Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.
Linear furanocoumarins which are found in many PLANTS, especially UMBELLIFERAE and RUTACEAE, as well as PSORALEA from which they were originally discovered. They can intercalate DNA and, in an UV-initiated reaction of the furan portion, alkylate PYRIMIDINES, resulting in PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).
An unassigned genus of RNA viruses with a single officially described species, HEPATITIS E VIRUS. A distantly related virus, Avian hepatitis E virus, has been listed as a tentative species. Strains have also been identified in swine. The family name hepeviridae has been proposed.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.
Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by EBOLAVIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire.
The degree to which the blood supply for BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS is free of harmful substances or infectious agents, and properly typed and crossmatched (BLOOD GROUPING AND CROSSMATCHING) to insure serological compatibility between BLOOD DONORS and recipients.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS similar to STAPHYLOCOCCUS HAEMOLYTICUS, but containing different esterases. The subspecies Staphylococcus hominis novobiosepticus is highly virulent and novobiocin resistant.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.

Capsid functions of inactivated human picornaviruses and feline calicivirus. (1/215)

The exceptional stability of enteric viruses probably resides in their capsids. The capsid functions of inactivated human picornaviruses and feline calicivirus (FCV) were determined. Viruses were inactivated by UV, hypochlorite, high temperature (72 degrees C), and physiological temperature (37 degrees C), all of which are pertinent to transmission via food and water. Poliovirus (PV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are transmissible via water and food, and FCV is the best available surrogate for the Norwalk-like viruses, which are leading causes of food-borne and waterborne disease in the United States. The capsids of all 37 degrees C-inactivated viruses still protected the viral RNA against RNase, even in the presence of proteinase K, which contrasted with findings with viruses inactivated at 72 degrees C. The loss of ability of the virus to attach to homologous cell receptors was universal, regardless of virus type and inactivation method, except for UV-inactivated HAV, and so virus inactivation was almost always accompanied by the loss of virus attachment. Inactivated HAV and FCV were captured by homologous antibodies. However, inactivated PV type 1 (PV-1) was not captured by homologous antibody and 37 degrees C-inactivated PV-1 was only partially captured. The epitopes on the capsids of HAV and FCV are evidently discrete from the receptor attachment sites, unlike those of PV-1. These findings indicate that the primary target of UV, hypochlorite, and 72 degrees C inactivation is the capsid and that the target of thermal inactivation (37 degrees C versus 72 degrees C) is temperature dependent.  (+info)

Infectivity of RNA from inactivated poliovirus. (2/215)

During inactivation of poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) by exposure to UV, hypochlorite, and heat (72 degrees C), the infectivity of the virus was compared with that of its RNA. DEAE-dextran (1-mg/ml concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium buffered with 0.05 M Tris, pH 7.4) was used to facilitate transfecting PV-1 RNA into FRhK-4 host cells. After interaction of PV-1 RNA with cell monolayer at room temperature (21 to 22 degrees C) for 20 min, the monolayers were washed with 5 ml of Hanks balanced salt solution. The remainder of the procedure was the same as that for the conventional plaque technique, which was also used for quantifying the PV-1 whole-particle infectivity. Plaque formation by extracted RNA was approximately 100,000-fold less efficient than that by whole virions. The slopes of best-fit regression lines of inactivation curves for virion infectivity and RNA infectivity were compared to determine the target of inactivation. For UV and hypochlorite inactivation the slopes of inactivation curves of virion infectivity and RNA infectivity were not statistically different. However, the difference of slopes of inactivation curves of virion infectivity and RNA infectivity was statistically significant for thermal inactivation. The results of these experiments indicate that viral RNA is a primary target of UV and hypochlorite inactivations but that the sole target of thermal inactivation is the viral capsid.  (+info)

Multiply attenuated, self-inactivating lentiviral vectors efficiently deliver and express genes for extended periods of time in adult rat cardiomyocytes in vivo. (3/215)

BACKGROUND: Among retroviral vectors, lentiviral vectors are unique in that they transduce genes into both dividing and nondividing cells. However, their ability to provide sustained myocardial transgene expression has not been evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Multiply attenuated, self-inactivating lentivectors based on human immunodeficiency virus-1 contained the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene under the transcriptional control of either the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early enhancer/promoter, the elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) promoter, or the phosphoglycerate-kinase (PGK) promoter. Lentivectors transduced adult rat cardiomyocytes in a dose-dependent manner (transduction rates, >90%; multiplicity of infection, approximately 5). The CMV promoter achieved higher EGFP expression levels than the EF-1alpha and PGK promoters. Insertion of the central polypurine tract pol sequence improved gene transfer efficiency by approximately 2-fold. In vivo gene transfer kinetics was studied by measuring the copy number of integrated lentivirus DNA and EGFP concentrations in cardiac extracts by real-time polymerase chain reaction and ELISA, respectively. With CMV promoter-containing lentivectors, vector DNA peaked at day 3, declined by approximately 4-fold at day 14, but then remained stable up to week 10. Similarly, EGFP expression peaked at day 7, decreased by approximately 7-fold at day 14, but was essentially stable thereafter. In contrast, vector DNA and EGFP expression declined rapidly with EF-1alpha promoter-containing lentivectors. Peak EGFP expression with titer-matched adenovectors was approximately 35% higher than with CMV lentivectors but was lost rapidly over time. CONCLUSIONS: Lentivectors efficiently transduce and express genes for extended periods of time in cardiomyocytes in vivo. Lentivectors provide a useful tool for studying myocardial biology and a potential system for gene heart therapy.  (+info)

Chlorine inactivation of adenovirus type 40 and feline calicivirus. (4/215)

Ct values, the concentration of free chlorine multiplied by time of contact with virus, were determined for free-chlorine inactivation experiments carried out with chloroform-extracted (dispersed) and non-chloroform-extracted (aggregated) feline calicivirus (FCV), adenovirus type 40 (AD40), and polio virus type 1 (PV-1). Experiments were carried out with high and low pH and temperature conditions. Ct values were calculated directly from bench-scale free-chlorine inactivation experiments and from application of the efficiency factor Hom model. For each experimental condition, Ct values were higher at pH 8 than at pH 6, higher at 5 degrees C than at 15 degrees C, and higher for dispersed AD40 (dAD40) than for dispersed FCV (dFCV). dFCV and dAD40 were more sensitive to free chlorine than dispersed PV-1 (dPV-1). Cts for 2 log inactivation of aggregated FCV (aFCV) and aggregated PV-1 (aPV-1) were 31.0 and 2.8 orders of magnitude higher than those calculated from experiments carried out with dispersed virus. Cts for 2 log inactivation of dFCV and dAD40 in treated groundwater at 15 degrees C were 1.2 and 13.7 times greater than in buffered-demand-free (BDF) water experiments at 5 degrees C. Ct values listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance Manual were close to, or lower than, Ct values generated for experiments conducted with dispersed and aggregated viruses suspended in BDF water and for dispersed viruses suspended in treated groundwater. Since the state of viruses in water is most likely to be aggregated and associated with organic or inorganic matter, reevaluation of the EPA Guidance Manual Ct values is necessary, since they would not be useful for ensuring inactivation of viruses in these states. Under the tested conditions, dAD40, dFCV, aFCV, dPV-1, and aPV-1 particles would be inactivated by commonly used free chlorine concentrations (1 mg/liter) and contact times (60 to 237 min) applied for drinking water treatment in the United States.  (+info)

Cholesterol depletion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus with beta-cyclodextrin inactivates and permeabilizes the virions: evidence for virion-associated lipid rafts. (5/215)

Recent evidence suggests that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles assemble and bud selectively through areas in the plasma membrane of cells that are highly enriched with glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and cholesterol, called lipid rafts. Since cholesterol is required to maintain lipid raft structure and function, we proposed that virion-associated cholesterol removal with the compound 2-hydroxy-propyl-beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) might be disruptive to HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We examined the effect of beta-CD on the structure and infectivity of cell-free virions. We found that beta-CD inactivated HIV-1 and SIV in a dose-dependent manner and permeabilized the viral membranes, resulting in the loss of mature Gag proteins (capsid, matrix, nucleocapsid, p1, and p6) without loss of the envelope glycoproteins. SIV also lost reverse transcriptase (RT), integrase (IN), and viral RNA. IN appeared to be only slightly diminished in HIV-1, and viral RNA, RT, matrix, and nucleocapsid proteins were retained in HIV-1 but to a much lesser degree. Host proteins located internally in the virus (actin, moesin, and ezrin) and membrane-associated host proteins (major histocompatibility complex classes I and II) remained associated with the treated virions. Electron microscopy revealed that under conditions that permeabilized the viruses, holes were present in the viral membranes and the viral core structure was perturbed. These data provide evidence that an intact viral membrane is required to maintain mature virion core integrity. Since the viruses were not fixed before beta-CD treatment and intact virion particles were recovered, the data suggest that virions may possess a protein scaffold that can maintain overall structure despite disruptions in membrane integrity.  (+info)

Differences in participation of innate and adaptive immunity to respiratory syncytial virus in adults and neonates. (6/215)

Innate and adaptive immune responses to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in neonates were assessed by cord blood mononuclear cell (MC) cytokine expression and proliferation and these responses were compared with those from adult peripheral blood MCs. In adult cells, inactivated and live virus invoked cytokines reflecting both innate and adaptive immunity (interleukin [IL]-6, interferon [IFN]-gamma, IL-2, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, and IL-10). Low levels of IL-4 were detected, although only with inactivated virus. In contrast, in neonatal cells, inactivated virus invoked large levels of the innate immune cytokines IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-10 and reduced levels of IFN-gamma and IL-12 but no adaptive cytokines. Live virus induced fewer innate (IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-gamma) and no adaptive immune cytokines. RSV-induced proliferation was absent in neonatal MCs, although positive in adult MCs. Thus, exposure to RSV does not appear to occur before birth, and adaptive immune insufficiency or greater innate responses may account for early life RSV-induced illnesses.  (+info)

Sucrose density gradient centrifugation and cross-flow filtration methods for the production of arbovirus antigens inactivated by binary ethylenimine. (7/215)

BACKGROUND: Sucrose density gradient centrifugation and cross-flow filtration methods have been developed and standardised for the safe and reproducible production of inactivated arbovirus antigens which are appropriate for use in diagnostic serological applications. METHODS: To optimise the maximum titre of growth during the propagation of arboviruses, the multiplicity of infection and choice of cell line were investigated using stocks of Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus grown in both mosquito and mammalian cell lines. To standardise and improve the efficacy of the inactivation of arboviral suspensions, stocks of Ross River virus, Barmah Forest virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus and Alfuy virus were chemically inactivated using binary ethylenimine at a final concentration of 3 mM. Aliquots were then taken at hourly intervals and crude inactivation rates were determined for each virus using a plaque assay. To ensure complete inactivation, the same aliquots were each passaged 3 times in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells and the presence of viral growth was detected using an immunofluorescent assay. For larger quantities of viral suspensions, centrifugation on an isopycnic sucrose density gradient or cross-flow filtration was used to produce concentrated, pure antigens or partially concentrated, semi-purified antigens respectively. RESULTS: The results of the propagation experiments suggested that the maximum viral titres obtained for both Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus were affected by the incubation period and choice of cell line, rather than the use of different multiplicity of infection values. Results of the binary ethylenimine inactivation trial suggested that standardised periods of 5 or 8 hours would be suitable to ensure effective and complete inactivation for a number of different arboviral antigens. CONCLUSION: Two methods used to prepare inactivated arbovirus antigens have been standardised to minimise production failure and expenditure and to provide reagents that conform to the highest quality and safety requirements of a diagnostic serology laboratory. The antigens are suitable for use in either enzyme linked immunosorbent assays or haemagglutination inhibition assays and the optimised protocols can be directly applied to produce antigens from new or emerging arboviral pathogens.  (+info)

Replication-incompetent virions of Japanese encephalitis virus trigger neuronal cell death by oxidative stress in a culture system. (8/215)

It has been shown that replication of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) can trigger infected cells to undergo apoptosis. In the present study, it is further demonstrated that replication-incompetent virions of JEV, obtained by short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, could also induce host-cell death. It was found that UV-inactivated JEV (UV-JEV) caused cell death in neuronal cells such as mouse neuroblastoma N18 and human neuronal NT-2 cells, but not in non-neuronal baby hamster kidney BHK-21 fibroblast or human cervical HeLa cells. Only actively growing, but not growth-arrested, cells were susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of UV-JEV. Killing of UV-JEV-infected N18 cells could be antagonized by co-infection with live, infectious JEV, suggesting that virions of UV-JEV might engage an as-yet-unidentified receptor-mediated death-signalling pathway. Characteristically, mitochondrial alterations were evident in UV-JEV-infected N18 cells, as revealed by electron microscopy and a loss of membrane potential. N18 cells infected by UV-JEV induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), and the addition of anti-oxidants or specific NF-kappaB inhibitors to the media greatly reduced the cytotoxicity of UV-JEV. Together, the results presented here suggest that replication-incompetent UV-JEV damages actively growing neuronal cells through a ROS-mediated pathway.  (+info)

