Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Transposases: Enzymes that recombine DNA segments by a process which involves the formation of a synapse between two DNA helices, the cleavage of single strands from each DNA helix and the ligation of a DNA strand from one DNA helix to the other. The resulting DNA structure is called a Holliday junction which can be resolved by DNA REPLICATION or by HOLLIDAY JUNCTION RESOLVASES.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.X-Linked Combined Immunodeficiency Diseases: Forms of combined immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the gene for INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT. Both severe and non-severe subtypes of the disease have been identified.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Ribostamycin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial isolated from Streptomyces ribosifidicus.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Terminal Repeat Sequences: Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Streptothricins: A group of antibiotic aminoglycosides differing only in the number of repeating residues in the peptide side chain. They are produced by Streptomyces and Actinomyces and may have broad spectrum antimicrobial and some antiviral properties.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gammaretrovirus: A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Colletotrichum: A genus of mitosporic Phyllachoraceae fungi which contains at least 40 species of plant parasites. They have teleomorphs in the genus Glomerella (see PHYLLACHORALES).Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Kanamycin Kinase: A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements: Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Ethylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Pectobacterium carotovorum: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myb: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the myb gene (GENES, MYB). They are expressed in a wide variety of cells including thymocytes and lymphocytes, and regulate cell differentiation. Overexpression of myb is associated with autoimmune diseases and malignancies.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Mice, Inbred C57BLYellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Lymphoma, T-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Magnaporthe: A genus of FUNGI, in the family Magnaporthaceae of uncertain position (incertae sedis). It is best known for its species, M. grisea, which is one of the most popular experimental organisms of all fungal plant pathogens. Its anamorph is PYRICULARIA GRISEA.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.

*Insertional mutagenesis

Virus insertional mutagenesis is possible with both replication competent virus and the self-inactivating vectors that are ... Insertional mutagenesis is mutagenesis of DNA by the insertion of one or more bases. Insertional mutations can occur naturally ... Directed mutagenesis Insertion (genetics) PCR mutagenesis Site-directed mutagenesis Transposon mutagenesis Biology-online Biffi ... mutagenesis caused by viral infections is a fairly common occurrence. Not all integrating viruses cause insertional mutagenesis ...

*Adeno-associated virus

"Insertional mutagenesis of AAV2 capsid and the production of recombinant virus". Virology. 265 (2): 274-85. doi:10.1006/viro. ... The virus is a small (20 nm) replication-defective, nonenveloped virus. The adeno-associated virus (AAV), previously thought to ... Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small virus which infects humans and some other primate species. AAV is not currently known ... Muralidhar S, Becerra SP, Rose JA (January 1994). "Site-directed mutagenesis of adeno-associated virus type 2 structural ...

*Short hairpin RNA

With adeno-associated viruses and adenoviruses, the genomes remain episomal. This is advantageous as insertional mutagenesis is ... With this approach there is increased risk of insertional mutagenesis; however, the risk can be reduced by using an integrase- ... It is disadvantageous in that the progeny of the cell will lose the virus quickly through cell division unless the cell divides ... A variety of viral vectors can be used to obtain shRNA expression in cells including adeno-associated viruses (AAVs), ...

*Equine foamy virus

Additionally, because EFV has two promoters, insertional mutagenesis would be safe and more accurate than other retroviruses ... Equine foamy virus (EFV) is a single-stranded RNA-RT virus and a member of the genus Spumavirus, which is otherwise known as ... Equine Foamy virus is a single-stranded RNA-RT virus. It is classified in the genus Spumavirus, family Retroviridae and ... Like other foamy viruses, infection with equine foamy virus is lifelong, yet the natural hosts do not display any pathological ...

*Human foamy virus

Other advantages are human to human transmission has never been reported, it has a safer spectrum of insertional mutagenesis ... Foamy virus in humans occurs only as a result of zoonotic infection. The first description of foamy virus (FV) was in 1954. It ... Liu W, Liu Z, Cao X, Cao Z, Xue L, Zhu F, He X, Li W (2007). "Recombinant human foamy virus, a novel vector for neurological ... Human foamy virus (HFV) is a retrovirus and specifically belongs to the genus Spumavirus. The spumaviruses are complex and ...

*Mutagenesis (molecular biology technique)

Insertional mutagenesis using transposons, retrovirus such as mouse mammary tumor virus and murine leukemia virus may be used ... Various insertional mutagenesis techniques may also be used to study the function of particular gene. Homologous recombination ... has also allowed for the editing or mutagenesis of the genome in vivo. Early approaches to mutagenesis rely on methods which ... Combinatorial mutagenesis is a technique whereby large number of mutants may be screened for a particular characteristic. In ...

*Risk factors for breast cancer

"Bittner virus" for its discoverer John Joseph Bittner), by random insertional mutagenesis. It is the only animal breast cancer ... Among the three most commonly studied are the human papilloma virus (HPV), mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) and the Epstein- ... Several kinds of viruses with oncogenic potential are suspected to play a role or cause breast cancer. ... A human homologue of the mammary virus has been described in 1971 and linked to human breast cancer in several small ...

*FLI1

Fli-1 is activated through retroviral insertional mutagenesis in 90% of F-MuLV-induced erythroleukemias. The constitutive ... Ben-David Y, Giddens EB, Letwin K, Bernstein A (June 1991). "Erythroleukemia induction by Friend murine leukemia virus: ... insertional activation of a new member of the ets gene family, Fli-1, closely linked to c-ets-1". Genes Dev. 5 (6): 908-18. doi ... "Identification of a common viral integration region in Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus-induced non-T-, non-B-cell lymphomas". J ...

*Paleovirology

Ancient DNA Endogenous retrovirus Human Genome Project Insertional mutagenesis Micropaleontology Paleobiology Paleogenetics ... Paleovirology is the study of viruses that existed in the past but are now extinct. In general, viruses cannot leave behind ... no one has detected a virus in fossils. The most surprising viral fossils originate from non-retroviral DNA and RNA viruses. ... Viral fossils originating from non-retroviral RNA viruses have been termed Non-retroviral Integrated RNA Viruses or NIRVs. ...

*Induced pluripotent stem cell

... which eliminates the issue of insertional mutagenesis.[citation needed] In January 2014, two articles were published claiming ... For example, if viruses are used to genomically alter the cells, the expression of oncogenes (cancer-causing genes) may ... it does not incorporate any of its own genes into the targeted host and avoids the potential for insertional mutagenesis. In ... plasmids have been shown to integrate into the host genome and therefore they still pose the risk of insertional mutagenesis. ...

*Viral vector

There is concern that insertional mutagenesis due to integration into the host genome might lead to cancer or leukemia. This ... Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small virus that infects humans and some other primate species. AAV is not currently known to ... Such a virus can efficiently infect cells but, once the infection has taken place, requires a helper virus to provide the ... The viral receptor can be modified to target the virus to a specific kind of cell. Viruses modified in this manner are said to ...

*Sleeping Beauty transposon system

This process is referred to as insertional mutagenesis or transposon mutagenesis. When a gene is inactivated by insertion of a ... For either gene delivery or gene disruption, SB transposons combine the advantages of viruses and naked DNA. Viruses have been ... Carlson CM, Largaespada DA (July 2005). "Insertional mutagenesis in mice: new perspectives and tools". Nat. Rev. Genet. 6 (7): ... For some applications of genome engineering such as some forms of gene therapy, avoiding the use of viruses is also important ...

*Retrotransposon Silencing

Retrotransposon proliferation may lead to insertional mutagenesis, disrupt the process of DNA repair, or cause errors during ... much like a virus. Retrotransposons are a subset of transposable elements that use an RNA intermediate and reverse transcribe ...

*Vectors in gene therapy

... insertional mutagenesis). If the gene happens to be one regulating cell division, uncontrolled cell division (i.e., cancer) can ... viruses of the lytic cycle quickly produce more viruses, burst from the cell and infect more cells. Lysogenic viruses integrate ... The Herpes simplex virus is a human neurotropic virus. This is mostly examined for gene transfer in the nervous system. The ... Viruses in which the envelope proteins have been replaced as described are referred to as pseudotyped viruses. For example, the ...

*Ebola vaccine

"Systems biology-based investigation of cellular antiviral drug targets identified by gene-trap insertional mutagenesis". PLoS ... Ebola virus disease Ebola virus disease treatment research Richardson JS, Dekker JD, Croyle MA, Kobinger GP (June 2010). " ... Marzi, Andrea (2015). "Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Vaccines against Lassa and Ebola Viruses". Emerging Infectious Diseases ... expressing the Ebola virus Mayinga variant glycoprotein while the second component MVA-BN is the Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara ...

*Gene therapy for epilepsy

... for treatment of neurological diseases because adult neurons do not divide and so are less prone to insertional mutagenesis In ... Among vectors are adenovirus and adeno-associated virus vectors (AAV), which have the properties of high and efficient ... gene therapy are possible immune responses to the viral vectors and transgenes and the possibility of insertional mutagenesis, ... McCown, Thomas (July 2006). "Adeno-Associated Virus Vector-Mediated Expression and Constitutive Secretion of Galanin Suppresses ...

*Transposable element

Carlson C.M.; Largaespada D.A. (2005). "Insertional mutagenesis in mice: new perspectives and tools". Nature Reviews Genetics. ... In this way, they are similar to viruses. Various viruses and TEs also share features in their genome structures and ... in a process called insertional mutagenesis; transposase-mediated excision of the DNA transposon restores gene function. This ... Villarreal, Luis (2005). "Viruses and the Evolution of Life". Washington: ASM Press. Missing or empty ,url= (help) Plasterk R.H ...

*Nancy Hopkins (scientist)

Hopkins believed that insertional mutagenesis, which had been very successfully employed in invertebrate model organisms (D. ... and for her earlier research on gene expression in the bacterial virus, lambda, and on mouse RNA tumor viruses. She is also ... and others in her lab she developed an efficient method for large-scale insertional mutagenesis in the fish. Using this ... Hopkins and colleagues set out to develop a large-scale insertional mutagenesis method. Although large-scale chemical ...

*Jun dimerization protein

Stewart M, Mackay N, Hanlon L, Blyth K, Scobie L, Cameron E, Neil JC (Jun 2007). "Insertional mutagenesis reveals progression ... JDP2 inhibits the promoter of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immediate early gene BZLF1 for the regulation of the latent-lytic ... Studies using high throughput viral insertional mutagenesis analysis also revealed that JDP2 functions as an oncogene. JDP2- ... "Tumor model-specific proviral insertional mutagenesis of the Fos/Jdp2/Batf locus". Virology. 337 (2): 353-64. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*Thymidine kinase

This is desirable in case the recombinant gene causes a mutation leading to uncontrolled cell growth (insertional mutagenesis ... The thymidine kinases from pox viruses, African swine fever virus, Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ... Genes for virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ... In this way, only cells infected by the virus are susceptible to the drug. Such drugs are effective only against viruses from ...

*Retrovirus

This gives rise to a concern that insertional mutagenesis due to integration into the host genome might lead to cancer or ... Mouse mammary tumour virus Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; others include Feline leukemia virus ... Retroviruses that cause tumor growth include Rous sarcoma virus and Mouse mammary tumor virus. Cancer can be triggered by proto ... Group VII includes: Family Hepadnaviridae - e.g. Hepatitis B virus Family Caulimoviridae - e.g. Cauliflower mosaic virus ...

*Conservative transposition

This technique is used in transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis research fields. The Sleeping Beauty transposon system is an ... Viruses, for example, encode the essential viral transposase needed for conservative transposition as well as protective coat ...

