The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
The light chain subunits of clathrin.
A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.

Inhibition of Henipavirus fusion and infection by heptad-derived peptides of the Nipah virus fusion glycoprotein. (1/1806)

BACKGROUND: The recent emergence of four new members of the paramyxovirus family has heightened the awareness of and re-energized research on new and emerging diseases. In particular, the high mortality and person to person transmission associated with the most recent Nipah virus outbreaks, as well as the very recent re-emergence of Hendra virus, has confirmed the importance of developing effective therapeutic interventions. We have previously shown that peptides corresponding to the C-terminal heptad repeat (HR-2) of the fusion envelope glycoprotein of Hendra virus and Nipah virus were potent inhibitors of both Hendra virus and Nipah virus-mediated membrane fusion using recombinant expression systems. In the current study, we have developed shorter, second generation HR-2 peptides which include a capped peptide via amidation and acetylation and two poly(ethylene glycol)-linked (PEGylated) peptides, one with the PEG moity at the C-terminus and the other at the N-terminus. Here, we have evaluated these peptides as well as the corresponding scrambled peptide controls in Nipah virus and Hendra virus-mediated membrane fusion and against infection by live virus in vitro. RESULTS: Unlike their predecessors, the second generation HR-2 peptides exhibited high solubility and improved synthesis yields. Importantly, both Nipah virus and Hendra virus-mediated fusion as well as live virus infection were potently inhibited by both capped and PEGylated peptides with IC50 concentrations similar to the original HR-2 peptides, whereas the scrambled modified peptides had no inhibitory effect. These data also indicate that these chemical modifications did not alter the functional properties of the peptides as inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Nipah virus and Hendra virus infection in vitro can be potently blocked by specific HR-2 peptides. The improved synthesis and solubility characteristics of the second generation HR-2 peptides will facilitate peptide synthesis for pre-clinical trial application in an animal model of Henipavirus infection. The applied chemical modifications are also predicted to increase the serum half-life in vivo and should increase the chance of success in the development of an effective antiviral therapy.  (+info)

Calcium-dependent viral internalization is required for adenovirus type 7 induction of IL-8 protein. (2/1806)

The host response to adenovirus (Ad) infection involves induction of cytokines in lung epithelia. We have demonstrated induction of the lung neutrophil chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by Ad7, a major lung pathogen, in A549 lung epithelial cells and lung tissue through activation of the Erk signaling pathway. However, the mechanism of IL-8 induction is still unclear. In this paper, we first showed that Ad7 viral gene expression is not essential for IL-8 induction as psoralen-UV inactivation of Ad7 did not affect IL-8 mRNA induction or IL-8 protein induction in A549 cells. We then inhibited internalization of Ad7 by treatment of A549 cells with EGTA in calcium-free medium during exposure to Ad7. We verified that this treatment inhibited Ad internalization by confocal microscopy, FACS analysis and Ad E1A and fiber mRNA expression. Preventing internalization by calcium depletion did not inhibit Erk activation by Ad7. However, calcium-dependent internalization was required for IL-8 protein production in Ad7 exposed cells. This is not likely due to an effect of calcium depletion on downstream Erk signaling or IL-8 protein production since calcium depletion did not block IL-8 protein production stimulated by PMA, and because addition of EGTA subsequent to Ad7 internalization also did not prevent Ad induction of IL-8. These studies indicate that Ad7 internalization is calcium-dependent and is required for IL-8 protein induction upon Ad7 infection. Ad7 induction of Erk is independent of calcium and does not require virus internalization.  (+info)

The small envelope protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus possesses ion channel protein-like properties. (3/1806)

The small envelope (E) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a hydrophobic 73 amino acid protein encoded in the internal open reading frame (ORF) of the bicistronic mRNA2. As a first step towards understanding the biological role of E protein during PRRSV replication, E gene expression was blocked in a full-length infectious clone by mutating the ATG translational initiation to GTG, such that the full-length mutant genomic clone was unable to synthesize the E protein. DNA transfection of PRRSV-susceptible cells with the E gene knocked-out genomic clone showed the absence of virus infectivity. P129-DeltaE-transfected cells however produced virion particles in the culture supernatant, and these particles contained viral genomic RNA, demonstrating that the E protein is essential for PRRSV infection but dispensable for virion assembly. Electron microscopy suggests that the P129-DeltaE virions assembled in the absence of E had a similar appearance to the wild-type particles. Strand-specific RT-PCR demonstrated that the E protein-negative, non-infectious P129-DeltaE virus particles were able to enter cells but further steps of replication were interrupted. The entry of PRRSV has been suggested to be via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and lysomotropic basic compounds and known ion-channel blocking agents both inhibited PRRSV replication effectively during the uncoating process. The expression of E protein in Escherichia coli-mediated cell growth arrests and increased the membrane permeability. Cross-linking experiments in cells infected with PRRSV or transfected with E gene showed that the E protein was able to form homo-oligomers. Taken together, our data suggest that the PRRSV E protein is likely an ion-channel protein embedded in the viral envelope and facilitates uncoating of virus and release of the genome in the cytoplasm.  (+info)

Induction of transcription factor Egr-1 gene expression in astrocytoma cells by Murine coronavirus infection. (4/1806)

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) causes encephalitis and demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) of susceptible rodents. Astrocytes are one of the major targets for MHV infection in the CNS, and respond to MHV infection by expressing diverse molecules that may contribute to CNS pathogenesis. Here we characterized the activation of an immediate-early transcription factor Egr-1 by MHV infection in an astrocytoma cell line. We found that the expression of Egr-1 was dramatically increased following virus infection. Using various inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases, we identified that the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 were involved in the activation of Egr-1 transcription by MHV infection. Experiments with ultraviolet light-inactivated virus revealed that the induction of Egr-1 did not require virus replication and was likely mediated during cell entry. We further found that over-expression of Egr-1 suppressed the expression of BNip3, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. This finding may provide an explanation for our previously observed down-regulation of BNip3 by MHV infection in astrocytoma cells (Cai, Liu, Yu, and Zhang, Virology 316:104-115, 2003). Furthermore, knockdown of Egr-1 by an siRNA inhibited MHV propagation, suggesting the biological relevance of Egr-1 induction to virus replication. In addition, the persistence/demylinating-positive strains (JHM and A59) induced Egr-1 expression, whereas the persistence/demylinating-negative strain (MHV-2) did not. These results indicate a correlation between the ability of MHVs to induce Egr-1 expression and their ability to cause demyelination in the CNS, which may suggest a potential role for the induction of Egr-1 in viral pathogenesis.  (+info)

Paramyxovirus fusion: real-time measurement of parainfluenza virus 5 virus-cell fusion. (5/1806)

Although cell-cell fusion assays are useful surrogate methods for studying virus fusion, differences between cell-cell and virus-cell fusion exist. To examine paramyxovirus fusion in real time, we labeled viruses with fluorescent lipid probes and monitored virus-cell fusion by fluorimetry. Two parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) isolates (W3A and SER) and PIV5 containing mutations within the fusion protein (F) were studied. Fusion was specific and temperature-dependent. Compared to many low pH-dependent viruses, the kinetics of PIV5 fusion was slow, approaching completion within several minutes. As predicted from cell-cell fusion assays, virus containing an F protein with an extended cytoplasmic tail (rSV5 F551) had reduced fusion compared to wild-type virus (W3A). In contrast, virus-cell fusion for SER occurred at near wild-type levels, despite the fact that this isolate exhibits a severely reduced cell-cell fusion phenotype. These results support the notion that virus-cell and cell-cell fusion have significant differences.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a novel gene encoding an RGD-containing protein in large yellow croaker iridovirus. (6/1806)

Many virus-encoded RGD-containing proteins have been reported to play important roles in virus attachment and entry. Here we report the identification and functional characterization of a gene encoding an RGD-containing protein (037L) from large yellow croaker iridovirus (LYCIV), a causative agent of epizootics among large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea. The 037L gene is 1347 bp long and encodes a protein of 449 amino acids containing a biologically active RGD tri-peptide predicted with SURFC and STRIDE software. Temporal analysis of 037L gene transcription showed that this gene was a late gene. Subcellular localization of 037L in insect Hi5 cells using baculovirus vector system indicated that 037L might be a membrane-tropistic protein and functionally associated with the cytoplasma-membrane. The recombinant 037L expressed in E. coli could effectively induce the morphological changes of BF-2 cells and promote cellular aggregation, demonstrating that it can bind with surface molecules of BF-2 cells. The neutralization assay showed that LYCIV infection of BF-2 cells was significantly inhibited by anti-037L IgG, as determined by a real-time PCR of viral concentrations in the culture supernatants of LYCIV-infected cells, suggesting that it might have an important role in virus infectivity. This is the first report of the functional gene involved in virus infection and virus-host interaction in Megalocytivirus.  (+info)