Major players in the viral inactivation market include Clean Cells (France), Charles River Laboratories International, Inc. (U.S.), Danaher Corporation (U.S.), Merck KGaA (Germany), Parker Hannifin (U.S.), Rad Source Technologies (U.S.), Sartorius AG (Germany), SGS S.A. (Switzerland), Texcell, Inc. (France), Viral Inactivated Plasma Systems SA (Switzerland), and WuXi PharmaTech (Cayman) Inc. (China).. There is a high degree of consolidation in the viral inactivation market, with few large players dominating the market. High degree of consolidation is major barriers for new entrants in this market. Small and medium-sized players account for a small share of the market and their business interests remain concentrated in local markets across emerging geographies. Merck KGaA (Germany), Danaher Corporation (U.S.), Sartorius AG (Germany), SGS S.A. (Switzerland), and Parker Hannifin (U.S.) are the leaders in this market. The combined market share of these five companies, far exceed that of all other ...
[97 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Viral Inactivation Market Size, Status and Forecast 2022 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies the global Viral Inactivation market, analyzes and...
Our study provides validated virus inactivation protocols that allow implementation of phenotypic NAI susceptibility testing, HI assessment (for serology as well antigenic characterization of viruses), and T-cell response characterization using avian, swine, and human influenza viruses under BSL-2 containment conditions. Using pandemic influenza A(H1N1)v virus strains, we illustrate the ease of carrying out Triton X-100 and formalin virus inactivation protocols prior to the assessment of A(H1N1)v virus susceptibility to antivirals and the characterization of B- and T-cell responses, respectively, outside the BSL-3 high-containment facility. These inactivation protocols facilitate the diagnostic examination of pandemic influenza viruses by applying standard laboratory conditions at BSL-2.. Considering results from documented studies and taking ease of use under BSL-3 conditions into account, therefore excluding, e.g., irradiation protocols, we evaluated human A(H3N2) and avian A(H7N3) virus ...
Our study provides validated virus inactivation protocols that allow implementation of phenotypic NAI susceptibility testing, HI assessment (for serology as well antigenic characterization of viruses), and T-cell response characterization using avian, swine, and human influenza viruses under BSL-2 containment conditions. Using pandemic influenza A(H1N1)v virus strains, we illustrate the ease of carrying out Triton X-100 and formalin virus inactivation protocols prior to the assessment of A(H1N1)v virus susceptibility to antivirals and the characterization of B- and T-cell responses, respectively, outside the BSL-3 high-containment facility. These inactivation protocols facilitate the diagnostic examination of pandemic influenza viruses by applying standard laboratory conditions at BSL-2.. Considering results from documented studies and taking ease of use under BSL-3 conditions into account, therefore excluding, e.g., irradiation protocols, we evaluated human A(H3N2) and avian A(H7N3) virus ...
Blood-borne hepatitis is a well-known complication in patients with bleeding disorders. A recently discovered parentally transmitted virus, hepatitis G [GB virus C (GBV-C)] has an increased prevalence in patients with haemophilia. Clotting factor concentrates derived from pools of human plasma currently undergo viral inactivation techniques known to be effective against hepatitis B, C and HIV; however, the effectiveness of current purification and viral inactivation techniques against newly discovered viruses such as GBV-C is unknown. A total of 37 vials of clotting factor concentrates manufactured in the USA from 1981 to 1995 were tested for the presence of GBV-C virus. All samples that did not undergo a specific viral inactivation step were positive for GBV-C. Viral inactivation techniques that did not uniformly remove GBV-C included vapour heat treatment and dry heat treatments for less than 144 h. All samples treated by pasteurization, solvent detergent or dry heat for 144 h, were negative for the
Formaldehyde (FA) fixation of infectious samples is a well-established protocol in diagnostic electron microscopy of viruses. However, published experimental data that demonstrate virus inactivation by these fixation procedures are lacking. Usually, fixation is performed immediately before the sample preparation for microscopy. The fixation procedure should transform viruses in a non-infectious but nonetheless structurally intact form in order to allow a proper diagnosis based on morphology. FA provides an essential advantage in comparison to other disinfectants, because it preserves the ultrastructure of biological material without interfering significantly with the preparation (i.e., the negative staining) and the detection of viruses. To examine the efficiency of FA inactivation, we used Vaccinia virus, Human adenovirus and Murine norovirus as models and treated them with FA under various conditions. Critical parameters for the inactivation efficiency were the temperature, the duration of the FA
TY - JOUR. T1 - An agar plate-based modified carbapenem inactivation method (p-mCIM) for detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. AU - Byun, Jung Hyun. AU - Seo, Yonghee. AU - Kim, Daewon. AU - Kim, Myungsook. AU - Lee, Hyukmin. AU - Yong, Dongeun. AU - Lee, Kyungwon. AU - Chong, Yunsop. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Jung Lim Kim for maintaining stock strains and technical assistance. Publisher Copyright: © 2019 Elsevier B.V.. PY - 2020/1. Y1 - 2020/1. N2 - Detecting carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has become increasingly difficult due to the emergence of diverse enzymes. The aim of the study was to evaluate an agar plate-based modified carbapenem inactivation method (p-mCIM) for detection of CPE. Stock strains and clinical isolates of CPE were used to evaluate the p-mCIM. The p-mCIM was performed as described for the mCIM, except that meropenem disks were placed on the lawn of test organisms on Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) plates. Among 17 stock strains of ...
The competitive landscape of the market for viral inactivation market is a fragmented one characterized with the presence of quite a few large players, according to a report published by Transparency market research. It is revealed in the report that these leading players which are operating in the market account for most of the market share. Some prominent companies in the world market of viral inactivation are Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., V.I.P.S. SA. Merck & Co., Inc., Shandong Weigao Group Medical Polymer Company Limited, Cerus Corporation, Macopharma SA, Terumo BCT, Inc., and Merck & Co, Sartorius AG. The major players are now shifting their emphasis on research and development of viral inactivation to obtain upper hand and stay ahead in this competitive market. These leading companies are also emphasizing on the expansion of their geographical reach through associations with local players ...
Press Release issued Apr 25, 2019: The global viral clearance market is segmented by method, application, end user, and region. On the basis of method, the viral clearance market is segmented into viral removal, and viral inactivation. Viral removal segment can further classified into nanofiltration, chromatography, and precipitation. Whereas, the segment of viral inactivation can be additionally divided into solvent detergent method, low pH, pasteurization and other methods of viral inactivation.
It is a self evidence that where ever a phenomenon in biology, there is always a claim that nutrition has a place in the process. Maybe. This might be true.Cancer is an omnipresent candidate for nutritional cause and cure. This paper is a wake up call that there are other more scientifically based possible causes…. Read more ...
Principal Investigator:MATSUI Yoshihiko, Project Period (FY):2002 - 2004, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Civil and environmental engineering
Techniques for removing material from a substrate are provided. A laser beam is focused at a distance from the surface to be treated. A gas is provided at the focus point. The gas is dissociated using the laser energy to generate gas plasma. The substrate is then brought in contact with the gas plasma to enable material removal.
[101 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Gas Plasma Arrester Market Report 2021 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Gas Plasma Arrester...
All viruses can cause a disease in some way. They are parasites and thus by definition harmful to their hosts in some way. However, in order to cause a human disease the virus must be able to bind its target molecule on a human cell, enter the cell and produce copies of itself. Finally, it must be able to escape the cell and infect others. If any one of those steps fails, there will be no disease. Failure can be the result of wrong specificity (the virus infects completely different cell types or species), immune defense, viral inactivation due to other external sources and so on ...
The LevMixer ®drive unit combines low shear mixing attributes and high torque. It is ideal for the homogenization, viral inactivation and formulation of sensitive drug substances and drug products. The Magnetic Mixer drive unit provides powerful mixing to achieve fast powder dissolution of Buffer and Media.
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Woburn, MA- Aphios Corporation today announced that it was granted a Japanese patent for an improved method of inactivating viruses and other pathogens in biologics such as monoclonal antibodies, recombinant therapeutics, human plasma and plasma proteins. The Aphios method is purely physical and does not utilize organic solvents, heat, irradiation, and/or chemicals commonly used in commercially available virus inactivation techniques. As such, therapeutic proteins and enzymes retain structural and biological integrity, and products are left without traces of denaturing solvents or potentially mutagenic chemicals.. The method utilizes supercritical, critical, or near-critical fluids with or without cosolvents (SuperFluids™ or SFS). SuperFluids™ are normally gases which, when compressed, exhibit enhanced solvation, penetration and expansion properties. These fluids are used to permeate and inflate virus particles (virions) and other pathogens. The overfilled particles are then decompressed ...
Advantages of Medium Pressure Lamps : Permanent microbial inactivation, More efficient in virus inactivation, Fewer UV lamps needed, Effective in cold and warm water
A Gas Plasma may form whenever gas is exposed to an electric field. If the field is sufficiently strong, a high percentage of gas atoms will surrender an electron or two and become ionized. The resultant ionized gas and liberated energetic electrons comprise the gas plasma or plasma. The ionized gas atoms have relatively little kinetic energy unless they are accelerated through an electric field. When accelerated, they will bombard a surface with sufficient force to dislodge loosley or tightly bound materials or Etch the surface. Plasma effects the etching processes by momentum transfer of material. The use of reactive gases produces molecular level chemical modifications as well.. Gas Plasma Types: Anisotropic plasma is directional and is induced by electrically controlling ions at some specific energy, or range of energies (see Anatech USA Aluminum Box Systems).. Isotropic plasma is multi-directional and engulf an entire 3-D object within the plasma (see Anatech USA Quartz Barrel ICP ...
Asceniv, Bivigam, Carimune NF, Flebogamma 10% DIF, Flebogamma 5% DIF, Gamunex-C, Gammagard Liquid, Gammagard S/D, Gammaked, Gammaplex, Octagam, Privigen, Panzyga
The report predicts the global UV disinfection equipment market to grow with a CAGR of 16.3% over the period of 2017-2023. The report on UV disinfection equipment market is a comprehensive study and presentation of drivers, restraints, opportunities, demand factors, market size, forecasts, and trends in the global UV disinfection equipment market over the period of 2015 to 2023. Moreover, the report is collective presentation of primary and secondary research findings. Porters five forces model in the report provides insights into the competitive rivalry, supplier and buyer positions in the market and opportunities for the new entrants in the global UV disinfection equipment market over the period of 2015 - 2023. Further, the Growth Matrix given in the report brings an insight on the investment areas that existing or new market players can consider.. Segments Covered Global UV Disinfection Equipment market by Application. ...
to the growth of the market in APAC and LAMEA UV disinfection is evolving as the latest technology in the water treatment industry Replacement of chlorine based disinfection with advanced disinfection techniques UV and ozone being two major technologies is the key trend boosting the adoption of UV technology Low installation and operational cost along with residue less functioning and ease of maintenance are the key propellants of UV disinfection market Moreover UV nearly doubles the operational efficiency in terms of time required to disinfect water in water treatment compared to chlorine based disinfection techniques The growth of the healthcare and chemical industry is creating tremendous opportunities for the UV disinfection equipment market However widespread use of chlorine based low cost disinfection method is a major restraint for the market UV disinfection finds its uses in diversified areas majorly in water treatment wastewater treatment air treatment process water treatment and ...
China 240W Auto Clean Aquaculture UV Disinfection Machinery, Find details about China UV Sterilizers, UV Disinfection Machinery from 240W Auto Clean Aquaculture UV Disinfection Machinery - Peide Water Treatment Equipment Co., Ltd.
In 2020, a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, quickly spread worldwide within a few months. Although coronaviruses typically infect the upper or lower respiratory tract, the virus RNA can be detected in plasma. The risk of transmitting coronavirus via transfusion of blood products remains. As more asymptomatic infections are identified in COVID-19 cases, blood safety has become particularly important. Methylene blue (MB) photochemical technology has been proven to inactivate lipid-enveloped viruses with high efficiency and safety. The present study aimed to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 inactivation effects of MB in plasma. The SARS-CoV-2 virus strain was isolated from Zhejiang University. The live virus was harvested from cultured VERO-E6 cells, and mixed with MB in plasma. The MB final concentrations were 0, 1, 2, and 4 μM. The
This is a phase II/III multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial with an adaptive design (flexible group sequential design with adaptive dose selection) in subjects with PPS.. This study will consist of two stages. The first stage (Stage 1) is for dose selection, and the second stage (Stage 2) is to establish the superiority (efficacy confirmation) of Flebogamma 5% DIF and for overall safety analysis. Stage 1 is a 3-arm evaluation of 2 dose levels of Flebogamma 5% DIF. Flebogamma 5% DIF 2 g/kg of body weight (IVIG 2 g/kg arm), Flebogamma 5% DIF 1 g/kg of body weight plus the equivalent volume of Normal Saline Solution (20 mL/kg of body weight) (IVIG 1 g/kg arm), or a total dose of 40 mL/kg of body weight Normal Saline Solution (equivalent volume of the 2 g/kg of body weight Flebogamma 5% DIF infusions) (placebo arm) will be administered over 2 consecutive days every 4 weeks during a 52-week treatment period. At the end of Stage 1, an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Suitability of carbapenem inactivation method (CIM) for detection of imp metallo-β-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae. AU - Saito, Kyoichi. AU - Nakano, Ryuichi. AU - Suzuki, Yuki. AU - Nakano, Akiyo. AU - Ogawa, Yoshihiko. AU - Yonekawa, Shinsuke. AU - Endo, Shiro. AU - Mizuno, Fumiko. AU - Kasahara, Kei. AU - Mikasa, Keiichi. AU - Kaku, Mitsuo. AU - Yano, Hisakazu. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2017/4. Y1 - 2017/4. KW - CIM. KW - CPE. KW - CRE. KW - Enterobacteriaceae. KW - IMP. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1128/JCM.02275-16. DO - 10.1128/JCM.02275-16. M3 - Article. C2 - 28100600. AN - SCOPUS:85016116866. VL - 55. SP - 1220. EP - 1222. JO - Journal of Clinical Microbiology. JF - Journal of Clinical Microbiology. SN - 0095-1137. IS - 4. ER - ...