*Mutagenesis

Directed mutagenesis Site-directed mutagenesis PCR mutagenesis Insertional mutagenesis Signature tagged mutagenesis Transposon ... Transposons and viruses may insert DNA sequences into coding regions or functional elements of a gene and result in ... Early methods of mutagenesis produced entirely random mutations; however, later methods of mutagenesis may produce site- ... Mutagenesis as a science was developed based on work done by Hermann Muller, Charlotte Auerbach and J. M. Robson in the first ...

*Genome editing

Insertional mutagenesis by the retroviral vector genome induced leukemia in some patients, a problem that is predicted to be ... CRISPR can be used to target the virus or the host to disrupt genes encoding the virus cell-surface receptor proteins. ... Antiviral applications for therapies targeting human viruses such as HIV, herpes, and hepatitis B virus are under research. ... The agents that are competent to edit genetic codes are viruses or subviral RNA-agents. Although GEEN has higher efficiency ...

*Index of genetics articles

Synteny Synteny test Synthetic medium T-cell receptor T-DNA TACTAAC box Tandem duplication Target theory Targeted mutagenesis ... code Triploid Trisomic Trisomy Tritium tRNA Trp True heritability True speciation Truncation selection Tumour Tumour virus ... Informed consent Inherit Inherited Initiation codon Initiation Initiation Initiator protein Inosine Insertion Insertional ... Immunotherapy Imprinting Indigenous Amerindian genetics In situ Introduction to genetics In vitro In vitro mutagenesis In vivo ...
The transformation from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive breast cancer (IBC) is a crucial step in breast cancer progression. The specific alterations that govern this transition have not been elucidated. HER2/neu is frequently overexpressed in DCIS but is less common in IBC suggesting additional requirements for transformation. To identify genes capable of cooperating with HER2/neu to fully transform mammary epithelial cells, we used an insertional mutagenesis screen on cells isolated from wild-type neu expressing mice and identified the E3 ligase HACE1 as a HER2 cooperative tumor suppressor gene. Loss of HACE1 expression is commonly seen in clinical multiple cancer datasets including breast cancer. HACE1 down-regulation in normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) results in the accumulation of the activated GTP-bound Rac1 partially transforming these cells. Overexpression of HER2 activates Rac1, which further accumulates ...
... was invented by Researchers at the Johns Hopkins High Throughput Biology Center. Tip-chip can be used to help identify otherwise elusive disease-causing mutations in the 97 percent of the genome long believed to be
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insertional mutagenesis and cloning of the genes required for biosynthesis of the host-specific AK-toxin in the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata. AU - Tanaka, Aiko. AU - Shiotani, Hiroshi. AU - Yamamoto, Mikihiro. AU - Tsuge, Takashi. PY - 1999/8. Y1 - 1999/8. N2 - The Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata causes black spot of Japanese pear by producing a host-specific toxin known as AK-toxin. Restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis was used to tag genes required for toxin biosynthesis. Protoplasts of a wild-type strain were treated with a linearized plasmid along with the restriction enzyme used to linearize the plasmid. Of 984 REMI transformants recovered, three produced no detectable AK-toxin and lost pathogenicity on pear leaves. Genomic DNA flanking the integrated plasmid was recovered from one of the mutants. With the recovered DNA used as a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unraveling innate immunity using large scale N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis. AU - Hoebe, Kasper. AU - Beutler, B.. PY - 2005/5. Y1 - 2005/5. N2 - With the mouse genome almost entirely sequenced and readily accessible to all who wish to examine it, the challenge across most biological disciplines now lies in the decipherment of gene and protein function rather than in the realm of gene identification per se. In the field of innate immunity, forward genetic methods have repeatedly been applied to identify key sensors, adapters, and effector molecules. However, most spontaneous mutations that affect innate immune function have been mapped and cloned, and the need for new monogenic phenotypes has been felt evermore keenly. N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis is an efficient tool for the creation of aberrant monogenic innate immune response phenotypes. In this review, we will discuss the potential of the forward genetic ...
Transposons are mobile DNA segments that can disrupt gene function by inserting in or near genes. Here, we show that insertional mutagenesis by the PiggyBac transposon can be used for cancer gene discovery in mice. PiggyBac transposition in genetically engineered transposon-transposase mice induced cancers whose type (hematopoietic versus solid) and latency were dependent on the regulatory elements introduced into transposons. Analysis of 63 hematopoietic tumors revealed that PiggyBac is capable of genome-wide mutagenesis. The Piggybac screen uncovered many cancer genes not identified in previous retroviral or Sleeping Beauty transposon screens, including Spic, which encodes a PU.1-related transcription factor, and Hdac7, a histone deacetylase gene. PiggyBac and Sleeping Beauty have different integration preferences. To maximize the utility of the tool, we engineered 20 mouse lines to be compatible with both ...
Promoterless gene trap vectors have been widely used for high-efficiency gene targeting and random mutagenesis in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Unfortunately, such vectors are only effective for genes expressed in ES cells and this has prompted the development of expression-independent vectors. These polyadenylation (poly A) trap vectors employ a splice donor to capture an endogenous genes polyadenylation sequence and provide transcript stability. However, the spectrum of mutations generated by these vectors appears largely restricted to the last intron of target loci due to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) making them unsuitable for gene targeting applications. Here, we present novel poly A trap vectors that overcome the effect of NMD and also employ RNA instability sequences to improve splicing efficiency. The set of random insertions generated with these vectors show a significantly reduced insertional bias and the vectors can be targeted ...
Looking for online definition of interrupted gene in the Medical Dictionary? interrupted gene explanation free. What is interrupted gene? Meaning of interrupted gene medical term. What does interrupted gene mean?
Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is one of the main pathogens affecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in tropical regions. In the present work we describe three mutants of C. lindemuthianum obtained by insertional mutagenesis using the REMI technique (Restriction Enzyme-Mediated Integration). The mutants were selected based on their lower virulence/pathogenicity and the partial characterization of the mutated genes is presented. In addition, the mitochondrial genome of this phytopathogen was partially characterized. The results show that the gene pacC1 plays a role in vegetative growth and pathogenicity. The use of the restriction enzyme NarI in the transformation of C. lindemuthianum increased approximately 10-fold the transformation efficiency using plasmid pAN7.1. Mutant strains mut5, mut29, and mut65 were isolated from a total of 580 transformants based on their altered ability to infect susceptible bean plants. Strains mut29 and mut65 ...
Fast MultiSite Mutagenesis System,Mutagenesis System,Cloning and Mutagenesis System,Products,Beijing TransGen Biotech Co.Ltd,OverviewContents& storageCitations & referencesRelated ImagesDownloadOverviewDescriptionFast MultiSite Mutagenesis Syst
We are attempting to identify cellular oncogenes activated in mammary tumours by using the mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) as an insertional mutagen. MMTV, a retrovirus lacking a host cell-derived viral oncogene, induces adenocarcinomas of the mammary gland after a long latency period. The tumours are clonal outgrowths of cells carrying one or more integrated MMTV proviral copies. We have cloned an integrated MMTV provirus with its adjacent chromosomal DNA and we have established that the insertion site was part of a domain of the mouse genome in which MMTV proviruses are inserted in many different tumours. A gene within this domain, called int-1 is transcriptionally activated as a consequence of proviral integration. We have proposed that int-1 is a cellular oncogene for mammary tumours. Proviral activation of int-1 occurs in cis, over distances of up to 10 kilobases and is presumably caused by the ...
Saha, N.,Tay, J.S.H.,Basair, J.,Talmud, P.J.,Humphries, S.E. (1996). Lack of association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Gene insertion/deletion polymorphism with CAD in two Asian populations. Clinical Genetics 50 (3) : 121-125. [email protected] Repository ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cc.snf5, a gene encoding a putative component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, is essential for sexual development in the agaricomycete Coprinopsis cinerea. AU - Ando, Yuki. AU - Nakazawa, Takehito. AU - Oka, Kunihiko. AU - Nakahori, Kiyoshi. AU - Kamada, Takashi. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. N2 - We characterized a Coprinopsis cinerea mutant strain, Spe20, defective in fruiting initiation, which was isolated after restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis of a homokaryotic fruiting strain, 326. A plasmid rescue followed by complementation experiments, RACE, and cDNA analyses revealed that the gene, a mutation of which is responsible for the phenotype, is predicted to encode a protein that exhibits a high similarity to yeast Snf5p, a key component of the chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF, and named Cc.snf5. Cc.Snf5 is, however, different from Snf5p in that the former has, in addition to an Snf5 domain comprising N-terminal repeat1 ...
Tn-Seq is an experimental method for probing the functions of genes through construction of complex random transposon insertion libraries and quantification of each mutants abundance using next-generation sequencing. An important emerging application of Tn-Seq is for identifying genetic interactions, which involves comparing Tn mutant libraries generated in different genetic backgrounds (e.g. wild-type strain versus knockout strain). Several analytical methods have been proposed for analyzing Tn-Seq data to identify genetic interactions, including estimating relative fitness ratios and fitting a generalized linear model. However, these have limitations which necessitate an improved approach. We present a hierarchical Bayesian method for identifying genetic interactions through quantifying the statistical significance of changes in enrichment. The analysis involves a four-way comparison of insertion counts across datasets to identify transposon mutants that differentially affect bacterial fitness
Insertional mutagenesis approaches use oncoretroviruses or transposons to trigger cancer in mice by widespread integration into the cellular genome and activation of oncogenes near the integration site. Mapping the genomic integration sites in tumors allows the identification of genomic regions that are recurrently hit in independent tumors (defined as Common Insertion Sites, CIS) (5), which host genes likely involved in cancer development (6).. We have recently developed a new specifically tailored LV-based insertional mutagen that allowed the induction of hepatocellular carcinoma in 3 different mouse models (4). In order to identify the integration sites from LV-induced tumors and control nontumoral samples, we exploited LAM-PCR (1) followed by 454 pyrosequencing. The analysis of LV integrations in tumors allowed the identification of 4 new liver cancer genes. Here we describe how we ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasmid-based one-pot saturation mutagenesis. AU - Wrenbeck,Emily E.. AU - Klesmith,Justin R.. AU - Stapleton,James A.. AU - Adeniran,Adebola. AU - Tyo,Keith E.J.. AU - Whitehead,Timothy A.. PY - 2016/11/1. Y1 - 2016/11/1. N2 - Deep mutational scanning is a foundational tool for addressing the functional consequences of large numbers of mutants, but a more efficient and accessible method for construction of user-defined mutagenesis libraries is needed. Here we present nicking mutagenesis, a robust, single-day, one-pot saturation mutagenesis method performed on routinely prepped plasmid dsDNA. The method can be used to produce comprehensive or single- or multi-site saturation mutagenesis libraries.. AB - Deep mutational scanning is a foundational tool for addressing the functional consequences of large numbers of mutants, but ...
From population genetics theory, elevating the mutation rate of a large population should progressively reduce average fitness. If the fitness decline is large enough, the population will go extinct in a process known as lethal mutagenesis. Lethal mutagenesis has been endorsed in the virology literature as a promising approach to viral treatment, and several in vitro studies have forced viral extinction with high doses of mutagenic drugs. Yet only one empirical study has tested the genetic models underlying lethal mutagenesis, and the theory failed on even a qualitative level. Here we provide a new level of analysis of lethal mutagenesis by developing and evaluating models specifically tailored to empirical systems that may be used to test the theory. We first quantify a bias in the estimation of a critical parameter and consider whether that bias underlies the previously ...
In this study, first we showed that the Tol2 transposon system is a useful technique in generating stable transfected primary culture cells and, second, we demonstrated that the Tol2 transposon system is applicable to the study of circadian clock oscillations.. The Tol2 transposon was originally discovered from Medaka fish (Orzyias latipes) [12]. An active autonomous member of Tol2 was first identified by the analysis using zebrafish embryos [13]. Since then, the Tol2 transposon system has been mainly used for random insertion mutagenesis and transgene in zebrafish [14]. Although recent reports have indicated that the transposon systems such as piggyBac and SleepingBeauty in addition to Tol2 are also active in mammalian cells [15, 16], few studies have been reported that utilized the Tol2 system for transfection to mammalian primary culture cells. In the present study, we showed that the Tol2 transposon system is a useful tool in generating stable transfected primary culture ...