Diverse CD81 proteins support hepatitis C virus infection. (7/1806)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry is dependent on CD81. To investigate whether the CD81 sequence is a determinant of HCV host range, we expressed a panel of diverse CD81 proteins and tested their ability to interact with HCV. CD81 large extracellular loop (LEL) sequences were expressed as recombinant proteins; the human and, to a low level, the African green monkey sequences bound soluble HCV E2 (sE2) and inhibited infection by retrovirus pseudotype particles bearing HCV glycoproteins (HCVpp). In contrast, mouse or rat CD81 proteins failed to bind sE2 or to inhibit HCVpp infection. However, CD81 proteins from all species, when expressed in HepG2 cells, conferred susceptibility to infection by HCVpp and cell culture-grown HCV to various levels, with the rat sequence being the least efficient. Recombinant human CD81 LEL inhibited HCVpp infectivity only if present during the virus-cell incubation, consistent with a role for CD81 after virus attachment. Amino acid changes that abrogate sE2 binding (I182F, N184Y, and F186S, alone or in combination) were introduced into human CD81. All three amino acid changes in human CD81 resulted in a molecule that still supported HCVpp infection, albeit with reduced efficiency. In summary, there is a remarkable plasticity in the range of CD81 sequences that can support HCV entry, suggesting that CD81 polymorphism may contribute to, but alone does not define, the HCV susceptibility of a species. In addition, the capacity to support viral entry is only partially reflected by assays measuring sE2 interaction with recombinant or full-length CD81 proteins.  (+info)

Persistent hepatitis C virus infection in vitro: coevolution of virus and host. (8/1806)

The virological and cellular consequences of persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been elusive due to the absence of the requisite experimental systems. Here, we report the establishment and the characteristics of persistent in vitro infection of human hepatoma-derived cells by a recently described HCV genotype 2a infectious molecular clone. Persistent in vitro infection was characterized by the selection of viral variants that displayed accelerated expansion kinetics, higher peak titers, and increased buoyant densities. Sequencing analysis revealed the selection of a single adaptive mutation in the HCV E2 envelope protein that was largely responsible for the variant phenotype. In parallel, as the virus became more aggressive, cells that were resistant to infection emerged, displaying escape mechanisms operative at the level of viral entry, HCV RNA replication, or both. Collectively, these results reveal the existence of coevolutionary events during persistent HCV infection that favor survival of both virus and host.  (+info)

