Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Hepatitis C Antigens: Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing): A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Hepatitis A Virus, Human: A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Cool-Down Exercise: Tapering-off physical activity from vigorous to light, to gradually return the body to pre-exercise condition and metabolic state.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 184.108.40.206.Amino Acid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Hepatovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Cryoglobulinemia: A condition characterized by the presence of abnormal quantities of CRYOGLOBULINS in the blood. Upon cold exposure, these abnormal proteins precipitate into the microvasculature leading to restricted blood flow in the exposed areas.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Hepatitis A Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Blood DonorsInterferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Goiter, Nodular: An enlarged THYROID GLAND containing multiple nodules (THYROID NODULE), usually resulting from recurrent thyroid HYPERPLASIA and involution over many years to produce the irregular enlargement. Multinodular goiters may be nontoxic or may induce THYROTOXICOSIS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck: An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Flaviviridae: A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.DucksTransketolase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 220.127.116.11.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Tattooing: The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Marmota: A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 18.104.22.168.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Hepatitis D, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA Virus InfectionsTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Afferent Loop Syndrome: A complication of gastrojejunostomy (BILLROTH II PROCEDURE), a reconstructive GASTROENTEROSTOMY. It is caused by acute (complete) or chronic (intermittent) obstruction of the afferent jejunal loop due to HERNIA, intussusception, kinking, VOLVULUS, etc. It is characterized by PAIN and VOMITING of BILE-stained fluid.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Phycobilisomes: Light energy harvesting structures attached to the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of CYANOBACTERIA and RED ALGAE. These multiprotein complexes contain pigments (PHYCOBILIPROTEINS) that transfer light energy to chlorophyll a.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Polyproteins: Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.GB virus B: A species of virus (tentatively placed in the genus HEPACIVIRUS) in the family FLAVIVIRIDAE, that was recovered from a tamarin monkey, but may have been of human origin. It causes HEPATITIS in several species of New World monkeys.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon
... epsilon Duck HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon Hepatitis B virus PRE alpha Hepatitis B virus PRE beta Hepatitis B virus PRE ... Beck, J; Nassal, M (2003). "Efficient Hsp90-independent in vitro activation by Hsc70 and Hsp40 of duck hepatitis B virus ... Page for HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon at Rfam HBVRegDB Hepatitis B Virus HBV Regulatory Sequence Database (HBVRegDB). ... "Hepatitis B virus replication". World J. Gastroenterol. 13 (1): 48-64. doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i1.48. PMC 4065876 . PMID 17206754. ...
Tanaka M, Katayama F, Kato H, Tanaka H, Wang J, Qiao YL, Inoue M (2011). "Hepatitis B and C virus infection and hepatocellular ... to hepatitis C. Chronic hepatitis C causes HCC through the stage of cirrhosis. In chronic hepatitis B, however, the integration ... Chronic viral hepatitis (estimated cause of 80% cases globally) Chronic hepatitis B (approximately 50% cases) Chronic hepatitis ... The incidence of HCC in the United States and other developing countries is increasing due to an increase in hepatitis C virus ...
"Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses of Plants". Viruses. 1 (3): 1325-1350. doi:10.3390/v1031325. "Hepatitis D Virus". web. ... The Tobacco necrosis virus was the first virus that lead to the discovery of the first satellite virus in 1962. Scientists ... virus small satellite RNA Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV satellite RNA Chicory yellow mottle virus satellite RNA Hepatitis D ... mosaic virus small satellite RNA Peanut stunt virus satellite RNA Turnip crinkle virus satellite RNA Tomato bushy stunt virus ...
Nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) is a viral protein found in the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is an RNA polymerase, having the ... O'Farrell, D; Trowbridge, R; Rowlands, D; Jäger, J (2003). "Substrate complexes of hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase (HC-J4): ... Moradpour, D; Penin, F; Rice, CM (2007). "Replication of hepatitis C virus". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 5 (6): 453-63. doi: ... "Crystal structures of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genotype 2a of hepatitis C virus reveal two conformations and suggest ...