The extraintestinal pathogen, avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), known to cause systemic infections in chickens, is responsible for large economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. In order to identify genes involved in the early essential stages of pathogenesis, namely adhesion and colonization, Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) was applied to a previously established lung colonization model of infection by generating and screening a total of 1,800 mutants of an APEC strain IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; Sequence type complex 95). The study led to the identification of new genes of interest, including two adhesins, one of which coded for a novel APEC fimbrial adhesin (Yqi) not described for its role in APEC pathogenesis to date. Its gene product has been temporarily designated ExPEC Adhesin I (EA/I) until the adhesin-specific receptor is identified. Deletion of the ExPEC adhesin I gene resulted in reduced colonization ability by APEC strain IMT5155 both in vitro and in vivo. ...
In this study, we created a fission yeast insertion mutant library in which all mutants were tagged with unique barcode sequences and stored as two readily available selection platforms. The 384-well mutant arrays allow genetic screens on individual mutants and can be extended to genetic approaches such as synthetic genetic array (SGA) [45, 46]. These mutant arrays have been used to identify mutants with four distinct phenotypes (Table 2) as well as strains that are hyper-sensitive to cancer chemotherapeutics camptothecin and bleomycin (Hale and Runge, unpublished data). In addition to 384-well mutant arrays, mutant pools of 1800 mutants are available for parallel analysis.. The insertion mutagenesis used in this study relied on random non-homologous recombination, where a vast majority of transformants have unstable, circularized vector DNA and only a small portion have stable insertions. To facilitate the collection of stable insertion mutants, we included low-dose 5-FOA ...
Multiple methods have been introduced over the past 30 years to identify the genomic insertion sites of transposable elements and other DNA elements that integrate into genomes. However, each of these methods suffer from limitations that can frustrate attempts to map multiple insertions in a single genome and to map insertions in genomes of high complexity that contain extensive repetitive DNA. I introduce a new method for transposon mapping that is simple to perform, can accurately map multiple insertions per genome, and generates long sequence reads that facilitate mapping to complex genomes. The method, called TagMap, for Tagmentation-based Mapping, relies on a modified Tn5 tagmentation protocol with a single tagmentation adaptor followed by PCR using primers specific to the tranposable element and the adaptor sequence. Several minor modifications to normal tagmentation reagents and protocols allow easy and rapid preparation of TagMap libraries. Short read sequencing starting from the adaptor ...
Blood-borne angiotensin II is generated from angiotensinogen via cleavage by renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), an enzymatic cascade known as the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Several lines of evidence indicate that ACE, beyond its classical role of mediating blood pressure regulation, might contribute to the etiology of substance addictions by influencing dopaminergic signaling. A functional insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene was associated with risk for being a smoker among individuals with depression and with smoking severity in studies comprising patients with depression and healthy controls. Several reports have described significantly increased ACE activity in cerebrospinal fluid and serum among MS patients. Furthermore, in our previous work with MS patients from Croatian and Slovenian populations, we demonstrated that the ACE-I/D polymorphism contributes to an elevated MS risk among male patients. Here we investigated whether the ACE-I/D polymorphism might ...
Active retrotransposons play important roles during evolution and continue to shape our genomes today, especially in genetic polymorphisms underlying a diverse set of diseases. However, studies of human retrotransposon insertion polymorphisms (RIPs) based on whole-genome deep sequencing at the population level have not been sufficiently undertaken, despite the obvious need for a thorough characterization of RIPs in the general population.|br| Herein, we present a novel and efficient computational tool named Specific Insertions Detector (SID) for the detection of non-reference RIPs. We demonstrate that SID is suitable for high depth whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data using paired-end reads obtained from simulated and real datasets. We construct a comprehensive RIP database using a large population of 90 Han Chinese individuals with a mean 68× depth per individual. In total, we identify 9342 recent RIPs, and 8433 of these RIPs are novel compared with dbRIP, including 5826 Alu, 2169 long interspersed
An efficient variety-independent method for producing transgenic eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation was developed. Root explants were transformed by co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring a binary vector pBAL2 carrying the reporter gene \beta-glucuronidase intron (GUS-INT) and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII). Transgenic calli were induced in media containing 0.1 mg$ l-^{1}$ thidiazuron (TDZ), 3.0 mg $l-^{1} N^{6}$-benzylaminopurine, 100 mg$ l-^{1}$ kanamycin and 500 mg l? cefotaxime. The putative transgenic shoot buds elongated on basal selection medium and rooted efficiently on Soilrite irrigated with water containing 100 mg$ l-^{1} $kanamycin sulphate. Transgenic plants were raised in pots and seeds subsequently collected from mature fruits. Histochemical GUS assay and polymerase vchain reaction analysis of field-established transgenic plants and their offsprings confirmed the ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 12:129-142...Pascale V. Balhadère , Andrew J. Foster , and Nicholas J. Talbot...© 1999 The American Phytopathological Society...Restriction enzyme-mediated DNA integration (REMI) mutagenesis was used to identify mutants of Magnaporthe grisea impaired in pathogenicity. Three REMI protocols were evaluated and the frequency of REMIs determined. An REMI library of 3,527 M. grisea transformants was generated in three genetic bac...
ISHS I International Symposium on Genetic Modifications - Challenges and Opportunities for Horticulture in the World INSERTIONAL MUTAGENESIS IN THE DIPLOID STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA VESCA)
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A fixed gene copy number is important for the in silico construction of engineered synthetic networks. However, the copy number of integrated genes depends on their genomic location. This gene dosage effect is rarely addressed in synthetic biology. Two studies in Escherichia colipresented conflicting data on the impact of gene dosage. Here, we investigate how genome location and gene orientation influences expression in Bacillus subtilis. An important difference with the E. coli studies is that we used an unbiased genome integration approach mediated by random transposon insertion. We found that there is a strong gene dosage effect in fast growing B. subtilis cells, which can amount to a 5-fold difference in gene expression. In contrast, gene orientation with respect to DNA replication direction does not influence gene expression. Our study shows that gene dosage should be taken into account when designing synthetic circuits in B. subtilis and presumably other bacteria.. ...
Transposons have been used in invertebrates for transgenesis and insertional mutagens in genetic screens. We tested a functional transposon called Sleeping Beauty in the one-cell mouse embryo. In this report, we describe experiments in which transposon vectors were injected into one-cell mouse embryos with mRNA expressing the SB10 transposase enzyme. Molecular evidence of transposition was obtained by cloning of insertion sites from multiple transgenic mice produced by SB10 mRNA/transposon coinjection. We also demonstrate germ-line transmission and expression from transposed elements. This technique has promise as a germ-line transgenesis method in other vertebrate species and for insertional mutagenesis in the mouse ...
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Plasmodium falciparum is a human intracellular parasite that is the causative agent of a deadly form of malaria. This species alone is responsible for 200 million cases of malaria annually resulting in over 1 million deaths worldwide. The excessive mortality due to P. falciparum infection is due to its ability to cause severe pathogenesis through hyperparasitemia and cytoadherence defined as the ability of infected red blood cells to adhere to host vasculature. Cytoadherence is mediated through the export of parasite proteins to the surface of the infected red blood cell (RBC). Exported proteins have been identified but the pathway for protein export is still being elucidated. Many protein coding genes in the P. falciparum genome are hypothetical and therefore still need to be studied. Random transposon mutagenesis using the piggyBac transposable element in P. falciparum has given us a library of mutants to use for forward genetic studies. In this work, we describe a novel ...
In any transgenic mice, insertion of the transgene in the genome is potentially mutagenic. It has been proposed that about 5-10% of transgenic mice harbour transgene induced chromosomal alterations, including deletions and translocations.7,8 Thus, random insertion of foreign DNA into any genome is liable to deactivate or activate one or more genes. The striking eye phenotype observed in the T27aT15 transgenic line seems to be the result of the transgene insertion into the genome as the phenotype is unique among more than twenty transgenic lines that were generated using identical or similar constructs.3. We present a phenotypic characterisation of the T27aT15 line. A proportion of hemizygous transgenic mice developed serious abnormalities of the eye, usually starting between one and two months of age. The progressive eye abnormalities seem to arise after eye formation, as the eye appears to develop normally. The phenotype of these mice includes corneal opacity, cataract, and retinal vascular ...
Here we characterized the sae operon, an independent global regulator for virulence gene expression in S. aureus. Sequence analysis revealed two additional ORFs upstream of the two-component system saeRS. Both ORFs are predicted to code for putative proteins with yet unknown functions. The predicted protein encoded by ORF3 is probably membrane associated, and that encoded by ORF4 is probably cytosolic. Transciptional analysis leads to the assumption that both ORFs are functionally linked to the saeRS two-component regulatory system. ORF3 is cotranscribed with saeRS in the major transcripts T1 and T2. ORF4 is cotranscribed with ORF3 and saeRS (T1) but is also contained in the monocistronic T4 transcript. All transcripts, including the monocistronic message T4, are absent in the sae mutant strain, although the transposon insertion site was shown to be localized further downstream within saeS. Thus, SaeRS is probably necessary for transcriptional initiation from P1. Transcriptional initiation from ...
Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) aka murid herpesvirus 68 is an isolate of Murid herpesvirus 4 which is a virus in the genus Rhadinovirus. It is a member of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae in the family of Herpesviridae. MHV-68 serves as a model for study of human gammaherpesviruses which cause significant human disease including B-cell lymphoma and Kaposis sarcoma. The WUMS strain of MHV-68 was fully sequenced and annotated in 1997, and the necessity of most of its genes in viral replication was characterized by random transposon mutagenesis study . Alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesviruses display a heterodimer composed of glycoprotein H (gH) and glycoprotein L (gL) on their envelopes. This receptor is involved in the cell-to-cell transmission of the virus. Glycoprotein H has two conformations. Glycoprotein L is a chaperone protein which ...
In this investigation, we have used transposon mutagenesis to identify a novel mycobacterial protein that is associated with phenotypic changes in the parent strain that alter the adhesive properties of the mycobacteria. Recently, a similar BCG transposon library was used to identify a mycolic acid cyclopropane synthetase as a virulence factor in M. tuberculosis by screening for variants that are deficient in cord formation (20). For our investigation, we reasoned that a mutant which exhibited a nonaggregative morphology may identify a gene that influences the interaction of mycobacteria with other cells, since there is evidence that adhesins can also induce autoaggregation of bacteria (9, 32). In fact, it has previously been shown that the mycobacterial adhesin HBHA promotes bacterial aggregation (16, 31, 33).. In this study, after screening more than 1,900 BCG transposon insertion mutants, one mutant strain, mc21525, was singled out for demonstrating an obvious difference ...
Malignant primary brain tumors, gliomas, often overexpress both platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) ligands and receptors providing an autocrine and/or paracrine boost to tumor growth. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent glioma. Its aggressive and infiltrative growth renders it extremely difficult to treat. Median survival after diagnosis is currently only 12-14 months. The present review describes the use of retroviral tagging to identify candidate cancer-causing genes that cooperate with PDGF in brain tumor formation. Newborn mice injected intracerebrally with a Moloney murine leukemia retrovirus carrying the sis/PDGF-B oncogene and a replication competent helper virus developed brain tumors with many characteristics of human gliomas. Analysis of proviral integrations in the brain tumors identified almost 70 common insertion sites (CISs). These CISs were named brain tumor loci and harbored known but also putative novel cancer-causing genes. Microarray ...
Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacillus that causes nosocomial and community-acquired pneumonia and, rarely, extrapulmonary infections in humans. Signature-tagged mutagenesis employs uniquely tagged transposons that are used to randomly mutagenize a bacterial chromosome and create a library. A library of 700 mutant clones created by signature-tagged mutagenesis was screened using this negative-selection strategy in Acanthamoeba castellanii, a free-living amoeba that may serve as an environmental reservoir of legionellae. The efficiency of invasion was studied by incubating L. pneumophila strains grown to postexponential phase with A. castellanii, using gentamicin to kill extracellular organisms and then determining remaining intracellular CFU. The behavior of the mutants was also examined in human macrophages derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-differentiated ...
For our initial test, we constructed the donor vector pBS-yin(B40XC), consisting of an intronless yellow gene flanked by inverted attB40 sites in the plasmid pBluescript (pBS). In constructing this donor, we subcloned the attB40 sites using complementary oligonucleotides with overhanging "sticky" ends that permitted ligation with restriction sites in pBS. We then used pBS-yin(B40XC) as a donor vector for RMCE via two methods. First, we co-injected the vector and mRNA encoding the ΦC31 integrase into embryos homozygous for an RMCE target in a yellow− white− background as described previously (Bateman et al. 2006). Among the progeny of surviving injectees, we were able to detect flies that had lost the white+ eye color produced by the mini-white gene in the target cassette and had gained yellow+ pigmentation, consistent with successful RMCE integration events. Although rates of integration by this method were relatively low (2-11%), they were consistent with control experiments using the ...
An alternative to insulin injections is the insulin pump. The pump is a computerized device, about the size of a beeper or pager, often worn on a belt or in a pocket. The pump delivers a continuous low (basal) dose of insulin through a cannula (a flexible plastic tube), which attaches to the body through a small needle inserted into the skin. The cannula is taped in place and the needle is removed. Common insertion sites on the body include the thighs, buttocks, abdomen, upper arms and other areas with fatty tissue.. When a person wearing a pump eats, she pushes a button on the pump to deliver an extra amount of insulin called a bolus to provide insulin for their food.. The advantages of the pump include:. ...
SB transposon mutagenesis is an unbiased approach for identifying candidate BC driver genes. We successfully induced mammary tumors in mice using the K5 promoter driving SB alone or together with stabilized N-terminally truncated β-catenin targeted to the basal layer of the mammary gland (28). Because the K5-Cre promoter is activated in both the luminal and basal cell layers of the mammary gland, transposition also occurs in both layers and not solely in the basal cell layer, as initially observed with the transgenic line expressing the truncated β-catenin. Not surprisingly, mammary tumors induced by our SB system represented all BC histological subtypes, consistent with the premise that the cell of origin for BC derives from either the luminal or basal layers of mammary glands (56, 57).. The SB mouse model provides a unique experimental basis for the identification of BC-associated susceptible genes relevant to the tumor subtypes. To understand the molecular subtypes of ...
A forward genetics approach was applied in order to investigate the molecular basis of morphological transition in the wheat pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici. Z. tritici is a dimorphic plant pathogen displaying environmentally regulated morphogenetic transition between yeast-like and hyphal growth. Considering the infection mode of Z. tritici, the switching to hyphal growth is essential for pathogenicity allowing the fungus the host invasion through natural openings like stomata. We exploited a previously developed Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) to generate a mutant library by insertional mutagenesis including more than 10,000 random mutants. To identify genes involved in dimorphic switch, a plate-based screening system was established. With this approach eleven dimorphic switch deficient random mutants were recovered, ten of which exhibited a yeast-like mode of growth and one mutant predominantly growing ...
The objective of the study is to know the frequencies of insertion/deletion (I/D) allele and association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), I/D polymorphism in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) populations in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension (HTN). A total of 500 individuals were recruited for the present study. Out of these 500 individuals, 250 individuals had T2DM and HTN and 250 were healthy controls. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using allele specific oligonucleotide primers. The allele frequency for I allele and D allele was found to be 63% and 37% in patients with T2DM and HTN and 48% and 52% for healthy controls. Genotype frequency for homozygote insertion (II), heterozygote (ID) and homozygote deletion (DD) allele was in range of 99.23, 116.55 and 34.23 for patients with T2DM and HTN and 56.64, 124.71 and 68.64 for healthy controls. ID versus II+ID model for odds showed a significant association of ACE I/D polymorphism with T2DM and
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Drug resistance poses a great challenge to targeted cancer therapies. In Hedgehog pathway-dependent cancers, the scope of mechanisms enabling resistance to SMO inhibitors is not known. Here, we performed a transposon mutagenesis screen in medulloblastoma and identified multiple modes of resistance. Surprisingly, mutations in ciliogenesis genes represent a frequent cause of resistance, and patient datasets indicate that cilia loss constitutes a clinically relevant category of resistance. Conventionally, primary cilia are thought to enable oncogenic Hedgehog sig-naling. Paradoxically, we find that cilia loss protects tumor cells from susceptibility to SMO inhibitors and maintains a "persister" state that depends on continuous low output of the Hedgehog program. Persister cells can serve as a reservoir for further tumor evolution, as additional alterations synergize with cilia loss to generate aggressive recurrent tumors. Together, our findings reveal patterns of resistance and ...
If you have plan to use commercial kits, another choice for short way for your research is use of mutagenesis service company. I realized the mutagenesis cost using commercial kit is never cheap! My estimate is $200 ~ 250 per one mutagenesis reaction using kit (one kit rexn., $20 + purified two primers, $150 + three clone sequencing, $30 + subcloning reagent, $30 : SM, media, agar plate, buffer, tube, tips --- and time). Besides, purchasing kit for just one or two mutant generation is money wasting because remaining kit reagents are useless. Recent biotech companies provide rapid and precise mutagenesis service in affordable prices. Some people in our lab use Mutagenex Inc. (USA) and I found other companies offering in low price ...
Institutions: Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute We are performing gene trap-based expression and genotypic screens to generate new mouse mutations that will help delineate the molecular controls of specific developmental programs. Using a polyA trap vector with recombination sites for post-insertional manipulations, gene trap insertions are screened using multiplexed in vitro differentiation and induction assays. An expression profile is being generated at a rate of greater than 5000 per year. Sequence tags for all insertions demonstrating restricted expression patterns (about 20%) are now being generated. A database is being developed that will be searchable by expression pattern, sequence, and phenotype. The clones will be available as a resource to researchers worldwide. One of the clones identified in our ongoing screen, SNAG-1, is expressed by hematopoietic stem cells, neural endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes and sensory nerves. SNAG-1 mutant embryos die mid-gestation ...
Transposon mutants of the prototrophic V. fischeri strain ESR1 (19) were obtained by conjugative transposon mutagenesis with Escherichia coli strain S17-1 λpir (pUT mini-Tn5 Cm) (21), and selection for transconjugants was performed on a Luria broth and NaCl (LBS) agar medium (22) containing (per liter) 100 mg rifampicin, and 5 mg chloramphenicol. This procedure has been shown to cause single transposon insertions that are stable in V. fischeri (23). Amino acid auxotrophs were isolated from this pool of transposon mutants by using a streptozotocin enrichment method (24). Strains that could be complemented by the addition of a single amino acid were identified (25), and nine mutants that were auxotrophic for different amino acids were analyzed further. The growth rate and luminescence of these mutants were indistinguishable from that of strain ESR1 in SWT broth, a complex tryptone-based seawater medium (13); however, each mutant was unable to grow in the minimal-salts medium ...
A Genetic Screen Using the PiggyBac Transposon in Haploid Cells Identifies Parp1 as a Mediator of Olaparib Toxicity. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
A number of genetic determinants required for bacterial colonization of solid surfaces and biofilm formation have been identified in different micro-organisms. There are fewer accounts of mutations that favour the transition to a sessile mode of life. Here we report the isolation of random transposon Pseudomonas putida KT2440 mutants showing increased biofilm formation, and the detailed characterization of one of them. This mutant exhibits a complex phenotype, including altered colony morphology, increased production of extracellular polymeric substances and enhanced swarming motility, along with the formation of denser and more complex biofilms than the parental strain. Sequence analysis revealed that the pleiotropic phenotype exhibited by the mutant resulted from the accumulation of two mutations: a transposon insertion, which disrupted a predicted outer membrane lipoprotein, and a point mutation in lapG, a gene involved in the turnover of the large adhesin LapA. The contribution of each ...
The RAS is activated during lung injury and plays a role in several pathological processes. In addition to the pulmonary endothelium, respiratory epithelium also possesses significant ACE activity. Fas-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis is dependent on local AT-II production and interaction with it receptor.[10, 11] Further, AT-II is mitogenic for lung fibroblasts and aberrant AT-II production has been linked with some forms of pulmonary fibrosis[12, 18, 28-30]. Inhibition of AT-II with type 1 angiotensin receptor antagonists delayed the onset of ARDS and inhibited neutrophil influx into the lung in experimental models[14]. In adults, there is an increase in bronchoalveolar lavage ACE activity and AT-II during ALI, however the contribution of activation of the RAS to neonatal lung injury has received little study[6, 13].. The frequency of the D allele in our study population was not different than reported in our local population or for other groups[16, 24, 31]. The ACE D allele is ...
Bioneers exclusive Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe) Genome-wide Deletion Mutant Library is a powerful tool for large-scale genetic functional analysis, identification and verification research of drug targets and for integrated systems research of cell function. Co-developed by Bioneer and KRIBB in collaboration with Dr. Paul Nurse of the Cancer Research Center in UK, the S. pombe Genome-wide Deletion Mutant Library can be used for genetic and chemical screening such as drug target identification, gene expression profiling, and synthetic lethal profiling. S. pombe offers higher homology with mammalian cells and human genes than those of S. pombe. S. pombe Genome-wide Deletion Mutant Library targets every ORF (4,914 types) in the S. pombe genome through a targeted mutagenesis method. A total of 4,836 heterozygous diploid deletion mutants representing 98.4% of the organism genome and 3,400 haploid deletion mutants with 95.3% genome coverage are available. Since there are ...
Thirty-four transgenic mouse strains, each carrying a single proviral insert, were generated by infection of preimplantation and postimplantation embryos with retroviruses. Animals homozygous for proviral integrations were derived for all strains with the exception of Mov 24, where the provirus is inserted on the Y chromosome, and Mov 34. Embryos homozygous at the Mov 34 locus develop normally to the blastocyst stage and die shortly after implantation, indicating that virus integration resulted in a recessive lethal mutation. The provirus and flanking sequences were cloned and the virus was mapped to the 5 side of an abundantly and ubiquitously transcribed gene. Similar to the previously derived Mov 13 mutation, proviral integration at the Mov 34 locus interferes with the expression of the adjacent gene. These and our previous results indicate that of a total of 48 proviral integrations in the germ line, two ...
b)The manuscripts listed below should be referred in the publication on scientific journal.(1)Ito T, Motohashi R, Kuromori T, Mizukado S, Sakurai T, Kanahara H, Seki M and Shinozaki K (2002) A new resource of locally transposed Dissociation elements for screening gene-knockout lines in silico on the Arabidopsis genome. Plant Physiol. 129: 1695-1699.(2)Kuromori T, Hirayama T, Kiyosue Y, Takabe H, Mizukado S, Sakurai T, Akiyama K, Kamiya A, Ito T and Shinozaki K (2004) A collection of 11800 single-copy Ds transposon insertion lines in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 37, 897-905 ...
The mini-Tn5 are mobile elements able to transpose to the chromosome from a delivery plasmid, by means of the transposase activity encoded by the tnp* gene, which is present in cis in the plasmid but external to the mini-Tn5 element. pUT mini-Tn5 vectors can be used to insert any DNA fragment in the bacterial chromosome, by cloning it within the mini-Tn5 region. Due to the loss of the tnp* gene after insertion, minitransposons are stably integrated into the chromosome and inherited. The different pUTmini-Tn5 vectors can then be used for repeated insertion events and therefore multiple insertions in the same strain are only limited by the availability of distinct selection markers.. Advantages:. ...