If you have been following my earlier posts part 1, part 2 and part 3, you will see that I have been watching the bear and bull scenarios since 11k. I have been trading the bear scenario since 11k, although I missed some entries because of the lack of any substantial retraces and I got stopped out on the last short entry at 7.5k yesterday. I have held the view for some time that until BTC breaks and closes above the trendline, I will maintain a bearish view but be mindful of a switch to a …
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Так уж получилось, что читала в основном на английском. Кроме того, во время утренней пробежки начала слушать аудиокниги, тоже английские, и очень прониклась этим занятием: отвлекает от монотонности происходящего и отлично включает мозг. На свежую после сна голову воспринимается легко, тренирует восприятие устной речи. Сплошная польза, и нет этого ужасного ощущения выброшенного на спорт времени как вычеркнутого из жизни. Наоборот, обнаруживаются огромные его резервы. Не нашлось бы столько часов, чтобы прочитать на чужом языке все то количество ...
Begreening ต้องการพัฒนาภาชนะใส่อาหาร เช่น ถาด ถ้วย หรือกล่องอาหารแบบใช้ครั้งเดียวทิ้ง ที่เป็นมิต ...
Begreening ต้องการพัฒนาภาชนะใส่อาหาร เช่น ถาด ถ้วย หรือกล่องอาหารแบบใช้ครั้งเดียวทิ้ง ที่เป็นมิต ...
MiniCD4 protein resistance mutations affect binding to the HIV-1 gp120 CD4 binding site and decrease entry efficiency : Binding of the viral envelope protein (Env), and particularly of its gp120 subunit, to the cellular CD4 receptor is the first essential step of the HIV-1 entry process. The CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of gp120, and especially a recessed cavity occupied by the CD4 Phe43 residue, are known to be highly conserved among the different circulating subtypes and therefore constitute particularly interesting
The results of this study show that the amount of mobile receptor and the speed at which it diffuses varies according to its location within the cell. CD81 and claudin-1 are expressed equally in the filopodia and plasma membrane, whereas SR-BI is expressed at lower levels in the filopodia compared to the plasma membrane. We show that addition of both sE2 and sE1E2 has varying affects on both the speed and mobility of CD81 and claudin-1 and that the majority of significant effects observed for claudin-1 are observed at areas of potential cell contact. Finally, we demonstrate that addition of ITX5061 affects the diffusion coefficient of CD81 and CLDN-1 and the amount of mobile SR-BI. Furthermore, the effects on SR-BI are limited to areas of cell contact or exploratory regions. In summary, we present data which we hope will further current knowledge of the activity of these receptors in relation to their role in HCV infection ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
mouse anti-p46 cell surface protein excluded from macropinocytic cup hybridoma (H36) is an eagle-i resource of type Hybridoma cell line at eagle-i Network Shared Resource Repository.
Entry inhibitors represent a new generation of antivirals for the treatment of HIV infection. Several compounds which block the attachment of HIV gp120 to either the CD4 T cell receptor or the CCR5/CXCR4 co-receptors are currently in clinical development. Most of these compounds have different molecular structures and specific mechanisms of action. These agents are eagerly awaited by a growing number of patients carrying viruses resistant viruses to many of the current available reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors. For enfuvirtide, the first and, so far, only entry inhibitor approved for clinical use, the main mechanism of resistance is the selection of changes within a 10 amino acid segment encompassing residues 36-45 within the HR1 region of gp41. For other entry inhibitors, multiple changes in different gp120 domains (V1, V2, V3, C2 and C4) have been associated with loss of susceptibility to these agents, although in most cases with limited cross-resistance.. ...
Viral entry is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle, as the virus comes into contact with the host cell and introduces viral material into the cell. The major steps involved in viral entry are shown below. Despite the variation among viruses, there are several shared generalities concerning viral entry. A virus floating around an enclosed space with possible host cells faces a large hurdle, the thermodynamics of diffusion. Because neutrally charged objects do not naturally clump around each other, the virus must find a way to move even near a host cell. It does this by attachment -- or adsorption --- onto a susceptible cell; a cell which holds a receptor that the virus can bind to. The receptors on the viral envelope effectively become connected to complementary receptors on the cell membrane. This attachment causes the two membranes to remain in mutual proximity, favoring further interactions between surface proteins. This is also the first requisite that must be satisfied ...
Buy and download royalty-free image ID 7126350: 3D render of a medical background with blood cells, DNA strands and virus cells by kirstypargeter from Cres..
The last thing a child needs is this kind of toxic stress when she should be saving all of her physical and emotional strength to fight her cancer, said National Nurses United Executive Director
Although challenging, single-virus imaging has revealed key steps in the viral life cycle, and it will likely reveal more about viruses as imaging equ
Read Polly Gamey (4. Largo continued) - Free Sex Story on! 4. (Largo continued) Lizvette walked to the closet, near the entry at the far end of the room. I watched her little...
The bookkeeper for Bradbury Company asks you to prepare the following accrued adjusting entries at December 31. 1. Interest on notes payable of $400 is accrued. 2. Services performed but not recorded total $1,900. 3. Salaries earned by employees of $900 have not been recorded. Use the following...
This meeting devoted to macropinocytosis will bring together experts from disparate fields with a shared interest in the biology of macropinosome formation and trafficking, with the goal of fostering collaboration and building a community.
where he will archive the original and post a smaller copy in this thread. All entries are linked to a full sized copy that are very large and may take a long time to load, depending on your connection speed. Please read all rules carefully before submitting your entries. All entries that do not comply to the posted rules will be disqualified ...
Viral Entry Discovery Suggests New Treatments by Theo Smart A central mystery surrounding the infection of CD4 cells by HIV appears to have been solved by ...
I have a column in which are blanks or the letter Y (indicating membership in a group). I can count the Ys with a countif, so I know the entries are
Detailed knowledge of the host-virus interactions that accompany filovirus entry into cells is expected to identify determinants of viral virulence and host range, and to yield targets for the development of antiviral therapeutics. While it is generally agreed that filovirus entry into the host cytoplasm requires viral internalization into acidic endosomal compartments and proteolytic cleavage of the envelope glycoprotein by endo/lysosomal cysteine proteases, our understanding of the specific endocytic pathways co-opted by filoviruses remains limited. This review addresses the current knowledge on cellular endocytic pathways implicated in filovirus entry, highlights the consensus as well as controversies, and discusses important remaining questions.
Hantavirus Gn and Gc Envelope Glycoproteins: Key Structural Units for Virus Cell Entry and Virus Assembly. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Additional entry factors have been described more recently such as tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) and Ephrin A2 receptor [15], the Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 receptor [16], the transferrin receptor [17] and the tetraspanin CD63 [18]. an extensive functional study to characterize the ability of these two natural variants to prevent HCV access. We used lentiviral vectors to Centrinone express Wildtype or mutated CLDN6 and OCLN in different cell lines and main human being hepatocytes. HCV illness was then investigated using cell tradition produced HCV particles (HCVcc) as well as HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp) expressing envelope proteins from different genotypes. Our results show that variants of CLDN6 and OCLN indicated separately or in combination did not impact HCV illness nor cell-to-cell transmission. Hence, our study highlights the difficulty of HCV resistance mechanisms supporting the fact that this process probably not primarily involves HCV access factors and that ...
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Experimental evidence points towards a remarkably conserved mechanism by which virally encoded envelope glycoproteins catalyse membrane fusion and facilitate delivery of the viral core into the target cell [13, 14]. The structures of several class 1 fusion proteins reveal a characteristic trimer-of-hairpins motif believed to represent a late or post-fusion conformation [16-19, 35-37]. Investigating the way in which envelope proteins fold from a rod-like, pre-hairpin intermediate into the trimer-of-hairpins to pull the viral and cellular membranes together is important not only for our understanding of viral entry but also for the development of therapeutically relevant inhibitors of this process.. The protein sequences of the TM ectodomains of BLV and HTLV-1 display a striking level of conservation. By scrutinizing the position of conserved residues in the context of the HTLV-1 six-helix-bundle structure, we have found that the majority of the conserved residues map to the interacting surfaces ...
Single-particle studies of dengue-virus membrane fusion and the effect of small-molecule inhibitors of infection clarify the viral fusion mechanism.
E1 is a class II viral fusion protein. This trimeric (low-pH-iduced) form is fusion active, and promotes release of viral nucleocapsid in cytoplasm after cell and viral membrane fusion. Efficient fusion requires the presence of cholesterol and sphingolipid in the target membrane. N-terminal domain of this protein: 1dyl(NMR), 1vcp, 1vcq ...
GraphicRiver Bacteria and Virus Cell 10138836 Stock Vector Conceptual Health Medicine Oraganism Organism Microscopic Microorganism Medicine Micro Pathogen GraphicRiver Bacteria and Virus Cel
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Zhang, X; Patel, A; Celma, CC; Yu, XK; Roy, P; Zhou, ZH; (2015) Atomic model of a nonenveloped virus reveals pH sensors for a coordinated process of cell entry. Nature structural & molecular biology, 23 (1). pp. 74-80. ISSN 1545-9993 DOI: ...
