. Openshaw, J. Virol. 69:4898-4905, 1995) prompted studies to determine a role of IFN-gamma in maintaining latency. Mice lacking IFN-gamma (GKO mice) or the IFN-gamma receptor (RGKO mice) were inoculated with HSV-1, and the course of the infection was compared with that in IFN-gamma-competent mice with the same genetic background (129/Sv//Ev mice). A time course study showed no significant difference in trigeminal ganglionic viral titers or the timing of establishment of latency. Spontaneous reactivation resulting in infectious virus in the ganglion did not occur during latency in any of the mice. However, 24 h after the application of hyperthermic stress to mice, HSV-1 antigens were detected in multiple neurons in the null mutant mice but in only a single neuron in the 129/Sv//Ev control mice. Mononuclear inflammatory cells clustered tightly around these reactivating neurons, and by 48 h, immunostaining was present in satellite cells as well. The incidence of hyperthermia-induced reactivation as determined by recovery of infectious virus from ganglia was significantly higher in the null mutant than in control mice: 11% in 129/Sv//Ev controls, 50% in GKO mice (P = 0.0002), and 33% in RGKO mice (P = 0.03). We concluded that IFN-gamma is not involved in the induction of reactivation but rather contributes to rapid suppression of HSV once it is reactivated.  (+info)

After replication at sites of initial inoculation, herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) establish lifelong latent infections of the sensory and autonomic neurons of the ganglia serving those sites. Periodically, the virus reactivates from these neurons, and travels centripetally along the neuronal axon to cause recurrent epithelial infection. The major clinically observed difference between infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 is the anatomic site specificity of recurrence. HSV-1 reactivates most efficiently and frequently from trigeminal ganglia, causing recurrent ocular and oral-facial lesions, while HSV-2 reactivates primarily from sacral ganglia causing recurrent genital lesions. An intertypic recombinant virus was constructed and evaluated in animal models of recurrent ocular and genital herpes. Substitution of a 2.8-kbp region from the HSV-1 latency-associated transcript (LAT) for native HSV-2 sequences caused HSV-2 to reactivate with an HSV-1 phenotype in ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in establishment of integrated proviral latency pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Viruses that infect the nervous system may cause acute, chronic or latent infections. Despite the so-called immunoprivileged status of the nervous system, immunosurveillance plays an important role in the fate of viral infection of the brain. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) persists in the nervous system for the life of the host with periodic stress induced reactivation that produces progeny viruses. Prevention of reactivation requires a complex interplay between virus neurons, and immune response. New evidence supports the view that CD8+T cells employing both lytic granule- and IFN-gamma-dependent effectors are essential in setting up and maintaining HSV-1 latency. HSV-1 infection of the nervous system can be seen as a parasitic invasion which leaves the individual at risk for subsequent reactivation and disease. The recent observation that herpes virus latency may confer protection against experimental bacterial infection suggests that unexpected symbiosis may exist between latent viruses and the
Despite successful control of HIV replication in patients receiving HAART, the prolonged life span and slow rate of decay of latently infected CD4+ T cells provide a long-lasting cellular reservoir for HIV (8, 10, 15, 45). Indeed, independent projections estimate the time required to fully eliminate HIV in patients on completely suppressive HAART alone to be 10 to 60 years (9, 15, 16, 52). Latently infected resting memory CD4+ T cells contain integrated DNA provirus yet are transcriptionally inactive and may therefore escape both immune recognition and the antiviral effects of HAART regimes which affect only viral RNA species (10). Since current therapies for HIV are ineffective in eradicating latently infected cell populations, control of these populations depends on the interplay of cellular half-life and the ability to suppress viral replication in order to prevent repopulation of the latent reservoir (25). The importance of this reservoir (17) is underscored by observations of viral rebound ...
In response to numerous signals, latent herpesvirus genomes abruptly switch their developmental program, aborting stable host-cell colonization in favor of productive viral replication that ultimately destroys the cell. To achieve a rapid gene expression transition, newly minted capped, polyadenylated viral mRNAs must engage and reprogram the cellular translational apparatus. While transcriptional responses of viral genomes undergoing lytic reactivation have been amply documented, roles for cellular translational control pathways in enabling the latent-lytic switch have not been described. Using PEL-derived B-cells naturally infected with KSHV as a model, we define efficient reactivation conditions and demonstrate that reactivation substantially changes the protein synthesis profile. New polypeptide synthesis correlates with 4E-BP1 translational repressor inactivation, nuclear PABP accumulation, eIF4F assembly, and phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eIF4E by Mnk1. Significantly, ...
HIV Latency Project, part of the genomics of gene regulation project at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Our goal is to develop precise nucleases that will permit the targeted inactivation of latent HIV-1 provirus in patients.
CTD kinases are critical for the elongation of HIV transcription and co-transcriptional processing of viral transcripts. They function after chromatin remodelin...
The state of latency occurs when a microbes persistence in a host produces host damage without perturbing homeostasis sufficiently to cause clinical symptoms or disease. The mechanisms contributing to latency are diverse and depend on the nature of both the microbe and the host. Latency has advantages for both host and microbe. The host avoids progressive damage caused by interaction with the microbe that may translate into disease, and the microbe secures a stable niche in which to survive. Latency is clinically important because some latent microbes can be transmitted to other hosts, and it is associated with a risk for recrudescent microbial growth and development of disease. In addition, it can predispose the host to other diseases, such as malignancies. Hence, latency is a temporally unstable state with an eventual outcome that mainly depends on host immunity. Latency is an integral part of the pathogenic strategies of microbes that require human (and/or mammalian) hosts, including ...
High -Fidelity Latency Measurements in Low -Latency Networks. Ramana Rao Kompella Myungjin Lee (Purdue), Nick Duffield (AT&T Labs - Research). Low Latency Applications. Many important data center applications require low end-to-end latencies ( microseconds ) Slideshow 2187781 by nike
Luna Innovations (LUNA) surged in morning trading Tuesday off the strength of Rada Electronic Industries (RADA), which reported second-quarter earnings Monday.
Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have come up with a more cost- and time-effective test that detects hidden HIV more accurately.
Hi this is Luna our cozy cat. She is born the 30th of August and with us since the 1st of Decemb… Jeroen van Hoeven needs your support for Help Luna Fight FIP
Luna Xenia is a wikiHow editor. This user has started 0 articles and made 72 article edits. The articles Luna Xenia has started have received a total of 0 views. This user has also patrolled 0 edits.
I dont know If this topic was picked before, but giving a look at old threads something came to my mind. We all know this game is ruled by TEs, and luna is
HIV cure researchers seek out markers that would allow the specific targeting of cells harboring latent HIV. Enter a new candidate: interferon-induced ...
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a frequent cause of major disease following primary infection or reactivation from latency in immunocompromised patients. Infection of non-permissive mononuclear cells is used for analyses of HCMV latency in vitro. Using this approach, it is shown here that repression of lytic gene expression following experimental infection of CD34+ cells, a site of HCMV latency in vivo, correlates with recruitment of repressive chromatin around the major immediate-early promoter (MIEP). Furthermore, long-term culture of CD34+ cells results in carriage of viral genomes in which the MIEP remains associated with transcriptionally repressive chromatin. Finally, specific differentiation of long-term cultures of infected CD34+ cells to mature dendritic cells results in acetylation of histones bound to the MIEP, concomitant loss of heterochromatin protein 1 and the reactivation of HCMV. These data are consistent with ex vivo analyses of latency and may provide a model for further analyses of
Viruses that establish lifelong latent infections must ensure that the viral genome is maintained within the latently infected cell throughout the life of the host, yet at the same time must also be capable of avoiding elimination by the immune surveillance system. Gammaherpesviruses, which include the human viruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, establish latent infections in lymphocytes. Infection of this dynamic host-cell population requires that the viruses have appropriate strategies for enabling the viral genome to persist while these cells go through rounds of mitosis, but at the same time must avoid detection by host CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The majority of gammaherpesviruses studied have been found to encode a specific protein that is critical for maintenance of the viral genome within latently infected cells. This protein is termed the genome maintenance protein (GMP). Due to its vital role in long-term latency, this offers the immune system a
Resting CD4 cells (or other cells) that are infected with HIV but not actively producing HIV. Latent HIV reservoirs are established during the earliest stage of HIV infection. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce the level of HIV in the blood to an undetectable level, latent reservoirs of HIV continue to survive. When a latently infected cell is reactivated, the cell begins to produce HIV again. Although ART can suppress HIV levels, ART cannot eliminate latent HIV reservoirs. For this reason, ART cannot cure HIV infection.
Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) which halts HIV-1 replication and reduces plasma viral load to clinically undetectable levels, viral rebound inevitably occurs once ART is interrupted. HIV-1-infected cells can undergo clonal expansion, and these clonally expanded cells increase over time. Over 50% of latent reservoirs are maintained through clonal expansion. The clonally expanding HIV-1-infected cells, both in the blood and in the lymphoid tissues, contribute to viral rebound. The major drivers of clonal expansion of HIV-1-infected cells include antigen-driven proliferation, homeostatic proliferation and HIV-1 integration site-dependent proliferation. Here, we reviewed how viral, immunologic and genomic factors contribute to clonal expansion of HIV-1-infected cells, and how clonal expansion shapes the HIV-1 latent reservoir. Antigen-specific CD4+ T cells specific for different pathogens have different clonal expansion dynamics, depending on antigen exposure, cytokine profiles and exhaustion
Novirin hits the online market and becomes available on April 21, 2014. Both Novirin and Gene-Eden-VIR help the immune system target latent viruses, and reduce symptoms of latent viral infections with the Herpes (HSV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV), the Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), and the Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) viruses. Individuals who suffer from an infection with one or more of these viruses can order Novirin at, and Gene-Eden-VIR at, ...
Alphaherpesviruses. HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV establish latency in nonreplicating cells (neurons), where the viral genome circularizes to form an episome. These viruses express only a few RNA transcripts, none of which are translated during latency. Since neurons do not divide, it is not necessary to express a viral protein to tether the viral genome to chromosomes during cell division of latently infected cells.. The primary HSV-1 latency-associated transcript (LAT) is an approximately 8.3-kb long noncoding RNA that is spliced to form stable 2.0 and 1.5 introns with lariat structures (9). The LAT has a neuron-specific enhancer that promotes its expression in the nucleus of latently infected cells. Multiple functions have been attributed to LAT in regulation of viral latency. The two LAT introns are expressed antisense to the HSV ICP0 immediate-early gene. Deleting the LAT from HSV reduces the frequency of reactivation (10, 11), and replacing the HSV-2 LAT with the HSV-1 LAT results in HSV-2 with a ...
Background: Efforts to disrupt the establishment and maintenance of the latent reservoir have focused on the shock-and-kill therapeutic approach to reverse HIV latency from CD4+ T cells with subsequent killing of the infected cells. The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is up regulated in latently infected cell lines. In this study, we investigated whether this molecular signature existed in primary latently-infected resting central memory CD4+ T cells and whether this could be used to selectively target and kill latent HIV harboring cells.. Methods: CCL19-treated naïve CD4+ T cells isolated from HIV-uninfected donors were infected with HIV then expanded in the presence of IL2 for 12 d. Memory CD4+ T cells were then isolated and cultured in the presence of IL7 for a further 20 d then analyzed by flow cytometry. HIV integration was analyzed by Alu-LTR qPCR. Expression of XIAP was assessed using Western blotting. HIV p24 antigen was quantified by ELISA. Long-lived, resting memory ...