Rice, C.M.; Rawlings, N.D.; Woessner, J.F. (1998). "Hepatitis C virus polyprotein peptidase". In Barrett, A.J. Handbook of ... Hepacivirin (EC 22.214.171.124, Cpro-2, hepatitis C virus NS3 serine proteinase, NS3-4A serine proteinase complex) is an enzyme. ... This enzyme is encoded by the genome of the viruses of the hepatitis C group. Kim, J.L.; Morgenstern, K.A.; Lin, C.; Fox, T.; ... "Crystal structure of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease domain complexed with a synthetic NS4A cofactor peptide". Cell. 87: 343 ...
Infectious causes of cancer
... hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most frequently encountered oncogenic DNA viruses. Worldwide, HPV ... Infection by some hepatitis viruses, especially hepatitis B and hepatitis C, can induce a chronic viral infection that leads to ... World-wide, liver cancer mortality is more often due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) (33%), less often due to hepatitis C virus (HCV ... Liver cancer in the United States is primarily due to three main factors: hepatitis C virus (HCV) (22%), hepatitis B virus (HBV ...
Genome-wide association study
One such success is related to identifying the genetic variant associated with response to anti-hepatitis C virus treatment. ... Iadonato SP, Katze MG (September 2009). "Genomics: Hepatitis C virus gets personal". Nature. 461 (7262): 357-8. doi:10.1038/ ... "Genetic variation in IL28B and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus". Nature. 461 (7265): 798-801. doi:10.1038/ ... For genotype 1 hepatitis C treated with Pegylated interferon-alpha-2a or Pegylated interferon-alpha-2b combined with ribavirin ...
Timeline of liver cancer
Trent Hepatitis C virus Study Group". J Viral Hepat. 5: 165-9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2893.1998.00102.x. PMID 9658369. "Molecular ... "Hepatitis G infection: role in cryptogenic chronic liver disease and primary liver cell cancer in the UK. ... doi:10.1002/hep.22412. PMC 4142499 . PMID 18688876. "Liver cancer risk influenced by blood selenium levels". Medical News Today ... 3.0.CO;2-X. "Hepatitis B VIS". Retrieved 1 October 2016. van Sonnenberg, Eric; McMullen, William; Solbiati, Luigi. Tumor ...
Human (mammalian) viruses Human varicella zoster virus (VZV) Chandipura virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Hepatitis C virus (HPC ... the pathogen-host interactomes of Hepatitis C Virus/Human (2008), Epstein Barr virus/Human (2008), Influenza virus/Human (2009 ... Human-HCV interactions Hepatitis E virus (HEV) Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ... 2008-11-04). "Hepatitis C virus infection protein network". Molecular Systems Biology. 4 (4): 230. doi:10.1038/msb.2008.66. PMC ...
Nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) is a viral protein found in the hepatitis C virus. It is also produced by influenza viruses, and ... Lorenz, Ivo (Aug 2010). "The Hepatitis C Virus Nonstructural Protein 2 (NS2): An Up-and-Coming Antiviral Drug Target". Viruses ... "Hepatitis C Virus p7 and NS2 Proteins Are Essential for Production of Infectious Virus". J Virol. 81 (16): 8374-8383. Retrieved ... May 2003). "The hepatitis C virus NS2 protein is an inhibitor of CIDE-B-induced apoptosis". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (20): 18256-64. ...
Nucleic acid secondary structure
The hepatitis delta virus ribozyme is a well known example of a catalytic RNA with a pseudoknot in its active site. Though DNA ... Lai, Michael M. C. (1995-06-01). "The Molecular Biology of Hepatitis Delta Virus". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 64 (1): 259- ... Doudna, Jennifer A.; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R.; Zhou, Kaihong (October 1998). "Crystal structure of a hepatitis delta virus ...
... hepatitis C virus, hantaviruses, rotaviruses, poliovirus type 1, human respiratory syncytial virus, murine leukemia viruses and ... Azzam HS, Goertz C, Fritts M, Jonas WB (2007). "Natural products and chronic hepatitis C virus". Liver Int. 27 (1): 17-25. doi: ... Beside interacting with the cell membrane, lactoferrin also directly binds to viral particles, such as the hepatitis viruses. ... Lactoferrin also suppresses virus replication after the virus penetrated into the cell. Such an indirect antiviral effect is ...