In Kea 1.1 the client classification system has been expanded. A class definition contains a name and a test expression of arbitrary complexity; if the test expression evaluates to true, the client is a member of that class. A client may be a member of multiple classes and can acquire options from different classes. If the configuration contains multiple definitions for data for an option in two or more of the global, class, subnet, or host entries, the server will choose the definition from the most specific entry.. There are a number of objects and operators available for use in the test expression.. ...
This lifecycle layer puzzle is a fun, educational tool that teaches children how an egg turns into a ladybird. Let them discover the lifecycle stages as they pull away each layer. Every puzzle has four lift out layers and is made from responsibly sourced materials.
Fig 3: Test Addition (Add button) Now, to add a new test we first start by click on the Add button on the bottom of the screen. (Notice that after clicking the Add button, the button changes to Save. This is for saving our entry of a Test addition. We will save our entry at the end.) (Fig 4) ...
In a blog entry at Politics in Color, Wayne Dawkins weighs in on the latest brouhaha over racially incendiary comments made by GOP presidential hopefuls Newt Gingrich and Rick Santorum. The two are trying to appeal to the GOP conservative base, says Dawkins.
Unless you have an unusually enlightened workplace, you probably dont want to watch the belowlinked videos at work. You may not even want to read this entry at work. (More...). 17 October 2009, 2:35 PM , Comments (3) ...
Micro Focus product support lifecycle has guidelines for the availability and level of support during the life of a product under an active maintenance agreement.
Micro Focus product support lifecycle has guidelines for the availability and level of support during the life of a product under an active maintenance agreement.
Learn how a platform to Own the Lifecycle connects end-to-end, actionable data - concept through service - with the teams who need it, accelerating both product improvements and strategic agility. ...
gain entry to a host. -colonise the tissue of the host. -resist the defences of the host. -cause damage to the host tissues. pathogens include bacteria, virus and fungi.. if a pathogen gets into a host and colonises its tissue an infection results. disease occurs when an infection leads to recognisable symptoms in the host. when a pathogen is transferred from one individual to another it is known as transmission. ...
Hotfixes address business-critical issues that typically affect a small number of users and are distributed upon request. They are created only for the most recent SP of releases that are within their Hotfix End Date as defined in the Product Support Lifecycle below. They are only considered for the most recent SP of a release.. Product Support Lifecycle. ...
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Despite its heavy toll, the prevention and clinical treatment of dengue infection has been a dramatic failure in public health compared to other infectious diseases like HIV, said Ping Liu of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Now, new research by Liu and her colleagues could offer vital insight into the mechanism of dengue virus entry into cells -- and aid vaccine and clinical drug development.
Thank you for sharing this Journal of Virology article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. We do not retain these email addresses.. ...
You achieved immediate and lasting fame with your novel about the plain but spirited governess, Jane Eyre. The only Bronte sibling to marry, you outlived your brother and sisters, and, unlike Anne and Emily, had a chance to enjoy your celebrity and meet other authors of your day. However, you died in early pregnancy before you were forty ...
Invasive bacterial pathogens are engulfed upon host cell entry in a vacuolar environment called the bacteria-containing vacuole (BCV). BCVs directly contact
The gH/gL heterodimer represents two from the four herpes virus glycoproteins sufficient and essential for membrane fusion. the HSV fusion glycoproteins is normally gL GSK2118436A which includes 224 proteins with no apparent transmembrane domains. The essential membrane proteins gH binds gL most GSK2118436A likely in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as the matching gH/gL heterodimer after that transits to sites of viral envelopment as well as the plasma membrane (4 5 An unchanged HSV type 1 (HSV-1) gH wont leave the ER unless it really is destined to gL (4 -7). The gH/gL heterodimer continues to be postulated to really have the hallmarks of the viral fusion proteins and to enjoy a direct function in membrane fusion (8 -13). Nevertheless the HSV-2 gH/gL framework will not resemble any known viral fusion proteins and there is certainly recent proof that HSV gH/gL has even more of a regulatory and/or structural function in membrane fusion performed by the course III fusion proteins gB (14 ...
Macropinocytosis is a unique pathway of endocytosis characterised by the nonspecific internalisation of large amounts of extracellular fluid, solutes and membrane in large endocytic vesicles known as macropinosomes. Macropinocytosis is important in a range of physiological processes, including antigen presentation, nutrient sensing, recycling of plasma proteins, migration and signalling. It has become apparent in recent years from the study of specialised cells that there are multiple pathways of macropinocytosis utilised by different cell types, and some of these pathways are triggered by different stimuli. Understanding the physiological function of macropinocytosis requires knowledge of the regulation and fate of the macropinocytosis pathways in a range of cell types. Here, we compare the mechanisms of macropinocytosis in different primary and immortalised cells, identify the gaps in knowledge in the field and discuss the potential approaches to analyse the function of macropinocytosis in vivo.
Antiviral blocking peptides targeting the viral fusion core can inhibit viral membrane fusion, thereby inhibiting the viruss entry into the host cell.
Download this Free Photo about 3d virus cells attacking a dna strand, and discover more than 6 Million Professional Stock Photos on Freepik
There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience. ...
Im posting this as a quick reference on how to use the Alternate Access Mapping in WSSv3 and MOSS 2007. Alternate Access Mapping enables you to access your Sharepoint site via a typical url like instead of hitting the server name at http://mysharepointserver. In combination with DNS A host entries you can also define urls…
Im posting this as a quick reference on how to use the Alternate Access Mapping in WSSv3 and MOSS 2007. Alternate Access Mapping enables you to access your Sharepoint site via a typical url like instead of hitting the server name at http://mysharepointserver. In combination with DNS A host entries you can also define urls…
Hospitals in all 50 states and dozens of international locations are barring guests. Lobbies are bare, customer parking a lot empty, flower deliveries stopped. The variety of available entry factors has been decreased, and stability guards and staff members are posted at those that continue being to flip away patients relatives and buddies.. Its a heart-wrenching matter to do, claimed Dr. Laura Forese, government vice president and main operating officer of NewYork-Presbyterian Healthcare facility in New York. But it is for everyones defense.. At most hospitals, exceptions are staying made only for individuals acquiring stop of daily life care, hospitalized little ones and expecting females in labor.. Past 7 days, following New York-Presbyterian found that numerous expecting and postpartum people in its labor and shipping device had Covid-19 - with minimal or no signs and symptoms - it barred all guests, like companions. Mt. Sinai Healthcare facility Program adopted fit. But on Saturday ...
PERIVENTRICULAR LESIONS IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: THEIR PERIVENOUS ORIGIN AND RELATIONSHIP TO GRANULAR EPENDYMITIS ... S%2087.pdf The part that catched my attention was: Increased permeability of the inflamed ependyma constitutes a possible abnormal entry route from plaque to CSF or, ... - Even the maximum penalty will not endanger Fulsts entry at the world championships, which is to be held 26-30 September in Antwerp, Belgium.
SSA Global has released SSA PLM 8.0, a product lifecycle management solution designed to help customers achieve lower total cost of ownership through integration with other enterprise systems. The solution also helps attain regulatory compliance and accelerate the time to market for new products.
Software developers share their experiences with tools and best practices that support application lifecycle management. Note that posts reported to us as spam or off-topic advertising will be removed.
IBM BigFix Lifecycle provides real-time visibility into the state of endpoints with advanced functionality for managing those endpoints.
KBR delivers complete lifecycle support solutions that optimise production, extend lifecycles and deliver greater operational efficiency for long-term value
Full product lifecycle management from Acal BFi Product changes and obsolescence are a major consideration when developing an embedded computer solu
At each stage in the emission inventory lifecycle Aether can undertake key tasks, provide training and facilitate capacity building
Lifecycle Assessment of Structures and Probabilistic Performance Approaches: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9619-8.ch062: This contribution is particularly focused on the lifetime assessment of structures where the concept of risk informed decision is based on the structural
Todays real-time TCLTX fund quote TIAA-CREF Lifecycle 2020 Retirement ticker symbol TCLTX price, snapshot, NAV, ratings, historical returns, news, risk measures, fees.
Click on the bolded paper title for a complete annotation, including abstract.. These papers are searchable. Start a search (left side of page) to gain entry to the Advanced Search area.. ...
When it comes to stenting - using metal tubes to prop open blocked arteries - physicians are continuing to choose to gain entry to the circulatory system through an opening in the leg instead of the arm, even though the ...
where he will archive the original and post a smaller copy in this thread. All entries are linked to a full sized copy that are very large and may take a long time to load, depending on your connection speed. Please read all rules carefully before submitting your entries. All entries that do not comply to the posted rules will be disqualified ...
If your organization is one of the many that need to do some remedial work in the area of lifecycle management, heres a look at some of the things you need to know.
Modules that are supported by Puppet, Inc., are rigorously tested, will be maintained for the same lifecycle as Puppet Enterprise, and are compatible with multiple platforms. ...
Modules that are supported by Puppet, Inc., are rigorously tested, will be maintained for the same lifecycle as Puppet Enterprise, and are compatible with multiple platforms. ...