The major barrier to a HIV-1 cure is the persistence of latent genomes despite treatment with antiretrovirals. To investigate host factors which promote HIV-1 latency, we conducted a genome-wide functional knockout screen using CRISPR-Cas9 in a HIV-1 latency cell line model. This screen identified I …
View Notes - 1385953320_755__Lecture%252B31_HIV%252Blatency%252Band%252Bcure (1) from MBB 322 at Simon Fraser. Lecture 31: Dec 2 HIV latency and eradica6on Integra6on is an essen6al
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
The presence of endogenous oncornavirus and herpesvirus in guinea pigs has been established. The oncornavirus apparently is present in all guinea pigs but is expressed only under certain conditions. Expression of the latent herpesvirus is generally age and strain dependent as is the development of spontaneous guinea pig leukemia. Following special laboratory manipulation, expression of both virus types was accomplished in vitro. Studies of the role played by these two virus types in the development of neoplastic disease in guinea pigs revealed that, in the presence of the endogenous oncornavirus, a superinfection with herpesvirus led to the development of self-limited lymphoproliferative changes. Together with the studies reported by other investigators, it appears that interaction between the DNA and RNA viruses may play an important role in the natural occurrence of viral oncogenesis. Guinea pigs provide an intriguing animal model for the study of herpesvirus and oncornavirus interaction both ...
The experiments outlined in this study present evidence for an intracellular compartment in macrophages into which HIV‐1 virions assemble and in which virions retain infectivity for extended intervals. Although infectious virions were sequestered intracellularly at low levels, these results have important implications regarding reservoirs for viral persistence. Because of the efficiency of viral dissemination in trans and the replicative capacity of the virus, low levels of intracellular infectious virus may ignite viral replication upon transmission to lymphocytes (Carr et al, 1999). By analogy, DCs can capture extracellular virions and, even though at undetectable levels, captured virions can initiate a vigorous infection upon dissemination to lymphocytes (Cameron et al, 1992). Furthermore, rare latent proviruses ignite efficient replication upon reactivation from latency (Kieffer et al, 2004). While such mechanisms may have a minor contributing role to cumulative virus burden in highly ...
Exchange servers should generally have database write latencies under 20 ms, with spikes (maximum values) under 50 ms. However, it is not always possible to keep write latencies in this range when synchronous replication is in use. Database write latency issues often do not become apparent to the end user until the database cache is full and cannot be written to. When using synchronous replication, the Performance Monitor Database Page Fault Stalls/sec counter is a better indicator of whether the client is being affected by write latency than the PhysicalDisk\Average Disk sec/Write counter. On a production server, the value of the Database Page Fault Stalls/sec counter should always be zero, because a database page fault stall indicates that the database cache is full. A full database cache means that Exchange is unable to place items in cache until pages are committed to disk. Moreover, on most storage subsystems, read latencies are affected by write latencies. These read latencies may not be ...
In a new study published in Nature today, Dan H. Barouch, MD, PhD, Director of the Center for Virology and Vaccine Research at BIDMC, and colleagues demonstrate that administering broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb) designed to target HIV in combination with agents that stimulate the innate immune system delayed viral rebound following discontinuation of ART in monkeys. The findings suggest that this two-pronged approach represents a potential strategy for targeting the viral reservoir.
Although highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) dramatically reduces viral load and restores CD4 T-cell counts in HIV-infected individuals, its success is ham...
Latent viruses replicate on a small scale even when they are not reactivated. This is something overlooked by many in the medical field today. As stated by Dr. Hanan Polansky, the latent EBV virus microcompetes with human genes for limited genetic resources, and as a result, can drive the human genes to malfunction, and cause disease ...
Gil Tene explains latency and how it relates to service and response times, measuring latency, common misconceptions about latency, what to do when a systems latency cant meet SLAs, and much more.
I write about whats new in virology from the molecular biology point of view, covering topics such as human papiloma virus, hepatitis C, herpes simplex, and other viruses, especially those occurring in the body in a latent state. Read more ...
The bar for advanced oral care has been raised once again. Shop high-quality unique Brabant T-Shirts designed and sold by artists. manuale uso e manutenzione caldaia baxi luna3 blue+. Every anomaly has a counter which increases only if the same anomaly is consecutive; the same mistake non-consecutively is recognized as new. 759 Kcal/h - Tiro Balanceado Forzado AR$ 275. With improved sonic pulse technology, a combination brush head and a new 365 day charge, you&39;ll get way more mileage for your smile than ever before. What is Luna 3 luna 3 blue manuale comfort troubleshooting guide?. · Manuale Luna 3 Blue - Baxi Published on Caldaie convenzionali murali - ecologiche a basse emissioni NOx - riscaldamento e produzione ACS - 12/. Tap a video to view it. ECO 3 boiler pdf manual download. Though it returned rather poor pictures by later standards, the historic,. BEAR Download Manual. It was the first-ever mission to photograph the far side of the Moon and the third Soviet space probe to be sent to ...
The solution connects data centers on the RETN fiber network in Central Europe where high availability of services and low latency are essential.
This MATLAB function returns filtered state probabilities FS from conducting optimal conditional inference of the probabilities of the operative latent states in the regime-switching data Y.
HPLC Application #15467: SFC - Drugs on Luna 10u Si(2). Column used: Luna® 10 µm Silica (2) 100 Å, LC Column 250 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00G-4091-E0
Nokia Lumia 625 vs LUNA 5.5 4G LTE. Compare the specs and features of the Nokia Lumia 625 and LUNA 5.5 4G LTE to see which is better.
100% FOREO LUNA Mini 2 T-Sonic Facial Cleansing - Benefits of the Foreo Luna Mini 2 Super Sonic Facial Cleansing Tool. Gets rid of blemish causing pollutants safely and gently. 3-zone brush that delivers T-sonic
This is something thats come up often as I talk to people about my Honours project. Why cant we cure HIV? Its been around since the 50s, although it was only identified in 1983. Whats going on? Early on during infection, HIV establishes something called the latent reservoir. Whats that? That is the reason we…
Forex department of hdfc bank #### ULTRA LOW LATENCY HIGH FREQUENCY TRADING STRATEGY Berapa modal ikut forex #### One minute forex scalping strategy
Boston Technologies liquidity partner Boston Prime issued today an interesting graphic showing their latency speeds across different setups and locations
CMAF is set to revolutionize the delivery of adaptive bitrate streams and lead to reduced OTT latency with a better User Experience and reduced CDN Costs.
Luna Protein Bar information including description from Clif Bar, supplement facts, and suggested use. Order online for quick delivery at the best prices.
FINZI INFECTION LATENT LIFELONG MECHANISM PDF - Thus, latent infection of resting CD4+ T cells provides a mechanism for lifelong persistence of HIV-1, even in patients on effective anti-retroviral
สวัสดีครับ วันนี้ผมมารีวิวเคล็นซิ่งสูตรน้ำที่เคยใช้มาทั้งหมด 1. ผมไม่ใช่เภสัชกร , แพทย์ผิวหนัง , นักเคมี , นักวิทยาศาตร์ , นักไบโอเคมี และผู้มี ... ...
Seventeen-year-old Josh Corson is plodding through a regular day at school when his father and mother are killed in a car crash, changing his life forever. Suddenly an orphan, Josh finds himself leaning into an unlikely caregiver: his half-sister Hallie, who, years ago, traded their familys farm in southern New Jersey for a glamorous life in New York City and never looked back. Together again in their childhood home, with the farm going to ruins around them, Josh and Hallie must learn to be a family - and Hallie must face a devastating truth she can no longer escape. Meanwhile, Josh meets three young women who offer tantalizing respite from his grieving but bring their own complexities to Joshs already uncertain path.. Borders has created an intimate portrait of a patched-together family reeling from losses both past and present, searching for footing in an evocative South Jersey landscape that is as beautiful as it is quietly toxic. Hallies emotional awakening and Joshs touching ...
The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus functions as an origin-binding protein (OBP) and transcriptional regulator. LANA binds the terminal repeats via the C-terminal DNA-binding domain (DBD) to support latent DNA replication. To date, the structure of LANA has not been solved. Sequence alignments among OBPs of gammaherpesviruses have revealed that the C terminus of LANA is structurally related to EBNA1, the OBP of Epstein-Barr virus. Based on secondary structure predictions for LANA(DBD) and published structures of EBNA1(DBD), this study used bioinformatics tools to model a putative structure for LANA(DBD) bound to DNA. To validate the predicted model, 38 mutants targeting the most conserved motifs, namely three alpha-helices and a conserved proline loop, were constructed and functionally tested. In agreement with data for EBNA1, residues in helices 1 and 2 mainly contributed to sequence-specific DNA binding and replication activity, whilst ...
The life cycle of Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) consists of two phases, latent and lytic. The virus establishes latency as a strategy for avoiding host immune surveillance and fusing symbiotically with the host for lifetime persistent infection. However, latency can be disrupted and KSHV is reactivated for entry into the lytic replication. Viral lytic replication is crucial for efficient dissemination from its long-term reservoir to the sites of disease and for the spread of the virus to new hosts. The balance of these two phases in the KSHV life cycle is important for both the virus and the host and control of the switch between these two phases is extremely complex. Various environmental factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, and certain chemicals have been shown to switch KSHV from latency to lytic reactivation. Immunosuppression, unbalanced inflammatory cytokines, and other viral co-infections also lead to the reactivation of KSHV. This review article summarizes the current
The novelty of our comprehensive study is the demonstration for the first time that a proinflammatory lipid metabolite, such as PGE2 and its receptors, plays a crucial role in herpes virus latency. Previous reports have indicated the role of Ca2+ in KSHV lytic cycle (17-20). In contrast, our studies showing the downregulation of LANA-1 expression by EP1 receptor antagonist, the blockage of supernatant-induced [Ca2+]i signal by EP1 antagonist, and the downregulation of PGE2-induced LANA-1 promoter activity by calcium chelators are the first demonstration of a role for [Ca2+]i in KSHV latency program. Unlike calcium, previous reports have shown the role of Src, PI3K, PKCζ/λ, and NF-κB in KSHV latency program (21-23). However, the novelty of our study is that the data linking PGE2/EP receptors with KSHV LANA-1 expression and LANA-1 promoter through PGE2 via Src, PI3K, PKCζ/λ, and NF-κB signal induction provides a new framework to understand the host mechanisms used by KSHV to induce these ...
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency is typically harmless but reactivation can be largely detrimental to immune compromised hosts. We modeled latency and reactivation using a traceable HCMV laboratory strain expressing the Gaussia luciferase reporter gene (HCMV/GLuc) in order to interrogate the viral modulatory effects on the human adaptive immunity. Humanized mice with long-term (more than 17 weeks) steady human T and B cell immune reconstitutions were infected with HCMV/GLuc and 7 weeks later were further treated with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to induce viral reactivations. Whole body bio-luminescence imaging analyses clearly differentiated mice with latent viral infections vs. reactivations. Foci of vigorous viral reactivations were detectable in liver, lymph nodes and salivary glands. The number of viral genome copies in various tissues increased upon reactivations and were detectable in sorted human CD14+, CD169+, and CD34+ cells. Compared with non-infected controls, ...
Major human pathologies are caused by nuclear replicative viruses establishing life-long latent infection in their host. During latency the genomes of these viruses are intimately interacting with the cell nucleus environment. A hallmark of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency establishment is the shutdown of lytic genes expression and the concomitant induction of the latency associated (LAT) transcripts. Although the setting up and the maintenance of the latent genetic program is most likely dependent on a subtle interplay between viral and nuclear factors, this remains uninvestigated. Combining the use of in situ fluorescent-based approaches and high-resolution microscopic analysis, we show that HSV-1 genomes adopt specific nuclear patterns in sensory neurons of latently infected mice (28 days post-inoculation, d.p.i.). Latent HSV-1 genomes display two major patterns, called Single and Multiple, which associate with centromeres, and with promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies ...