Genome-wide gene insertion and deletion rates can be modelled in a maximum likelihood framework with the additional flexibility of modelling potential missing data using the models included within. These models simultaneously estimate insertion and deletion (indel) rates of gene families and proportions of missing data for (multiple) taxa of interest. The likelihood framework is utilized for parameter estimation. A phylogenetic tree of the taxa and gene presence/absence patterns (with data ordered by the tips of the tree) are required. For more details, see Utkarsh J. Dang, Alison M. Devault, Tatum D. Mortimer, Caitlin S. Pepperell, Hendrik N. Poinar, G. Brian Golding (2016). Gene insertion deletion analysis while accounting for possible missing data. Genetics (accepted).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene conversion during vector insertion in embryonic stem cells. AU - Hasty, Edward P. AU - Rivera-pérez, Jaime. AU - Bradley, Allan. PY - 1995/6/11. Y1 - 1995/6/11. N2 - Recombination of an insertion vector Into Its chromosomal homologue is a conservative event in that both the chromosomal and the vector sequences are preserved. However, gene conversion may accompany homologous recombination of an Insertion vector. To examine gene conversion in more detail we have determined the targeting frequencies and the structure of the recomblnant alleles generated with a series of vectors which target the hprt gene in embryonic stem cells. We demonstrate that gene conversion of the introduced mutation does not significantly limit homologous recombination and that gene conversion occurs without a sequence specific bias for five different mutations. The frequency of the loss of a vector mutation and the gain of a chromosomal sequence is Inversely proportional to the distance between the ...
An ampicillin resistance plasmid carrying the cloned repressor gene cII of the L phage (Salmonella lyphimurium) was conducted by Flac into an F- recipient. Two types of plaamids were isolated from Apr transconjugants. The majority of plasmids were dimers with one copy of Tn1000 inserted, the minority being monomers with one copy of Tn1000. This proportion remained unaltered when we used the Flac strain transformed with a monomeric form of the recombinant plasmid as a donor. An extensive oligomerization of pBR322-originating plasmids was proved in the presence of Flac; its presumable relationship to transposition-related processes is suggested.
The Vibrio harveyi cgtA gene product belongs to a subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins, called Obg-like proteins. Members of this subfamily are present in diverse organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. On the other hand, the functions of these proteins in the regulation of cellular processes are largely unknown. Genes coding for these proteins are essential in almost all bacteria investigated thus far. However, a viable V. harveyi insertional mutant in the cgtA gene was described recently. Therefore, this mutant gives a unique opportunity to study functions of a member of the subfamily of Obg-like proteins. Here we demonstrate that the mutant cells often form long filaments with expanded, non-partitioned or rarely partitioned chromosomes. Such a phenotype suggests impairment of the mechanism of chromosome partition. Flow cytometric studies revealed that synchronization of chromosome replication initiation is also significantly disturbed in the cgtA mutant. Moreover, ...
Despite the wide range of techniques that can be brought to bear on the study of basic processes in Drosophila, there are still deficiencies in our armory. One of these is an ability to select mutants in cases where the gene is known and has been cloned, but where we are ignorant of the associated phenotype. We describe here a solution to this problem as applied to a model system, the singed (sn) locus. Our method is a combination of classical genetics and molecular biology: sib selection plus the polymerase chain reaction. We have used the method to isolate rare individuals with P-element-induced alleles of sn merely by recognition of the DNA structures induced at the locus by transposon insertion. Phenotypic criteria were used only retrospectively to verify our diagnoses. There are obvious implications of this technique for the mutagenesis of other organisms.
Characterization of a gene trap insertion into a novel gene, cordon-bleu, expressed in axial structures of the gastrulating mouse embryo.. We have used a gene trap (GT) vector and embryonic stem (ES) cell chimeras to screen for insertions of the lacZ reporter gene into transcription units that are spatially and temporally regulated during early mouse embryogenesis. GT vectors which can act as both a reporter and a mutagen have been previously used to isolate new genes that are essential for mouse development. In this paper we describe a GT insertion which displays a very restricted pattern of expression in the gastrulating embryo. beta-Galactosidase activity was first detected at 7.5 days post-coitum (E7.5) in the node region of the embryo and extended to the midline structures at E8.0. At E9.5 expression was restricted to the floor plate, the notochord, the roof of the gut, and the liver anlage. Expression appeared in the somites at E10.0 and later became more widespread. We used rapid ...
The IGTC focuses on creating resources of embryonic stem cells with gene trap insertions in every or most genes in the mouse genome. A brief description of the gene trap consortium is available online. The Gene Trap Consortium is also described in Nature Genetics 36: 543-544, 2004. Links to Databases of Gene Trapped ES Cell Lines:. ...
Although the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation efficiency was only a fraction of 1%, it was possible to exploit the transposition frequency of a single T0 line to initiate the development of a functional resource for activation tagging in tomato. The practice of using micropropagation to produce many clonal plants from a single tissue culture regenerant proved valuable, as it multiplied T1 seed production by up to 25 times. This strategy also capitalized on the behavior of transposase in Ac/Ds-ATag-Bar_gosGFP by isolating chimeric tissue from the original transformant into separate plantlets, allowing germinal transposition from multiple sites of Ds integration. The selection of a self-fertile, true breeding tomato cultivar allowed crossing to nontransgenic cv M82, thus maximizing T1 seed production. Pollen could be collected from transgenic flowers and distributed to multiple nontransgenic plants, all while still obtaining transgenic self-progeny.. Modifications made to the ...
A novel combinatorial mutagenesis strategy (shuffle mutagenesis) was developed to identify sequences in the propiece and amino lobe of cathepsin D which direct oligosaccharide phosphorylation by UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal enzyme N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphotransferase. Propiece restriction fragments and oligonucleotide cassettes corresponding to 13 regions of the cathepsin D and glycopepsinogen amino lobes were randomly shuffled together to generate a large library of chimeric molecules. The library was inserted into an expression vector encoding the carboxyl lobe of cathepsin D with a carboxyl-terminal myc epitope and a CD8 transmembrane extension. Transfected COS1 cells expressing the membrane-anchored forms of the cathepsin D/glycopepsinogen chimeras at the cell surface were selected with solid phase mannose 6-phosphate receptor or an antibody to the myc epitope. Plasmids were rescued in Escherichia coli and sequenced by hybridization to the ...
This chapter provides a broad overview of many applications of plasmids for genetic analysis, primarily in bacteria. Ever since DNA sequencing became accessible to most research laboratories, reverse genetic analysis has become a standard experimental approach to study bacterial gene function. Similar suicide vectors have also been used for nontargeted insertional mutagenesis by cloning random chromosomal DNA fragments into the plasmid. The use of suicide vectors also allows for easy identification of the insertion mutations. Plasmids that utilize different combinations of double-counter selective markers have been used for diverse applications, including the search for extremely rare suppressor mutations of essential Escherichia coli genes, and to improve the efficiency of allelic exchange on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). Although temperature-sensitive vectors represent the majority of conditionally replicating plasmids, other ...
In vivo expression technology (IVET) is a promoter-trap strategy deigned to identify genes whose expression in induced in a specific environment, typically that encountered in a host. Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) uses comparative hybridisation to isolate mutants unable to survive specified environmental conditions and has been used to identify genes critical for survival in the host. Both methods have been used to identify virulence genes in S. aureus. The main aim of this project was to find any probable new genes of S. aureus that are essential for biofilm formation and infection mouse model by STM. A library of tagged insertion mutants of S. aureus and a series of selected tags in plasmids of S. aureus strain RN6390 were used. Most of the experiments with both the library and selected tags had problems with cross-hybridisation. All the selected tags were therefore sequenced and 33 tags with less than 50% identity were chosen for future experiments. A library of 825 ...
We screened the nonredundant PA14 transposon mutant library for mutants defective in growth on GB to identify genes involved in the GB catabolic pathway in P. aeruginosa. We identified a putative GB demethylase, encoded by gbcA and gbcB, based on phenotypic data that indicated that the ΔgbcA-gbcB mutant could not grow on GB but could use DMG as a carbon and nitrogen source (Table 2 and data not shown). Furthermore, when the the ΔgbcA-gbcB mutant was fed choline, GB accumulated in the cells (Fig. 4). The gbcA and gbcB transcript levels increased in response to GB and DMG in a GbdR-dependent manner. The transcript accumulation was mirrored in a proteomics analysis, in which the GbcB protein was shown to be more abundant in P. aeruginosa grown in the presence of GB as the sole carbon source (11). We also identified a putative DMG demethylase, encoded by the dgcAB genes, which is necessary for conversion of DMG to sarcosine. Experiments with 13C-labeled choline confirmed that DMG accumulated in ...
Advenviral Vector - Gene Insertion Nucleus Tumor Cell , Gene insertion nucleus tumor cell. Adenovirus inserting gene into tumor cell nucleus. Nuclear por, nucleus, episome, DNA, mRNA, ribosome, protein, transcription, translation, oncology, immunity .
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Atarés Huerta, Alejandro; Moyano, Elena; Morales, Belén; Schleicher, Peter; García Abellán, José Osvaldo; Antón Martínez, María Teresa; García Sogo, Begoña; Pérez Martin, Fernando; Lozano, Rafael; Borja Flores, Francisco; Moreno Ferrero, Vicente; Bolarin Jimenez, Maria del Carmen; Pineda Chaza, Benito José (Springer Verlag (Germany), 2011) ...
We have developed a new strategy designated SIMF (Systematic Insertional Mutagenesis of Families), to identify DNA insertions in many members of a gene family simultaneously. This method requires only a short amino acid sequence conserved in all members of the family to make a degenerate oligonucleotide, and a sequence from the end of the DNA insertion. The SIMF strategy was successfully applied to the large maize R2R3 Myb family of regulatory genes, and Mutator insertions in several novel Myb genes were identified. Application of this technique to identify insertions in other large gene families could significantly decrease the effort involved in screening at the same time for insertions in all members of groups of genes that share a limited sequence identity.. ...
PiggyBac Transposable Element Derived 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PGBD5 gene.[1] PGBD5 is a DNA transposase related to the ancient PiggyBac transposase first identified in the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni.[2] The gene is believed to have been domesticated over 500 million years ago in the common ancestor of cephalochordates and vertebrates.[3] The putative catalytic triad of the protein composed of three aspartic acid residues is conserved among PGBD5-like genes through evolution,[4], and is distinct from other PiggyBac-like genes.[3] PGBD5 has been shown to be able to transpose DNA in a sequence-specific, cut-and-paste fashion.[4] PGBD5 has also been proposed to mediate site-specific DNA rearrangements in human tumors.[5] ...
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation: Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been used to create commercial cultivars for over 10 years and is known to create insertion-site mutations (Table 2, Section 1.1). However, there has been only one large-scale study of the mutations created at insertion events2 containing single T-DNA3inserts (the type of event preferred for commercial purposes; Forsbach et al. 2003). In this study of 112 single-copy T-DNA insertion events in A. thaliana, the researchers found that exact T-DNA integration almost never occurred (Forsbach et al. 2003). Most of the T-DNA insertions resulted in small (1-100 base pair) deletions of plant genomic sequences at the insertion-site. However, for a significant number (24/112) there was evidence for large-scale rearrangement of plant genomic DNA at the insertion-site. Two of these insertion events contained chromosomal translocations. The rest had rearrangements which were not fully characterised. It is known, however, that ...
The wound healing response is an essential mechanism to maintain the integrity of epithelia and protect all organisms from the surrounding milieu. In the purse-string mechanism of wound closure, an injured epithelial sheet cinches its hole closed via an intercellular contractile actomyosin cable. This process is conserved across species and utilized by both embryonic as well as adult tissues, but remains poorly understood at the cellular level. In an effort to identify new players involved in purse-string wound closure a wounding strategy suitable for screening large numbers of Drosophila embryos was developed. Using this methodology, wound healing defects were observed in Jun-related antigen (encoding DJUN) and scab (encoding Drosophila alphaPS3 integrin) mutants and a forward genetics screen was performed on the basis of insertional mutagenesis by transposons that led to the identification of 30 lethal ...