No data available that match "virus internalization"

  • However, internalization is blocked completely when viruses lack the neurovirulence factor, infected cell protein 34.5, or when endocytosis is inhibited with bafilomycin A 1 or chloroquine. (
  • This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane. (
  • EBV enters nasopharyngeal epithelial cells through NRP1-facilitated internalization and fusion, and through macropinocytosis and lipid raft-dependent endocytosis. (
  • We show that endocytosis-defective DC-SIGN molecules enhance T-cell infection as efficiently as their wild-type counterparts, indicating that DC-SIGN-mediated HIV internalization is dispensable for trans -enhancement. (
  • Methyl beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD) treatment of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) reduced envelope cholesterol levels and inhibited viral entry and infectivity in several cell types, regardless of the dependence of entry on endocytosis or low pH. (
  • Numerous virus families utilize endocytosis to infect host cells, mediating virus internalization as well as trafficking to the site of replication. (
  • The tools to study endocytosis and, consequently, virus entry are becoming more effective and specific as the amount of information on endocytic component structure and function increases. (
  • Tacaribe virus (TCRV) entry occurs by receptor-mediated endocytosis. (
  • In cells lacking the human transferrin receptor (hTfR), compounds and DN proteins that impair clathrin-mediated endocytosis were shown to reduce virus internalization without affecting virion binding. (
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate that in cells expressing the hTfR, TCRV internalization depends on the presence of cholesterol, dynamin and acidic intracellular vesicles, while in the rest of the cell lines analyzed, clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the main TCRV entry pathway and, as expected, depends on dynamin and acidic intracellular vesicles. (
  • In many cases, binding is followed by receptor-mediated endocytosis of the virus and subsequent penetration of the viral capsid and accessory proteins from intracellular organelles into the cytosol ( 9 ). (
  • Our study focused on murine polyoma virus (Py), a small (diameter, 45 nm), simple, nonenveloped DNA tumor virus ( 12 ) that uses gangliosides GD1a and GT1b as receptors ( 13 ) and relies on clathrin-independent, cholesterol-dependent endocytosis to deliver its genome into the cell for replication (ref. 14 and A.E.S., H.E., and A.H., unpublished observations). (
  • Semliki forest virus (SFV) is internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and transported via early endosomes to late endosomes and lysosomes. (
  • Endocytosis is essential for normal cell functioning, and many viruses and bacteria have evolved mechanisms to hijack endocytic pathways in order to gain entry into the cell. (
  • Thus, functional in vivo studies as well as ultrastructural and biochemical analyses indicate that dynamin mediates both clathrin-dependent endocytosis and the internalization of caveolae in mammalian cells. (
  • [11] [12] Attached to the host cell membrane , entry of the viral nucleic acid was thought to occur one of two ways: via the formation of a pore in the plasma membrane through which the RNA is then "injected" into the host cell cytoplasm , or that the virus is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis . (
  • The presence of at least one of the three endocytosis motifs is essential for internalization of the protein from the plasma membrane to early endosomes, for tubule formation, and for CaMV infection. (
  • Although some viruses can directly penetrate into cytosol, in fact, most virus entry into their host cells is through endocytosis. (
  • Therefore, the viruses that entry the host cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in most cases will form the clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) by triggering the clathrin to the plasma membrane. (
  • The entry procedure of most enveloped viruses involves endocytosis and membrane fusion. (
  • In addition to its involvement in virus entry, dynamin has also been proposed to participate in membrane fusion between the virus and endosomes following endocytosis [ 22 ]. (
  • This multivalent attachment by multiple copies of trimetric HA triggers endocytosis of influenza virus that is contained in the endosome. (
  • In the second step, the tight association of the influenza virus particle with the host cell induces endocytosis that generates an endosome to encapsulate the entering virus particle. (
  • This attachment induces virion internalization either through clathrin-dependent endocytosis or through clathrin- and caveolin-independent pathway. (
  • 2. Internalisation by caveolin-mediated endocytosis. (
  • CHC phosphorylation positively correlates with ligand-induced TCR internalization in both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, and CHC phosphorylation as a result of basal Lck activity is also implicated in constitutive TCR endocytosis by CD4 + T cells. (
  • Remarkably, irreversible CHC phosphorylation in the presence of pervanadate reduced both constitutive and ligand-induced TCR internalization in CD4 + T cells, and immunofluorescence studies revealed that this inhibition affected the early stages of TCR endocytosis from the plasma membrane. (
  • Thus, we propose that CHC phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are involved in TCR internalization and that this is a regulatory mechanism linking TCR signaling to endocytosis. (
  • Dynamics of virus-receptor interactions in virus binding, signaling, and endocytosis. (
  • Barrow E, Nicola AV, Liu J. Multiscale perspectives of virus entry via endocytosis. (
  • Sun Y, Tien P. From endocytosis to membrane fusion: emerging roles of dynamin in virus entry. (
  • Schelhaas M. Come in and take your coat off - how host cells provide endocytosis for virus entry. (
  • Mercer J, Schelhaas M, Helenius A. Virus entry by endocytosis. (
  • endocytosis endosomal pH pH - sensitive green fluorescent protein single-particle imaging virus. (
  • Diverse enveloped viruses enter cells by endocytosis and fusion with intracellular compartments. (
  • In the present study, we designed an imaging-based assay to measure endocytosis in real-time through probing the virus' accessibility to external solutions. (
  • We demonstrate that the vitro-nectin-binding integrins alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5 promote viral infection in a novel way since antibodies against these receptors or soluble penton base block virus internalization without affecting attachment. (
  • These data indicate that adenovirus attachment and uptake into cells are separate but cooperative events that result from the interaction of distinct viral coat proteins with a receptor for attachment and alpha v integrin receptors for internalization. (
  • This method revealed variation in the rate of internalization for different cell surface receptors and allowed for kinetic characterization of influenza virus internalization. (
  • Lectin-dependent enhancement of Ebola virus infection via soluble and transmembrane C-type lectin receptors. (
  • In this study, we have adopted this technology to analyze the lateral movement of incoming virus-like particles (VLPs) attached to their cell-surface receptors. (
  • The entry of animal viruses into their host cells starts with binding of the particles to lipids, proteins, or carbohydrates that serve as receptors on the cell surface. (
  • Like intact viruses, VLPs bind via the viral protein 1 to the oligosaccharide moiety of the gangliosides and use them as entry receptors ( 16 ). (
  • To determine whether or not the HA-543 signal is a degenerate form of the internalization signal found in proteins such as the transferrin receptor and mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II receptor, we have mutated amino acid positions of HA-Y543 shown to be important for internalization of the two receptors. (
  • Our results indicate that the HA-Y543 mutant contains a suboptimum sequence for a tyrosine-based internalization signal similar to those found in the receptors for transferrin, low density lipoprotein, and mannose 6-phosphate/IGFII. (
  • The hemagglutinin mediates attachment of the virus particles to the respiratory epithelial cells via specific receptors. (
  • The activation can be triggered in a very short time after virus binds on target cells, such as receptors. (
  • Both these mosquito receptors are members of the low-density-lipoprotein-receptor superfamily that contain FxNPxY-type internalization signals. (
  • Binds to sialic acid-containing receptors on the cell surface, bringing about the attachment of the virus particle to the cell. (
  • Such receptors are suited for systemic gene therapy because they are readily accessible through the circulation and often mediate cellular internalization of targeting ligands ( 9 - 13 ). (
  • Jiang J, Wu X, Tang H, Luo G. Apolipoprotein E mediates attachment of clinical hepatitis C virus to hepatocytes by binding to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan receptors. (
  • The TIM and TAM families of phosphatidylserine receptors mediate dengue virus entry. (
  • Schneider-Schaulies J. Cellular receptors for viruses: links to tropism and pathogenesis. (
  • The N-terminal part of the Spike protein (S1, residues 1-685) initiates the infection process by attaching the virus to host receptors (ACE2, CLEC4M/DC-SIGNR) located on the cell membrane. (
  • Neither the initial virus attachment site, heparan sulfate proteoglycans, nor the IFN-α/β or IFN-γ receptors are involved in the response. (
  • Adenovirus contains a heterodimeric protein complex consisting of 186 kd fiber protein that mediates high affinity virus attachment to cells and a 400 kd pentavalent subunit (penton base) that contains five Arg-Gly-Asp sequences, implying a role for integrins in adenovirus infection. (
  • The widespread use of anti-influenza drugs such as neuraminidase and matrix protein 2 (M2) channel inhibitors has resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses. (
  • The internalization process requires viral protein synthesis but not viral encapsulation, and does not alter the density of voltage-activated calcium or potassium channels. (
  • Although it has been recognized for many years that viruses cause cell pathology by interfering with signal transduction pathways, this is the first example of viral pathology resulting from selective internalization of an integral membrane protein. (
  • The most common method for monitoring internalization relies on labeling proteins with antibodies modified with a fluorophore or other tag that can also be used to report on whether the protein of interest has been internalized. (
  • Here we report a method for the characterization of protein internalization in real time through the sortase-mediated, site-specific labeling of single domain antibodies or viral proteins with a newly developed, cathepsin-sensitive quenched-fluorophore probe. (
  • Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 blocks fusion of sensitive but not resistant viruses by partitioning into virus-carrying endosomes. (
  • HIV-1 IIIB gp120 envelope protein binds to the III 1 -C region of sFN and may be important in the interaction of virus with matrix FN. (
  • The GP precursor is post-translationally cleaved by the pro-protein convertase furin within the Golgi compartment of virus-producer cells, yielding two disulfide-linked subunits, GP1 and GP2 [ 13 ]. (
  • Mediates internalization and degradation of host CD4 through the interaction of with the cytoplasmic tail of CD4, the recruitment of AP-2 (clathrin adapter protein complex 2), internalization through clathrin coated pits, and subsequent transport to endosomes and lysosomes for degradation. (
  • The involvement of the SRCR1-4 domain in virus internalization was further demonstrated by the fact that incubation of recombinant SRCR1-4 protein with PAMs abolished subsequent virus internalization by permissive cells. (
  • Because of its short genome and its simple composition-only RNA and a nonenveloped icosahedral protein coat that encapsulates it, poliovirus is widely regarded as the simplest significant virus. (
  • On entry, the virus hijacks the cell's translation machinery, causing inhibition of cellular protein synthesis in favor of virus-specific protein production. (
  • 2BC, 2B, 2C (an ATPase) [23] , 3AB, 3A, 3B proteins which comprise the protein complex needed for virus replication. (
  • Internalisation of hepatitis C virus core protein by human conjunctival fibroblasts. (
  • HCFj cells were incubated with HCV core antigen for different periods of time , and fluorescent micrographs were taken to observe protein internalisation. (
  • Instead, two functionally redundant phosphotyrosine-binding domain adaptors, Disabled 2 and the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein (ARH) manage the internalization of the FxNPxY sorting signal. (