Chick embryo tissues maintained for from 11 to 28 days in Hanks balanced salt solution lost their capacity to support the multiplication of psittacosis virus.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Barriers for HIV Cure. T2 - The Latent Reservoir. AU - Castro-Gonzalez, Sergio. AU - Colomer-Lluch, Marta. AU - Serra-Moreno, Ruth. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © Copyright 2018, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers 2018.. PY - 2018/9. Y1 - 2018/9. N2 - Thirty-five years after the identification of HIV-1 as the causative agent of AIDS, we are still in search of vaccines and treatments to eradicate this devastating infectious disease. Progress has been made in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of this infection, which has been crucial for the development of the current therapy regimens. However, despite their efficacy at limiting active viral replication, these drugs are unable to purge the latent reservoir: a pool of cells that harbor transcriptionally inactive, but replication-competent HIV-1 proviruses, and that represent the main barrier to eradicate HIV-1 from affected individuals. In this review, we discuss advances in the field that have allowed a better understanding of ...
In this paper we have verified a key tenet of the GC model of EBV persistence by showing for the first time that EBV-infected cells expressing the default latency transcription program are physically located in GCs and express functional markers, homing receptors, and the phenotypic markers of GC cells. These experiments further demonstrate that EBV can reside latently within GC cells in vivo without imposing the growth latency transcription program and the lymphoblastoid form of latency. What distinguishes infected GC cells in vivo is expression of the viral default latency transcription program which, unlike the growth latency program, appears to be fully consistent with retention of GC function. Since direct infection of GC cells in vitro (43) or in vivo (26) produces the growth latency program and obliterates the GC phenotype, it follows that the latently infected GC cells we have described in vivo cannot arise through direct infection and must be derived by another mechanism, i.e., ...
Throughout the process of virus-host coevolution, herpesviruses have developed an array of immunomodulatory mechanisms to avoid detection and destruction by the hosts immune system. Although loss of immune control can lead to herpesvirus reactivation from latency and result in serious disease (2, 3, 4), delayed primary infection with herpesviruses in affluent societies (1, 2) coincides with higher incidence of allergic disorders (32), which in contrast indicates a beneficial role for these viruses.. In connection with this, our group has previously reported an inverse association between EBV seropositivity and IgE sensitization in 2-year-old children (25). Recent observations from our laboratory did not provide support for a Th1-biased cytokine profile in EBV SP children (26), which could have explained the protection against the allergic phenotype (32, 33). However, latent herpesvirus infections in mice result in potentiated innate activity and increased systemic IFN-γ levels (29). To ...
Reason for review Renewed interest provides emerged to handle the latent reservoir of HIV to attain a cure. remove latently contaminated cells is as well primitive to attain a treat without a lot of preliminary research to elucidate a few of these areas. Overview A resurgence appealing in latent an infection and its own treatment promises improvement in Mctp1 addressing the task of a remedy, although realistically this will demand a prolonged amount of investigation in lots of areas. and continues to be. With only one 1 within a million Compact disc4+ T cells latently contaminated around, many reports of can only just be conducted with cell culture choices latency. Will a latency model within a proliferating cell series using a molecular build reveal a latent provirus within a principal Compact disc4+ lymphocyte thats not turned on or dividing? Few models of latency have been developed in main human CD4+ lymphocytes using infectious HIV-1. Do these models, in which main CD4 lymphocytes can only ...
Types of Cytomegalovirus Latency Cell culture choices possess reinforced the part from the cellular differentiation state in the maintenance of CMV latency-reactivation balance. Recent years have seen a focus on the role of the cellular environment in dictating outcome. Only a small proportion (10?4 to 10?5) of total bone marrow-derived myelomonocytic cells naturally support CMV latency (4); thus, these models are critical to provide clues into natural persistence and latency (5C10). Precursors of DCs harbor latent infection, and once terminally differentiated into mature antigen-presenting cells, they support reactivation and viral persistent replication (11, 12). Furthermore, the differentiation pathways that lead to reactivation depend on the inflammatory environment and also likely stimulate the adaptive T-cell response to viral infection. The virus confronts the host by constraining and corralling the potency of the blockquote course=pullquote The key areas of the stand-off between human ...
Overcoming HIV latency - induction of HIV in CD4+ T cells that lay dormant throughout the body - is a major step toward creating a cure for HIV. For the first time, scientists at UNC-Chapel Hill, Emory University, and Qura Therapeutics - a partnership between UNC and ViiV Healthcare - have shown that a new approach can expose latent HIV to attack in two different animal model systems with little or no toxicity. Researchers Reverse HIV Latency, Important Scientific Step Toward Cure - Read More… ...
Still, much more work needs to be done before this work could be applied to AIDS patients. Curing patients of HIV infection is a very difficult task as it requires eliminating all latent reservoirs. While the researchers show that they can detect successful cutting of the latent provirus in various cell types, they do not show evidence that their therapy removes all proviruses or that their delivery system can target all cells that may be harboring the latent HIV reservoirs. It will likely be very difficult for the researchers method to eliminate 100% of the virus, and testing the ability of their delivery method to target all infected cells will be particularly difficult as mouse models of HIV may not harbor the same types of reservoirs present in humans. Still, the research represents an important step forward in developing CRISPR technology into a potential cure for HIV ...
Every day Verisign processes upwards of 100 billion authoritative DNS requests for .COM and .NET from all corners of the earth. The vast majority of these requests are via the UDP protocol. Because UDP is connectionless, it is impossible to passively estimate the latency of the UDP-based requests. A very small percentage of these requests though, are over TCP, thus providing the means to estimate the latency of specific requests and paths for a subset of the hosts that interact with Verisigns network infrastructure.. In this work, we combine this relatively small number of datapoints from TCP (on the order of a few hundred million per day) with the much larger dataset of all DNS requests. Our focus is the process of data analysis of real world, imperfect data at very large scale with the goals of understanding network latency at an unprecedented magnitude, identifying large volume, high latency clients and improving their latency. We discuss the techniques we used for data selection and ...
Spina CA, Anderson J, Archin NM, Bosque A, Chan J, Famiglietti M, Greene WC, Kashuba A, Lewin SR, Margolis DM, Mau M, Ruelas D, Saleh S, Shirakawa K, Siliciano RF, Singhania A, Soto PC, Terry VH, Verdin E, Woelk C, Wooden S, Xing S, Planelles V
The persistence of latently human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected cellular reservoirs in resting CD4+ T cells is a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. The detailed mechanism of HIV-1 latency remains unclear. We investigated histones and th
Researchers at the University of North Carolina identified a better dosing strategy for a drug that exposes HIV hiding inside the bodys viral reservoir, ...
Extends ultra-broadband product portfolio to enhance capacity, speed and latency in heterogeneous networks Nokia is extending its comprehensive portfolio of ultra-broadband product and technology solutions to give operators new flexibility to meet consumer demand and enhance mobile network performance as they evolve towards 5G.. As mobile broadband traffic continues to grow, operators want to enhance network performance where they see the greatest demand, with first deployments traditionally in busy city centres. More capacity, higher speeds and varying network latency are needed to meet the needs of individuals, businesses and IoT, as well as to ensure a smooth transition to 5G. As such, Nokia has defined a sustainable network evolution path that will allow operators to leverage existing investments and maximise assets such as spectrum, to implement higher performance where and when it is needed in the network.. To do this, Nokia is adding to the Nokia AirScale Remote Radio Head portfolio, ...
Figure 7 - Layer 3 RFC 3918 2-to-46 multicast 49.9% load test. Weve heard some vendors try to emphasize the two source multicast test to point out a supposed weakness of the Nexus 3548. Its important to understand that any switch from any vendor would exhibit an increase in latency with this test in both synchronous and asynchronous mode.. Last, weve seen customers encounter higher than expected latency when performing 100% line rate testing using a traffic generator. In these cases, weve found clocking differences between the traffic generator and the switch causes the issue - the internal system clock of the traffic generator and the switch are not always in sync. The difference between these clocks could be + or -100 PPM per the 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard. In cases where the traffic generator port is clocked slightly higher than the switch, at 100% line rate traffic will be buffered at the egress port, introducing latency. In the opposite case, when the switch is clocked slightly higher ...
Meet the Luna Ring #Regalflair Designed to elevate every ounce of sparkle to the max, the crushed ice Luna is a contemporary spin on a regal classic. With a hand-cut, medium, 12*8mm crushed ice, pear zirconia gemstone on a micro-pave band inlaid with glittering hand-cut gemstones, the Luna is a statement ring that gl
Theres no flag to indicate if the frame latency read-backs are safe to read. But the frame latency is fixed when the VSP is in normal operation. So the read-back
While a cure for HIV remains elusive, new research suggests that eliminating HIV from the reservoirs where the virus persists is possible.
HPLC Application #18919: Corticosteroids Analysis on Luna 5u CN 150 x 4.6mm ID. Column used: Luna® 5 µm CN 100 Å, LC Column 150 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00F-4255-E0
Rising pop star Luna Blaise discusses her latest single Camera Roll, and bringing diversity to the hit ABC sitcom Fresh Off the Boat. Luna also gives the low down on her nationwide tour with ​Jacob Satorius.
Background: Interferon-α (IFN-α) treatment suppresses HIV-1 viremia and reduces the size of the HIV-1 latent reservoir. Therefore, investigation of the molecular and immunologic effects of IFN-α may provide insights that contribute to the development of ...
Background: Interferon-α (IFN-α) treatment suppresses HIV-1 viremia and reduces the size of the HIV-1 latent reservoir. Therefore, investigation of the molecular and immunologic effects of IFN-α may provide insights that contribute to the development of ...
Xylon today announced a reference design for a real-time video rotation for an arbitrary angle, which can be dynamically changed in sub-degree steps. The video rotation works with a video output latency that can be as low as one frame time.
Trial Team members review FOREO LUNA 3. Read the reviews to find out how our Trial Team rated this multi-tasking skincare tool....
11 year old double registered Andalusian/ Arabian mare Luna, 15.1 hds and true Unicorn material. She is awesome out on the trail, like an ATV. She is also very well broke to drive and has just had refresher course in her Dressage training. This mare is a sweetheart, absolutely no naughty, but she is very forward and eager to work, little power package! In training here at CCSH in Careywood ID. ...
These are smaller in size than the original best-selling Luna Bead System, and are PERFECT for the lady who has already been using the original ones. The smaller size can be presented as the next step in her workout. Think of them as the advanced version, as the smaller size takes more muscle control to gripLUNA BEAD
We can offer virtual telemedicine options for those that cant come in or prefer not to. Obviously there are some limits when it comes to virtual consults but they can be useful during such times. Just schedule an appointment like usual online and put virtual consult request in the notes ... News ☛ Pauleen Luna is fond of sharing glimpses of her precious moments with her child Baby Tali. She once again delighted her followers on Instagram with new photos that she posted.
Fattoria Mani di Luna, RAW WINE Marketplace is the worlds largest community of low-intervention organic, biodynamic and natural wines, their growers & makers, and those who love drinking them.
I accidentally gave my lactating dog Vetoryl. 70lbs 15mg. Just now no. Luna 2.5 yrs. She is nursing pups that are 5 - Answered by a verified Dog Veterinarian
For your next party, event, celebration or wedding, supply your guests with colorful and festive solid colored paddle hand fans from the Luna Bazaar. These practical and attractive party favors will cool your guests off while adding to the décor o...
About 8 years ago I very stupidly thought that the answer to all my prayers was to undergo the LUNA procedure to cut the nerves and was led to believe that although it was in the trial period it would...
SPA RITUAL IN THE PALM OF YOUR HAND - LUNA mini 2 uses the power of T-Sonic pulsations to effectively cleanse deep below the skins surface. With 8 adjustable intensities and 3 cleansing tones, it is suitable for all skin ...
Whether you'll use it as a slick side table in your lounge or amodern bedside table, the Luna Side Table is neat and light, addingan airy touch.
Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes discovered that an enzyme called SMYD2 could be a new therapeutic target for flushing out the HIV that hides in infected individuals. Overcoming this latent virus remains the most significant ...