Abstract. There is mounting evidence that the aerosol transmission route plays a significant role in the spread of influenza in temperate regions and that the efficiency of this route depends on humidity.. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms by which humidity might influence transmissibility via the aerosol route have not been elucidated.. We hypothesize that airborne concentrations of infectious influenza A viruses (IAVs) vary with humidity through its influence on virus inactivation rate and respiratory droplet size.. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which humidity might influence aerosol transmission, we modeled the size distribution and dynamics of IAVs emitted from a cough in typical residential and public settings over a relative humidity (RH) range of 10-90%.. The model incorporates the size transformation of virus-containing droplets due to evaporation and then removal by gravitational settling, ventilation, and virus inactivation. The predicted concentration of infectious IAVs in ...
Abstract. There is mounting evidence that the aerosol transmission route plays a significant role in the spread of influenza in temperate regions and that the efficiency of this route depends on humidity.. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms by which humidity might influence transmissibility via the aerosol route have not been elucidated.. We hypothesize that airborne concentrations of infectious influenza A viruses (IAVs) vary with humidity through its influence on virus inactivation rate and respiratory droplet size.. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which humidity might influence aerosol transmission, we modeled the size distribution and dynamics of IAVs emitted from a cough in typical residential and public settings over a relative humidity (RH) range of 10-90%.. The model incorporates the size transformation of virus-containing droplets due to evaporation and then removal by gravitational settling, ventilation, and virus inactivation. The predicted concentration of infectious IAVs in ...
Mineral precipitation on to the quartz surface of the lamp jackets in UV disinfection process (fouling) has been recognized as a major problem for UV radiation delivery during disinfection operation. Fouling behavior was observed to be induced thermally and influenced by hydraulic character of the UV disinfection configuration. Fouling process involves momentum, heat, and mass transport within the treated water. A Multiphysics modeling software, COMSOL, was used as the tool to simulate this fouling behavior.. ...
The present invention is directed to a cleaning system for a UV disinfection module. In general, the UV disinfection module may have a pair of headers with a multiplicity of UV lamps extending therebetween. The cleaning system may include a cleaning plate having a multiplicity of openings therein, the openings arranged to substantially coincide with positions of the lamps to permit movement of the plate between the headers; a split wiper assembly including a plurality of wiper portions, each wiper portion mounted in a housing, the split wiper assembly connected to the cleaning plate and substantially encircling each opening, sized such that each split wiper assembly has an inner diameter less than the exterior diameter of a corresponding lamp; and a movement device operatively connected to move the plate between the headers.
Medical UV Disinfection Equipment market is expected to expand at over the period between 2016 and 2021. Medical UV Disinfection Equipment Market report fo
Global UV disinfection equipment market is projected to witness strong growth with a CAGR of 14.1% between 2013 and 2019; UV disinfection equipment market is anticipated to rise to a value of US$2,467.3 mn by the end of 2019.
Join us as guest, and co-founder of Xenex, Dr. Mark Stibich Epidemiologist and Chief Scientific Officer, discusses UV Disinfection with Xenex | Xenex Germ Zapping Robots, UV Disinfection Services Tuesday, May 17, 2016 on C. diff. Spores and More | VoiceAmerica - The Leader in Internet Media
Exporter of Disinfection System - Nano Tech UV Disinfection System, UVC Disinfection, SSC Salt Cell and Swimming Pool Salt Chlorinator offered by Vardhman Chemi - Sol Industries, New Delhi, Delhi.
Article UV disinfection of wastewater flocs: the effect of secondary treatment conditions. Activated sludge flocs that are carried to the final effluent can significantly decrease the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of wastewater. This...
The Neo-Pure NP5-3 UV Disinfection System is designed to ensure safe drinking water for your family despite the presence of harmful bacteria. Ultraviolet light neutralizes the DNA of harmful viruses and bacteria, such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and E-Coli so theyre unable to reproduce. This NSF Class B Certified sys
Manufacturer of UV Sanitizing Box - Uv Sanitizing Box / Uv Disinfection Box offered by Hbeonlabs Technologies Private Limited, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh.
UVC germicidal lamps by LightSources support OEMs with high-quality, high-tech products and custom solutions for any hospital UV disinfection system.
Highlights. This pilot study proved the effective performance of biofiltration, physical filtration and UV disinfection for removing the pollutants from source
Discover how UV disinfection spas and hydro pools can eliminate microorganisms such as E-Coli, Legionella and Cryptosporidium. Find out more
Montreal, Canada (PRWEB) November 20, 2013 -- The Sanuvox ASEPTIX² Dual UV Disinfection System uses a primary and secondary unit to sterilize high-touch
Results for containerised uv disinfection package from leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near you on Environmental XPRT
|p| The disinfection of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses on hard and porous surfaces, liquid suspensions, and indoor air or aerosols is to be addressed. Articles will be solicited from experts in the field. The book is envisioned as a compilation of previously unpublished empirical data on viral disinfection methods and their efficacy. Review articles discussing existing data will also be entertained, as well as articles pertaining to mechanisms of viral inactivation or to comparisons between efficacy for different virus families.|/p| |p| While the data are expected to be obtained primarily from in vitro studies, in vivo data will also be considered. Data obtained using standardized methods (ASTM, EN, etc.) are preferred. If standardized methods are not used, the methods section of the article will need to be sufficiently detailed that others can reproduce and interpret the results presented. Data specific to SARS-CoV-2 or its surrogate coronaviruses is preferred, although data for other viruses
Adenovirus (Ad), associated with significant morbidity, has no topical treatment. A leading CTC compound (CTC-96), a CoIII chelate, was found to have potent in vitro and in vivo antiviral efficacy against herpes viruses. In this study CTC-96 is being tested for possible anti-Adenovirus activity. The biological anti-adenovirus activity of CTC-96 in concentrations from 5 to 250 ug/ml, was evaluated initially by viral inactivation (viral exposure to CTC-96 followed by dilution and inoculation of cells), virucidal (viral exposure to CTC-96 and inoculation of cells without dilution) and antiviral (effect of CTC-96 on previously adsorbed virus) plaque assays on HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), A549 (human lung carcinoma) and SIRC (rabbit corneal) cells. After verifying the antiviral activity, New Zealand White rabbits were infected with Ad-5 into: 1) the anterior cul-de-sac scarifying the conjunctiva (Group C+); 2) the anterior cul-de-sac scarifying the conjunctiva and cornea (Group CC+); 3) the stroma
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a small, non-enveloped virus that typically causes a benign flu-like illness that occurs most frequently in childhood. The virus is resistant to current viral inactivation steps used in the manufacture of anti-hemophilic factor concentrates and B19V transmission through these products has been documented. Since 2000, B19V nucleic acid test (NAT) screening of plasma pools has been implemented to further decrease the viral burden in these products, but no study has examined populations using these products to assess the impact of the screening on B19V transmission ...
Hepatitis C has been identified as the most common cause of post-transfusion hepatitis worldwide, accounting for approximately 90% of this disease in Japan, the United States and Western Europe. Hepatitis C is a major global public health problem. New infections continue to occur, and the source of infection includes transfusion of blood or blood products from unscreened donors; transfusion of blood products that have not undergone viral inactivation; parenteral exposure to blood through use of contaminated and inadequately sterilized instruments and needles used in medical, dental and ‘traditional’ medicine; procedures such as hemodialysis; high risk sexual practices; household or sexual contacts of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected persons; and infants of HCV-infected mothers. In many countries, the relative contribution of the various sources of infection has not been defined with population-based epidemiological studies. Such studies are necessary to enable countries
COVID-19 saliva test ( Saliva is collected using the ORAcollect•RNA (OR-100/ORE-100) saliva collection device or the OMNIgene•ORAL (OM-505/OME-505) collection device. Collection is performed following the Instructions for Use included on the pouch of the OR-100/ORE-100 and OM-505/OME-505 collection devices.. Once received by the laboratory, the ORAcollect•RNA (OR-100/ORE-100) and OMNIgene•ORAL (OM-505/OME-505) collection devices containing saliva samples are incubated at 60 °C for 2 hours for viral inactivation. After incubation, samples are either tested individually or up to 12 samples can be pooled with equal volumes, as desired. Subsequently, RNA is extracted from either 100 µL of the individual sample or 100 µL of the pooled sample using the Clarifi COVID-19 Extraction Kit, for which 100 µl sample input volume is used. RNA is eluted in 30 µL of DNase/RNase-Free Water and 1.5 µL of the eluted RNA is used for the down-stream qRT-PCR reaction.. The test consists of ...
March 31, 2016. Note: The following in an edited press release from Kedrion Biopharma. The original release can be read in its entirety here. Kedrion Biopharma has gained approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to package Koāte® Double Viral Inactivation (DVI) Antihemophilic Factor (human) with Mix2Vial™, a needle-free transfer device. The new packaging is designed to offer hemophilia […]. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The Utilities Department continues to refine its emergency action plans and continued operations plan as the pandemic evolves. In the event that a worker gets sick, the City of Cocoa has policies in place to quarantine the individual affected. The plant currently runs on shifts and we have sufficient licensed operators to make shift adjustments for workers who become sick and still be able to safely operate the plant. There are a number of treatment processes at the plant from the filters until it hits your tap that provide virus inactivation in accordance with FDEP and EPA guidelines and there is no direct contact with workers after the filters and no ability to contaminate the water. The City has also implemented a few policies during this time to limit interaction with the public in our facilities and to continually sanitize our facilities.. ...
Rapid treatment of the virus with hot water had little effect on the virus, reducing the titre by around two-fold, but prolonged incubation at 55°C abolished detectable infectivity. However, the addition of any of 1% bleach, 50% and 10% malt vinegar and 1%, 0.1% and 0.01% washing up liquid were all effective at rapidly reducing viable virus below the limit of detection, while a low concentration of vinegar (1%) was no more effective than hot water alone (Figure 1A). In contrast to the plaque assay results, most agents were ineffective at reducing the number of detectable genome copies as determined by RT-PCR, with only bleach having a significant effect (Figure 2A). The data for the plaque assays and RT-PCR assays are compiled in Tables S1 and S2. Thus, while a strong oxidizing agent such as bleach is effective at reducing both genome detection and virus infectivity, low pH and detergent are equally efficacious virucidal agents. These results also indicate that whilst vinegar and detergent ...
Ozone therapy is one of the most positive approaches to healing. When you have inflammation, swelling, infection, bruising, and even cancer there is higher amounts of CO2 within the tissue. When we give ozone it brings in Oxygen into the tissue and displaces the CO2 and inflammation, infection and bruising goes down. Ozone is a very effective treatment in acute and chronic viral diseases, acting as a virucidal agent and in improving the general health of animals. It is also effective for acute and chronic bacterial diseases, including those that do not respond well to antibiotics. These bacterial diseases include leptospirosis, Lyme disease, brucellosis, botulism and septicemia. Ozone can effectively relieve acute asthmatic attacks, as well as reverse the allergic component from the inhalation of molds, dust and other allergens. Perhaps the most exciting application of ozone is as an effective adjunct to high-PH therapy for leukemias, lymphomas and other malignancies. ...
Psoralen compounds are synthesized which have substitutions on the 4, 4, 5, and 8 positions of the psoralen, which permit enhanced binding to nucleic add of pathogens. Higher psoralen binding levels and lower mutagenicity are described, resulting in safer, more efficient, and reliable inactivation of pathogens in blood products. The invention contemplates inactivation methods using the new psoralens which do not compromise the function of blood products for transfusion. In particular compounds with primary aminoalkyl substitutions on the 4 or 5 positions of psoralen are used to inactivate pathogens in blood products such as platelets.
The Xenex LightStrike pulsed xenon disinfection robot is the first and only UV technology proven to deactivate the actual SARS-CoV-2 virus.
Xenexs patented pulsed xenon Full Spectrum UV room disinfection system is a pesticidal device used for the advanced cleaning of healthcare facilities.
Xenexs patented pulsed xenon Full Spectrum UV room disinfection system is a pesticidal device used for the advanced cleaning of healthcare facilities. Due
Gene inactivation through RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a valuable tool for studying gene function in C. elegans. When combined with tissue-specific gene inactivation methods, RNAi has the potential to shed light on the function of a gene in distinct tissues. In this study we characterize …
In order to tackle the serious health emergency caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, Kedrions R&D department set to work immediately to develop potential therapies in the shortest possible time. In this respect, our efforts are concentrated on the use of convalescent plasma (donated by patients who have recovered from the disease, and rich in anti-virus antibodies) obtained through pathogen inactivation methods, and Immunoglobulin extracted from the plasma of patients who have recovered and are immune to the virus, produced on an industrial scale.. Kedrion Biopharma has provided this plan of action in order to tackle the serious health emergency caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.. In a statement, Dott. Alessandro Gringeri, Kedrion Biopharma Chief Medical and R&D Officer says: There have been many diseases in the past which have benefited from this type of treatment. The success rate is very high, close to 90-95%. This has encouraged us to focus our resources and investments in obtaining in the ...
friendly during use. Product model: Mini Sun 1 Product size: 383*70.8*18mm Product weight: 739 Input voltage: 5V DC Input power: 5W Input interface: USB Sterilization lamp beads: 5 Illumination lamp beads: 12 ...
Water filtering is divided into two kinds: industrial pre filtration and family filtration. Industrial pre filter is generally a large capacity filter, which belongs to coarse filter, because need to deal with a large amount Read More …. ...
Consulting - Specifying Engineer - Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, Henderson Engineers director of engineering, Dustin Schafer, and many of our technical leaders, including
Clean Sweep Group, Inc. is the first company to offer comprehensive infection prevention services through microbial cleaning and education to businesses of all sizes
Clean Sweep Group, Inc. is the first company to offer comprehensive infection prevention services through microbial cleaning and education to businesses of all sizes