Hydrophobins are small, cysteine-rich, secreted proteins, ubiquitously produced by filamentous fungi, and that are speculated to function in fungal growth, cell surface properties, and development, although this has been rigorously tested for only a few species. We identified three hydrophobin genes from the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum and provided functional characterization of strains lacking these genes. One gene (HYD1/ssgA) encodes a Class I hydrophobin identified previously. Two new genes, HYD3 and HYD2, encode a Class-I and Class-II hydrophobin, respectively. To examine function, we deleted all three, separately, from the M. brunneum strain KTU-60 genome using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Deletion strains were screened for alterations in developmental phenotypes including growth, sporulation, pigmentation, colony surface properties, and virulence to insects. All deletion strains were reduced in their ability to sporulate and showed alterations in ...
Transposable elements (TEs) have been highly influential in shaping the structure and evolution of mammalian genomes, as exemplified by TE-derived sequence contributing between 38 and 69% of genomic sequence [1-8]. TE insertions also can influence the transcription, translation or function of genes [1-7]. Functional effects of TE insertions include their regulation of transcription by acting as alternative promoters or as enhancer elements and via the generation of antisense transcripts, or of transcriptional silencers. TEs can alter splice sites or RNA editing, provide alternative poly-adenylation signals or exons, modify chromatin structure or alter translation. Furthermore, TE insertion has been suggested to be a mechanism by which new co-regulatory networks arise [1-7].. TEs are classified on the basis of their transposition mechanism [9]. A class I retrotransposon propagates in the host genome through an intermediate RNA step, requiring a reverse transcriptase to revert it to DNA before ...
Name: SALK_063013. ABRC stock number: SALK_063013. Description: Sequence-indexed T-DNA insertion line generated by vacuum infiltration of Columbia (Col) plants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector pROK2; kanamycin was employed for selection of plants carrying a T-DNA (please note that in many lines, the kan resistance trait has been cosuppressed, so that insertion plants may not be kanamycin resistant); each T1 transformant has been maintained individually at SALK; the DNA sequence of each T-DNA flanking region was generated from seedlings grown from the same sample of seeds as that provided for distribution (T3). NOTE: kanamycin resistance gene may be silenced; PCR- or hybridization-based segregation analysis is required to confirm presence of insertion; may be segregating for phenotypes that are not linked to the insertion; may have additional insertions potentially segregating. Please cite the Alonso et al. reference linked to this stock and acknowledge NASC/ABRC for distributing the seeds ...
Rice, Oryza sativa L., is one of the most important crops in the world. With the rising world population, feeding people in a more sustainable and environment-friendly way becomes increasingly important. Therefore, rice research community needs to share resources to better understand functions of rice genes that are the foundation for future agricultural biotechnology development, and one way to achieve this goal is via the extensive study of insertional mutants.|br| We have constructed a large rice insertional mutant population in a japonica rice variety, Tainung 67. The collection contains about 93,000 mutant lines, among them 85% with phenomics data and 65% with flanking sequence data. We screened the phenotypes of 12 individual plants for each line grown under field conditions according to 68 subcategories and 3 quantitative traits. Both phenotypes and integration sites are searchable in the database at Taiwan Rice ...
Rice, Oryza sativa L., is one of the most important crops in the world. With the rising world population, feeding people in a more sustainable and environment-friendly way becomes increasingly important. Therefore, rice research community needs to share resources to better understand functions of rice genes that are the foundation for future agricultural biotechnology development, and one way to achieve this goal is via the extensive study of insertional mutants.|br| We have constructed a large rice insertional mutant population in a japonica rice variety, Tainung 67. The collection contains about 93,000 mutant lines, among them 85% with phenomics data and 65% with flanking sequence data. We screened the phenotypes of 12 individual plants for each line grown under field conditions according to 68 subcategories and 3 quantitative traits. Both phenotypes and integration sites are searchable in the database at Taiwan Rice ...
Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal organism in approximately 30% of the human population and colonization is a significant risk factor for invasive infection. As a result of this, there is a great need to better understand how S. aureus overcomes human immunity. Neutrophils are essential during the innate immune response to S. aureus, yet this microorganism uses multiple evasion strategies to avoid killing by these immune cells, perhaps the most catastrophic of which is the rapid induction of neutrophil cell death. The aim of this study was to better understand the mechanisms underpinning S. aureus-induced neutrophil lysis, and how this contributes to pathogenesis in a whole organism model of infection. To do this we screened the genome-wide Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library (NTML) in the community acquired methicillin resistant S. aureus strain, USA300, for decreased ability to induce neutrophil cell lysis. Out of 1,920 S. aureus mutants, a number of known regulators of cell lysis ...
Systems and methods for isolating DNA molecules that can include the steps of: providing a transposon mutant collection, the transposon mutant collection being stored in a plurality of wells; dispatc
After analyzing genomic sequences from 23 strains in which a drug marker had been inserted in an apparently neutral location and 30 nontransformed control strains, we found a very low rate of collateral mutations resulting from the transformation process. All 23 transformations together resulted in only four point mutations, of which one changed an amino acid, and one case of multiple tandem insertions of the drug marker. Furthermore, none of the 23 transformants showed any abnormal stress resistance phenotypes.. Our findings stand in striking contrast to the received wisdom in the field, which is that transformation is inherently mutagenic. However, the only published evidence supporting this belief comes from the construction of the yeast knockout (YKO) collection. The YKO collection was constructed by transforming a drug marker cassette into diploid cells, in order to replace one copy of the target gene. The diploids were then sporulated to produce four haploid spores, two of which carry the ...
Transposon-based insertional mutagenesis is a valuable method for conducting unbiased forward genetic screens to identify cancer genes in mice. We used this system to elucidate factors involved in the malignant transformation of neural stem cells into glioma-initiating cells. We identified an RNA-binding protein, La-related protein 4b (LARP4B), as a candidate tumor suppressor gene in glioma. LARP4B expression was consistently decreased in human glioma stem cells and cell lines compared with normal neural stem cells. Moreover, heterozygous deletion of LARP4B was detected in nearly 80% of glioblastomas in the TCGA database. LARP4B loss was also associated with low expression and poor patient survival. Overexpression of LARP4B in glioma cell lines strongly inhibited proliferation by inducing mitotic arrest and apoptosis in four of six lines as well as in two patient-derived glioma stem cell populations. The expression levels of CDKN1A and BAX ...
The Tn3 transposon is a 4957 base pair mobile genetic element, found in prokaryotes. It encodes three proteins: β-lactamase, an enzyme that confers resistance to β-lactam antibiotics (and is encoded by the gene Bla). Tn3 transposase (encoded by gene tnpA) Tn3 resolvase (encoded by gene tnpR) Initially discovered as a repressor of transposase, resolvase also plays a role in facilitating Tn3 replication (Sherratt 1989). The transposon is flanked by a pair of 38bp inverted repeats. This first stage is catalysed by transposase. The plasmid containing the transposon (the donor plasmid) fuses with a host plasmid (the target plasmid). In the process, the transposon and a short section of host DNA are replicated. The end product is a cointegrate plasmid containing two copies of the transposon. Shapiro (1978) proposed the following mechanism for this process: Four single-strand cleavages occur - one on each strand of the donor plasmid and one on each strand of the target plasmid. The donor and target ...
Mardan-Nik, Maryam, Pasdar, Alireza, Jamialahmadi, Khadijeh, Biabangard-Zak, Atefeh, Mirhafez, Seyed Reza, Ghalandari, Marzieh, Tajfard, Mohammad, Mohebati, Mohsen, Esmaily, Habobollah, Ferns, Gordon A and Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid (2014) Association of heat shock protein70-2 (HSP70-2) gene polymorphism with coronary artery disease in an Iranian population. Gene, 550 (2). pp. 180-184. ISSN 0378-1119 Masoudi-Kazemabad, Ali, Jamialahmadi, Khadijeh, Moohebati, Mohsen, Mojarrad, Majid, Dehghan-Manshadi, Raheleh, Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi, Akhlaghi, Saeed, Ferns, Gordon A and Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid (2012) High frequency of Neuropeptide Y Leu7Pro polymorphism in an Iranian population and its association with coronary artery disease. Gene, 496 (1). pp. 22-27. ISSN 0378-1119 Watson, Adam T, Garcia, Valerie, Bone, Neil, Carr, Antony M and Armstrong, John (2008) Gene tagging and gene replacement using recombinase-mediated cassette exchange in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Gene, 407 (1-2). pp. 63-74. ISSN ...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
The human genome contains vast numbers of sequences that have copied themselves to new genomic locations by retrotransposition. Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is the only sequence in the human genome still capable of autonomous retrotransposition. L1 elements have contributed to the evolution of the human genome via insertional mutagenesis, pseudogene formation, sequence transduction, and recombination events (producing insertions, deletions and inversions). Currently general and L1- specific sequence databases do not reflect the true level of Full Length Human Specific L1 (FL-L1HS) variation, due to the polymorphic nature of these elements and the way the databases were compiled. Methods to identify FL-L1HS were applied to three sequence assemblies (Reference, Celera and HuRef) and the nucleotide accession database from NCBI. A non-redundant set of 533 FL-L1HS was discovered in these four sources, of which 164 resided in ...
Ruben Boon is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Rapid and Efficient Generation of Recombinant Human Pluripotent Stem Cells by Recombinase-mediated Cassette Exchange in the AAVS1 Locus
... - Site-specific mutagenesis techniques, also known as site-directed mutagenesis .. GeneTailor Site-Directed mutagenesis system (Invitrogen. I have designed
Weird problem in in vitro mutagenesis - posted in Molecular Biology: Hi, Iam doing invitro mutagenesis for a 5.2Kb plasmid using stratagene kit. I did not get any results with my plasmid, so checked the control in the kit. Unfortunately the control is not working. I have tried many times, but got no colonies. The conditions used were according to the instructions given by the manufacturer. 95 C 50 sec 95 C 50 seconds 55 C 1 min 68 C 5 minute x 18 times 68 C 5 minutes. I even tried addin...
In the world of beauty products things have really changed and all ages are now interested in them. However, in todays world, both men and women of all ages can learn beauty tips. There is more to beauty than just having the right genes. A little effort expended on tips like these can have big results:. Vaseline should be applied to your cuticles a couple of times per week for the aesthetic and health benefits. This should help your nails grow quicker than normal. Keeping your cuticles moisturized will help deter dry, cracked cuticles from forming. It wont take long to see results, as this works on your nails almost instantly.. Research has shown that most people find beauty in symmetry. When developing your own beauty routine, keep this in mind. This works for putting on your makeup, trimming up your beard or mustache or anything else.. Beauty is what you make of it. Things exude their own beauty. The beauty in nature, as well as the loved ones around you, may impress you with their glow. ...
Lymphoid V(D)J recombination: nucleotide insertion at signal joints as well as coding joints.: The coding regions of antigen receptor genes assembled by variabl
The data indicate that FA1090(M1) possessed a small insertion of 7 nucleotides about midway through the coding sequence, producing a frame shift mutation in nfsB. This genetic data supported the hypothesis that the nitrofurantoin resistant phenotype is due to the loss of nitroreductase activity. Conclusive evidence that this gene was responsible for nitrofurantoin resistance was obtained by deleting the coding. sequence for this gene from FA1090 and then demonstrating that FA1090NfsB-BsmIS lacked nitroreductase https://www.selleckchem.com/products/bix-01294.html activity (data not shown). Identification of the genetic basis of spontaneous nitrofurantoin resistant mutants We isolated numerous independent spontaneous nitrofurantoin resistant mutants and determined the DNA sequence of the buy GDC-0449 nfsB gene in these strains. Most of these mutants (90%) possessed the insertion of an adenine in a run of 5 adenines near the beginning of the gene, suggesting a bias for base insertion during. DNA ...
A novel P[UAS] insertion line shows progressive behavioral defects.Crossing P[UAS]117 to the pdf-gal4 driver results in a significant decrease in the rhythmicit
Identification of Genes Encoding Exported Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteins Using a Tn552′phoA In Vitro Transposition System: Secreted and cell envelope-assoc
Mutagenesis of the mouse Bhlhb4 gene. A: Gene targeting strategy showing partial restriction map of WT Bhlhb4 allele, the targeting vector, the targeted ES cell
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Yesterday Cindy presented the results of her Masters rotation project, which she carried out in our lab over the past couple of months. During the rotation, she worked with Lennart to develop and optimize a new gene excision protocol. Not all details can be revealed yet, but it looks like we can cut long sequences surprisingly early and efficiently!. As was also recognized in Cindys exam presentation, she completed a considerable amount of work. She also became a lively part of the lab - so that time passed too fast, again, and her next rotation period is coming up. We wish the best of luck and exciting results!. ...