Health in Egypt
Alter, MJ (2007-05-07). "Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection" (PDF). World Journal of Gastroenterology. 13 (17): 2436- ... Egypt has particularly high rates of Hepatitis C (22%), one of the highest worldwide (Pakistan (4.8%), China (3.2%)). It is ... Some water treatment plants are not maintained properly and are thus inefficient in removing parasites, viruses and other ... "Hepatitis C". World Health Organization (WHO). June 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-13. ...
Infections associated with diseases
Mazzaro, C; Tirelli, U; Pozzato, G (2005). "Hepatitis C virus and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 10 years later". Digestive and Liver ... "BK Virus, JC Virus and Simian Virus 40 Infection in Humans, and Association with Human Tumors". Polyomaviruses and Human ... Negro, F; Alaei, M (2009). "Hepatitis C virus and type 2 diabetes". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 15 (13): 1537-47. doi: ... The virus causing this illness was isolated in 1937. The rash typical of Lyme borreliosis was identified the early 1900s. ...
... hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus, among other infections Nowak, Martin; May, Robert (2001). Virus Dynamics: ... Nowak, MA; Bonhoeffer, S; Hill, AM; Boehme, R; Thomas, HC; McDade, H (1996). "Viral dynamics in hepatitis B virus infection". ... Ciupe, SM; Ribeiro, RM; Nelson, PW; Perelson, AS (2007). "Modeling the mechanisms of acute hepatitis B virus infection". ... It employs a family of mathematical models that describe changes over time in the populations of cells targeted by the virus ...
Sociology of health and illness
They called it "Hepatitis Delta Virus" (HDV). This new virus was found to be defective. HDV needed HBV to act as a helper ... Incubation of Hepatitis D typically lasts for thirty five days. Most often Hepatitis D is a co-infection with Hepatitis B or a ... HDV is still considered an unusual form of hepatitis. Agents of this virus resemble that of plant viroids. It is still hard to ... Normally Hepatitis B is transmitted through blood or any type of blood product. In South America Hepatitis D was found to be ...
Maya R, Gershwin ME, Shoenfeld Y (February 2008). "Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and autoimmune disease". Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. ... Human immunodeficiency virus, parvovirus B19 and BK virus are known to induce these antibodies. There is little evidence ... This substrate has largely been superseded by the use of HEp-2 cells. Hep-2 cells, originally of laryngeal carcinoma origin, ... HEp-2 cells provide a greater ability to differentiate patterns of ANA than animal sections, due to the large nuclei and high ...
Poor immune function, autoimmune diseases, Helicobacter pylori infection, hepatitis C, obesity, Epstein-Barr virus infection ... Hepatitis C virus: associated with splenic marginal zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ... hepatitis C, obesity and Epstein-Barr virus infection. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies lymphomas into five ... Epstein-Barr virus: associated with Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, follicular dendritic cell sarcoma, extranodal NK-T- ...
Hepatitis C virus. miR-122 Antiviral. pHIV7-shI-TAR-CCR5RZ. HIV. HIV Tat protein, HIV TAR RNA, human CCR5 ... Immunity against viruses or transposons. RNA silencing is the mechanism that our cells (and cells from all kingdoms) use ... Adeno-associated virus (AAV). ~4.5Kb. ssDNA vector, small packaging capacity, mildly immunogenic, lasting expression in non- ... In the case of RNA viruses, these get destroyed immediately by the mechanism cited above. In the case of transposons, it's a ...
"Deciphering the Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis B Viruses by Means of a Family of Non-enveloped Fish Viruses". Cell Host & ... Family Nackednaviridae - e.g. African cichlid nackednavirus (ACNDV), formerly named African cichlid hepatitis B virus (ACHBV).[ ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ...
Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide A
1998). "Binding of hepatitis C virus to CD81". Science. 282 (5390): 938-41. doi:10.1126/science.282.5390.938. PMID 9794763. ... This protein plays a critical role in Hepatitis C attachment and/or cell entry by interacting with virus' E1/E2 glycoproteins ... Ye J (2007). "Reliance of Host Cholesterol Metabolic Pathways for the Life Cycle of Hepatitis C Virus". PLoS Pathog. 3 (8): ... 2000). "Identification of Amino Acid Residues in CD81 Critical for Interaction with Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Glycoprotein E2 ...