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X-ray inactivation of RNA viruses without loss of biological characteristics. In: Scientific Reports. 2020 ; Vol. 10, No. 1. ... X-ray inactivation of RNA viruses without loss of biological characteristics. Scientific Reports. 2020 Dec;10(1). 21431. https ... X-ray inactivation of RNA viruses without loss of biological characteristics. Babak Afrough, Jonathan Eakins, Sarah Durley- ... X-ray inactivation of RNA viruses without loss of biological characteristics. / Afrough, Babak; Eakins, Jonathan; Durley-White ...
Virus inactivation studies. Virus suspension and RB (25 or 50 µM) were spiked 1:10 with PCs (volume, approx. 10 ml; n=3 per ... Three models of virus used in this study were Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), and Polio virus, ... In the first stage, treatment with RB+UV light was used for inactivation of only one model virus (Vesicular Stomatitis Virus: ... the efficacies of UV light and 50 µM concentration of RB were examined for inactivation of two viruses; Polio virus and Herpes ...
Evaluation of Virus Inactivation by Hydrostatic Pressure Investigators. Hoover, Dallas; Kingsley, David. Funding Source. ...
Thermal Inactivation of High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus (HPAIV) in Egg Products Investigators. Swayne, David. Funding ... Determination of Temperature and Time Parameters to Inactivate H5N1 High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus in Dried Egg ...
Inactivation of Norwalk-like Viruses in Shellfish by the use of High Pressure Processing Investigators. Reno, Paul. Start date ... Inactivation of Enteric Foodborne Viruses in High Risk Foods by Non-Thermal Processing Technologies Investigators. Chen, ... Reduction of Vibrio Vulnificus in Oysters by Treatment with Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms and Viruses Investigators. Williams ...
The project investigates the UV inactivation of adenovirus, comparing two common UV technologies-low and medium pressure lamps- ... Evaluate inactivation of these viruses in waters from a wastewater reuse scenario ... and the doses required for virus inactivation were much lower than those in the United States Environmental Protection Agency ( ... Compare the inactivation of adenoviruses using cell culture and animal infectivity as well as LP and MP UV light. ...
Virus inactivation/virus reduction. *Risk assessment for viral transmission and TSE. Drug Products from Plasma Fractionator ...
Terminally sterilized to a SAL of 10-6 to ensure inactivation of any potentially contaminating viruses.1. ...
PRNewswire/ -- JBS Couros has announced the launch of JBS V-Block technology, which inactivates the SARS-Cov-2 virus, the cause ... Our leather has undergone scientific tests that prove the inactivation of the SARS-Cov-2 virus. The application of this new ... inactivation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in 30 minutes from contact with viral particles. The use of this technology increases the ... It not only inactivates the spread of viruses including Covid-19 but assists in the preservation of the material making it ...
Anti-oncogene PTPN13 inactivation by hepatitis B virus X protein counteracts IGF2BP1 to promote hepatocellular carcinoma ...
Norwalk Virus Inactivation by High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing: A Comprehensive and Integrated Program for Research and ... Development of Improved Simplified and Standardised PCR Based Techniques for the Detection of Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus ...
Norwalk Virus Inactivation by High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing: A Comprehensive and Integrated Program for Research and ... Development of Improved Simplified and Standardised PCR Based Techniques for the Detection of Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus ...
Exposure at a somewhat higher temperature (65 C, 10 min) is necessary for SBMV inactivation with genomic compaction. Subgenomic ... Subgenomic RNAs in Virions of Southern Bean Mosaic Virus. K. A. Weber, Postdoctoral fellow, Department of Plant Pathology, ... The proportion of subgenomic RNAs in southern bean mosaic virus bean strain (SBMV-B), relative to the infectious genomic (25S) ...
"The experimentally observed inactivation in simulated saliva is over eight times faster than would have been expected from the ... A July 2020 experimental study tested the power of UV light on SARS-CoV-2, contained in simulated saliva, and found the virus ... Short-wave UVC radiation has previously been shown to deactivate viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, which is responsible for Covid-19 ... the long-wave UVA in sunlight interacts with molecules in the virus environment, such as saliva, which speeds up the ...
The virus, which causes a disease named COVID-19, has never before been found in humans. Since this outbreak was first reported ... The process includes inactivation with BPL to preserve the native structure of the S protein. The combination with CpG 1018 is ... SARS-CoV-2 is a new coronavirus identified in late 2019 and belongs to a family of enveloped RNA viruses that include MERS and ... VLA2001 is a Vero-cell based, highly purified inactivated vaccine candidate against the SARS-COV-2 virus, leveraging the ...
Low rate of virus inactivation High turbidity (, 50 NTU) will cause filter to clog and requires more maintenance ... BSFs are also somewhat effective for the removal of virus (CAWST 2009). Physical parameters such as turbidity and iron are also ...
Third-party testing (2012, 2007) also shows ≥99% inactivation for the type of virus that causes common colds, Streptococcus ... inactivation, which is a virus similar to the human novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19. Therefore, the ... of select airborne viruses and bacteria flowing through your HVAC system and captured by the MERV 15 filter.* ...
The FDA is tasked with taking important steps to respond to the emerging Zika virus outbreak. One of the agencys key public ... for Zika virus RNA or until the blood establishments implement the use of an approved or investigational pathogen inactivation ... In consideration of the possibility of local transmission of the Zika virus, and as a prudent measure to help assure the safety ... These may be the first cases of local Zika virus transmission by mosquitoes in the continental United States. Miami-Dade County ...
The right climate and humidity levels can help limit the transmission of viruses, and plays an important role in protecting ... The rate of virus inactivation varied across different RH levels, where the greatest level of virus inactivation took place at ... The virus had higher survival rates at both 20% and 80% RH, so its not simply a case of increasing or decreasing the levels; ... Covid-19 is genetically similar to SARS-CoV, a virus which spread in a similar fashion during 2002/2003. As a result of this ...
... methods used in drinking water treatment plants are effective for inactivation of coronaviruses and all other viruses. Iowans ... The COVID-19 virus has not been detected in drinking water supplies. Based on current evidence, the risk to water supplies is ... If you are sick with COVID-19 or suspect you are infected with the virus that causes COVID-19, you should take steps to help ... With the ongoing concerns of the COVID-19 virus and to comply with recommendations set by the Centers for Disease Control and ...
... it is important that water sector professionals keep informed on the attributions of this virus and any measures needed to ... The virus, technically named SARS-CoV-2, is a newly identified virus, but it is the seventh Coronavirus known to infect humans ... This is consistent with OSHAs statement on coronaviruses being highly susceptible to inactivation by many commonly used ... Detection of viruses by molecular techniques provides no indication that the virus is infectious. It remains to be seen if ...
... it is important that water sector professionals keep informed on the attributions of this virus and any measures needed to ... The virus, technically named SARS-CoV-2, is a newly identified virus, but it is the seventh Coronavirus known to infect humans ... This is consistent with OSHAs statement on coronaviruses being highly susceptible to inactivation by many commonly used ... Detection of viruses by molecular techniques provides no indication that the virus is infectious. It remains to be seen if ...
To interrupt these chains of transmission, there is an urgent need for devices that can be deployed to inactivate the virus on ... To interrupt these chains of transmission, there is an urgent need for devices that can be deployed to inactivate the virus on ... Here, we describe the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in both wet and dry format using radiation generated by a commercially ... Here, we describe the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in both wet and dry format using radiation generated by a commercially ...
Mechanical inactivation. Nano traps to lock up and neutralize viruses. To date, there are no effective antidotes against most ... With this method, they were able to demonstrate the first X-ray holograms of nano-sized viruses that were not attached to any ... Laser light shows X-ray holographic images of viruses. Using SLACs X-ray laser, researchers have made the detailed 3-D images ... In the new study, the authors superimposed scattered X-ray light from the virus with scattered X-ray light from a reference ...
... treatment goals for the removal and inactivation of the enteric protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium and enteric viruses. These ... As a result, current drinking water treatment and disinfection practices applied to meet the treatment goals for viruses and ...
AntibacMax high transparent glass antibacterial agent not only has the strong antibacterial rate and virus inactivation rate, ...
  • Viral inactivation is to stop the viruses in a given sample from contaminating the desired product either by removing viruses completely or rendering them non-infectious. (
  • Viral inactivation renders viruses unable to infect. (
  • Viral inactivation is different from viral removal because, in the former process, the surface chemistry of the virus is altered and in many cases the (now non-infective) viral particles remain in the final product. (
  • Rather than simply rendering the virus inactive, some viral inactivation processes actually denature the virus completely. (
  • Viral inactivation is used widely in the blood plasma industry. (
  • Some of the more widely used processes are as follows: Solvent/detergent inactivation Pasteurization (heating) Acidic pH inactivation In some cases viral inactivation is not a viable removal alternative because even the denatured or otherwise inactivated viral particles can have deleterious effects on the process stream or the product itself. (
  • This process, developed by the New York Blood Center, is the most widely used viral inactivation method to date. (
  • Although there are many other steps and layers of safety we deploy to help ensure the raw plasma and finished products are the safest possible, Bayer BP employs robust viral inactivation/removal steps to further safeguard against contamination from emerging viruses, such as monkeypox," according to Bayer scientist Dr. Steve Petteway. (
  • 31°C) process was developed for viral inactivation of plasma and cryoprecipitate used for transfusion. (
  • Samples were taken right after spiking and during viral inactivation treatment by 1% TnBP-1% Triton X-45 at 31°C. DENV-1 infectivity was assessed on Vero E6 cells by a focus-forming assay (FFA). (
  • We also show that Ebola virus RNA can be manually extracted from Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer-inactivated samples using the QIAamp viral RNA minikit. (
  • To dissect which replication stage(s) was affected by coatomer inactivation, we used visual and biochemical assays to independently measure the efficiency of viral entry and gene expression in hamster (ldlF) cells depleted of the temperature-sensitive epsilon-COP subunit. (
  • We show that epsilon-COP depletion for 12 h caused a primary block to virus internalization and a secondary defect in viral gene expression. (
  • Embodiments of the present invention provide methods for targeted inactivation of viral genomes. (
  • Other embodiments for targeted inactivation of viral genomes use small nucleic acid molecules, such as short micro-RNA molecules or short hairpin RNA molecules capable of mediating RNA interference (RNAi) against the hepatitis B virus. (
  • Embodiments of the present invention provide methods for targeted inactivation of viral genomes using engineered zinc-finger proteins containing nuclease domains (ZFN), and targeted inactivation of viral gene expression using RNA interference. (
  • Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are responsible for large epidemics of acute viral hepatitis in several developing countries in tropical and subtropical regions. (
  • AIMS: To generate field-relevant inactivation data for incorporation into models to predict the likelihood of viral contamination of surface waters by septic seepage. (
  • SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: A better understanding of the factors that govern virus fate and transport in catchments would facilitate the design of barrier measures to prevent viral contamination of surface waters by septic seepage. (
  • Thermal Inactivation of Foodborne Enteric Viruses and Their Viral Surrogates in Foods. (
  • We demonstrate that this method can selectively inactivate viral particles ranging from nonpathogenic viruses such as the M13 bacteriophage and the tobacco mosaic virus to pathogenic viruses such as the human papillomavirus and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • The laser technology targets the global mechanical properties of the viral protein shell, making it relatively insensitive to the local genetic mutation in the target viruses. (
  • Chronic indirect tumor viruses, on the other hand, can be lost (at least theoretically) from a mature tumor that has accumulated sufficient mutations and growth conditions (hyperplasia) from the chronic inflammation of viral infection. (
  • The test has an efficient viral inactivation protocol, fulfills inclusivity and exclusivity criteria, and has specimen stability characteristics consistent with the need for decentralized testing. (
  • Specific CD8 T-cell responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are induced in primary infection and make an important contribution to the control of early viral replication. (
  • In a mouse model, vaccination with GT-inactivated influenza virus (GTi virus) elicited higher levels of viral neutralizing antibodies than FA-inactivated virus (FAi virus). (
  • Of note, the quality of antibody responses of GTi virus was superior to that with FAi virus, in terms of the magnitude of antibody titer, cross-reactivity to hetero-subtypes of influenza viruses, and the avidity to viral antigens. (
  • However, most licensed viral vaccines have been produced by chemical inactivation of the viruses to eliminate the infectivity and to ensure vaccine safety. (
  • While any number of cell washing protocols may reduce the viral contamination load for samples of blood cells, by physical elution of the much smaller virus particles, such washing alone is insufficient to reduce viral contamination to safe levels. (
  • The main idea behind viral processing is to stop the viruses in a given sample from contaminating the desired product. (
  • The two most widely used methods of viral processing are viral removal and viral inactivation . (
  • In some cases viral inactivation is not a viable removal alternative because even the denatured or otherwise inactivated viral particles can have deleterious effects on the process stream or the product itself. (