A team of researchers from the University of California, Davis (UC Davis), recently tested if idiopathic headshaking in horses could be similar to a condition in humans--trigeminal nerve pain caused by the reactivation of a latent virus.
Replication of HIV within the CNS continues to be a hot topic, because it represents a viral reservoir that can complicate treatment, as well as control and prevention efforts.
EMS foloseste acest principiu natural si este capabil de a intensifica acest proces pentru a ajunge la straturile musculare profunde, care sunt greu de activat prin metodele conventionale de antrename
Alkalno - tremalni izvor kraškog porekla, Lađevac, među meštanima poznat je i kao toplo vrelo, jer temepratura vode konstantno se kreće od 15 do 18 stepeni
Ministarstvo odbrane i Vojska Srbije nizom manifestacija obeležavaju 23. april - Dan Vojske Srbije, u znak sećanja na podizanje Drugog srpskog ustanka, na Cveti
瑜珈滾筒獨家開版調色、領先全球可開蓋糖心收納,防爆彈力瑜珈球、10mm加厚瑜珈墊,精選的組合 給您更優質的運動體驗
produse naturiste & naturale,plafar,magazin online,comenzi online,oferte noi în fiecare luna,produse si remedii naturiste 100% naturale,, TRAIESTE SANATOS ALATURI DE NOI
produse naturiste & naturale,plafar,magazin online,comenzi online,oferte noi în fiecare luna,produse si remedii naturiste 100% naturale,, TRAIESTE SANATOS ALATURI DE NOI
These two viruses are the cause of oral and genital herpes. Latency is maintained in a variety of ways, one of which is the ... KSHV is one of eight known human cancer-causing viruses. The control of KSHV latency is most notably controlled by a set of ... Human herpes viruses, also known as HHVs, are part of a family of DNA viruses that cause several diseases in humans. One of the ... Eshleman, E.; Shahzad, A.; Cohrs, R. J. (2011). "Varicella zoster virus latency". Future Virology. 6 (3): 341-355. doi:10.2217/ ...
"Virus latency". ViralZone. Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 27 August 2020. Andrade-Martínez JS, Moreno-Gallego JL ... and the rabies virus, as well as the first virus to be discovered, Tobacco mosaic virus. Reverse transcribing viruses are a ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. ... Riboviria mostly contains eukaryotic viruses, and most eukaryotic viruses, including most human, animal, and plant viruses, ...
"Virus latency". ViralZone. Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 24 September 2020. Andrade-Martínez JS, Moreno-Gallego ... As such, each virus realm represents at least one instance of viruses coming into existence. Within each realm, viruses are ... DNA viruses constitute two Baltimore groups: Group I: double-stranded DNA viruses, and Group II: single-stranded DNA viruses. ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. ...
Latency is distinguished from lytic infection; in lytic infection many Herpes virus particles are produced and then burst or ... Ou Y, Davis KA, Traina-Dorge V, Gray WL (2007-05-16). "Simian varicella virus expresses a latency associated transcript that is ... Amelio AL, McAnany PK, Bloom DC (March 2006). "A chromatin insulator-like element in the herpes simplex virus type 1 latency- ... Farrell MJ, Dobson AT, Feldman LT (1991-02-01). "Herpes simplex virus latency-associated transcript is a stable intron". ...
Mitchell BM, Bloom DC, Cohrs RJ, Gilden DH, Kennedy PG (2003). "Herpes simplex virus-1 and varicella-zoster virus latency in ... its latency is less well understood than that of the herpes simplex virus. Virus-specific proteins continue to be made by the ... "A comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus latency and reactivation". The Journal of General ... a double-stranded DNA virus related to the herpes simplex virus. Most individuals are infected with this virus as children ...
Khanna KM, Lepisto AJ, Decman V, Hendricks RL (August 2004). "Immune control of herpes simplex virus during latency". Current ... IFN-γ has a significant anti-viral effect in herpes simplex virus I (HSV) infection. IFN-γ compromises the microtubules that ... Sodeik B, Ebersold MW, Helenius A (March 1997). "Microtubule-mediated transport of incoming herpes simplex virus 1 capsids to ... Milstone LM, Waksman BH (November 1970). "Release of virus inhibitor from tuberculin-sensitized peritoneal cells stimulated by ...
Clinical latency Virus latency "About HIV/AIDS , HIV Basics , HIV/AIDS". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2019- ... A slow virus is a virus, or a viruslike agent, etiologically associated with a slow virus disease. A slow virus disease is a ... JC virus & BK virus only cause disease in immunocompromised patients Was once thought to be due to a slow virus but is now ... as in the cases of JC virus and BK virus), or, in the case of prions, the identity of the agent involved. Slow viruses cause a ...
Thus, while herpes viruses can enter both the lytic and lysogenic cycles, latency allows the virus to survive and evade ... Brown, Jay C. (2017). "Herpes Simplex Virus Latency: The DNA Repair-Centered Pathway". Advances in Virology. 2017: 7028194. doi ... An example of a virus that uses the lysogenic cycle to its advantage is the Herpes Simplex Virus. After first entering the ... Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and replicate within a bacterium. Temperate phages (such as lambda phage) can reproduce ...
In latency 0, EBV is in memory B cells as fully dormant, non-reproductive viruses but in this, as in all of the other latency ... The virus in the three PTLD are in latency phase III and express most if not all of their latency genes including, in ... At any time thereafter, however, the virus may reactivate, enter either its lytic cycle, latency phase II, or latency phase III ... The virus avoids this by limiting expression of its latency genes to EBNA-1, LMP-1, -2A, -2B, some BARTs, and the two EBERs. ...
Miller, G (1990). "The switch between latency and replication of Epstein-Barr virus". Journal of Infectious Diseases. 161 (5): ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) are two viral proteins of the Epstein-Barr virus. LMP2A/LMP2B are ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a lifelong latent infection in B lymphocytes. Viral LMP2A mRNA is frequently detected in ... This suggests LMP2A plays an important role in viral latency, as well as in progression of EBV related diseases such as ...
Virus latency Herpesviridae BK virus Low-dose naltrexone "IMMUNODEFICIENCY 32B; IMD32B". OMIM. Retrieved 19 March ... Transmission of this virus through the air or blood does not normally occur. The incubation period, or the time from infection ... Periodically, the virus can reactivate and is commonly found in the saliva of infected persons. Reactivated and post-latent ... A late event in a very few carriers of this virus is the emergence of Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, two rare ...
Cameron JE, Fewell C, Yin Q, McBride J, Wang X, Lin Z, Flemington EK (December 2008). "Epstein-Barr virus growth/latency III ... "Cellular microRNAs contribute to HIV-1 latency in resting primary CD4+ T lymphocytes". Nature Medicine. 13 (10): 1241-7. doi: ...
Hurley EA, Thorley-Lawson DA (December 1988). "B cell activation and the establishment of Epstein-Barr virus latency". The ...
Persaud, Deborah (2003). "Latency in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: No easy answers". Journal of Virology. 77 ( ... Persaud and her research team found that viremia persists in children with plasma virus remaining at a level under the limit of ... In 2003, she stated about the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- type1 included in the subtypes of HIV. For the HIV patient, ... In 2009, her research team focused on the ongoing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). From this research, it was ...
Amon, Wolfgang; Farrell, Paul J. (2005-05-01). "Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus from latency". Reviews in Medical Virology. ... Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a virus similar to HIV, is capable of infecting primates. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is ... When the virus is able to use the cell to replicate its genetic information, the virus can spread infection throughout the body ... If a host cell expresses the complementary surface receptor for the virus, then the virus can attach and enter the cell. If a ...
Bet hedging has been used to explain the latency of Herpes viruses. The Varicella Zoster Virus, for instance, causes chickenpox ... Stumpf, Michael P. H.; Laidlaw, Zoe; Jansen, Vincent A. A. (2002). "Herpes Viruses Hedge Their Bets". Proceedings of the ...
... establish latency (site where virus lies dormant until reactivated) in leukocytes. This is different from ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2021. Adams ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear egress, and budding. Mammals serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ... Both human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) and human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), as well as other viruses, can cause a skin condition in ...
... inhibitors may modulate the latency of some viruses, resulting in reactivation. This has been shown to ... Arbuckle JH, Medveczky PG (August 2011). "The molecular biology of human herpesvirus-6 latency and telomere integration". ...
Zhang L, Pagano JS (October 1997). "IRF-7, a new interferon regulatory factor associated with Epstein-Barr virus latency". ... IRF7 has been shown to play a role in the transcriptional activation of virus-inducible cellular genes, including the type I ... Smith EJ, Marié I, Prakash A, García-Sastre A, Levy DE (March 2001). "IRF3 and IRF7 phosphorylation in virus-infected cells ... Lin R, Noyce RS, Collins SE, Everett RD, Mossman KL (February 2004). "The herpes simplex virus ICP0 RING finger domain inhibits ...
"Signal Transduction and Transcription Factor Modification during Reactivation of Epstein-Barr Virus from Latency". Journal of ...
The RNA transcript is produced by the virus and accumulates in host cells during latent infection; it is known as Latency ... encoded by the DNA of herpes viruses. It is produced by herpes viruses during the earliest stage of infection, when the virus ... "Pseudorabies virus EPO is functionally homologous to varicella-zoster virus ORF61 protein and herpes simplex virus type 1 ICPO ... Ou Y, Davis KA, Traina-Dorge V, Gray WL (August 2007). "Simian varicella virus expresses a latency-associated transcript that ...
However, some viruses have evolved to twist this process to their own advantage by establishing latency. Latent proviral DNA ... Jung YJ, Choi H, Kim H, Lee SK (August 2014). "MicroRNA miR-BART20-5p stabilizes Epstein-Barr virus latency by directly ... Generally, the long-term latency of a mammalian virus is a dynamic interaction between it and the host cell's antiviral ... During latency, most viral genes are silenced, and infected individuals are asymptomatic. More importantly, during latency, ...
Even though they are not essential for lytic phases of the virus, these latency genes are important for promoting chronic ... Genes characteristic of this concept are those that control latency in some viruses like herpes. Murine gamma herpesvirus 68 ( ... Viruses also have notable virulence factors. Experimental research, for example, often focuses on creating environments that ... viruses, fungi, and protozoa) to achieve the following: colonization of a niche in the host (this includes movement towards and ...
June 2011). "Involvement of Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) in the maintenance of Epstein-Barr virus latency". The Journal of ... JDP2 inhibits the promoter of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immediate early gene BZLF1 for the regulation of the latent-lytic ...
... s have been recognized as regulators of viral latency processes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. ... Also binds to a specific Brome Mosaic Virus, which is a plant-infecting RNA virus. TruD is able to modify a variety of RNA, and ... 1 transcription and escape from latency". EMBO Reports. 17 (10): 1441-1451. doi:10.15252/embr.201642682. ISSN 1469-221X. PMC ...
Xing L, Kieff E (September 2007). "Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 micro- and stable RNAs during latency III and after induction of ... with two other microRNAs also found in the Epstein-Barr virus genome. BHRF-1-2 has been shown to be expressed in latency-III ... In Epstein-Barr virus, mir-BHRF1-2 is found in the 3' UTR of the BHRF1 (Bam HI fragment H rightward open reading frame 1) gene ... The mir-BHRF1-2 microRNA precursor found in human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus), cercopithicine herpesvirus 15 and ...
Xing L, Kieff E (September 2007). "Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 micro- and stable RNAs during latency III and after induction of ...
Xing L, Kieff E (September 2007). "Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 micro- and stable RNAs during latency III and after induction of ... with two other microRNAs also found in the Epstein-Barr virus genome. BHRF-1-1 has been shown to be expressed in latency-III ... In Epstein-Barr virus, mir-BHRF1-1 is found in the 5' UTR of the BHRF1 (Bam HI fragment H rightward open reading frame 1) gene ... The mir-BHRF1-1 microRNA precursor found in Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus) and Cercopithicine herpesvirus 15. ...