  • This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of the entry pathway and the role of the fusion protein of influenza virus, hemagglutinin, in this process. (
  • The inability of vaccinia virus A33R protein to form intermolecular disulfide-bonded homodimers does not affect the production of infectious extracellular virus. (
  • Visualization of intracellular movement of vaccinia virus virions containing a green fluorescent protein-B5R membrane protein chimera. (
  • Golgi network targeting and plasma membrane internalization signals in vaccinia virus B5R envelope protein. (
  • DNA viruses encapsidated within a protein shell and 14p) ( 9 , 11 ). (
  • 69. The method according to claim 68, wherein the TrkB receptor antagonist decreases the internalization of the tetanus toxin or fusion protein at a neuromuscular junction. (
  • 74. The method according to claim 73, wherein the internalization of the tetanus toxin fusion protein at the neuromuscular junction is decreased. (
  • We have previously shown that the specific internalization is mediated by the interaction of the viral protein 1 unique region (VP1u) with a yet unknown cellular receptor. (
  • To locate the receptor-binding domain (RBD) within the VP1u, we analyzed the effect of truncations and mutations on the internalization capacity of the recombinant protein into UT7/Epo cells. (
  • Then, under slightly acidic pH and with relatively high amounts of salts, it is possible to stimulate the self-assembly of the protein subunits, into a shell of identical size to the virus. (
  • After virus entry, the protein capsid is degraded by the host cell, and this allows the unpackaging of the viral RNA. (
  • Exposure of viruses bearing a pH-sensitive GFP (green fluorescent protein) variant on their surface to solutions of different acidity altered the fluorescence of surface-accessible particles, but not internalized viruses. (
  • anti-viral drug discovery, influenza-virus hemagglutinin, ligand-protein interaction, STD-NMR spectroscopy, transfected cells Introduction Influenza viruses are important respiratory pathogens causing significant morbidity, mortality and considerable economic losses in the recurrent yearly epidemics and much more devastatingly in the sporadic pandemic spreads. (
  • A critical function of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein is the downregulation of CD4 from the surfaces of infected cells. (
  • For the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV), sorting of the viral envelope proteins (Env) to assembly sites is directed by trafficking signals located in the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane protein gp41 (TM). (
  • Here, we use voltage-clamp measurement of ionic currents and an antibody against sodium channels to show that loss of excitability results from the selective, precipitous, and complete internalization of voltage-activated sodium channel proteins from the plasma membrane of neurons dissociated from rat dorsal root ganglion. (
  • Consequently, pHrodo™ dyes, when conjugated to dextrans, proteins, or other particles, can be used as highly specific sensors of endocytic and phagocytic internalization and lysosomal sequestration in live cells ( Figure 2 ), offering a superior alternative to conjugates of other fluorescent dyes such as fluorescein and tetramethylrhodamine. (
  • Recently, a more enigmatic endocytic process has been studied whereby cells internalize certain glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) 1 -linked proteins, albumin, bacterial toxins, class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA), viruses, and small proteins (e.g. (
  • Several proteins, including the hemagglutinin (HA)-Y543 mutant influenza virus hemagglutinin, are internalized by clathrin-coated pits but do not have a sequence that fits a recently proposed consensus for internalization signals containing tyrosine. (
  • The variety of amino acid side chains found in known internalization sequences suggests that atoms of the polypeptide chain backbone may contribute important interactions for binding proteins to clathrin coats, with many of the side chains serving mainly to permit these interactions, a situation similar to that observed for the binding of peptides by histocompatibility proteins. (
  • There are 2 major proteins on the surface of the influenza virus, the hemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA). (
  • The Lassa virus gains entry into the host cell by means of the cell-surface receptor the alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG), [18] a versatile receptor for proteins of the extracellular matrix . (
  • Recent studies indicate that hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins can mediate innate immune response and inflammation in conjunctival fibroblasts which contributes to the pathology of dry eye condition associated with chronic HCV infection . (
  • Mapping and functional analysis of interaction sites within the cytoplasmic domains of the vaccinia virus A33R and A36R envelope proteins. (
  • Macromolecular trafficking within and between plant cells as revealed by virus movement proteins. (
  • One study examined the interactions between CCMV and cowpea protoplasts and found that it was dependent on aspecific binding, mostly relying on electrostatic interactions between the plasma membrane and virus particles, specifically negatively charged vesicles and the positively charged N-terminal arm of viral coat proteins, further labelling CCMV as an endocytic virus. (
  • MHC Class I Internalization via Autophagy Proteins. (
  • Proteins and/or lipids on the viral particle promote attachment to the cell surface and internalization. (
  • Many identified proteins were similarly regulated by both virus strains, but also 16 candidates with distinct changes in permissive versus nonpermissive infection were found. (
  • These findings suggest that DEC-205 acts as an HIV-1 receptor that mediates internalization of the virus into renal tubular cells, from which the virus can be rescued and disseminated by encountering immune cells. (
  • The spike glycoprotein (S) mediates virus entry and is a primary determinant of cell tropism and pathogenesis. (
  • Integrin beta1 mediates vaccinia virus entry through activation of PI3K/Akt signaling. (
  • Negatively regulates TGFB1-mediated activation of SMAD2/3 by mediating the internalization of TGFBR1 from membrane rafts leading to its subsequent degradation (By similarity). (
  • This process reflects a combination of receptor internalization, recycling, and degradation and is regulated by signaling through the TCR ( 5 ). (
  • High-affinity receptor-mediated internalization and degradation of interleukin 2 in human T cells. (
  • Receptor-mediated internalization and degradation of IL-2 were investigated in cell lines carrying human T cell leukemia/lymphoma (lymphotrophic) virus type I (HTLV-I) and PHA-treated normal PBL. (
  • The t1/2 of IL-2 degradation in these cells was estimated as 60-80 min at 37 degrees C. The internalization and degradation of IL-2 were both temperature dependent. (
  • Transfection of alpha v(-) cells with a cDNA encoding alpha v results in the expression of integrins alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5 and allows virus internalization and infection. (
  • Azithromycin did not affect attachment of viruses onto the cell surface, but blocked internalization into host cells during the early phase of infection. (
  • This unique inhibitory mechanism has not been observed for other anti-influenza drugs, indicating the potential activity of azithromycin before and after influenza virus infection. (
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) * is a neurotropic virus that, in vivo, forms a latent infection in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and other sensory ganglia and is the causative agent for the common cold sore. (
  • Recurrent infections throughout the host's life occur when the virus "creeps" back down the neuron to the original site of infection. (
  • An in vitro model was used to study the HIV-1 infection of human kidney tubular (HK2) cells and to identify the receptor that enables the virus to enter these cells. (
  • Interaction of HIV-1 with DEC-205 results in the internalization of the virus and establishment of a nonproductive infection. (
  • Cell-cell contact promotes Ebola virus GP-mediated infection. (
  • The early events in the infection of normal B lymphocytes and B lymphoblastoid cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were examined by electron and immunoelectron microscopy and by infectivity and inhibition studies. (
  • The C-type lectin DC-SIGN expressed on immature dendritic cells (DCs) captures human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles and enhances the infection of CD4 + T cells. (
  • We suggest that such a mechanism, rather than intracellular storage of incoming virus, accounts for the long-term transfer of HIV to CD4 + T cells and may contribute to the spread of infection by DCs. (
  • Results using an in vivo murine Ebola virus infection model confirmed the protective ability of several drugs, such as bepridil and sertraline. (
  • Furthermore, the knowledge of infectious processes in tissues is hampered by the lack of reliable tools for detecting virus infection. (
  • This facilitates new investigations on the virus structures from samples taken from inside cells during the various phases of the virus infection , and gives possibilities to obtain new information on the mechanisms of virus uncoating (opening and release of the genome). (
  • Two main classes of drug interfere with influenza virus infection ( Table 1 ). (
  • The infection cycle of the influenza virus is depicted in Fig. 1 . (
  • BCR-mediated internalization of Salmonella by B cells is superior over extracellular Ag extraction to induce rapid and specific humoral immune responses and efficiently combat infection. (
  • Consequently, host cell receptor molecules that potentiate HCV infection were identified over a decade after the virus was discovered. (
  • As all the enveloped viruses, the entry of influenza viruses includes a number of steps in host cell infection. (
  • Infection of influenza virus causes a disease in humans with symptoms including high fever, cough, body ache, and runny nose. (
  • Since the disease caused by influenza virus infection occurs more often in winter seasons, it was thought in the ancient world to be caused by the influence of astrological movements. (
  • Simulation and prediction of the adaptive immune response to influenza A virus infection. (
  • This study serves as a proof of principle that Q3G has potential as a prophylactic against Ebola virus infection. (
  • In HIV-infected people, resting CD4+ T cells are the main reservoir of latent virus and the reason for the failure of drug therapy to cure HIV infection. (
  • Studying differential responses of inbred mouse lines with distinct genetic backgrounds to influenza virus infection could substantially increase our understanding of the contributory roles of host genetic factors to disease severity. (
  • Here, we utilized an integrated approach of mRNA-seq and miRNA-seq to investigate the transcriptome expression and regulation of host genes in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mouse strains during influenza virus infection. (
  • The findings reveal insights into the uptake process of B19V, which contribute to understand the pathogenesis of the infection and the neutralization of the virus by the immune system. (
  • Although direct cytopathic effects have a major role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, immune defects that disrupt normal immune function also contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis. (
  • Myocarditis may be caused by direct cytopathic effects of virus, a pathologic immune response to persistent virus, or autoimmunity triggered by the viral infection. (
  • Overall, the most effective infection occurred by internalization through membrane lesions of the host. (
  • Typical virus infection involves an exponential increase in virus concentration followed by a rapid decline of virus replication. (
  • Much progress has been made in recent years in the description of virus-cell interactions, but many aspects of viral physiopathology remain mysterious, principally due to the asymptomatic nature of infection in immunocompetent individuals and the lack of an animal model. (
  • For infection, viruses deliver their genomes into the host cell. (
  • Monoclonal antibody-mediated enhancement of dengue virus infection in vitro and in vivo and strategies for prevention. (
  • We hypothesized that the distinct course of an IAV infection with a given virus strain is determined by the differential interplay between specific host and viral factors. (
  • Factor of infectivity and pathogenicity, required for optimal virus replication. (
  • The resulting acidification of the virus is necessary for viral uncoating, another essential step in viral replication. (
  • Fig. 1: Schematic representation of influenza virus attachment, internalization, replication and exit from the host respiratory cell and steps inhibited by antiviral drugs. (