Nucleic acid tertiary structure
One example of a pseudoknot motif is the highly stable Hepatitis Delta virus ribozyme, in which the backbone shows an overall ... Ferré-D'Amaré AR, Zhou K, Doudna JA (October 1998). "Crystal structure of a hepatitis delta virus ribozyme". Nature. 395 (6702 ... Prody GA, Bakos JT, Buzayan JM, Schneider IR, Bruening G (March 1986). "Autolytic Processing of Dimeric Plant Virus Satellite ...
Paul H. Harvey
1989 in science
E2 is a viral structural protein found in the hepatitis C virus. It is present on the viral membrane and functions as a host ... Bartosch B, Dubuisson J, Cosset FL (2003). "Infectious hepatitis C virus pseudo-particles containing functional E1-E2 envelope ... "Hepatitis C virus (HCV) E1 and E2 protein regions that specifically bind to HepG2 cells". Journal of Hepatology. 36 (2): 254-62 ... "Hepatitis C virus E2 envelope glycoprotein core structure". Science. 342 (6162): 1090-4. doi:10.1126/science.1243876. PMC ...
For example, the genetic diversity of the DNA-based hepatitis B virus declined in the Netherlands in the late 1990s, following ... DNA viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, evolve orders of magnitude more slowly. These viruses have commensurately larger ... "A New Evolutionary Model for Hepatitis C Virus Chronic Infection". PLoS Pathogens. 8 (5): e1002656. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat. ... For antigenically variable viruses, it becomes crucial to model the risk of transmission from an individual infected with virus ...
Li Y, Zhang T, Ho C, Orange JS, Douglas SD, Ho WZ (December 2004). "Natural killer cells inhibit hepatitis C virus expression ... The virus integrates the receptor into the T cells' genome. The cells are expanded non-specifically and/or stimulated. The ... Kida K, Isozumi R, Ito M (December 2000). "Killing of human Herpes virus 6-infected cells by lymphocytes cultured with ... The therapy has been tested against Hepatitis C, Chronic fatigue syndrome and HHV6 infection. Genetically engineered T cells ...
T细胞 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... Role of regulatory T cells during virus infection. Immunological Reviews. September 2013, 255 (1): 182-96. PMC 3748387. PMID ... Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in ... IL-10 Induces T Cell Exhaustion During Transplantation of Virus Infected Hearts. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry. 2016, 38 ...
Genus Deltavirus, mit einziger Species Hepatitis-D-Virus (HDV). Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit positiver Polarität (ss(+)RNA: ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus' ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ...
Hepatitis D - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedija
Hepatitis D je oblika hepatitisa, ki ga povzroča virus hepatitisa D (VHD); le-ta za svoj razvoj potrebuje virus hepatitisa B. ... Glej glavni članek Virus hepatitisa D. Povzročitelj virus hepatitisa D je majhen krožen virus RNK z ovojnico. Spada med. t. i. ... hepatitis G. Viri[uredi , uredi kodo]. *^ http://lsm1.amebis.si/lsmeds/novPogoj.aspx?pPogoj=hepatitis, Slovenski medicinski e- ... Taylor JM (2006). "Hepatitis delta virus". Virology 344 (1): 71-76. PMID 16364738. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2005.09.033.. ...
The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... and viral hepatitis among others. ... "Ebola virus disease". www.who.int. Retrieved 28 May 2020.. *^ " ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
"Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ... PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... myasthenia gravis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcers. It is given by slow injection into a vein.[ ...
Hepatitis B reactivation. *Other viral infections. *Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by JC virus ... PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... myasthenia gravis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcers. It is given by slow injection into a vein.[ ...
Genetically modified tomato
In autoimmune hepatitis. In 1972, a link between "HLA A1,8" (current:HLA A1-B8) active chronic hepatitis, subsequently B8 ... Type 1 diabetes has a risk associated with coxsackie 4B virus, there is a potential for involvement of class I loci, ... doi:10.1002/hep.1840210411. PMID 7705806.. *^ Muratori P, Czaja AJ, Muratori L, et al. (March 2005). "Genetic distinctions ... "HLA-C genes and susceptibility to type 1 autoimmune hepatitis". Hepatology. 26 (4): 1023-6. doi:10.1002/hep.510260434. PMID ...