The virus then enters a latency phase in which infected individuals become lifetime asymptomatic carriers of the virus in a set ... Epstein-Barr virus-positive plasmablastic lymphoma. The virus in infected plasmablastic cells appears to be in its latency I ... Lymphoma Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases Chen BJ, Chuang SS (March 2020). "Lymphoid Neoplasms With ... The malignant plasmablasts in more than half the cases of PBL are infected with a potentially cancer-causing virus, Epstein- ...
Only one other virus, Marek's disease virus, is known to achieve latency in this fashion. This phenomenon is possible as a ... HHV-6 has also been demonstrated to transactivate Epstein-Barr virus. Humans acquire the virus at an early age, some as early ... Electron microscopy revealed a novel virus that they named Human B-Lymphotrophic Virus (HBLV). Shortly after its discovery, ... Shiley, Kevin; Blumberg, Emily (2010). "Herpes Viruses in Transplant Recipients: HSV, VZV, Human Herpes Viruses, and EBV". ...
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, she worked on antivirals for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hsiung was the first to ... She worked extensively on the pathogenesis and treatment of herpesvirus infections, including genital herpes latency, in both ... VA hospitals nationwide were able to send frozen virus specimens overnight to Hsiung in West Haven, and receive a diagnosis ... Hsiung developed new laboratory methods of cell culture in order to find, identify, and study the behavior of viruses. She ...
This latency is used in measuring the response time of the ACT model, to compare it to human performance. While ACT is a model ... Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis (HSVE) is a neurological disorder which causes inflammation of the brain. It is caused by the ... There is, additionally, a retrieval latency, which varies inversely with the amount by which the activation of the retrieved ... Additionally, deficits in semantic memory as a result of herpes simplex virus encephalitis tend to have more category-specific ...
Richman conducted research on influenza virus, herpesviruses and hemorrhagic fever viruses before focusing on HIV in the 1980s ... In 1997, his laboratory was also among the first to demonstrate HIV latency and documented the existence of reservoirs of ... his research interests have focused on HIV pathogenesis including the issues of viral latency and evolution. Dr. Richman has ...
Initially, KSHV/HHV8 viruses infect plasmablasts to establish a latency state in which the viruses express malignancy-promoting ... The plasmacytoid cells in PEL are also commonly infected with the Epstein-Barr virus (i.e. EBV). EBV is a known cause of ... However, the role of this virus in the development of PEL is not clear, although some studies suggest that EBV infection ... Cases associated with HIV/AIDS test positive for antibodies directed against this virus. (PEL occurs in the absence of HHV-8 ...
Novel HIV-1-encoded microRNA have been found to enhance the production of the virus as well as activating HIV-1 latency by ... MicroRNAs also play a role in replicating viruses such as HIV-1. ... could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral ...
He began working on cytomegalovirus during the late 1970s and 1980s with John Sinclair focusing on virus latency and ...
While iMCD by definition is not caused by HHV-8, an unknown virus may cause the disease. There have been no reported cases of ... Staining with latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA-1), a marker of HHV-8 infection, must be negative to diagnose iMCD. ... The immune system may produce antibodies that target healthy cells in the body instead of bacteria and viruses. Self-directed ... Epstein-Barr virus mononucleosis, and reactive lymphadenopathy; autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and ...
These strains are the Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and Beet mild curly top virus (BMCTV). So far, the methods of ... the leafhopper and found that insects that had been injected directly with the prokaryote in their gut had the lowest latency ... So far, the beet leafhopper is the only known vector of the Beet curly top virus, which spreads through plant phloem tissues. ... The beet leafhopper is the lone insect vector of the beet curly top virus (BCTV) which causes disease in many important crops ...
"A fatal case of JC virus meningitis presenting with hydrocephalus in a human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative patient". ... Koralnik has also been studying the determinants of latency and reactivation of JCV in patients with MS who have been treated ... He also opened a research laboratory at BIDMC studying the pathogenesis of JC virus in PML. During 19 years in Boston, he was ... He is one of the first physicians to study the neurologic complications caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is ...
... has been implicated in viral budding and viral latency processes via ubiquitination of viral proteins. In vitro data ... "Proteins related to the Nedd4 family of ubiquitin protein ligases interact with the L domain of Rous sarcoma virus and are ... "Latent membrane protein 2A of Epstein-Barr virus binds WW domain E3 protein-ubiquitin ligases that ubiquitinate B-cell tyrosine ... "NEDD4L overexpression rescues the release and infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 constructs lacking PTAP and ...
Weinberger and his lab are looking for ways to target the latency reservoir of viruses as a form of treatment. Weinberger's ... He is credited with discovering the HIV virus latency circuit, which provided the first experimental evidence that stochastic ... between viruses and treatment: viruses evolve, vaccines do not. TIPs also have the capacity to transmit along viral ... TIPs are engineered deletion mutants designed to piggyback on a virus and deprive the virus of replication material, thus ...
... identifies the development of chronic granulocytic leukemia within young GaLV infected gibbons after latency periods of 5-11 ... J, McKee; N, Clark; F, Shapter; G, Simmons (April 2017). "A New Look at the Origins of Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus". Virus Genes ... "Gibbon ape leukemia virus-Hall's Island: new strain of gibbon ape leukemia virus". Journal of Virology. 29 (1): 395-400. doi: ... Viruses. 11 (6): 503. doi:10.3390/v11060503. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC 6630418. PMID 31159230. "Feline Leukemia Virus". Cornell ...
Sites of latency include the CNS and mucosae of the nose and trachea. The disease has been documented in South America, the ... Caused by: BHV-5 - Bovine Encephalitis Virus - Bovine Encephalitis Herpesvirus Disease is most common in calves up to ten ... As with all herpes viruses latent infection can occur, with recrudescence at times of stressed and/or immunosuppression. ... Bovine alphaherpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) is a virus species of the genus Varicellovirus and subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. It causes ...
To reduce latency, some professional sound card manufacturers have developed specialized Digital Signal Processing ([DSP]) ... with the most popular examples of this type of instrument including the Nord Lead and Access Virus. As the cost of processing ... Such soft implementations require careful programming and a fast CPU to get the same latency response as their dedicated ...
latency 1. The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant or latent within a cell for a period of time before reactivating ... slow virus Any virus or virus-like agent that is etiologically associated with a so-called slow virus disease: a disease which ... dsDNA-RT virus dsRNA virus ecovirology emergent virus Any virus that has recently adapted and emerged as a novel causative ... Global Virus Network (GVN) group-specific antigen helical helper dependent virus helper virus Any virus which aids or allows ...
Testing has shown that these viruses appears to be carried in latency (without symptoms) in most Asian and African elephant ... The virus causes widespread hemorrhaging of endothelial tissue. There is no cure for EEHV, but zoos have developed some ... In fatal attacks (usually caused by the EEHV 1A strain), the virus acts quickly, usually causing death within one hour to seven ... Asian elephant calves are extremely susceptible to the virus during the period after they have been weaned from their mother's ...
State Department reported that a Japanese Army physician in New York City had attempted to obtain a Yellow fever virus sample ... Japan portal Japanese nuclear weapon program Japan's non-nuclear weapons policy Nuclear latency Secret and special weapons in ...
Lower switching latency means that more aggressive regulation can be employed. Support for SSE2 and SSE3 extended instructions ... NX bit in PAE mode that prevents buffer overflow software bugs from being exploitable by viruses or attackers. Hardware support ...
Pawan, J. L. (1936). "Rabies in the vampire bat of Trinidad, with special reference to the clinical course and the latency of ... Viruses portal Cryptic bat rabies Rabies vaccine Duck embryo vaccine Arctic rabies virus Bat-borne virus Walker, Peter (15 June ... International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 11 February 2019. Rabies virus Rabies lyssavirus rabies virus ... Rabies virus, scientific name Rabies lyssavirus, is a neurotropic virus that causes rabies in humans and animals. Rabies ...
Like the other herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus, Human alphaherpesvirus 3, etc.), HHV-6 establishes lifelong latency and can ... Newly Found Herpes Virus Is Called Major Cause of Illness in Young, New York Times HHV-6 Foundation DermNet viral/roseola Virus ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2021. ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear egress, and budding. Humans serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are direct ...
Viruses known to do so include certain members of the Herpesviridae family of Herpes viruses viz., Epstein-Barr virus, human ... several terms that have been used to describe a severe idiosyncratic reaction to a drug that is characterized by a long latency ... Reactivation of these viruses is associated with a flare-up in symptoms, a prolonged course, and increased disease severity ... While these viral reactivations, particularly of human herpes virus 6, have been suggested to be an important factor in the ...
Most paid website monitoring services will also offer security features such as virus and malware scanning which is of growing ... to detect issues related to general Internet latency, and network hop issues, and to prevent false positives caused by local or ...
Verma SC, Bajaj BG, Cai Q, Si H, Seelhammer T, Robertson ES (November 2006). "Latency-associated nuclear antigen of Kaposi's ... herpesvirus recruits uracil DNA glycosylase 2 at the terminal repeats and is important for latent persistence of the virus". ...
The virus then enters a latency phase in which the infected individual becomes a lifetime asymptomatic carrier of the virus. ... The neoplastic B-cells in these spaces carry the EBV virus in stage III latency (see EBV latency infections) and therefore ... Draborg A, Izarzugaza JM, Houen G (July 2016). "How compelling are the data for Epstein-Barr virus being a trigger for systemic ... Li ZX, Zeng S, Wu HX, Zhou Y (February 2019). "The risk of systemic lupus erythematosus associated with Epstein-Barr virus ...
The tertiary stage of syphilis was the most severe, as it is with AIDS, and both have a period of latency before the ... Although HIV is likely not a new virus, its emergence changed attitudes towards illness and medicine. Infectious diseases have ...
By figuring out how to switch all copies of the virus in the host from latency to their active stage at the same time, rather ... Halford WP, Püschel R, Rakowski B (August 2010). "Herpes simplex virus 2 ICP0 mutant viruses are avirulent and immunogenic: ... "Immunization with a replication-defective herpes simplex virus 2 mutant reduces herpes simplex virus 1 infection and prevents ... Mindel, A. (2011). Herpes Simplex Virus. London, England: Springer. Brown, P. (1997). Herpes Simplex Virus Protocols (1998th ed ...
Kawasaki K, China K, Nishijima M (July 2007). "Release of the lipopolysaccharide deacylase PagL from latency compensates for a ... See also: UM researchers publish new discoveries on bacterial viruses. On: EurekAlert! 1 Apr 2019. Source: University of ...
The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA-1) or latent nuclear antigen (LNA, LNA-1) is a Kaposi's sarcoma-associated ... June 1998). "Restricted expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded, growth transformation-associated antigens in an EBV- ... Garber AC, Hu J, Renne R (July 2002). "Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) cooperatively binds to two sites within the ... Kedes DH, Lagunoff M, Renne R, Ganem D (November 1997). "Identification of the gene encoding the major latency-associated ...
Satellites tend to have high latency, which gives the cyber attacker enough time to send their injected response to the victim ... The government must be aware of the budget allocated in anti virus software since they have different functionalities and ...
Primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection causes varicella (chickenpox) and the establishment of a lifelong latent ... Molecular Aspects of Varicella-Zoster Virus Latency Daniel P Depledge et al. Viruses. 2018. . ... Recent Issues in Varicella-Zoster Virus Latency. Kennedy PGE, Mogensen TH, Cohrs RJ. Kennedy PGE, et al. Viruses. 2021 Oct 7;13 ... A comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus latency and reactivation. Kennedy PG, Rovnak J, Badani H ...