  • After replication, in order to exit the cell and infect other cells, influenza virus particles bud off the host cell membrane. (
  • Lassa virus replicates very rapidly, and demonstrates temporal control in replication. (
  • Research in the Cherry lab is aimed at identifying cellular factors that regulate viral pathogenesis, including factors hijacked by viruses for replication and innate anti-viral mechanisms used by the host to combat the invader. (
  • 1998 ). The outcome of the influenza virus entry into the host cell is to release the eight viral genome segments into the nucleus to initiate virus transcription and replication. (
  • The differential pathogenicity of influenza virus in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J has been fully demonstrated through immunohistochemical staining, histopathological analyses, and viral replication assessment. (
  • With the introduction of temporal expression pattern analysis, we demonstrated that host factors responsible for influenza virus replication and host-virus interaction were significantly enriched in genes exhibiting distinct temporal dynamics between different inbred mouse lines. (
  • [3] When RNA-3 is deficient, virus replication still does occur, just at a significantly reduced level. (
  • In the presence of RNA 3 deficiency, virus replication still does occur, just at a significantly reduced level. (
  • Replication-selective oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors have emerged as a new platform for cancer therapy ( 1 ). (
  • In studying the HSV-induced redistribution of sodium channels, we have uncovered a previously unknown pathway for the rapid and dynamic control of excitability in sensory neurons by internalization of sodium channels. (
  • These studies indicate that EBV enters normal B lymphocytes by a different endocytic pathway than the clathrin-receptosome-lysosome pathway utilized by many other ligands, including a number of viruses, to enter cells. (
  • Altogether, these results demonstrate that CaMV MP traffics in the endocytic pathway and that virus viability depends on functional host endomembranes. (
  • Dynamin has been suggested to act both as a regulatory GTPase by controlling the early stages of CME, which is an important endocytic pathway used by many viruses, and as a chemical enzyme that induces membrane fission and pinches endocytic vesicles off from the cellular plasma membrane in later stages in several endocytic pathways, including CME. (
  • The endosome-trapped virus traffics via a unidirectional pathway to near the nucleus. (
  • Pohl, M. O., Stertz, S. Measuring Attachment and Internalization of Influenza A Virus in A549 Cells by Flow Cytometry. (
  • The lateral mobility of individual murine polyoma virus-like particles (VLPs) bound to live cells and artificial lipid bilayers was studied by single fluorescent particle tracking using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Although SPT has been used for virus entry ( 10 , 11 ), the movement of virus particles on the cell surface before internalization has not been analyzed in detail. (
  • This increase appears to be due to increased adhesion of viral particles to the cell surface in the presence of sFN, followed by internalization of virus. (
  • The particles form a distinct "tagging pattern" that reflects the shape and the structure of the virus. (
  • The TEM image can be correlated to the model of the virus (right), where the yellow spheres mark the possible binding sites of the gold particles. (
  • 5) The organic thiol surface of the Au102 particles is modified by attaching linker molecules that make a chemical bond to sulfur-containing cysteine residues that are part of the surface structure of the virus. (
  • Several tens of gold particles can bind to a single virus, and the binding pattern shows up as dark tags reflecting the overall shape and structure of the virus (see the figure). (
  • The gold particles allow for studies on the structural changes of the viruses during their lifespan. (
  • The study showed also that the infectivity of the viruses is not compromised by the attached gold particles which indicates that the labeling method does not interfere with the normal biological functions of viruses inside cells. (
  • Finally, the method is expected to be useful for developing of new antiviral vaccines that are based on virus-like particles. (
  • Large numbers of virus particles are detectable in feces during the incubation period, beginning as early as 10-14 days after exposure. (
  • During the assembly of enveloped viruses viral and cellular components essential for infectious particles must colocalize at specific membrane locations. (
  • Here, we examined the role of membrane internalization in the process of sodium channel removal from the plasma membrane. (
  • Destabilization of cholesterol-rich plasma membrane microdomains by treatment with nystatin was not able to block virus entry in the presence of hTfR. (
  • Molecules and pathogens that encounter the plasma membrane are funneled into membrane invaginations that subsequently bud inward to form endosomes (or phagosomes in the case of microbe internalization by macrophages). (
  • In order to deliver their genomes into the host cells for their own purposes, viruses have to overcome the barrier of the cell, the plasma membrane. (
  • First, internalization of the TCR potentiates the activation signal by translocating the receptor from the plasma membrane to early endosomes enriched for additional signaling molecules ( 7 ). (
  • Here, we show that cauliflower mosaic virus ( CaMV ) MP contains three tyrosine-based sorting signals that interact with an Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) μA-adaptin subunit. (
  • Rab7 associates with early endosomes to mediate sorting and transport of Semliki forest virus to late endosomes. (
  • The viruses progressed from Rab5-positive early endosomes to a population of early endosomes (about 10% of total) that contained both Rab5 and Rab7. (
  • Many viruses are low-pH-dependent for their conformation change [ 16 , 17 ] that is required for membrane fusion or viral particle uncoating, and the endosomes provide this acidic compartment. (
  • This interaction, which leads to the internalization of the virus into endosomes is mediated by a stretch of amino acids (residues 319-545) named the receptor binding domain (RBD). (
  • This interaction leads to the internalization of the virus into endosomes). (
  • Canfield, W. M., Johnson, K. F., Ye, R. D., Gregory, W. & Kornfeld, S. Localization of the signal for rapid internalization of the bovine cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor-II receptor to amino acids 24-29 of the cytoplasmic tail. (
  • Rapid internalization and retrograde trafficking of neurotrophin-trk complexes have been demonstrated in a number of systems and are thought to transmit trophic signals from terminals to neuronal cell bodies. (
  • We further demonstrated that azithromycin targeted newly budded progeny virus from the host cells and inactivated their endocytic activity. (
  • HIV-1-specific strong-stop DNA is detected in the infected HK2 cells for at least 7 d, and the virus can be transmitted in trans to sensitive target cells. (
  • The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. (
  • How Viruses Invade Cells. (
  • However, the emergence of HIV strains resistant to CCR5 antagonists has been reported in vitro and in vivo, where the virus has adapted to enter the cells via antagonist-bound CCR5. (
  • It has been proposed that DC-SIGN targets HIV to a nondegradative compartment within DCs and DC-SIGN-expressing cells, allowing incoming virus to persist for several days before infecting target cells. (
  • However methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which extracts cholesterol from cell membranes, reduced virus internalization in cells expressing the hTfR. (
  • Virus (MOI of 50) was bound to Vero cells in the cold, and unbound virus was washed away. (
  • Detailed knowledge of the host-virus interactions that accompany filovirus entry into cells is expected to identify determinants of viral virulence and host range, and to yield targets for the development of antiviral therapeutics. (
  • In this study, we used biotinylated NGF and a fluorescent-labeled anti-p75 antibody to follow the kinetics and route of ligand-induced internalization of the p75 receptor in cycling and differentiated PC12 cells. (
  • Binding of neurotrophins to p75 induced internalization at a rate approximately three times slower than that of transferrin and NGF-TrkA complexes in the same cells. (
  • In dengue type 2 virus (DV)-induced suppressor T cell cascade TS1 cells secrete a suppressor cytokine (SF) which acts via syngeneic macrophages (M phi) to recruit TS2 cells. (
  • The method will help to obtain new information on trafficking of viruses in cells and tissues as well as on the mechanisms of virus opening inside cells. (
  • This need has led to the development of antiviral agents that halt or impede the ability of the virus to infect respiratory epithelial cells. (
  • Influenza is a relatively large virus that is essentially confined to infecting cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract. (
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a highly restricted tropism for cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, including porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). (
  • Meanwhile, non-permissive HEK293T cells that stably expressed truncated swine CD163 SRCR1-4 domain did not support virus attachment. (
  • However, virus attachment to cells stably expressing SRCR5-CT domain was demonstrated to occur without appreciable virus internalization. (
  • These results demonstrated that CD163 SRCR1-4 interacts with the MYH9 C-terminal domain to facilitate PRRSV virion internalization in permissive cells, thus expanding our understanding of PRRSV cell-invasion mechanisms. (
  • BCR-mediated internalization of Salmonella typhimurium results in B cell differentiation and secretion of anti- Salmonella Ab by the Salmonella -specific B cells. (
  • In addition, BCR-mediated internalization leads to efficient Ag delivery to the MHC class II Ag-loading compartments, even though Salmonella remains vital intracellularly in primary B cells. (
  • Viruses or cells are targeted for selective internalization into a target in vive. (
  • For transferring genes into the cells, viral vectors are used, for example, which make use of the efficient entry mechanisms of their original viruses. (
  • Interested students can perform a wide array of cell-based screens in either insect or human cells using emerging arboviruses including chikungunya and zika virus. (
  • The cell signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular processes and is often manipulated by viruses as they rely on the functions offered by cells for their propagation. (
  • A recent paper in Cell describes a new trick that the virus uses to infect resting T cells. (
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus-type 2 (HIV-2) encodes Vpx that degrades SAMHD1, a cellular restriction factor active in non-dividing cells. (
  • We characterized the replicative defect of HIV-2 in MDDCs by comparing the ability of wild-type and VSV-G-pseudotyped virus to bind cells, undergo fusion and perform reverse transcription. (
  • The viruses bound to the cells in a dose dependent manner (Figure 4a). (
  • Adenovirus-induced endothelial cell activation was shown by VCAM-1 expression on virus-treated, cultured endothelial cells and by the release of ultra-large molecular weight multimers of VWF within 1 to 2 hours of virus administration with an accompanying elevation of endothelial microparticles. (
  • CD96 promotes NK cell adhesion to cells expressing the polio virus receptor (CD155). (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus nef gene expression affects generation and function of human T cells, but not dendritic cells. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals develop an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) due to loss in their lymphocyte numbers and cellular defects in T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC). (
  • Immature dendritic cells selectively replicate macrophagetropic (M-tropic) human immunodeficiency virus type 1, while mature cells efficiently transmit both M- and T-tropic virus to T cells. (
  • We demonstrate that TCR internalization after receptor engagement and TCR signaling involves inducible phosphorylation of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) in both CD4 + and CD8 + human T cells. (
  • We recently reported that selective systemic delivery of suicide genes such as herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase ( HSVtk ) to tumor endothelial cells through a novel targeted adeno-associated virus/phage vector leads to suppression of tumor growth. (