  • Session 1.1: Viral Clearance Using Traditional, Well-Understood Unit Operations: Low pH and Detergent Viral Inactivation. (
  • The use of specific model viruses for validating viral purification process steps and for assessing the efficacies of viral disinfectants is based, in part, on the assumption that viral susceptibilities to such treatments will be similar for different members, including different genera, within a given viral family. (
  • Coiled Flow Inverter Reactor (CFIR) has recently been explored for facilitating continuous operation of several unit operations involved in downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals such as viral inactivation and protein refolding. (
  • Retrospective Evaluation of Low-pH Viral Inactivation and Viral Filtration Data from a Multiple Company Collaboration. (
  • To ensure the viral safety of protein therapeutics made in mammalian cells, purification processes include dedicated viral clearance steps to remove or inactivate adventitious and endogenous viruses. (
  • The West Africa Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak has highlighted the need for effective disinfectants capable of reducing viral load in a range of sample types, equipment and settings. (
  • The stability of the virus was evaluated by spiking two viral loads into RBCs followed by storing at 1 to 6°C for up to 42 days. (
  • This study demonstrated the molecular processes of viral inactivation of an enveloped virus and should facilitate the development of effective disinfection strategies in infection control not only against HCV but also against other enveloped viruses. (
  • The discussion has now shifted to ensure viral testing/inactivation/reduction in these human-derived plasma products. (
  • In addition to the current safety measures in place, several therapeutic and biotech companies have requested smaller donor pools, additional virus testing, and viral inactivation/reduction to further mitigate the risk of potential virus contamination. (
  • While all methods listed above achieve some level of viral inactivation or removal, these same methods can potentially have a negative effect on the ancillary material, often stripping or inactivating critical proteins essential to the product's performance to promote cell growth and expansion. (
  • Capsid-targeted viral inactivation (CTVI), a promising gene-based antiviral strategy against retroviruses, was designed to disrupt the retroviral life cycle by incorporating a degradative enzyme (e.g., nuclease) into viral particles during assembly, thereby reducing or eliminating the production of infectious virus. (
  • VanBrocklin, M & Federspiel, MJ 2000, ' Capsid-targeted viral inactivation can eliminate the production of infectious murine leukemia virus in vitro ', Virology , vol. 267, no. 1, pp. 111-123. (
  • Testing demonstrates an automated semi-continuous process strategy for viral inactivation with steps that mimic batch processing. (
  • This approach includes careful raw material selection, testing of cell lines, media components, and the use of appropriate viral inactivation and clearance protocols (1). (
  • In batch production, it is common for several Protein A eluates to be pooled and then subjected to the viral inactivation process, which essentially involves titration with acid followed by a hold time at the appropriate hold pH, typically pH3.5. (
  • To maximize the benefits of continuous capture chromatography, a semi-continuous or continuous solution for viral inactivation is required. (
  • In this article, the authors describe the application of an automated, semicontinuous solution for low-pH viral inactivation for GMP production using the CSTR approach. (
  • The reliability of a range of pH probes was evaluated over time in a simulated viral inactivation process. (
  • Viral cross talk: intracellular inactivation of the hepatitis B virus during an unrelated viral infection of the liver. (
  • The inactivation of HRV was analyzed by infectivity of the viral strains on the HeLa cells. (
  • For thermal inactivation, 100 μl of viral stock solutions containing 1 × TCID 50 , 10 × TCID 50 , 100 × TCID 50 , 1000 × TCID 50 were respectively exposed at 60°C for 5 min, 10 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 h and 2 h. (
  • We have shown that the spermicidal agent benzalkonium chloride can exert a direct inhibitory effect on the viral reverse transcriptase activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) when utilized at concentrations of 0.05% and higher. (
  • The most common viral illnesses are produced by enteric and respiratory viruses. (
  • The potential of viral spreading via contaminated surfaces depends particularly on the ability of the virus to maintain infectivity whilst it is in the environment. (
  • For in vitro testing, we used wild-type EBOV express- evaluate efficacy of methods of chemical inactivation, we compared in vitro and in vivo approaches using Ebola ing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EBOV-eGFP) ( 7 ), virus as a surrogate pathogen. (
  • To evaluate the efficacy of chemical inactivation pro- tro testing, all samples were increased in volume to 3 mL cedures for specimen removal, we used the US prime select and equally divided to infect Vero E6 cells (80% conflu- agent and Tier-1 pathogen ( 4 ) Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) as ency) in triplicates. (
  • Charles certain biologic, biochemical, and structural features, mak- River Laboratories, Wilmington, MA, USA) were ing them sensitive to the same chemical inactivation meth- housed in microisolator cages and were monitored daily ods. (
  • S.v. Effective chemical inactivation of Ebola virus. (
  • To evaluate the efficacy of chemical inactivation procedures for specimen removal, we used the US prime select agent and Tier-1 pathogen (4) Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) as a surrogate model for enveloped high-level containment viruses with single-strand, negative-sense RNA genomes, such as arenaviruses, bunyaviruses, filoviruses, orthomyxoviruses, and paramyxoviruses. (
  • These viruses share certain biologic, biochemical, and structural features, making them sensitive to the same chemical inactivation methods. (
  • To evaluate efficacy of methods of chemical inactivation, we compared in vitro and in vivo approaches using Ebola virus as a surrogate pathogen. (
  • Polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that, in addition to model viruses, the bloodborne viruses hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immune deficiency virus-1 and probably also the nonenveloped parvovirus B19 are sensitive to MB/light treatment. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is spread through direct contact with blood, although alternative routes of transmission may contribute to the global burden. (
  • In this study, we systematically investigated the effects of several antiviral treatments on hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles as model for enveloped viruses. (
  • This research focuses on improving virus inactivation by photocatalytic oxidation by modifying catalysts for improved activity, by analyzing virus inactivation kinetics, and by elucidating the inactivation mechanisms of adenovirus serotype 2 (AdV2) and bacteriophage MS2. (
  • Modifying TiO2 with silver (nAg/TiO2) or silica (SiO2-TiO2) improves the inactivation kinetics of bacteriophage MS2 by a factor of 3-10. (
  • The inactivation kinetics of AdV2 by P25 TiO2 is much slower than the MS2 inactivation kinetics and displays a strong shoulder, which is not present in the MS2 kinetics. (
  • SiO2-TiO2 reduces the AdV2 inactivation kinetics since adsorption is not significantly enhanced, as it is with MS2. (
  • The kinetics of MS2 inactivation are rapid since it may quickly lose its ability to attach to host cells, while AdV2 kinetics are slower since the entire capsid must undergo heavy oxidation before inactivation occurs. (
  • In this study we investigated the kinetics and mechanisms of inactivation of the single-stranded RNA virus MS2 under temperature, pH and NH3 conditions representative of waste storage. (
  • Mechanisms and kinetics of the virus inactivation were discussed. (
  • Modelling effect of physical and chemical parameters on heat inactivation kinetics of hepatitis A virus in a fruit model system. (
  • Bioprocess design for virus or virus vector production therefore depends strongly on the virus/host cell interactions and the kinetics of virus particle synthesis and virus release. (
  • The entity needs sufficient empirical data developed in-house with test microorganisms to determine the inactivation kinetics with a particular procedure, starting with a high concentration of organism to the LOD/LOQ. (
  • For those inactivation procedures where the LOD/LOQ is reached so quickly that multiple data points cannot be collected to adequately determine kinetics, see the Bioburden Reduction section below). (
  • Use multiple replicates at each treatment point to assist with fitting the curve that determines the inactivation kinetics. (
  • In order to measure the relative target sizes of the genetic information responsible, we studied the kinetics of u.v. inactivation of both the replicating ability of MuLV and the ability of this virus to rescue MSV. (
  • RESULTS: The kinetics of PEN110 inactivation of WNV isolates RI-44, NJ-176, and 99-3494031 were fast and complete within 24 hours with reduction factors of 5 to 7 log plaque-forming units per mL. (
  • The first-order kinetics then could describe UV inactivation, which was experimentally and mathematically shown in this study to be an effective means to inactivate FMDV in suspension. (
  • The decimal inactivation dose (DID) was modified from D value in traditional thermal-inactivation kinetics. (
  • There is a need for methods that rapidly predict the kinetics of virus inactivation by UV254, particularly for emerging and difficult-to- culture viruses . (
  • Multiple linear regressions performed best for predicting the inactivation kinetics of (+) ssRNA and dsDNA viruses , with cross-validated root mean squared relative prediction errors similar to those associated with experimental rate constants. (
  • Our models will be valuable for predicting inactivation kinetics of emerging or difficult-to- culture viruses . (
  • Presently, laboratory EBOV inactivation is accomplished by gamma irradiation ( 8 ), UV radiation ( 9 ), nanoemulsion ( 10 ), and photoinducible alkylating agents ( 11 ), but these methods are not applicable in outbreak situations or as bedside inactivation methods. (
  • Amino-C60 is highly effective for AdV2 inactivation under visible light irradiation, making it a good material for use in solar disinfection systems. (
  • We used Venezuelan equine encephalitis VEE virus strain TC-83 as a model to study the effects of chemical, thermal, and irradiation conditions on infectivity of single-stranded positive RNA viruses. (
  • Effects of increasing doses of cobalt-60 irradiation 1-40 kGy showed a linear inverse relationship between irradiation dose and virus infectivity as measured by TCID50 assay. (
  • Kill curves are appropriate for inactivation procedures using heat, chemicals, or irradiation. (
  • For irradiation experiments we employed two Moloney leukaemia virus (MLV) stocks: V9-MV, which contained 7 × 10 5 focus inducing units (f.i.u.)/ml. was purchased from Electro-Nucleonics Laboratories, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland, and IC virus (Fischinger, Moore & O'Connor, 1969) that contained 5 × 10 6 f.i.u./ml. (
  • Femtosecond (fs) pulsed laser irradiation techniques have attracted interest as a photonic approach for the selective inactivation of virus contaminations in biological samples. (
  • Conventional pulsed laser approaches require, however, relatively long irradiation times to achieve a significant inactivation of virus. (
  • Inactivation of RNA Viruses by Gamma Irradiation: A Study on Mitigating Factors. (
  • Gamma irradiation is a commonly used method for the inactivation of BSL-4 viruses, which among other advantages, facilitates the study of inactivated yet morphologically intact virions. (
  • Heat, irradiation, chromatography and filtration methods have been shown to have some effect on non-enveloped viruses, as well as enveloped viruses. (
  • The resistance to UV irradiation of FMDV strains isolated from outbreaks in Thailand was investigated in phosphate-buffered saline at 25 degrees C. Since the regression coefficients of linear regression were large and root mean square errors were small, UV inactivation could be appropriately summarized and fitted well by a linear equation. (
  • This study concluded that FMDV in suspension was effectively inactivated by UV irradiation, the fitted probability distribution for UV inactivation was Exponential, and source of total uncertainty of this UV-inactivation model was not the uncertainty component. (
  • This study examined the effect of the amino acid composition of protein capsids on virus inactivation using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and titanium dioxide photocatalysis, and physical removal via enhanced coagulation using ferric chloride. (
  • Does anybody know if it actually does inactivate these virus' (virrii! (
  • MPI and FSANZ recommend cooking food to 85°C for 1 minute to inactivate hepatitis A virus but recognise that the extent of virus inactivation is influenced by the food matrix. (
  • Higher temperatures (25 °C) are more efficient, although they still require rather long incubation times to fully inactivate a complex and highly robust virus like Vaccinia . (
  • RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C. -- Bayer Biological Products (BP) announces that based on findings from studies it has recently conducted on a closely related virus, it has concluded that its licensed manufacturing technologies successfully inactivate the monkeypox virus. (
  • The manufacturing process for all Bayer BP products include at least two steps that very effectively inactivate enveloped viruses. (
  • Methylene blue (MB) photochemical technology has been proven to inactivate lipid-enveloped viruses with high efficiency and safety. (
  • BX-1 is based on MB photochemical technology, which was designed to inactivate HIV-1 virus in plasma. (
  • The efficacy of preservation methods to inactivate foodborne viruses. (
  • Comparison of chlorine and peroxyacetic-based disinfectant to inactivate Feline calicivirus, Murine norovirus and Hepatitis A virus on lettuce. (
  • As a result, the approach can inactivate both the wild and mutated strains of viruses. (
  • Sigma MM™ inactivation media was developed to safely inactivate bacteria and viruses and preserve and stabilize the released RNA/DNA for molecular testing and analysis, working accurately across diagnostic platforms. (
  • For example, if the procedure was validated with Ebola virus and you want to use the procedure to inactivate Chapare virus or if the procedure was validated with a starting concentration of 10 6 organisms and you want to inactivate 10 8 organisms, these modifications would warrant the reevaluation of an existing procedure or redevelopment and revalidation of the procedure. (
  • As work with the virus is recommended to be performed at biosafety level 3, validated methods to effectively inactivate the virus to enable the safe study of RNA , DNA , and protein from infected cells are also needed. (
  • To determine resistance of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus to chlorination, we exposed allantoic fluid containing 2 virus strains to chlorinated buffer at pH 7 and 8, at 5 degrees C. Free chlorine concentrations typically used in drinking water treatment are sufficient to inactivate the virus by >3 orders of magnitude. (
  • UV254 disinfection strategies are commonly applied to inactivate pathogenic viruses in water , food , air , and on surfaces. (