1. Qi ZL, Han XQ, Hu J, Wang GH, Gao JW, Wang X, Liang DY: Comparison of three methods for the detection of Epstein-Barr virus ... 3. Ayee R, Ofori MEO, Wright E, Quaye O: Epstein Barr virus associated lymphomas and epithelia cancers in humans. J Cancer. ... The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) oncogene of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is believed to contribute to the development of many ... Identification of Epstein Barr virus infection in normal, inflammatory, and neoplastic tissues. ...
... the virus has once again raised its ugly head. This time, it was due to latent Ebola. ... Why does latency occur?. The main reason virus latency may occur is to keep the virus, bacteria or fungus in the body. When a ... What is virus latency?. Latency occurs when a virus, bacteria or fungus stops replicating and causing symptoms but remains ... Virus latency is different to incubation period, where a person has the virus but hasnt yet shown symptoms. In this case, the ...
The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) is the only abundant viral transcript expressed in ... Dive into the research topics of The locus encompassing the latency-associated transcript of herpes simplex virus type 1 ... abstract = "The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) is the only abundant viral transcript ... N2 - The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) is the only abundant viral transcript ...
The viruses have one or more genetic mutations that allow for continued replication but that inhibit latency. The vaccine ... This technology describes recombinant viruses that have weakened ability to establish and/or maintain latency and their use as ... Aspects of this technology are relevant to other live virus vaccines, thus increasing the safety of such vaccines. ... materials and methods for their construction are exemplified with the virus that causes chickenpox and whose latent infection ...
Virus Latency Substances * Antigens, Bacterial * BCG Vaccine * Interferon-gamma Grant support * 1-D43-TW00003-15/TW/FIC NIH HHS ...
Proteasome inhibitors act as bifunctional antagonists of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 latency and replication. October ... Changes in codon-pair bias of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 have profound effects on virus replication in cell culture. ... Live-virus exposure of vaccine-protected macaques alters the anti-HIV-1 antibody repertoire in the absence of viremia. June 21 ... HIV-1 infection, response to treatment and establishment of viral latency in a novel humanized T cell-only mouse (TOM) model. ...
Discovery of chemical messages between viruses could provide new way to induce HIV latency. One of the first studies into viral ... communication shows that viruses that infect bacteria (phages) leave chemical messages for each other which help them decide ...
Detection of latency-associated Epstein-Barr virus transcripts in the crusts. Takenobu Yamamoto, Kazuhide Tsuji, Daisuke Suzuki ... Detection of latency-associated Epstein-Barr virus transcripts in the crusts. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
title = "Lentiviral latency in peripheral CD4+ T cells isolated from feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats during the ... T1 - Lentiviral latency in peripheral CD4+ T cells isolated from feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats during the ... Lentiviral latency in peripheral CD4+ T cells isolated from feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats during the asymptomatic ... Lentiviral latency in peripheral CD4+ T cells isolated from feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats during the asymptomatic ...
Latency of Mareks Disease Virus (MDV) in a Reticuloendotheliosis VirusTransformed T-Cell Line. I: Uptake and Structure of the ... Latency of Mareks Disease Virus (MDV) in a Reticuloendotheliosis VirusTransformed T-Cell Line. I: Uptake and Structure of the ... Overall these cell lines present a useful model for the further study of MDV latency, particularly for those viruses having ... In addition, these cell lines offer an attractive means to study the latency of vaccine viruses, which establish relatively low ...
... herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). The epidemiology of herpes infection has dramatically ... The herpes simplex viruses comprise 2 distinct types of DNA viruses: ... Latency and recurrence. After the patient begins to produce antibodies, the infection becomes latent in the sensory neural ... The herpes simplex viruses comprise 2 distinct types of DNA viruses: herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus 2 ...
Periodic reactivation from latency delivers the virus to mucosal epithelial cells, where it replicates; infectious virus is ... B-Virus Infection in Macaques Human B-Virus Infection Treatment of B-Virus Infection in Humans Detection of B-Virus B-Virus ... The virus establishes latency in the nerve ganglia. Latency is characterized by a lack of viral replication and limited viral ... Discovery of B-Virus. The first documented case of human B-virus infection occurred in 1932 when a researcher (patient W.B.) ...
The main barrier to eradication of this disease is the ability of the virus to reactivate from latency to produce zoster, which ... Latency of virus; inadequate Not eradicable USA alone vaccine ... The live-virus vaccine is effective in a single dose and is ... 100 asymptomatic persons carry the virus and can infect others. This virus is transmitted mostly by airborne droplets from ... The virus is spread mainly by the fecal-oral route, but the mode of spread among young children is uncertain. Some infections ...
Epstein-Barr virus latency in kidney specimens from transplant recipients. Arias LF, Hernández S, Prats D, Sanchez-Fructoso A, ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seems to have an etiological role in the pathogenesis of classical Hodgkins lymphoma (cHL). Studies ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seems to have an etiological role in the pathogenesis of classical Hodgkins lymphoma (cHL). Studies ... Analysis of Epstein-Barr virus strains and variants in classical Hodgkins lymphoma by laser microdissection. García-Cosío M, ...
Uppal, T.; Banerjee, S.; Sun, Z.; Verma, S.C.; Robertson, E.S. KSHV LANA-The master regulator of KSHV latency. Viruses 2014, 6 ... Viruses, EISSN 1999-4915, Published by MDPI Disclaimer The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal Viruses are ... In contrast, during the lytic phase, the virus reactivates from latency leading to the production of infectious virions. Upon ... KSHV is a γ2-lymphotropic-oncogenic virus, classified together with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV- ...
These viruses either normally establish latency or can be... ... Substantial evidence indicates that several common viruses are ... The major virus-malignancy systems include hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatocellular carcinoma; ... These viruses either normally establish latency or can become persistent infections. Oncogenesis is probably linked to an ... human lymphotropic virus-type 1 (HTLV-1) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL); Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and endemic ...
Virus Latency/drug effects* ... Title: Identification of celastrol as a novel HIV-1 latency ... termed latency reversal agents (LRAs), have been identified which can reactivate latent HIV-1 in cell lines and patients cells ...
Leukemia Virus, Murine Concept Virus Latency Concept Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 ... encephalomyelitis and either xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus or polytropic murine leukemia virus. ... "Chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection" syndrome and polymyalgia rheumatica. Academic Article A chronic "postinfectious" fatigue ... Virus Replication Academic Article Human endogenous retrovirus-K18 superantigen expression and human herpesvirus-6 and human ...
... our results show that the KRAB fused CRISPR/dCas9 system can robustly prevent the HIV-1 latency reactivation process, mediated ... Virus Latency Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Olson A, Basukala B, Lee S, Gagne M, Wong WW, Henderson AJ. Olson A, et al. Viruses. 2020 Oct 12;12(10):1154. doi: 10.3390/ ... CRISPR LTR5 J.Lat 10.6 cells still promotes HIV-1 latency repression in the presence of HDAC inhibitors. A GFP expression of ...
... replication and latency of slow-acting viruses such as HIV and other lentiviruses; effects on neuronal function and their ... brain-immunocyte-virus interactions o Mechanisms of viral neuropathogenesis; regional specificity; tropism for neural cells; ...
Almost every virus encodes apoptotic modulators, and the herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are no exception. During HSV infection, ... there is an intricate balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic factors that delays apoptotic death until the virus has ... Virus-induced neuronal apoptosis blocked by the herpes simplex virus latency-associated transcript. Science 2000, 287, 1500- ... Keywords: Herpes Simplex Virus; apoptosis; virus-host interactions Herpes Simplex Virus; apoptosis; virus-host interactions ...
Why? The molecular structure of this virus changes in the latency stage, making this the #1 reason why this virus could never ... It is caused by a virus - either the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Both ... This virus is being linked to other medical problems and its more than just a skin irritation as many believe. NO VIRUS LIVES ... Lets not forget for years scientist have ignored the latency stage of this virus. ...
Why? The molecular structure of this virus changes in the latency stage, making this the #1 reason why this virus could never ... It is caused by a virus - either the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Both ... This virus is being linked to other medical problems and its more than just a skin irritation as many believe. NO VIRUS LIVES ... Lets not forget for years scientist have ignored the latency stage of this virus. ...
But there is a correlation between the degree of peak virus replication and the ability to transition towards latency. Those ... And when we do that and compare rebound virus, outgrowth virus, transmitted founder virus, and chronic virus, we see that many ... In these viruses, it was around .001 to .01 picograms per mil, so sensitive virus, more resistant virus. ... So you can see all the outgrowth viruses really resembled chronic virus, except for that one outgrowth virus from a -- from a ...
The main barrier to eradication of this disease is the ability of the virus to reactivate from latency to produce zoster, which ... Latency of virus; inadequate Not eradicable USA alone vaccine ... The live-virus vaccine is effective in a single dose and is ... 100 asymptomatic persons carry the virus and can infect others. This virus is transmitted mostly by airborne droplets from ... The virus is spread mainly by the fecal-oral route, but the mode of spread among young children is uncertain. Some infections ...
4. ΔNp63α promotes Epstein-Barr virus latency in undifferentiated epithelial cells.. Van Sciver N; Ohashi M; Nawandar DM; Pauly ... Epstein-Barr virus infection and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.. Tsao SW; Tsang CM; Lo KW. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci; 2017 ... Epstein-Barr virus infection and persistence in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells.. Tsang CM; Deng W; Yip YL; Zeng MS; Lo KW; ... 2. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Promotes Epithelial Cell Growth by Attenuating Differentiation-Dependent Exit from the Cell ...
Scientists have long sought a method of driving all of the virus out of latency at once, so it could then be eliminated with ... "Just being able to understand whats going on with latency may have relevance to other herpes viruses." ... The virus is then allowed to activate. "Then one of the drugs like acyclovir should be able to handle the infection," Umbach ... In this state, the virus is largely inactive and invulnerable.. "Theres no way for either the drugs that we have or for our ...