Lujo virus. References. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ... The Lassa virus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic. They therefore list it for ... Lassa virus is a member of the Arenavirida family of viruses. Specifically it is an old world arenavirus, which is enveloped ...
"Origin of measles virus: divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and 12th centuries.", Virol. J., 7 (52). ... Gujarat hepatitis (2009). *W. African meningitis (2009-2010). *Haiti cholera (2010-2019) ... "Origin of the Measles Virus: Divergence from Rinderpest Virus Between the 11th and 12th Centuries". Virology. 7: 52-55. doi ...
... ribavirin in reducing liver pathology in yellow fever virus infection may be similar to its activity in treatment of hepatitis ... Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ... Viruses reach the stomach of the mosquito, and if the virus concentration is high enough, the virions can infect epithelial ... Yellow fever is caused by yellow fever virus, a 40- to 50-nm-wide enveloped RNA virus, the type species and namesake of the ...
The viruses in this family can cause a range of diseases including paralysis, meningitis, hepatitis and poliomyelitis. ... deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, Drosophila C virus, Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and Himetobi P virus. Several ... This family includes Infectious flacherie virus and SeIV-1 virus. Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. ... Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Equine rhinitis A virus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Genus: Aquamavirus ...
... like with hepatitis B. In epidemic situations, such as the 2014-2016 West African Ebola virus epidemic or the 2003 SARS ... Health professionals are also at risk for contracting blood-borne diseases like hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV/AIDS through ... "Does your workplace culture help protect you from hepatitis?". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Archived ...
Healthcare in Cuba
Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... The JC virus or John Cunningham virus is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus). It was identified by ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ...
Artificial induction of immunity
Anthrax is now known to be caused by a bacterium, and rabies is known to be caused by a virus. The microscopes of the time ... a virus, or a prion. At present, the science to understand this process is available but not the technology to perform it. ... could reasonably be expected to show bacteria, but imaging of viruses had to wait until the development of electron microscopes ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
... hepatitis - hepatitis C and HIV coinfection - hepatomegaly - herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - ... human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV- ... human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - ... herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) - histocompatibility ...
White blood cell
CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. *γδ T cells: bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses; ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ... These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ...
ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders
Hepatitis B virus) viruses. Once inside the host cell's cytoplasm, the virus uses its own reverse transcriptase enzyme to ... "Deciphering the Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis B Viruses by Means of a Family of Non-enveloped Fish Viruses". Cell Host & ... Family Nackednaviridae - e.g. African cichlid nackednavirus (ACNDV), formerly named African cichlid hepatitis B virus (ACHBV).[ ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ...
This worldwide biomedical research organization based in Paris was the first to isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in ... In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was ... One area of particular interest is the study of human papilloma viruses (HPV) and their role in cervical cancers. Researchers ... Luc Montagnier, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and colleagues discovered the two HIV viruses that cause AIDS, in 1983 and 1985, was ...
Hepatit - Vikipedi
"Hepatitis viruses: not always what it seems to be". Rev Med Chil. 138 (10), s. 1302-11. doi:10.4067/S0034-98872010001100016. ... Arenavirus: Guanarito virus, Junín virus, Lassa fever virus, Lujo virus, Machupo virus ve Sabiá virus ... Hantaan virus, Puumala virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Seoul virus ve SFTS virus ... Flavivirus: Akhurma virus,Dengue, Hepatit C, Kyasanur Forest disease virus, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus, Sarı ...
Jaundice - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mold health issues
எயிட்சு - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
Laurence J (2006). "Hepatitis A and B virus immunization in HIV-infected persons". AIDS Reader 16 (1): 15-17. பப்மெட் 16433468. ... 1986). "Transactivation of the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat sequences by DNA viruses". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Pollok RC (2001). "Viruses causing diarrhoea in AIDS". Novartis Found. Symp. 238: 276-83; discussion 283-8. doi:10.1002/ ... Tóth FD, Bácsi A, Beck Z, Szabó J (2001). "Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus". Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung ...