  • In future, the scientists want to inactivate viruses in larger volumes, which is not as easy as it sounds. (
  • The study indicated that the four chemical disinfectants could efficiently inactivate the two tested H5N1 viruses when used at higher concentration than the manufacturers recommended. (
  • Complete loss of infectivity was also observed after virus exposure to 1% hypochlorite (often used to inactivate virus in liquid wastes in BSL-2/3 laboratories), 2% paraformaldehyde (used to inactivate virus for subsequent flow cytometry), and 2% glutaraldehyde (often applied to fix virus for subsequent electron microscopy analysis) ( Figure , panel A). Thus, routinely used disinfectants and inactivation procedures are sufficient to inactivate Zika virus in laboratory virus stocks. (
  • However, the effect of silicification on virus infectivity was not known. (
  • Treatment of viruses in silica solutions had a variable effect on virus infectivity ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • Our results suggest that intermediate polymers formed during hydrolysis of the aluminum coagulants sorbed strongly to viruses, either rendering them inactive or preventing infectivity. (
  • Our data showed that exposure of the virus to 65 degrees C for 5-15 min resulted in a 5-6 log reduction of virus infectivity. (
  • Treatment with Beta-propiolactone at 50-200 mM concentrations for 15-60 min caused complete or near-complete loss of virus infectivity. (
  • At the 40 kGy dose, complete loss of infectivity occurred when a virus titer was 1 x 107 TCID50mL. (
  • This can be accomplished by using the final inactivation conditions derived from the procedure development step (or from an existing procedure (commonly accepted or published procedure)), and testing for the absence of viable organism, infectivity of regulated nucleic acids, and/or toxicity of regulated toxins. (
  • Here, we report methods used to grow SARS-CoV-2 in multiple cell lines and to measure virus infectivity by plaque assay using either agarose or microcrystalline cellulose as an overlay as well as a SARS-CoV-2 specific focus forming assay. (
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of WNV to PEN110 inactivation in RBCs and to characterize the WNV interaction with blood, including the stability of WNV in RBCs stored at 1 to 6°C, its distribution and infectivity, and its ability to infect WBCs. (
  • All different inactivation methods resulted in a loss of HCV infectivity by targeting different parts of the virus particle. (
  • To determine the effect of heat on infectivity, HRV86 viruses firstly were exposed to various temperatures. (
  • The effects of formalin on the infectivity and immunogenicity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) serotype Indiana were investigated. (
  • A comparison of polymerase chain reaction and an infectivity assay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 titration during virus inactivation of blood components. (
  • These data suggest that HIV-1 PCR levels do not parallel HIV-1 infectivity levels during virus-inactivation procedures involved in coagulation factor concentrate production. (
  • Again, all treatments entirely disrupted Zika virus infectivity ( Figure , panel A). (
  • A total of 102 D-values (time to obtain a log10 reduction of virus infectivity), including values for SARS-CoV-2, were collected from 26 published studies. (
  • For in vivo testing, we used and effective inactivation. (
  • Consequently, we have established parameters and protocols leading to reliable and effective inactivation. (
  • Public Health England (UK) has confirmed that Sigma MM™ provides effective inactivation of SARS CoV-2 and the Luton and Dunstable University Hospital proved that Sigma MM ™ was also completely effective at killing MRSA and CRE at all concentrations tested. (
  • We also demonstrate effective inactivation by TRIzol, 10% neutral buffered formalin , beta propiolactone , and heat . (
  • Effective inactivation of biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) pathogens is vital in order to study these agents safely. (
  • Whether it is through the introduction of new products or technology, like our second generation IGIV product, by setting an industry precedent through the introduction of tamper-resistant packaging, or through our vigilance in proactively evaluating the inactivation and removal of emerging pathogens like monkeypox, Bayer's holistic approach to product safety is unwavering. (
  • Viruses are particularly persistent pathogens and can be transmitted through inadequately sanitized waste. (
  • 2 Sunlight is the key factor contributing to inactivation of indicator organisms and pathogens in engineered natural systems like wastewater treatment ponds (WTP) 3 and open-water wetlands for treatment of wastewater and stormwater. (
  • Inactivation of highly infectious pathogens rendering specimens safe for transport and molecular analysis. (
  • The variability in the nature of the specific pathogens (including ID50), the use of the inactivated material, and the inactivation procedures prevents establishing a specific national standard for measures of uncertainty associated with inactivation procedures. (
  • Pathogens , such as bacteria and viruses, threaten lives worldwide through the diseases they cause. (
  • Higher psoralen binding levels and lower mutagenicity are described, resulting in safer, more efficient, and reliable inactivation of pathogens in blood products. (
  • BACKGROUND: The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) is the most recent reminder that the blood supply continues to be vulnerable to emerging and reemerging pathogens. (
  • Since ancillary materials are typically manufactured from larger plasma donor pools, there is a broad risk of viruses and bloodborne pathogens. (
  • Rather, a combination of these methods should be considered and validated to reduce the risk of adventitious viruses and bloodborne pathogens in plasma derived ancillary materials and ultimately, the final drug/therapeutic product. (
  • Most inoculations are based on inactivated vaccines - in other words, vaccines whose viruses have been killed and whose pathogens can no longer harm the recipient. (
  • To demonstrate a possible dispersal mechanism, we show that bacteriophage T4, archaeal virus Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus Kamchatka, and vaccinia virus are reversibly inactivated by mineralization in silica under conditions similar to volcanic hot springs. (
  • Viruses tested included bacteriophage T4 ( 16 ), bacteriophage PRD1 ( 17 ), the archaeal virus Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus Kamchatka (SSV-K) ( 18 ), and vaccinia virus (VACV) ( 19 ). (
  • The resulting viruses were mixed with freshly prepared pH 7.0 to 7.1 sodium metasilicate solution in either 10 mM sodium bicarbonate-5 mM magnesium chloride for bacteriophage T4, PRD1, and SSV-K or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline for VACV to final silica concentrations of 0, 5, and 10 mM (0, 300, and 600 ppm). (
  • The rate of inactivation of bacteriophage f2 and poliovirus 1 (CHAT) by NH3 was strongly influenced by temperature. (
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Inactivation rates were determined for PRD1 bacteriophage and Adenovirus 2 in two catchment soils under a range of temperature, moisture and biotic status regimes. (
  • The virus: isolation, pathogenic properties and relationship to the epidemic. (
  • While thermal destruction of pathogenic bacteria has been thoroughly studied in food industry, heat inactivation of viruses in food has been poorly investigated. (
  • We start by looking at recent advancements in the use of metal and metal-oxide-based catalysts for the inactivation of pathogenic threats, with a focus on identifying specific chemical bonds that can be targeted. (
  • The primary objective of the current study was to identify two of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) isolates of subtype H5N1 genotypically using one step Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), followed by sequence and phylogenetic analyses. (
  • We studied the stability of SARS-CoV under different conditions, both in suspension and dried on surfaces, in comparison with other human-pathogenic viruses, including human coronavirus HCoV-229E. (
  • 1985). UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms. (
  • Chlorine disinfection can form harmful byproducts, and some viruses (e.g. adenoviruses) are resistant to other alternative disinfection methods. (
  • The implications of this mechanistic understanding of solar inactivation are discussed for a range of applications, including recreational water quality, natural treatment systems, solar disinfection of drinking water (SODIS), and enhanced inactivation via the use of sensitizers and photocatalysts. (
  • To gain experimental evidence regarding inactivation and disinfection for Zika virus, we determined its susceptibility to various disinfectants and inactivation methods. (
  • Survival and disinfection of parainfluenza viruses on environmental surfaces. (
  • Significantly, we found that selective inactivation of ventral but not dorsal glutamatergic hippocampal neurons suppressed the synaptic consolidation of contextual memory. (
  • The invention is also applicable to a method for the selective inactivation of cancerous cells. (
  • Plasmonic Enhancement of Selective Photonic Virus Inactivation. (
  • Selective inactivation of important cysteine residues in individual immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was noticed following treatment with 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP), with and without the membrane-permeable metallic chelator = 15. (
  • Rapid bedside inactivation of Ebola virus would be a solution for the safety of medical and technical staff, risk containment, sample transport, and high-throughput or rapid diagnostic testing during an outbreak. (
  • We show that the commercially available Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer used for nucleic acid extraction inactivates Ebola virus. (
  • The ready-to-use inactivation vacuum tubes are stable for more than 4 months, and Ebola virus RNA is preserved in the Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer for at least 5 weeks independent of the storage temperature. (
  • We propose to use this simple method for fast, safe, and easy bedside inactivation of Ebola virus for safe transport and routine nucleic acid detection. (
  • The most recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak began in West Africa in December 2013. (
  • Ebola virus (EBOV) is classified as a risk group 4 pathogen that requires handling under biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) conditions. (
  • We used SnS to estimate the UV 254 sensitivities of viruses for which the genome composition and size were known but no UV inactivation data were available, including smallpox virus, Ebola, Marburg, Crimean-Congo, Junin, and other hemorrhagic viruses, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis and other encephalitis viruses. (
  • The recently developed Xpert® Ebola Assay is a novel nucleic acid amplification test for simplified detection of Ebola virus (EBOV) in whole blood and buccal swab samples. (
  • The assay correctly identified five different Ebola viruses, Yambuku-Mayinga, Makona-C07, Yambuku-Ecran, Gabon-Ilembe, and Kikwit-956210, and correctly excluded all non-EBOV isolates tested. (
  • The conditions used by Xpert® Ebola for inactivation of infectious virus reduced EBOV titer by ≥6 logs. (
  • Ebola virus (EBOV), the sole member of the species Zaire ebolavirus , caused the recent outbreak centered in West Africa [ 3 ]. (
  • Lever, M.S. Effectiveness of Four Disinfectants against Ebola Virus on Different Materials. (
  • The technology could be applied to blood samples taken from people infected with the Ebola virus. (
  • Zika virus (ZIKV)--incidence ous disinfectants and inactivation methods. (
  • FA provides an essential advantage in comparison to other disinfectants, because it preserves the ultrastructure of biological material without interfering significantly with the preparation ( i.e ., the negative staining) and the detection of viruses. (
  • All the above disinfectants are effective against a broad range of viruses. (
  • Virus inactivation by chemical disinfectants is an important instrument for infection control in medical settings, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. (
  • Studies were performed with authentic cell culture derived viruses and influence of chemical disinfectants, heat and UV treatment on HCV was analyzed by determination of infectious particles in a limiting dilution assay, quantitative RT-PCR, core ELISA and proteolytic protection assay. (
  • A) Virus stocks containing 2.5%, 10%, 40%, or 90% fetal calf serum were incubated with alcohol-based disinfectants for. (
  • To test susceptibilities, we determined the 50% tissue cell infectious dose per milliliter (TCID 50 /mL) ( 10 ) of the Zika virusMR766 strain ( 1 ) before and after the virus was exposed to disinfectants or other inactivation procedures ( Technical Appendix [PDF - 154 KB - 3 pages] ). (
  • Thereafter, dried virus was reconstituted in the same volume of medium or disinfectants. (
  • The manuscript provides a comprehensive synthesis of the current understanding of the mechanisms by which sunlight causes damage to microorganisms, ultimately leading to inactivation. (
  • The sunlight-mediated inactivation of microorganisms is relevant in many types of applications and to many aquatic environments. (
  • Virus-infected samples (in triplicate unless otherwise noted) were treated according to the specific testing parameters and dialyzed or run over detergent-removal columns to remove inactivating reagents. (
  • Inclusion of a detergent in protein biotherapeutic purification processes is a simple and very robust method for inactivating enveloped viruses. (
  • Mechanical brushing of surfaces with a detergent solution is highly effective in removing contaminating viruses and is fundamental for achieving effective chemical decontamination. (
  • Solvent detergent and pH inactivation are generally effective against enveloped viruses. (
  • The approach is transferable to other inactivation methods using solvent/detergent, etc., where the volume of the inactivation agent(s) is well characterized. (
  • Virus stocks were grown in Vero E6 cells and titrated by using a 50% tissue culture infectious dose ([TCID.sub.50]) assay (9). (
  • The virus titer was determined in triplicate by plaque assay. (
  • The dynamic range of the assay, the inactivation of virus, and specimen stability were also evaluated. (
  • The lower limit of detection (LoD) for the assay using inactivated virus was estimated to be 73 copies/mL (95% CI: 51-97 copies/mL). (
  • Appropriate assay for the starting material (virus, vegetative bacteria, or spores). (
  • Rapid bedside inactivation of EBOV would be a solution for the safety of medical and technical staff, risk containment, and easier transport of samples without requiring expensive category A shipping. (
  • There is a need for a simple, efficient, and safe bedside inactivation method for EBOV. (
  • Other EBOV inactivation methods, such as acetic acid ( 12 ), heat ( 12 ), AVL buffer ( 13 ), TRIzol ( 13 ) or the combination of heat and Triton X-100 ( 14 ), are more applicable in outbreak situations and are currently used in field laboratories. (
  • EBOV is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the Filoviridae family. (
  • However, the magnitudes of the thermodynamic variables for f2 were low enough, as calculated for the low (10 to 35 degrees C) and high (35 to 60 degrees C) phases, that inactivation could have occurred by breakage of nucleic acid chains. (
  • A rapid bedside inactivation method for nucleic acid tests is obtained by simply adding Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer directly into vacuum blood collection EDTA tubes using a thin needle and syringe prior to sampling. (