  • In order to determine if MCF is associated with latent virus, Dewals and his colleagues looked at viral genes expressed in lymph node tissue from calves suffering from MCF. (
  • Though they found no virus gene transcripts essential to viral replication, the researchers found that ORF73 , which encodes a protein critical to maintaining latency, was expressed in 20 percent of the activated T cells that accumulated in MCF lesions, and experiments detecting the AlHV-1 genome showed that 40 to 70 percent of lymph node T cells carried it. (
  • In addition, though the evidence supports a central role of latency in inducing MCF, some small amount of viral production is also likely to be important in disease progression, he added. (
  • Depending on the stage of the virus life cycle and host cell type, these viral proteins act as mediators of pro- or anti-apoptotic signals. (
  • HIV latency in viral reservoirs is a persistent phenomenon that has remained beyond the control of the human immune system. (
  • Reactivation of these latently infected cells may result in three fates: 1) cell death due to a viral cytopathic effect, 2) cell death due to immune clearance, or 3) a retreat into latency. (
  • EBNA-2 functions as a transcriptional activator that modulates viral latency gene expression as well as the expression of cellular genes, including CD23. (
  • Electron micrograph studies of B virus show a typical herpesvirus structure ( 6 ), including an electron dense core with viral DNA inside an icosapentahedral capsid surrounded by an amorphous tegument protein layer and a lipid envelope studded with viral glycoproteins. (
  • Herpes zoster is viral infection that occurs with reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus. (
  • These small bursts of virus contribute both to the low viral load detected in treated subjects and to rapid reseeding of HIV infection following ART withdrawal. (
  • We show that miR-155 helps reestablish viral latency by interfering with the HIV-activating effects of TRIM32. (
  • Recent findings from her lab indicate that targeting host transcription factors decreases the virus load in B lymphocytes, a critical reservoir of viral resistance. (
  • Viral diversity and abundance are defining properties of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1's biology and pathogenicity. (
  • The reappearance of anti-EA antibodies signals viral reactivation and provides a clue to the possible role of this virus in diseases such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt's lymphoma. (
  • A thorough understanding of these regulatory circuits will shed light on the basis of viral latency and provide groundwork to develop strategies for eradicating persistent infections. (
  • Guido Silvestri and colleagues use a combined approach that activates interleukin-15 (a signalling molecule essential for immune responses) and depletes CD8 + lymphocytes (immune cells that are thought to suppress viral transcription) to achieve substantial and persistent virus reactivation in all treated animals. (
  • Although both of these shock approaches need to be combined with a kill component to achieve clearance of the reactivated virus, they constitute the most potent latency reversal approaches demonstrated to date and provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of viral latency. (
  • His current focus is on epigenetic regulation of viral latency and the role of long and small non-coding RNAs in viral biology. (
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1): Viral Latency, the Reservoir, and the Cure. (
  • Immune responses have a crucial role to play against SARS-CoV-2 virus as the adaptive and innate immune systems of the human body help restoring the body to a healthy stage by annihilating this deadly viral infection. (
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has the pathogenic property of establishing latency during primary infection of man. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Herpes simplex virus genes controlling reactivation from latency in rabbit eye model. (
  • Using the rabbit eye model of latency, herpes simplex virus type 1 strain McKrae invariably reactivated after epinephrine iontophoresis, whereas type 2(HSV-2) virus strain HG 52 failed to reactivate. (
  • Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus), an alphaherpesvirus endemic in Asian macaques, is closely related to herpes simplex virus (HSV). (
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are ubiquitous and have a wide range of clinical manifestations (see the images below). (
  • Primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) gingivostomatitis in an infant is shown. (
  • Also, see the Herpes Simplex Viruses: Test Your Knowledge slideshow for more information on clinical, histologic, and radiographic imaging findings in HSV-1 and HSV-2. (
  • The mechanisms that control herpes simplex virus type 1 latency and reactivation are still poorly understood. (
  • It is caused by a virus - either the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). (
  • As such, I would like to ask for your help increasing funding for both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for your citizens suffering from herpes and to prevent the spread of the herpes simplex virus. (
  • Control of herpes simplex virus type 1 latency in human trigeminal ganglia. (
  • Research in her group is focused on the biology of herpesviruses including the human pathogen herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the veterinary pathogen Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1). (
  • A Mutation in the UL24 Gene Abolishes Expression of the Newly Identified UL24.5 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and Leads to an Increase in Pathogenicity in Mice. (
  • Reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that has remained dormant within dorsal root ganglia, often for decades after the patient's initial exposure to the virus in the form of varicella (chickenpox), results in herpes zoster (shingles). (
  • Red algae Griffithsin has also proven to be antiviral against HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus), HSV-2 (Herpes simplex virus), HCV (Hepatitis C) and the Ebola virus. (
  • Introduction: Herpes simplex labialis occurs by reactivation of herpes simplex virus type I, but infection with the virus type II can also lead to disease. (
  • Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 are the main infectious agents associated with oral and genital ulcerations. (
  • The recurrent herpes labialis occurs by reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). (
  • However, infection with the virus type 2 (HSV-2) can also lead to primary herpes labialis, although this type rarely causes a recurrence of the disease 9 . (
  • A variety of factors (exposure to intense sunlight, fatigue, psychological stress or immunosuppression) can precipitate a recurrence by reactivation of the virus migrates to the epithelial cells through the affected nerve, causing recurrent herpes 12 . (
  • Herpes zoster , frequently referred to as "shingles," is a common dermatologic disorder arising in individuals with prior exposure to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) due to either prior infection or vaccination. (
  • During periods of stress or illness, the virus may reactivate and cause herpes zoster. (
  • Most herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are self-limited and treatment is not always indicated or necessary. (
  • The treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections depends on multiple factors, including the location and severity of the disease, immune status, pregnancy, primary or recurrent disease, and frequency of recurrences. (
  • Like all herpesviruses, AlHV-1 can either replicate in infected cells to produce more viruses, or enable its genome to persist in a dormant, or latent, state. (
  • Mere genome persistence, as in the case of classic latency, isn't enough to cause disease. (
  • The B-virus genome is only partially sequenced, but thus far, is colinear with that of HSV ( 5 ). (
  • Scientists have since concurred that the subsequently-released full genome sequence of the SARS-Cov 2 virus disproves that theory possibility remains that a wild strain could have leaked from a research lab, either accidentally through human infection, or through the illegal sale of lab animals in the nearby seafood market. (
  • The new system will power a wide range of research that will help further the understanding of the human genome to mapping the global spread of viruses. (
  • Profiling genome-wide recombination in Epstein Barr virus reveals type-specific patterns and associations with endemic-Burkitt lymphoma. (
  • Epstein-Barr Virus in Burkitt Lymphoma in Africa Reveals a Limited Set of Whole Genome and LMP-1 Sequence Patterns: Analysis of Archival Datasets and Field Samples From Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya. (
  • Distribution of West Nile virus antigen in the kidneys of hamsters on day 48. (
  • In 1999, he joined the faculty at Case Western Reserve University, where he focused on molecular aspects such as DNA binding and DNA replication of the KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and the establishment of the only available KS xenograft model. (
  • We have several areas of research: signaling processes in latency reservoirs, virus-host interactions that influence replication and genomic stability, and gammaherpesvirus subversion of intrinsic nuclear host defenses. (
  • I aim to define the mechanism by which gammaherpesvirus proteins alter PML-NBs, and then determine the consequence of those interactions on replication and latency in vivo . (
  • 0.05) but both viruses exhibited similar levels of gene expression and replication. (
  • Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. (
  • In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. (
  • Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. (
  • number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. (
  • In the next phase of the study, they tested two drugs to wake up the dormant virus - so-called latency reversal drugs. (
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Latency Reversal via the Induction of Early Growth Response Protein 1 to Bypass Protein K. (
  • One approach of HIV cure is the "Kick and Kill" strategy where latency reversal a. (
  • Pembrolizumab induces HIV latency reversal in people living with HIV and cancer on antiretroviral therapy. (
  • Most wildebeests harbor AlHV-1 and young wildebeest shed the virus in their nasal secretions, and can pass the infection to cattle, which often succumb to MCF within days or weeks. (
  • Interestingly, rabbits that had been inoculated with the knockout virus did not develop MCF upon infection with wild type AlHV-1, suggesting a possible vaccine strategy. (
  • Following the primary infection at a peripheral site, virions travel via the axons to the neuronal cell bodies in sensory or autonomic ganglia where latency is established and maintained. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus induces a dual regulation of Bcl-2, resulting in persistent infection of CD4 + T- or monocytic cell lines. (
  • The EBNA-2 protein is essential for the establishment of a latent Epstein- Barr virus (EBV) infection and for B-cell immortalization. (
  • However, zoonotic infection with B virus in humans usually results in fatal encephalomyelitis or severe neurologic impairment. (
  • Approximately 40 cases of zoonotic B-virus infection have been reported. (
  • The first documented case of human B-virus infection occurred in 1932 when a researcher (patient W.B.) was bitten on the hand by an apparently healthy rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta ) and died of progressive encephalomyelitis 15 days later. (
  • Experimental infection of horses with West Nile virus. (
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) establishes life-long infection in Bcells, characterized by periods of latency and reactivation. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is a global health problem for which the pathogenic mechanisms causing disease occurrence and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are incompletely understood [ 1 - 5 ]. (
  • Antibodies against the early antigens are present during acute EBV infection and then disappear as the virus enters a phase of latency. (
  • Treatments can keep the virus undetectable and untransmissible so that someone with HIV feels relatively healthy and cannot spread the infection. (
  • His NIH grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases focuses on a heretofore unexplored possible method, by looking at the potential role of the enzyme RNA Polymerase III (RNA Pol III) in establishment of HIV latency in a type of infection-fighting white blood cells known as CD4+ T cells. (
  • Current antiretroviral therapies are unable to completely clear HIV infection as the virus can 'hide' from the immune system in a latent form in cells. (
  • Histopathological Analysis of Adrenal Glands after Simian Varicella Virus Infection. (
  • Elevated serum substance P during simian varicella virus infection in rhesus macaques: implications for chronic inflammation and adverse cerebrovascular events. (
  • Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection of Primary Human Spinal Astrocytes Produces Intracellular Amylin, Amyloid-ß, and an Amyloidogenic Extracellular Environment. (
  • Gilden D, Nagel MA, Cohrs RJ, Mahalingam R. The variegate neurological manifestations of varicella zoster virus infection. (
  • Varicella zoster virus infection: clinical features, molecular pathogenesis of disease, and latency. (
  • Typically, exposure to a herpesvirus infection is associated with a persistent virus-specific antibody response. (
  • The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell ( LATENT INFECTION ). (
  • This was the first instance of human monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection detected outside its endemic range in Africa ( 3 ). (
  • This stage is also called chronic HIV infection or clinical latency. (
  • The first exposure of an individual without antibodies against the virus is called primary infection. (
  • Protect your organization from data loss, virus infection, and rogue device access with comprehensive endpoint capabilities. (
  • Notably, we demonstrate that TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, promotes reactivation from latency by directly modifying IκBα, leading to a novel mechanism of NF-κB induction not involving IκB kinase activation. (
  • After therapeutic irradiation of the head, the risk of developing a brain tumour is slightly increased after a long latency period. (
  • Despite the world-wide reduction in asbestos exposure through legislation prohibiting its use, the incidence of asbestos-related cancers such as MPM continues to rise in many countries, in part due to the long latency period between exposure and tumour. (
  • The team's next step is to evaluate the effectiveness of new drugs to wake up similar virus reservoirs in monkeys. (
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV) remains a global health challenge due to the latent HIV reservoirs in people living with HIV (PLWH). (
  • To suspend, without notice, peering connectivity in the event of a severe quality of service issue such as high latency, packet loss, or jitter pattern is detected and to take appropriate traffic engineering steps to maintain service quality. (
  • This is an area where Hadoop falls short because of its high latency, and another open source framework Storm is developed to cover the need in real-time processing. (
  • With a revolutionary combination of OFDMA, MU-MIMO and BSS coloring technology, WiFi 6 provides up to 4X greater network capacity and lower latency in multi-device environments such as offices, restaurants, classrooms, or factories. (
  • We will engineer recombinant MHV68 viruses that express EBV and KSHV modulators of STAT3 and NF-kappaB signaling signaling pathways to investigate their impact on latency and lymphomagenesis in an animal model of disease. (