Characterization of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line Developed by Retroviral Insertional Mutagenesis That Is Resistant to...Characterization of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line Developed by Retroviral Insertional Mutagenesis That Is Resistant to...

Virus-Cell Interactions. Characterization of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line Developed by Retroviral Insertional Mutagenesis ... The receptors for some viruses participate both in initial virus binding and also in virus entry. For instance, domains 1 and 2 ... 1995) Retroviral insertional mutagenesis of a target allele in a heterozygous murine cell line. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: ... 1994) Generation of Chinese hamster ovary cell glycosylation mutants by retroviral insertional mutagenesis. J. Biol. Chem. 269: ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/73/6/4919?ijkey=4444df8cbd30e53d22e8fafeae960d11b6fe2899&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Germline Transgenesis and Insertional Mutagenesis in Schistosoma mansoni Mediated by Murine Leukemia Virus (pdf) | PaperityGermline Transgenesis and Insertional Mutagenesis in Schistosoma mansoni Mediated by Murine Leukemia Virus (pdf) | Paperity

Germline Transgenesis and Insertional Mutagenesis in Schistosoma mansoni Mediated by Murine Leukemia Virus, PLOS Pathogens, ... Germline Transgenesis and Insertional Mutagenesis in Schistosoma mansoni Mediated by Murine Leukemia Virus. PLOS Pathogens, Jul ... Germline Transgenesis and Insertional Mutagenesis in Schistosoma mansoni Mediated by Murine Leukemia Virus. et al. (2012) ... Germline Transgenesis and Insertional Mutagenesis in Schistosoma mansoni Mediated by Murine Leukemia Virus. PLoS Pathog 8(7): ...
more infohttp://paperity.org/p/60879085/germline-transgenesis-and-insertional-mutagenesis-in-schistosoma-mansoni-mediated-by

Insertional mutagenesis - WikipediaInsertional mutagenesis - Wikipedia

Virus insertional mutagenesis is possible with both replication competent virus and the self-inactivating vectors that are ... Insertional mutagenesis is mutagenesis of DNA by the insertion of one or more bases. Insertional mutations can occur naturally ... Directed mutagenesis Insertion (genetics) PCR mutagenesis Site-directed mutagenesis Transposon mutagenesis Biology-online Biffi ... mutagenesis caused by viral infections is a fairly common occurrence. Not all integrating viruses cause insertional mutagenesis ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insertional_mutagenesis

Production of Pseudotyped Retrovirus and the Generation of Proviral Transgenic Zebrafish | SpringerLinkProduction of Pseudotyped Retrovirus and the Generation of Proviral Transgenic Zebrafish | SpringerLink

This chapter describes a method for generation of the high-titer pseudotyped Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) that ... Zebrafish Retrovirus Pseudotyped Moloney murine leukemia virus Insertional mutagenesis Injection This is a preview of ... Gaiano, N., Amsterdam, A., Kawakami, K., Allende, M., Becker, T., and Hopkins, N. (1996). Insertional mutagenesis and rapid ... A large-scale insertional mutagenesis screen in zebrafish. Genes Dev 13, 2713-24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007%2F978-1-60327-977-2_2

Integration of hepatitis B virus DNA into the myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL4) gene and rearrangements of MLL4...Integration of hepatitis B virus DNA into the myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL4) gene and rearrangements of MLL4...

Determination of the cellular-virus DNA junction demonstrated that various lengths of the virus were integrated within 300 bp ... Chimeric hepatitis B virus X gene (HBx)/MLL4 transcripts and the HBx fusion proteins were detected. DNA microarray revealed ... Integration of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA into host DNA is detected in about 90% of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC ... Hepatitis B virus-related insertional mutagenesis implicates SERCA1 gene in the control of apoptosis. *Mounia Chami, Devrim ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Integration-of-hepatitis-B-virus-DNA-into-the-or-of-Saigo-Yoshida/868a36188c45328668c2f69df682e83b6fe4b217

1 | European Genome-phenome Archive1 | European Genome-phenome Archive

Recurrent adeno-associated virus 2-related insertional mutagenesis in human hepatocellular carcinomas ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/ega/dataproviders/EGAO00000000049

Whole-genome sequencing of liver cancers identifies etiological influences on mutation patterns and recurrent mutations in...Whole-genome sequencing of liver cancers identifies etiological influences on mutation patterns and recurrent mutations in...

Hepatitis B virus genome integration in the TERT locus was frequently observed in a high clonal proportion. Our whole-genome ... We sequenced and analyzed the whole genomes of 27 HCCs, 25 of which were associated with hepatitis B or C virus infections, ... Hepatitis B virus-related insertional mutagenesis occurs frequently in human liver cancers and recurrently targets human ... Hepatitis B virus genome integration in the TERT locus was frequently observed in a high clonal proportion. Our whole-genome ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/ng.2291?error=cookies_not_supported&code=6736b967-2947-4c82-98e5-883c1b51aec8

retrovirus facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about retrovirusretrovirus facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about retrovirus

These viruses induce malignancy by a process called insertional mutagenesis. The initial event is thought to be retroviral ... ret·ro·vi·rus / ˌretrōˈvīrəs; ˈretrōˌvīrəs/ • n. Biol. any of a group of RNA viruses that insert a DNA copy of their genome ... bovine leukemia virus. cows. malignancies. Epsilon-retrovirus. assembly at cell membrane;. walleye dermal sarcoma virus. fish. ... avian leukosis virus. birds. malignancies. Beta-retrovirus. intracytoplasmic assembly. mouse mammary tumor virus. mice. mammary ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/microbes-algae-and-fungi/moneran-and-protistan/retrovirus

Serca1 Truncated Proteins Unable to Pump Calcium Reduce the Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Concentration and Induce Apoptosis |...Serca1 Truncated Proteins Unable to Pump Calcium Reduce the Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Concentration and Induce Apoptosis |...

2000) Hepatitis B virus-related insertional mutagenesis implicates SERCA1 gene in the control of apoptosis. Oncogene. 19:2877- ... In a previous report, we showed that the overexpression of Hepatitis B virus-SERCA1 chimeric transcripts (with exon 4 and/or ... due to integration of the Hepatitis B virus genome, occurring in a human hepatocellular carcinoma but not in the corresponding ... 0.4 mM of each deoxynucleotide and 20 U of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (Life Technologies) at 42°C for ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/153/6/1301

The Molecular Biology of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus and Its Application as Plant Gene Vector | Springer for Research & DevelopmentThe Molecular Biology of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus and Its Application as Plant Gene Vector | Springer for Research & Development

Daubert, S., Shepherd, R., Gardner, R., 1983: Insertional mutagenesis of the cauliflower mosaic virus genome. Gene 25, 201-208. ... Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Cauliflower Mosaic Virus Brome Mosaic Virus Wheat Dwarf Virus These keywords were added by machine ... Dixon, L. K., Koenig, I., Hohn, T., 1983: Mutagenesis of cauliflower mosaic virus. Gene 25, 189-199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Mason, W. S., Taylor, J. M., Hull, R., 1987: Retroid virus genome replication. Adv. Virus Res. 32, 35-96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-7091-6977-3_1

CiteSeerX - Search Results - murine leukemia virusCiteSeerX - Search Results - murine leukemia virus

Germline transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis in Schistosoma mansoni mediated by murine leukemia virus ... Germline transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis in Schistosoma mansoni mediated by murine leukemia virus ..." ... Insertional Mutagenesis In, Gabriel Rinaldi, Sabine E. Eckert, Isheng J. Tsai, Sutas Suttiprapa, Kristine J. Kines , 2012 ... a new class of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) 1 was described which has properties of both xenotropic and ecotropic viruses and ...
more infohttp://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/search?q=murine%20leukemia%20virus&submit=Search&sort=rlv&t=doc

Ectocarpus siliculosusEctocarpus siliculosus

it is infected by an integrating DNA virus (potentially providing a tool for insertional mutagenesis) ...
more infohttp://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/genomes/view/Ectocarpus-siliculosus

Inhibition of apoptosis and NF-κB activation by vaccinia protein N1 occur via distinct binding surfaces and make different...Inhibition of apoptosis and NF-κB activation by vaccinia protein N1 occur via distinct binding surfaces and make different...