  • James Cook Hospital tested Sigma MM™ with RSV (nose and throat swabs), Influenza virus (nose and throat swabs), Enterovirus (rectal swabs containing fecal matter and mouth swabs), HSV (lip swabs), and Adenovirus (eye swab) over an extended timeframe and resulted in positive and consistent CT values over 10 days, with no degradation of nucleic acid, proving Sigma MM™ is ideal for long transportation and storage. (
  • Concentration of starting material containing select agent and regulated nucleic acids (start with highest concentration expected as a worst case scenario and then set that concentration as the upper limit for subsequent inactivation). (
  • Instead, the entity can use a standardized nucleic acid extraction kit (from a manufacturer or derived in-house) for inactivation. (
  • Not only does this significantly shorten vaccine production times, the electrons destroy only the nucleic acids in the viruses and bacteria, leaving their proteins intact. (
  • Successful heat inactivation coincided with the loss of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) characteristics, and β-propiolactone inactivation reduced the hemagglutination titer and NA activity of the human influenza virus 10-fold or more. (
  • A protocol, which applied 2% buffered FA for 60 min and a temperature-shift from 25 to 37 °C after 30 min was efficient for the complete inactivation of all test viruses, and therefore has the potential to improve both biosafety and speed of diagnostic electron microscopy. (
  • The obtained results showed that the use of Glutaraldehyde, Formalin or TH4® 0.5% without protein load led to complete inactivation of the virus after 15, 30, 60 or 120 min contact time. (
  • In contrast, using Formalin and TH4® (1% and 2%) with and without protein load led to complete inactivation of the virus even at the shortest contact time of 15 min. (
  • Recent genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screens revealed that genetically divergent viruses require biosynthetic membrane transport by the COPI coatomer complex for efficient replication. (
  • We defined "size-normalized sensitivity" (SnS) by multiplying UV 254 sensitivities ( D 37 values) by the genome size, and SnS values were relatively constant for viruses with similar genetic composition. (
  • The contribution of each base to genome transesterification, and hence inactivation, could be related to the base pKa by means of a Bronsted relationship. (
  • Other viruses are only carcinogenic when they integrate into the host cell genome as part of a biological accident, such as polyomaviruses and papillomaviruses. (
  • It is not known whether the entire virus genome of MuLV is necessary for these interactions, as has been previously observed in the avian sarcoma-leukaemia system (Levinson & Rubin, 1966). (
  • Caliciviruses are a group of nonenveloped RNA viruses containing a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome in the family Caliciviridae . (
  • The hydroxyl radicals produced during photocatalysis are considered nonspecific, but they likely cause greater overall damage to virus capsid proteins relative to the genome. (
  • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation inactivates viruses by chemically modifying the genome. (
  • After treatment, the presence of residual infectious virus particles was investigated using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and an in vivo experimental model in pigs. (
  • The total infectious virus concentration in the suspension of floc particles that eventually formed by dosing with coagulant was measured after the floc particles were dissolved by raising the pH with an alkaline beef extract solution. (
  • The LoD for infectious virus was estimated to be 1 plaque-forming unit/mL, and for RNA to be 232 copies/mL (95% CI 163-302 copies/mL). (
  • Research into this new virus will be facilitated by the availability of clearly described and effective procedures that enable the propagation and quantification of infectious virus . (
  • Thus, the virus represents a threat to healthcare workers who manage infected patients or diagnostic samples and researchers who work with infectious virus in laboratories. (
  • Rotavirus survival on human hands and transfer of infectious virus to animate and nonporous inanimate surfaces. (
  • Herein, we investigated the efficacy of high-pressure processing (HPP) in inactivation of HEV-3 using a cell culture system. (
  • These results indicate that the efficacy of HPP treatment in the inactivation of HEV-3 is matrix-dependent, and independent of maximum pressure between 400 and 600 MPa and hold time between 1 and 5 min. (
  • The efficacy of amino-fullerene also demonstrates that singlet oxygen is effective for AdV2 inactivation. (
  • The efficacy of inactivation treatment can be affected by many variables, so those variables must be held constant. (
  • Advances in reverse genetics or structural vaccinology provide technical platforms for the development of new vaccines with the desired level of efficacy and safety, including virus-like particles (VLPs), vectored vaccines, and live attenuated vaccines ( Sette and Rappuoli, 2010 ). (
  • Intra-family differences in efficacy of inactivation of small, non-enveloped viruses. (
  • online Technical Appendix, Reliable inactivation of specimens before removal from (
  • Proper and reliable inactivation of specimens destined for removal from high-level biocontainment is a critical aspect for laboratory certification and operation. (
  • Reliable inactivation of specimens before removal from high-level biocontainment is crucial for safe operation. (
  • Higher psoralen binding levels and lower mutagenicity are described, resulting in safer, more efficient, and reliable inactivation. (
  • HPP has been indicated as a promising non-thermal pathogen inactivation strategy for treatment of certain high-risk food commodities, without any noticeable changes in their nature. (
  • The mechanisms and extent of virus dispersal are often unclear. (
  • Natural organic matter (NOM) has a large influence, as it can attenuate radiation and thus decrease inactivation by endogenous mechanisms. (
  • These two mechanisms differ in their biology and epidemiology: direct tumor viruses must have at least one virus copy in every tumor cell expressing at least one protein or RNA that is causing the cell to become cancerous. (
  • The monkeypox virus has a lipid membrane, or "envelope," that encases the virus capsid. (
  • However, if viruses could be reversibly coated in a protective coat in addition to their capsid, they could potentially spread very widely. (
  • Adenovirus inactivation likely occurs through breaching the capsid followed by radical attack of DNA and core proteins. (
  • The Impact of Capsid Proteins on Virus Removal and Inactivation During" by Brooke K. Mayer, Yu Yang et al. (
  • Capsid composition did not correlate strongly to virus removal during physicochemical treatment, nor did virus size. (
  • We tested heat, formalin, Triton X-100, and β-propiolactone treatments for their potencies in inactivating human influenza A(H3N2) and avian A(H7N3) viruses, as well as seasonal and pandemic A(H1N1) virus isolates, while allowing the specimens to retain their virological and immunological properties. (
  • Triton X-100 treatment proved to be the easiest-to-use influenza virus inactivation protocol for application in combination with phenotypic NA inhibitor susceptibility assays, while formalin treatment preserved B-cell and T-cell epitope antigenicity, allowing the detection of both humoral and cellular immune responses. (
  • In conclusion, we demonstrated successful influenza virus characterization using formalin- and Triton X-100-inactivated virus samples. (
  • Formalin inactivation of vesicular stomatitis virus impairs T-cell- but not T-help-independent B-cell responses. (
  • We found that formalin inactivation of VSV prevents infection of Vero cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, as shown by fluorometric cell analysis and inhibition of plaque formation. (
  • After treatment of contaminated carriers (poplar wood and gauze) with Formalin, Glutaraldehyde and TH4® 0.5%, the virus was inactivated after 30 min. (
  • Second-order ozone inactivation rate constants (kO3-virus) of five enteric viruses (laboratory and two environmental strains of coxsackievirus B5: CVF, CVEnv1 and CVEnv2, human adenovirus: HAdV, and echovirus 11: EV) and four bacteriophages (MS2, Q, T4 and Φ174) were measured in buffered solutions. (
  • Survival of enteric viruses on environmental fomites. (
  • Effects of sanitation, freezing and frozen storage on enteric viruses in berries and herbs. (
  • Beta Propiolactone inactivation of virus (PLEASE HELP! (
  • Hi all PLEASE help me I'm looking for some confirmation or otherwise of the inactivation of HIV, HBV, and HCV by beta propiolactone. (
  • LETTERS travelers returning from Cuba with a rash, similarly to pa- Inactivation and tients returning from other countries in which dengue fever, chikungunya fever, and Zika virus infection are endemic. (
  • Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection of zoonotic origin is an emerging concern in industrialized countries. (
  • Chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major public health problem worldwide, with 350-400 million chronic HBV carriers and 0.5-1 million deaths a year as a result of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, or HBV related liver failure [ 1 ]. (
  • The World Health Organization 's International Agency for Research on Cancer estimated that in 2002, infection caused 17.8% of human cancers, with 11.9% caused by one of seven viruses. (
  • Generally, tumor viruses cause little or no disease after infection in their hosts, or cause non- neoplastic diseases such as acute hepatitis for hepatitis B virus or mononucleosis for Epstein-Barr virus . (
  • Secondly, asymptomatic virus infection and carriage is the norm for most tumor viruses, which violates Koch's third principle. (
  • Detection of antibody-dependent complement-mediated inactivation of both autologous and heterologous virus in primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. (
  • The recent discovery that human noroviruses (huNoVs) recognize sialic acids (SAs) in addition to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) pointed to a new direction in studying virus-host interactions during calicivirus infection. (
  • Our findings further highlight TV as a valuable surrogate for huNoVs, particularly in studying virus-host interactions that may involve two host carbohydrate receptors or co-receptors for infection. (
  • Attachment to a host cell receptor is the first, essential step for a virus to initiate a successful infection. (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is thought to be controlled by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). (
  • We now demonstrate that hepatocellular HBV replication is also abolished noncytopathically during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, and we show that this process is mediated by TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha/beta produced by LCMV-infected hepatic macrophages. (
  • According to Mr. Walter Bond, Infection Control Specialist for the Centers for Disease Control, the solvents and heat used in the dry cleaning process are sufficient to destroy the viruses (see attachments). (
  • This judgment contrasts with the more definite and sensitive role of PCR in diagnosing HIV-1 infection in patients in whom a positive HIV-1 PCR result correlates with active HIV-1 infection and with PCR's usefulness in monitoring virus removal. (
  • Zika virus infection might also be associated with an increased incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome ( 8 ). (
  • Using Zika virus stock containing 2.5% fetal calf serum (FCS) mixed 3:10 (vol/vol) with indicated alcohols, we incubated the mixture for 1 minute and then used it for infection ( Figure , panel A). All alcohols entirely inactivated the virus. (
  • Enterically infecting viruses: pathogenicity, transmission and significance for food and waterborne infection. (
  • Inorganic aluminum salts, such as aluminum sulfate, are coagulants that cause small particles, such as bacteria and viruses as well as inorganic particles, to destabilize and combine into larger aggregates. (
  • The industrial-scale manufacturing of viruses or virus-like particles in cell culture is necessary for gene therapy and the treatment of cancer with oncolytic viruses. (
  • Complex multistep processes are required in both cases, but the low virus titers in batch cultures and the temperature sensitivity of the virus particles limit the production scale. (
  • Viruses for in vivo applications show a limited affinity for their target cells, they are generally unstable and large doses of infective virus particles (up to 10 12 active virus particles per dose) are needed to achieve a therapeutic effect. (
  • PCR was able to detect the RNA associated with inactivated HIV-1 particles in the factor concentrates, which allows the conclusion that PCR is not a useful test with which to monitor virus-inactivation procedures such as heating at 80 degrees C for 72 hours. (
  • Introduction of a new influenza virus in humans urges quick analysis of its virological and immunological characteristics to determine the impact on public health and to develop protective measures for the human population. (
  • At present, however, the necessity of executing pandemic influenza virus research under biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) high-containment conditions severely hampers timely characterization of such viruses. (
  • Application of these inactivation protocols limits work under BSL-3 conditions to virus culture, thus enabling more timely determination of public health impact and development of protective measures when a new influenza virus, e.g., pandemic A(H1N1)v virus, is introduced in humans. (
  • Examples are the introduction of human immunodeficiency virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and pandemic influenza A viruses in humans. (
  • In particular, avian influenza A virus subtypes H5N1, H9N2, and H7N7 have been transmitted directly to humans in the past decade, exhibiting the zoonotic potential of influenza viruses ( 4 , 11 , 19 , 25 ). (
  • Moreover, the recent introduction of swine origin influenza A(H1N1)v virus in humans initiated the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century ( 16 , 35 ). (
  • Influenza virus has been found to persist in the environment for hours to days, allowing for secondary transmission of influenza via inanimate objects known as fomites. (
  • Aqueous suspensions of influenza A virus were deposited onto stainless steel coupons, allowed to dry under ambient conditions, and exposed to temperatures of 55°C, 60°C, or 65°C and relative humidity (RH) of 25%, 50%, or 75% for up to 1 h. (
  • Inactivation of influenza virus on surfaces increased with increasing temperature, RH, and exposure time. (
  • In a recent publication, Shaman and Kohn concluded that absolute humidity, which can be calculated if temperature and relative humidity (RH) are known, is the controlling factor in both the inactivation of influenza virus and the transmission of influenza ( 27 ). (
  • One question that comes to mind is whether this trend of decreasing influenza virus survival with increasing absolute humidity (AH) persists as temperature increases. (
  • Transmission of influenza virus, especially in the event of a pandemic with a highly virulent strain of influenza virus, such as avian influenza H5N1 virus or 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus, is of great concern due to widespread mortality and morbidity ( 7 , 23 ). (