  • These findings add an alternative nonmutually exclusive and potentially synergistic cytotoxic mechanism to cancer gene therapy based on targeted adeno-associated virus/phage and further support the promising role of nonmalignant tumor stromal cells as therapeutic targets. (
  • Co-option of Membrane Wounding Enables Virus Penetration into Cells. (
  • This provides for the possibility of an enhanced cytotoxic lymphocyte response toward tumor cells and increased efficacy of the virus. (
  • However, we propose that the targets of armed oncolytic viruses should be expanded to include tumor stromal cells and vasculature to maximize the therapeutic effect, using fibroblast growth factor (FGF) as an example. (
  • AIBP inhibited virus-cell fusion, specifically targeting cells with lipid rafts mobilized by cell activation or Nef-containing exosomes. (
  • In this work, we made use of NMR spectroscopy to study the interaction between a derivative of sialic acid (the Neu5Ac-α-(2,6)-Gal-β-(1-4)-GlcNAc trisaccharide) and HAs (H1 and H5) from human and avian strains of influenza virus, directly expressed on the surface of stable transfected 293 T human cells. (
  • In contrast to the detailed studies on trk retrograde signaling, evidence for ligand-induced internalization and trafficking of the p75 receptor is rather weak. (
  • We have addressed this issue by directly examining ligand-induced internalization of p75. (
  • Inhibition of dynamin and neutralization of the pH of intracellular vesicles reduced virus internalization in all cell lines tested. (
  • Besides internalization of Ag, the BCR drives intracellular targeting by accelerating the delivery of Ag to MIICs ( 9 ). (
  • Here, we focus on this second group of tubule-forming MP s and examine the intracellular trafficking of cauliflower mosaic virus ( CaMV ) MP . (
  • Visualization and characterization of the intracellular movement of vaccinia virus intracellular mature virions. (
  • Figure 3: Platforms for cytoskeletal rearrangements by vaccinia virus and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli . (
  • There is an A33-dependent mechanism for the incorporation of B5-GFP into vaccinia virus extracellular enveloped virions. (
  • The binding and internalization of adeno-associated virus (AAV) is an important determinant of viral infectivity and tropism. (
  • While it is generally agreed that filovirus entry into the host cytoplasm requires viral internalization into acidic endosomal compartments and proteolytic cleavage of the envelope glycoprotein by endo/lysosomal cysteine proteases, our understanding of the specific endocytic pathways co-opted by filoviruses remains limited. (
  • Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm. (
  • Once the virus has bound to its host cell, it is transported into the cytoplasm in an endosome. (
  • Responsible for penetration of the virus into the cell cytoplasm by mediating the fusion of the membrane of the endocytosed virus particle with the endosomal membrane. (
  • In the following protocol, we describe a quantitative PCR (qPCR) based method to determine the amount of vector bound to the cell surface and the amount of subsequent virus internalization based on viral genome quantification. (
  • Instead of the infectious virus, we made use of VLPs that resemble the virus structurally but do not contain the DNA genome ( 15 ). (
  • The mechanistic understanding of virus opening and the release of the viral genome in cellular structures for starting new virus production is still largely lacking. (
  • By this is meant viruses in which the gene to be expressed in the cell has been integrated in the genome by recombinant methods. (
  • At this location, the interior pH of the endosome becomes acidic that induces a dramatic conformational change in HA to insert the fusion peptide into the host membrane, induce juxtaposition of the two membranes, and form a fusion pore that allows the release of the genome segments of influenza virus. (
  • They are likewise often involved in release of the genome inside the cell for its use as a blueprint for production of new viruses. (
  • Enteroviruses are pathogenic viruses infecting humans. (
  • Lassa virus ( LASV ) is an arenavirus that causes Lassa hemorrhagic fever , [1] a type of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), in humans and other primates. (
  • These are the three major families of viruses that are important human pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes to humans. (
  • Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are a major cause for respiratory disease in humans, which affects all age groups and contributes substantially to global morbidity and mortality. (
  • Although several of them have sporadically infected humans, only a few serotypes of influenza A virus (IAV) (bearing hemagglutinin (HA) variants H1, H2 and H3) have caused influenza pandemics in the last 100 years (Stevens et al. (
  • Naim, HY & Roth, MG 1994, ' Characteristics of the internalization signal in the Y543 influenza virus hemagglutinin suggest a model for recognition of internalization signals containing tyrosine ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 269, no. 6, pp. 3928-3933. (
  • Although many viruses had shown that their internalization relied on the CME [ 2 - 7 ], the signals that are triggered by viruses are more complicated for their own benefits. (
  • In this paper, we discuss some recent advances in our understanding of cellular pathways for virus entry, molecular signaling during virus entry, formation of endocytic vesicles, and the traffic. (
  • T cell receptor (TCR) internalization by clathrin-coated vesicles after encounter with antigen has been implicated in the regulation of T cell responses. (
  • These results suggest that the virus might be sorted to a quickly maturing pool of endocytic vesicles and thus be trafficked to fusion-permissive sites near the cell nucleus. (
  • There is not a lot known about plant virus and host cell interaction due to the difficulty of studying organisms with cell walls. (
  • The virus activates platelets and induces platelet-leukocyte aggregate formation. (
  • The exact time of single-virus internalization was assessed from the point when a particle ceased to respond to a perfusion with alternating acidic and alkaline buffers. (
  • We found that, surprisingly, HIV pseudoparticles entered acidic compartments shortly after internalization. (
  • Assessment of AAV binding and internalization are important first steps in determining the cause of transduction differences observed upon cellular modification by small molecules, CRISPR-based gene knockout, siRNA-based gene knockdown, or other experimental procedures. (
  • The results suggested that clustering of ganglioside molecules by the multivalent VLPs induced transmembrane coupling that led to confinement of the virus/receptor complex by cortical actin filaments. (
  • Are Viruses Inhibited by APOBEC3 Molecules from Their Host Species? (
  • Influenza vaccination with current inactivated vaccines homologous to the prevalent wild-type virus can reduce influenza illness in 75%-80% of healthy adults. (
  • A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef acts as an internalization signal for CD4 downregulation and binds the AP-1 clathrin adaptor. (
  • The modified virus or cell binds the receptor in vive and is internalized by the target cell. (
  • Adenoviruses have been studied intensively for over 50 years as models of virus-cell interactions and latterly as gene vectors. (
  • Combining forward genetics and functional genomics comparing and contrasting between viruses and hosts allows us to use these unbiased and global methodologies to identify many important and novel host factors that modulate virus-host interactions. (
  • ii) The impact of bacteria internalisation by zooplankton was assessed by using C. elegans nematodes as a model host and E. coli as a bacterial target for UVA inactivation. (
  • The ability of viruses and bacteria to interact with the extracellular matrix plays an important role in their infectivity and pathogenicity. (
  • There are several viral entry ways that have been identified, like genetic injection including phages and membrane fusion such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) [ 1 ]. (
  • Furthermore, some viruses have the ability to use the multiple internalization pathways which leads to the regulation being even more complex. (
  • In order to understand the action of the antiviral drugs, a quick overview of the influenza virus is in order. (
  • Inhibitors of virus entry are potentially effective antiviral drugs of influenza viruses. (
  • Immediately after internalization of the particle, the viral RNA is released. (
  • The membrane envelope forms a barrier inside of which are the viral components protected from the environment when the virus particle is in circulation. (
  • First, the influenza virus particle needs to recognize a specific receptor molecule on the surface of the target host cell to allow the virus particle to gain access to the specific host cell in which influenza virus may replicate. (
  • In the majority of cases, both clathrin and the actin cytoskeleton are hijacked, so we also examine the interplay between these two systems and their role during pathogen internalization, egress and spread. (
  • The neurotropic virus, herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1), inhibits the excitability of peripheral mammalian neurons, but the molecular mechanism of this effect has not been identified. (
  • In this work, we examined the routes of mucosal antigen internalization and immune responses to mucosal antigens following various mucosal and systemic prime-boost immunization strategies. (
  • Activation, exposure and penetration of virally encoded, membrane-active polypeptides during non-enveloped virus entry. (
  • In this study, we aimed to determine the anti-influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus activity of azithromycin, a re-positioned macrolide antibiotic with potential as a new anti-influenza candidate, and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms of action. (
  • Both aggregation and internalisation showed similar impact as protective mechanisms against UVA and UVC bacterial inactivation. (
  • The receptor molecule for influenza virus is a terminal α-sialic acid that is linked to saccharides anchored on the host cell surface by various mechanisms. (
  • In contrast, the internalization and trafficking of neurotrophin-p75 complexes are not well understood. (
  • In contrast, the New World arenaviruses of clades A and B, which include the important viruses Machupo , Guanarito , Junin , and Sabia in addition to the non pathogenic Amapari virus, use the transferrin receptor 1 . (
  • In contrast, no or little virus internalization and dissemination was detected when TV was inoculated into bell peppers grown in soil. (
  • In contrast to the glucocor- and more possibility to social stimulation, physical activ- ticoids, other steroid hormones, such as testosterone, en- ity, and knowledge than standard laboratory conditions (79), hance neurogenesis in birds (66), whereas estrogen results resulted in a suggestive develop in neurogenesis, without in a transient proliferate in build-up in rats (67). (
  • Although not fully characterized, these gene products regulate the cell cycle and complement the mutations of these viruses ( 2 ). (
  • The taking of the cytoskeleton one two three: how viruses utilize the cytoskeleton during egress. (
  • Entry of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is initiated by attachment of virions to cell surface glycosaminoglycans ( Shukla and Spear, 2001 ). (
  • Herpes simplex virus is encased in a lipid bilayer envelope that is derived from internal membranes of the host cell. (
  • The most widely used approach for cytotoxic gene therapy involves the transfer of the herpes simplex virus type I thymidine kinase ( HSVtk ) gene ( 1 - 3 ) Expression of HSVtk results in the phosphorylation of prodrug nucleoside analogues such as ganciclovir and converts them into nucleoside analogue triphosphates. (
  • Hayashi, Toshimitsu 2014-03-01 00:00:00 Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) cause genital herpes, which can enhance the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus. (
  • On the one hand, this set of experimental conditions could suggest macropinocytosis as a route of entry for the virus, yet the effects of these reagents are attributed to PI3K-related effects on c. (
  • [21] Alpha-dystroglycan is also used as a receptor by viruses of the New World clade C arenaviruses (Oliveros and Latino viruses). (
  • They are primarily involved in the induction of the different arms of the immune system and a better understanding of their overall properties should lead to more effective ways of combating virus infections. (
  • Development of an effective humoral immune response is mediated by two actions of the BCR: transmembrane signaling through BCR complexes to induce B cell differentiation and Ag internalization for processing followed by MHC class II-mediated presentation to acquire T cell help. (

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