Vaccinia virus (VACV) protein N1 is an intracellular virulence factor and belongs to a family of VACV B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2- ... Kotwal GJ,Hugin AW,Moss B. Year: 1989Mapping and insertional mutagenesis of a vaccinia virus gene encoding a 13,800-Da secreted ... These viruses were subsequently resolved into deletion virus (vΔN1) or mutant viruses (vN1.I6E, vN1.R58Y, vN1.R71Y) in the ... Year: 1991Vaccinia virus DNA ligase is nonessential for virus replication: recovery of plasmids from virus-infected cells. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Inhibition-Apoptosis-NF-B-Activation/22194685.html

Method for producing tagged genes, transcripts, and proteins - Patent # 6472207 - PatentGeniusMethod for producing tagged genes, transcripts, and proteins - Patent # 6472207 - PatentGenius

Lobel et al., "Construction of mutants of Moloney murine leukemia virus by suppressor-linker insertional mutagenesis: Positions ... Cooley et al., "Insertional Mutagenesis of the Drosophila Genome with Single P Elements," Science, vol. 329, pp. 1121-1128, ... such as hemaglutinin sequences from influenza virus, micro-exon 1 encoded sequence from the ubx gene of Drosophila, or ... and the recombinant plasmids or viruses are thenintroduced into cells where the recombinant genes are expressed. Yet another ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/patent/6472207.html

Overexpression of Kinesins Mediates Docetaxel Resistance in Breast Cancer Cells | Cancer ResearchOverexpression of Kinesins Mediates Docetaxel Resistance in Breast Cancer Cells | Cancer Research

A, MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells were infected with the three VBIM insertional mutagenesis viruses and selected in docetaxel ( ... Validation-based insertional mutagenesis identifies lysine demethylase FBXL11 as a negative regulator of NFκB. Proc Natl Acad ... Our laboratory has developed a novel method, called VBIM, for validation-based insertional mutagenesis, for inserting strong ... To understand mechanisms underlying docetaxel resistance in breast cancer, we used an insertional mutagenesis strategy to ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/69/20/8035?ijkey=b501fb57c6e78593c41f5d789b75a516e1229e12&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Life  | Free Full-Text | Synthetic Approaches for Nucleic Acid Delivery: Choosing the Right Carriers | HTMLLife | Free Full-Text | Synthetic Approaches for Nucleic Acid Delivery: Choosing the Right Carriers | HTML

... the potential risks of viruses, including insertional mutagenesis, high immunogenicity, and limited gene capacity [5], drive ... Nature-Inspired Artificial Viruses. Inspired by viruses [73], virus-like particles (VLPs) of a confined nano-sized structure ... Adeno-associated virus (AAV) was the first FDA-approved virus-based gene delivery vector for the treatment of a rare inherited ... Virus-like particle (VLP). (Vesicular stomatitis virus and Archeoglobus fulgidus-based). mRNA: GFP HEK293T cells;. THP-1 cells ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2075-1729/9/3/59/htm

BOKHOVEN, Marieke Christina | MBPhD Programme - UCL - Londons Global UniversityBOKHOVEN, Marieke Christina | MBPhD Programme - UCL - London's Global University

This is known as insertional mutagenesis. The objective of this work is to develop an in vitro assay to measure the frequency ... Two different retroviral vectors, both containing wild type Murine Leukaemia Virus LTRs, were also assayed for insertional ... Though we find a similar rate of insertional mutagenesis, different mechanisms seem to be responsible for transforming Baf3/ ... A cell line assay to measure insertional mutagenesis by integrating gene therapy vectors. ...
more infohttps://www.ucl.ac.uk/mbphd/current-students-and-alumni/bokhoven-marieke-christina

Inhibition of Apoptosis and NF-κB Activation by Vaccinia Protein N1 Occur via Distinct Binding Surfaces and Make Different...Inhibition of Apoptosis and NF-κB Activation by Vaccinia Protein N1 Occur via Distinct Binding Surfaces and Make Different...

5. KotwalGJHuginAWMossB 1989 Mapping and insertional mutagenesis of a vaccinia virus gene encoding a 13,800-Da secreted protein ... These viruses were subsequently resolved into deletion virus (vΔN1) or mutant viruses (vN1.I6E, vN1.R58Y, vN1.R71Y) in the ... KerrSMSmithGL 1991 Vaccinia virus DNA ligase is nonessential for virus replication: recovery of plasmids from virus-infected ... 1. Mutagenesis of vaccinia virus protein N1. The structure of an N1 homodimer is shown as a molecular surface, the two ...
more infohttps://www.prolekare.cz/casopisy/plos-pathogens/2011-12/inhibition-of-apoptosis-and-nf-kb-activation-by-vaccinia-protein-n1-occur-via-distinct-binding-surfaces-and-make-different-contributions-to-virulence-42269

The UL20 gene product of pseudorabies virus functions in virus egress. | Journal of VirologyThe UL20 gene product of pseudorabies virus functions in virus egress. | Journal of Virology

... pseudorabies virus (PrV) mutant by insertional mutagenesis. Similar to HSV-1, UL20- PrV was found to be severely impaired in ... The UL20 gene product of pseudorabies virus functions in virus egress.. W Fuchs, B G Klupp, H Granzow, T C Mettenleiter ... The UL20 gene product of pseudorabies virus functions in virus egress. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... A previously described UL20- mutant of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) exhibited a defect in egress correlating with ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/71/7/5639?ijkey=4fac459d4cca853817c401c714ecfbe15ba610bf&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Break Out: Urogenital Schistosomiasis and Schistosoma haematobium Infection in the Post-Genomic EraBreak Out: Urogenital Schistosomiasis and Schistosoma haematobium Infection in the Post-Genomic Era

2012) Germline transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis in Schistosoma mansoni mediated by Murine Leukemia Virus. PLoS Pathog 8 ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0001961

Dynamic equilibrium of Mareks disease genomes during in vitro serial passage | SpringerLinkDynamic equilibrium of Marek's disease genomes during in vitro serial passage | SpringerLink

R.L. Witter, K.S. Kreager, Serotype 1 viruses modified by backpassage or insertional mutagenesis: approaching the threshold of ... R.L. Witter, Mareks disease virus vaccines-past, present and future (chicken vs. virus-a battle of the centuries), in Current ... Y. Yao et al., MicroRNA profile of Mareks disease virus-transformed T-cell line MSB-1: predominance of virus-encoded microRNAs ... Polymorphisms in the repeat long regions of oncogenic and attenuated pathotypes of Mareks disease virus 1. Virus Genes 35(1), ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11262-012-0792-z

JCI -
Preventing and exploiting the oncogenic potential of integrating gene vectorsJCI - Preventing and exploiting the oncogenic potential of integrating gene vectors

Insertional mutagenesis by replication-competent murine leukemia virus, a prototypic γ-retrovirus, thus became a powerful tool ... Retroviral insertional mutagenesis: past, present and future. Oncogene. 24:7656-7672. View this article via: CrossRef PubMed ... This adverse event, known as insertional mutagenesis, has become a major hurdle in the field. Vectors developed on the basis of ... Why does HIV-1 not transform cells by insertional mutagenesis?. In patients infected with HIV-1, uncountable genomic insertion ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/38831

MHC Class I Bound to an Immunodominant  Epitope Demonstrates Unconventional Presentation to T Cell Receptors | proLékaře.czMHC Class I Bound to an Immunodominant Epitope Demonstrates Unconventional Presentation to T Cell Receptors | proLékaře.cz

Článek High-Resolution Functional Mapping of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Genome by Insertional Mutagenesis and ... High-Resolution Functional Mapping of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Genome by Insertional Mutagenesis and Massively ... Článek Phylodynamics and Human-Mediated Dispersal of a Zoonotic Virus Článek Retroviral RNA Dimerization and Packaging: The ... Inhibition of Nipah Virus Infection In Vivo: Targeting an Early Stage of Paramyxovirus Fusion Activation during Viral Entry ...
more infohttps://www.prolekare.cz/casopisy/plos-pathogens/2010-10/mhc-class-i-bound-to-an-immunodominant-epitope-demonstrates-unconventional-presentation-to-t-cell-receptors-45713

BIO CONCEPTS - Activation of proto-oncogene ⁃ Loss of tumor suppressors ⁃ Evading programmed cell death ⁃ Grow telomeres ⁃ Get...BIO CONCEPTS - Activation of proto-oncogene ⁃ Loss of tumor suppressors ⁃ Evading programmed cell death ⁃ Grow telomeres ⁃ Get...

Components of a virus 49. Lytic cycle 50. Lysogenic cycle 51. Provirus 52. Insertional mutagenesis 53. RNA virus 54. DNA virus ...
more infohttps://www.coursehero.com/file/5638390/BIO-CONCEPTS/

Validation-based insertional mutagenesis identifies lysine demethylase FBXL11 as a negative regulator of NFκB | PNASValidation-based insertional mutagenesis identifies lysine demethylase FBXL11 as a negative regulator of NFκB | PNAS

To determine the titer of each VBIM virus, 293T cells were infected with serially diluted virus and analyzed for GFP expression ... Validation-based insertional mutagenesis identifies lysine demethylase FBXL11 as a negative regulator of NFκB. Tao Lu, Mark W. ... While MLV-based insertional mutagenesis has a long history in gene discovery, we understand HIV-based insertion less well. ... Validation-based insertional mutagenesis identifies lysine demethylase FBXL11 as a negative regulator of NFκB ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/106/38/16339
  • A library of insertional mutants for each HA was generated and deep sequenced after passaging to determine where insertions were tolerated in replicating viruses. (asm.org)
  • VBIM virus particles are pseudotyped with VSV G protein, allowing efficient infection of most mammalian cell types, including non-dividing cells, and features are included that give high yields of stable virus stocks. (pnas.org)
  • Insertional inactivation is a technique used in recombinant DNA engineering where a plasmid (such as pBR322) is used to disable expression of a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection requires an intact MMTV envelope protein and is blocked either by heat inactivation of the virus or by specific neutralizing anti-MMTV serum, ruling out a nonspecific mechanism of viral transfer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The alphavirus Sindbis virus (SV) has a wide host range and infects many types of cultured cells in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Ahlquist, P., Janda, M., 1984: cDNA cloning and in vitro transcription of the complete brome mosaic virus genome. (springer.com)
  • Bevan, M. W., Mason, S. E., Goelet, P., 1985: Expression of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein by a cauliflower mosaic virus promoter in plants transformed by Agrobacterium . (springer.com)
  • However, this method does not allow the generation of high titers of viruses because the minimal CMV promoter is placed in an orientation opposite to that of the 5′ long terminal repeats (LTRs). (pnas.org)
  • Avian leukosis virus is an example of a virus that causes a disease by insertional mutagenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newly hatched chicks infected with Avian leukosis virus will begin to form tumours that will begin to appear in their bursa of fabricus (like the human thymus). (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors would like to thank Barbara Riegle of the Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory for her assistance in the propagation of the virus strains. (springer.com)
  • We sequenced and analyzed the whole genomes of 27 HCCs, 25 of which were associated with hepatitis B or C virus infections, including two sets of multicentric tumors. (nature.com)
  • The study of this virus family has led to the discovery of oncogenes , resulting in a quantum advance in the field of cancer genetics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus, we have used a powerful tool for mutagenesis of mammalian cells to reveal an aspect of the complex regulation of NFκB-dependent signaling. (pnas.org)
  • This study demonstrates that the influenza A virus head domain and the individual antigenic sites targeted by humoral responses are more tolerant to insertions than those of influenza B virus. (asm.org)
  • Because many viruses (not all of them) integrate their own genome into the genome of their host cells in order to replicate, mutagenesis caused by viral infections is a fairly common occurrence. (wikipedia.org)
  • or amphotropic (wild mouse viruses capable of infecting both mouse and heterologous species cells). (psu.edu)
  • without the Sag-mediated amplification of the few B cells initially infected by the virus, MMTV seems poorly infectious ( 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Xenotransplantation of organs from chimpanzees and baboons has been avoided, however, because of ethical concerns and fear of transmission of deadly viruses (see Biologic Barriers to Xenotransplantation). (medscape.com)
  • The virus causes a very mild immune response, lending further support to its apparent lack of pathogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the influenza B virus HA over time displays less antigenic variation despite being functionally and structurally similar to the influenza A virus HA. (asm.org)
  • Despite the similar selective pressures on influenza A and B viruses, influenza A virus displays a higher rate and breadth of antigenic variability than influenza B virus. (asm.org)
  • These findings provide the first description of wide-scale, random insertional mutagenesis of chromosomes and of germline transmission of a transgene in schistosomes. (paperity.org)