  • Kidney from a hamster persistently infected (48 days postinfection) with West Nile virus showing focal infiltration by lymphocytes and macrophages forming a small nodule (hematoxylin and eosin stained, magnification × 100). (
  • The virus mostly lives and copies itself in CD4+ T lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. (
  • They were able to detect the virus in CD4+ T lymphocytes in almost all of them. (
  • The Epstein-Barr virus has been known to persist in latency in B lymphocytes and regulate complex cellular regulatory networks. (
  • If you take lymphocytes from a mouse (or a person) that was previously infected with a virus, and you mix those lymphocytes with cells infected with the same virus, the infected cells will be killed. (
  • The second element contains the EBNA-1 DNA binding domain III and negatively regulates Fp-directed gene expression in trans with EBNA-1 in type III as well as type I latency. (
  • Background: Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) gene expression is controlled by the key regulatory proteins Tax and Rex. (
  • Victor Garcia and colleagues use a drug that activates the NF-kappaB signalling pathway, a trigger of HIV gene expression that could make the virus more susceptible to elimination. (
  • STAT3 and NF-kappaB activation is associated with gammaherpesvirus latency and cancer in cell culture systems. (
  • We use transgenic mice to enable cell-specific knock-out of host factors in combination with next gen sequencing technologies to define the role of signaling pathways for the establishment of gammaherpesvirus latency in primary B cells. (
  • The only member of the Epstein-Barr virus family of nuclear proteins (EBNAs) expressed during type I and type II latent infections is EBNA-1. (
  • This is in contrast to type III latency, during which all six nuclear proteins are expressed from a common transcription unit. (
  • Knowledge of the clinical signs and risk factors for human B-virus disease allows early initiation of antiviral therapy and prevents severe disease or death. (
  • Dr. Kaufmann says while their studies were done in the lab, "a clinical trial would involve using such drugs to wake up the virus while the patient continues taking ART to ensure that the reactivated virus cannot infect other cells. (
  • In Brazil, studies have been conducted using MLAEP in clinical conditions such as auditory processing disorder central 10 , aphasia 11 , human immunode 﫿 ciency caused by HIV virus 12-13 Landau-Kleffner syndrome 14 , Multiple Sclerosis 15 , showing latency and amplitude changes in these conditions inherent to dysfunctions of central auditory pathways. (
  • 2) clinical latency, and 3) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (
  • In human B cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), latency-associated virus gene products inhibit expression of the proapoptotic Bcl-2-family member Bim and enhance cell survival. (
  • Increasing indication in the past 10 years proposes that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are related with some human malignancies including breast cancer. (
  • Occupational and environmental exposures in relation to immune responsiveness to Epstein-Barr virus in a population-based sample. (
  • Mechanistic studies of the virus-host interplay are underway with the goal to identify new, effective interventions to treat and prevent cancers driven by Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. (
  • This invention relates to the diagnosis and therapy of Epstein-Barr virus associated disease. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus which is endemic in all human populations. (
  • West Nile virus: epidemiology and ecology in North America. (
  • The site adds significant value to the rest of our network and increases top-speed/lowest latency coverage in North America. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the causative agent of the deadly disease AIDS, which is characterized by the progressive decline of CD4 + T-cells. (
  • Using a short-term transfection assay and reporter gene plasmids containing Fp linked to the human growth hormone, we examined Fp activity in type I and type III latently infected and virus-negative Burkitt lymphoma cells. (
  • The overall activity of Fp in type I latently infected Burkitt cells was approximately sixfold lower than in virus-negative Burkitt cells, in which there is no autoregulation, suggesting that there is a fine balance between these two opposing regulatory elements during type I latency. (
  • Here we identify and characterize an intracellular circuit involving TRIM32, an HIV activator, and miR-155, a microRNA that may promote a return to latency in these transiently activated reservoir cells. (
  • Viruses cause disease by entering host cells and taking over their cell machinery to make copies of themselves. (
  • We were able to identify and quantify the cells containing hidden virus and then test drugs to wake up HIV. (
  • We can wake up the virus and then find the rare cells that have been hiding it at very low numbers, a limit of one cell in a million. (
  • This tactic allows the virus to successfully infect human cells and to cause disease. (
  • The human immune system has cells that can attack invading pathogens, protecting us from bacteria and viruses. (
  • Intermittently, these latently infected cells produce a burst of virus before retreating back into latency. (
  • Akata is a Type I latency cell, whereas IB4 and Jijoye are Type II latency cells. (
  • The numerous herpesvirus genes involved in nucleotide metabolism indicate that the nucleotide pool is a major restriction point for virus expansion in non-dividing cells. (
  • But even when the virus is completely undetected by blood tests, it is still there, hiding deep in cells' DNA, like a stealth attacker waiting for the body to let its guard down. (
  • According to the 'shock and kill' method, the virus needs to be flushed out of latently infected cells and then eliminated. (
  • Nagel MA, Choe A, Gilden D, Traina-Dorge V, Cohrs RJ, Mahalingam R. GeXPS multiplex PCR analysis of the simian varicella virus transcriptome in productively infected cells in culture and acutely infected ganglia. (
  • Amylin, Aß42, and Amyloid in Varicella Zoster Virus Vasculopathy Cerebrospinal Fluid and Infected Vascular Cells. (
  • In the malarial belt of Africa, EBV is a contributory factor in the development of Burkitt's lymphoma and in South-East Asia, the virus is linked to the high incidence of undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas. (
  • The findings may have applicability to related viruses as well, said Hong Li , a microbiologist at the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, who studies ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), which causes MCF in bison. (
  • Of the 35 herpesviruses identified in nonhuman primates, only Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) is known to be pathogenic for humans. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat induces apoptosis and increases sensitivity to apoptotic signals by up-regulating FLICE/caspase-8. (
  • Kadhim A. L. Shadood, H. , Abdul-Aziz Atiya, S. and Ali Kardar, G. (2018) Correlation of Breast Cancer with the Epstein Bar Virus and Human Cytomegalovirus Frequency and the Expression of Estrogen Receptor-Beta and IL-6 Receptor in Iraqi Women. (
  • Some human cancers can be produced by viruses e.g. mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) causes breast cancer in mice [7]. (
  • These proteins are so interesting because they are necessary for a virus to infect a human," said Cook. (
  • and attempting to do so will exact greater human consequences than a pandemic virus. (
  • As information leaked out-despite the Chinese government's considerable efforts to suppress it -that a novel human coronavirus was infecting hundreds or thousands of Chinese patients, a reputable bioweapons expert posited that the virus might be a lab-engineered byproduct of a bioweapons program. (
  • The exact evolution of the SARS-Cov 2 virus and details of its initial transmission into the human population can't be unequivocally proven or disproven so soon after discovery, although scientists agree that the virus probably originated in bats and may have made the jump to human hosts via pangolins . (
  • Some 38 million people worldwide have human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV), including almost 1.2 million Americans over age 13. (
  • Genomic surveillance of avian-origin influenza A viruses causing human disease. (
  • In 2003, US officials identified several human monkeypox cases and traced the virus exposure to infected captive prairie dogs. (
  • Human immunodeficiency viruses. (
  • VZV is classified as one of the human alpha-herpesviruses and is a linear, double-stranded DNA virus with an icosahedral capsid and an envelope with glycoprotein spikes. (
  • HIV" stands for human immunodeficiency virus. (
  • H - This particular virus can only infect human beings. (
  • Unlike some other viruses, the human body can't get rid of HIV completely, even after treatment. (
  • High risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) DNA test is highly sensitive to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). (
  • The Monographs programme has since been expanded to include consideration of exposures to complex mixtures of chemicals (which occur, for example, in some occupations and as a result of human habits) and of exposures to other agents, such as radiation and viruses. (
  • We developed an in vitro murine neuroblastoma cell HSV-infected, acyclovir suppressed model to study the influence of different cyclic nucleotide mediators on the latency and reactivation of HSV-1. (
  • Encephalitis, presumed to be due to reactivation of latent virus from the trigeminal ganglion, is the most serious manifestation with a mortality rate of about 50% if untreated and considerable morbidity in half of the survivors. (
  • After the first contact, the virus establishes a life-long latency in sensory nerve ganglia, being more frequent the trigeminal ganglion 13 . (
  • We recently demonstrated that EBNA-2 transactivation of the EBV latency C promoter (Cp) is dependent on an interaction with a cellular DNA-binding protein, CBF1, for promoter targeting. (
  • These findings highlight a latency-promoting role for one cellular miRNA that acts by suppressing an HIV activator. (
  • The "shock and kill" strategy boils down to this: If you can shock the latent virus out of its hiding place, then the treatment a patient is receiving could kill it. (
  • The virus can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, if not treated. (
  • related chemical compounds, physical agents (such as radiation) and biological factors (such as viruses). (
  • Dr. Jonathan Cook, a resident physician specializing in medical microbiology at the University of Toronto, is investigating key proteins on the HIV virus that are crucial to developing an effective vaccine. (
  • Using the CMFC beamline at the Canadian Light Source at the University of Saskatchewan, the research team analyzed the outer proteins on the HIV virus. (
  • The presence of PS-IRF9 was confirmed in the Akata cell lineage but absent in the IB4 and Jijoye cell lineage, showing a potential link between cell latency and different IRF9 proteins. (
  • The team caught the moment when a virus protein, called Mpro, cuts a protective protein, known as NEMO, in an infected person. (
  • We saw that the virus protein cuts through NEMO as easily as sharp scissors through thin paper," said co-senior author Soichi Wakatsuki, professor at SLAC and Stanford. (
  • The exclusive expression of EBNA- 1 during type I and II latency is mediated through a recently identified promoter, Fp. (
  • He and Adree Khondker in the lab of Prof. Jeffrey E. Lee from the Temerty Faculty of Medicine published a paper in Communications Biology that reveals new information on how the HIV virus interacts with immune systems. (
  • One element positively mediates Fp activity, probably at the level of transcription, and acts in a virus-independent manner. (
  • Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. (
  • Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. (
  • Understanding the precise mechanisms governing HIV latency will be pivotal for development of a safe, effective, and scalable HIV cure. (
  • Pneumonia, just like what Hilary Clinton has, is common and can be caused by bacteria or viruses from things like the flu, whooping cough, and chicken pox. (
  • Measuring cell death in vivo , that is, inside a virus-infected animal, is much more complicated than in a 96-well plate. (
  • The immune system recognizes this sequence on the virus, which is usually a good thing. (
  • To get there, Singh and his team are attempting to advance scientists' ability to answer this question: how to administer the shock that will draw latent HIV out from hiding and express itself so that body's immune system and antiretroviral therapy can together eliminate the virus permanently. (
  • During this stage, the virus keeps multiplying in the body and the immune system slowly weakens, but the person has no symptoms. (
  • B virus is a large, double-stranded DNA virus with numerous open reading frames, some of which share approximately 79% amino acid sequence identity with HSV-1 and HSV-2 ( 4 ). (
  • So , the role s of these viruses in the development of breast cancer remain unclear. (
  • Host factors are likely to play a crucial role in the efficiency of control of virus latency. (
  • Indirect evidence has suggested a possible role for EBV reactivation in patients with Sjogren's syndrome, an autoimmune disorder characterized by lymphoid infiltrates of the salivary gland (the normal site for EBV latency). (
  • Not many researchers other than Singh have considered RNA Pol III's potential role in HIV latency. (
  • He wondered why HIV researchers had not considered the enzyme's potential impact on the virus's latency, though they had examined the role of a related enzyme. (
  • Live feeds let you watch NFL video games free on-line without the latencies that come with gradual connectivity. (
  • The Newark datacenter provides excellent low-latency and connectivity to/from Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions. (
  • Despite significant advances in our understanding of HIV, a cure has not been realized for the more than 34 million infected with this virus. (
  • Assistant Professor Vir Singh uses memorable phrases for the approaches taken by the scientists like him engaged in an ambitious quest - to cure HIV, or at least put the virus into a coma. (
  • Fresh from that meeting, society president and Nobel laureate Françoise Barré-Sinoussi-who in 1983 co-discovered the virus that causes AIDS-will speak in August at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center's first Conference on Cell and Gene Therapy for HIV Cure . (
  • Many, including Barré-Sinoussi, say that the most realistic goal may be a so-called "functional cure" that doesn't necessarily eradicate all traces of the virus but eliminates the need to take daily pills. (
  • His German doctor decided to try to cure not just the cancer but HIV by finding a stem cell donor who carried two copies of an exceedingly rare gene mutation that confers natural resistance to the virus. (
  • Virus Latency Causes Cattle Disease? (
  • Removing the gene responsible for AlHV-1 latency helps protect the animals against the disease, pointing to a new vaccine strategy to protect livestock. (
  • Most macaques carry B virus without overt signs of disease. (
  • Neither group was able to produce disease in rhesus macaques, presumably because the monkeys were already naturally infected with what Sabin's group named B virus (after patient W.B. (
  • Neurological disease produced by varicella zoster virus reactivation without rash. (
  • [ 2 ] Transmission of the virus usually occurs through inhalation of virus-containing, airborne droplets but is also spread through direct contact with the vesicular fluid. (
  • Unlike AlHV-1, OvHV-2 cannot be grown in culture, but Li suspects that an ORF73-deficient AlHV-1 virus could be used as a backbone to build a vaccine against OvHV-2. (
  • The P2 plasmid from the Zika virus was converted into cDNA and injected into mouse models. (