  • There is compelling evidence for transmission of influenza viruses from infected individuals to uninfected individuals by direct contact, via fomites (inanimate objects capable of carrying infectious organisms), and through large droplets expelled during forceful exhalation, such as during coughing and sneezing ( 2 - 4 , 19 ). (
  • GT treatment resulted in complete and irreversible inactivation of influenza virus as well as dengue virus. (
  • Influenza-B virus is a genus in the virusfamily Orthomyxoviridae. (
  • Influenza B virus only infects humansand seals. (
  • This limited host range is apparently in contrast with those caused by the similar Influenza virus Aas both mutate by both genetic drift and reassortment. (
  • Influenza-B virus evolves slower than A viruses and faster than C viruses. (
  • Influenza-B virus mutates at a rate 2-3 times lower than type A. However, influenza B mutates enough that lasting immunity is not possible. (
  • The Influenza B virus capsidis enveloped while its virionconsists of a matrix protein + envelope + nucleoprotein complex + nucleocapsid, and a polymerasecomplex. (
  • The Influenza B virus is 14648 nucleotideslong and consists of eight segments of linear negative-sense, single-stranded RNA. (
  • Allantoic fluid of 10 days old embryonated eggs, inoculated with influenza B virus, strain B/Florida/04/06. (
  • The Influenza B Virus was purified by Ultracentrifugation with 10-40 % sucrose gradient. (
  • Serological studies of influenza B virus, immunogen for antibody production.Tested with anti-influenza B monoclonal antibodies in ELISA. (
  • High-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus, low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus, virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) and low-virulent Newcastle disease virus (lNDV) can be present on the eggshell surface, and HPAI viruses and vNDV can be present in the internal contents of chicken eggs laid by infected hens. (
  • Alice: Simple, low-cost and long-lasting film for virus inactivation using influenza a virus (H1N1) model as challenge. (
  • This type of process is typically used for parvoviruses and other viruses containing a protein coat. (
  • Chromatographic methods of removing viruses are great for purifying the protein and are also effective against all types of viruses, but the level of virus removal is dependent on the column composition and the reagents that are used in the process. (
  • Many viruses contain lipid or protein coats that can be inactivated by chemical alteration. (
  • Significant interference with Hepatitis B virus replication by a core-nuclease fusion protein," The Journal ofBiological Chemistry, Mar. 2001, vol. 276, p. 8875-8883. (
  • Using a human glial fibrillary acidic protein (hGFAP) promoter-driven cre transgene, we have achieved efficient inactivation of a floxed connexin43 ( Cx43 ) gene in astrocytes of adult mice. (
  • Transient inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication by siRNAs silencing VP1 protein coding region. (
  • For mAbs, low pH virus inactivation is typically performed directly after the Protein A capture chromatography step, as the elution pool is typically close to the required inactivation pH. (
  • Collection of elution pool enables homogenization of the protein and, therefore, eliminates any impact of protein concentration gradient on virus inactivation and simplifies virus clearance validation studies. (
  • Although genomic damage is likely more extensive than protein damage for viruses treated using UV, proteins are still substantially degraded. (
  • Use of Virkon®S 0.5% with and without protein load led to survival of the virus even after 60 min. (
  • Next, we repeated these experiments in the presence of a high protein load using Zika virus preparations supplemented with FCS in increasing concentrations (10%, 40%, 90%), to mimic virus found in clinically relevant material. (
  • To examine the efficiency of FA inactivation, we used Vaccinia virus , Human adenovirus and Murine norovirus as models and treated them with FA under various conditions. (
  • Monkeypox is a member of the orthopoxvirus family, which is closely related to smallpox and the virus used in the smallpox vaccine, vaccinia. (
  • Vaccinia virus was air-dried in a biosafety cabinet. (
  • The vaccinia virus (VV) replicates robustly and alters the progression of the cell cycle via an unknown mechanism. (
  • Viruses coopt cellular membrane transport to invade cells, establish intracellular sites of replication, and release progeny virions. (
  • Here we found that disrupting COPI function by RNAi inhibited an early stage of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication. (
  • EsiRNAs inhibit Hepatitis B virus replication in mice model more efficiently than synthesized siRNAs," Virus Research, 2006, vol. 118, p. 150-155. (
  • HBV is unusual among DNA viruses because its replication involves reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. (
  • Murine leukaemia virus (MuLV) exhibits two kinds of interaction with mouse cells transformed by murine sarcoma virus (MSV) in vitro (Bassin, Tuttle & Fischinger, 1970): an apparent cytocidal interaction accompanied by virus replication and the rescue of infectious MSV. (
  • Overall, these controls may contribute to the efficient replication of the virus in rapidly growing cells. (
  • Next, we evaluated environmental stability by drying 100 μL of Zika virus stock for 18 hours. (
  • Should alternative, generally lower, processing temperatures be required, this report presents guidelines temperature/time equivalents for the inactivation of hepatitis A virus based on available experimental data and according to the product characteristics (e.g. pH and sugar content). (
  • Critical parameters for the inactivation efficiency were the temperature, the duration of the FA treatment, and the resistance of the virus in question. (
  • Our results show that FA inactivation at low temperature (4 °C) bears a high risk of incomplete inactivation. (
  • Poliovirus was inactivated at a greater rate than f2, but the change in the rate of inactivation with increasing temperature in the range of approximately 10 to 40 degrees C was greater for f2 than for poliovirus. (
  • Arrhenius plots of the data were biphasic, indicating that two inactivation processes were occurring, one for the low temperature range and another for the high temperature range. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Virus inactivation rates incorporated into models should be appropriate for the climate/catchment in question with particular regard to soil type and temperature. (
  • Thermal inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in milk using high-temperature, short-time pasteurization. (
  • ASTM E2888-12 states that this latter process should assure 5 log10 inactivation of non-defective C-type retroviruses when performed under the following parameters: hold temperature of ≥ 15 °C, hold time of ≥30 minutes, and pH of ≤3.6 throughout the course of the hold (2). (
  • To evaluate and understand inactivation of HRV under many physical conditions and chemical agents , HRV86 were selected to expose with temperature, ultraviolet light (UV), Sodium hypochlorite, Virkon S, Peracetic acid (PAA), Glutaraldehyde and Ethanolin, respectively. (
  • Modelling the inactivation of viruses from the Coronaviridae family in response to temperature and relative humidity in suspensions or surfaces. (
  • Temperature and relative humidity are major factors determining virus inactivation in the environment. (
  • This article reviews inactivation data of coronaviruses on surfaces and in liquids from published studies and develops secondary models to predict coronaviruses inactivation as a function of temperature and relative humidity. (
  • Some viruses and bacteria (especially Gram-positive) are susceptible to exogenous inactivation, which can be initiated by visible as well as UV wavelengths. (
  • Rather than days or even weeks, a few milliseconds are all that is needed to kill off viruses or bacteria. (
  • When following an inactivation procedure, the limits of detection of the viability testing procedures and expected run-to-run variation may prevent demonstrating full sterility of inactivated material. (
  • In each of seven patients studied, antibodies capable of CMI appeared at or shortly after the peak in viremia, concomitantly with detection of virus-specific T-cell responses. (
  • A. Marcano and D. Kingsley, "Using Uric Acid for Singlet Oxygen Detection in a Laser Virus Inactivation Experiment," in Biophotonics Congress: Optics in the Life Sciences Congress 2019 (BODA,BRAIN,NTM,OMA,OMP) , The Optical Society (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JT4A.29. (
  • Serotype-independent detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus. (
  • BX-1 could effectively eliminate SARS-CoV-2 within 2 mins in plasma, and the virus titer declined to 4.5 log10 TCID50 (median tissue culture infectious dose)/mL. (
  • Working with Zika virus, a Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) pathogen in the European Union, except for the United Kingdom (where it is BSL-3), requires specific safety precautions ( 9 ). (
  • Based on the measured kO3-Virus and typical ozone exposures applied in water and wastewater treatment, we conclude that ozone is a highly effective disinfectant for virus control. (
  • To check the best type of disinfectant for each virus, see Tables 1 and 4. (
  • The set of tables and figures presented in this section categorize the viruses and agents according to their physical characteristics to show clearly which disinfectant is best used for inactivation. (
  • A predictive microbiology approach for thermal inactivation of Hepatitis A virus in acidified berries. (
  • STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Inactivation was performed with three WNV isolates spiked into WBC-reduced RBCs. (
  • We conducted a systematic literature review of inactivation rate constants for a wide range of viruses . (
  • Using these data and virus characteristics, we developed and evaluated linear and nonlinear models for predicting inactivation rate constants. (
  • the predicted rate constants were within 7% and 71% of the experimental rate constants, respectively, indicating that the prediction was more accurate for the (+) ssRNA virus than the dsDNA virus . (
  • Finally, we applied our models to predict the UV254 rate constants of several viruses for which high- quality UV254 inactivation data are not available. (
  • This work should be a useful step to understanding and eventually predicting the survival of viruses after their release in the environment. (
  • Our data also suggest that absolute humidity is a better predictor of surface inactivation than RH and allows the prediction of survival using two parameters rather than three. (
  • Therefore, the generation of survival curves to determine decimal reduction times (DT -values) and change in heat resistance of the viruses (zD-value) within fat-free egg product could provide valuable information for development of risk reduction strategies. (
  • This review summarises current knowledge about the influence of environmental factors on the survival and spread of viruses via contaminated surfaces. (
  • Virus also was completely inactivated after exposure to sodium hypochlorite (0.1 g/L) beyond 10 min, glutaraldehyde (10 g/L) for 5 min, Virkon-S (5 g/L) for 10 min, PAA (3 g/L) for 2 min, or 75% alcohol for 5 min or longer. (
  • Dengue virus inactivation by minipool TnBP/Triton X-45 treatment of plasma and cryoprecipitate. (
  • The goal of this study was to determine the rate and extent of inactivation of dengue virus (DENV) during this process. (
  • Erratum published on 4 August 2016, see Viruses 2016 , 8 (8), 217 . (
  • Virus removal processes using nanofiltration techniques remove viruses specifically by size exclusion. (
  • In order to achieve inactivation of the viruses in the sample, it is necessary to perform "special" purification processes that will chemically alter the virus in some way. (
  • To accurately predict inactivation and design engineered systems that enhance solar inactivation, it is necessary to model these processes, although some details are not yet sufficiently well understood. (
  • In this chapter, we introduce two virus production processes as case studies, emphasizing the differences in process design. (
  • We demonstrate the generation of singlet oxygen in a laser virus inactivation experiment using a low power diode light at 405 nm by detecting photobleaching of the absorption peak of uric acid at 294 nm. (
  • However, published experimental data that demonstrate virus inactivation by these fixation procedures are lacking. (
  • However, accurate and quantitative kinetic data regarding virus inactivation by ozone is scarce, due to the experimental challenges associated with the high reactivity of ozone towards viruses. (
  • Here, we established an experimental batch system that allows tailoring and quantifying very low ozone exposures and simultaneously measuring virus inactivation. (
  • The experimental system used to develop the CTVI strategy for retroviruses is designed to block the production of infectious Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV). (
  • Thermal inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in suspension. (
  • Methylene blue (MB) and its derivatives azure A, B, C and thionine are photoactive and, in principle, are suitable for photodynamic virus inactivation of blood and blood products, such as therapeutic plasma. (
  • Given that PRD1 is similar in size to adenoviruses, yet more conservative with regard to inactivation in soil, it may be a useful surrogate in studies of Adenovirus fate and transport. (
  • viruses with single-strand, negative-sense RNA genomes, For in vivo testing, samples were increased in volume such as arenaviruses, bunyaviruses, filoviruses, ortho- to 1 mL and equally divided to infect 5 mice intraperi- myxoviruses, and paramyxoviruses. (
  • Although coronaviruses typically infect the upper or lower respiratory tract, the virus RNA can be detected in plasma. (
  • Some viruses are tumorigenic when they infect a cell and persist as circular episomes or plasmids, replicating separately from host cell DNA ( Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ). (
  • In order to eliminate disease viruses/agents from clothing, vehicles, tools, carcasses or the environment, there must be a good understanding of the general properties of each infectious agent and the subtle ways each may persist in the environment and infect other animals. (
  • We combined our estimates of virus sensitivity with solar measurements at different geographical locations to predict virus inactivation. (
  • A spreadsheet predicting the inactivation of coronaviruses and the associated uncertainty is presented and can be used to predict virus inactivation for untested temperatures, time points or any coronavirus strains belonging to Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus genera.Importance: The prediction of the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 on fomites is essential to investigate the importance of contact transmission. (
  • We designed, built or 3D printed, and screened tubular reactors that minimize axial dispersion to serve as incubation chambers for continuous virus inactivation of biological products. (
  • The goal of this study was to estimate inactivation of viruses by solar exposure. (
  • In this critical review, we summarize the photo-physics, -chemistry, and -biology that underpin sunlight-mediated inactivation, as well as the targets of damage and cellular responses to sunlight exposure. (
  • Vilhelm Ellerman and Olaf Bang, University of Copenhagen, first demonstrated that avian sarcoma leukosis virus could be transmitted after cell-free filtration to new chickens, causing leukemia. (

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