Testing Recommendations for Hepatitis C Virus Infection | CDC
CDC and USPSTF recommendations for hepatitis C (HCV) screening among adults in the United States along with testing sequence ... Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infectionexternal icon. The USPSTF recommends screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection ... CDC Recommendations for Hepatitis C Screening Among Adults in the United States. *Universal hepatitis C screening: *Hepatitis C ... Interpretation of Results of Tests for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection and Further Actions pdf icon[PDF- 1 page] ...
Hepatitis C virus - Wikipedia
Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Further information: Hepatitis C § Epidemiology. Hepatitis C virus is predominantly a blood-borne virus, with very low risk of ... positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae. The hepatitis C virus is the cause of hepatitis C and some ... Main article: Hepatitis C vaccine. Unlike hepatitis A and B, there is currently no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C infection.[60 ...
Hepatitis D Virus | SpringerLink
... and it is considered the most pathogenic among all hepatotropic viruses. HDV infection occurs worldwide, but highly endemic ... The hepatitis D virus (HDV) was described in 1977, ... High prevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus in ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis D virus (HDV) coinfection in outbreaks of acute hepatitis in the Peruvian Amazon basin: the ... Hepatitis D virus and hepatitis B virus infection in Amerindian communities of the Amazonas state, Colombia. Virol J 12:172-175 ...
Hepatitis C Virus Molecular Epidemiology | CDC
Viral hepatitis materials for health professionals and patients, with links to MMWR publications and education campaigns, ... Know Hepatitis B encourages hepatitis B testing for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) ... Content source: Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention ... AtlasPlus is a tool to create customized tables, maps, and charts with CDCs viral hepatitis surveillance data ...
Hepatitis B virus PRE beta - Wikipedia
Hepatitis B virus PRE 1151-1410. References. *^ a b c Smith Gj, 3rd; Donello, JE; Lück, R; Steger, G; Hope, TJ (1998). " ... The Hepatitis B virus PRE stem-loop beta (HBV PRE SL-beta) is an RNA structure that is shown to play a role in nuclear export ... "The hepatitis B virus post-transcriptional regulatory element contains two conserved RNA stem-loops which are required for ... "Prospects for inhibiting the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in hepatitis B virus". World Journal of ...
Hepatitis D virus | Britannica.com
Infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV), also called the delta agent, can occur only in association with HBV infection, because ... cause of hepatitis. * In hepatitis: Hepatitis D. Infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV), also called the delta agent, can occur ... hepatitis B virus serves as a helper for replication of hepatitis delta virus, the virions of which contain hepatitis B surface ... In virus: Chronic and slowly progressive diseases. …that causes hepatitis is designated hepatitis delta virus, which has not ...
Hepatitis C Virus | The BMJ
The availability of serological tests for hepatitis A and B viruses in the 1970s made it clear that most parenterally ... Hepatitis C Virus. BMJ 1995; 310 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.310.6974.268a (Published 28 January 1995) Cite this as: BMJ ... transmitted hepatitis was due to neither of these viruses. It was not until 1988 that the identification of a cDNA clone made ... possible the first reliable diagnostic test for hepatitis C virus, the agent responsible for the vast majority of non-A, non-B ...
Hepatitis C Virus I | SpringerLink
This is particularly important in understanding hepatitis C because HCV infection alone is not cell lytic. Mechanisms ... Lipid and Lipoprotein Components Play Important Roles the Egress and Infectivity of Hepatitis C Virions ... early virus-cell interactions including identification of various cellular receptors, HCV gene expression studied using the HCV ...
Hepatitis G virus | infectious agent | Britannica
... hepatitis: Hepatitis F and G: …virus isolated in 1996, the hepatitis G virus (HGV), is believed to be responsible for a large ... number of sexually transmitted and bloodborne cases of hepatitis. HGV causes acute and chronic forms of the disease and often ... Other articles where Hepatitis G virus is discussed: ... cause of hepatitis. * In hepatitis: Hepatitis F and G. …virus ... the hepatitis G virus (HGV), is believed to be responsible for a large number of sexually transmitted and bloodborne cases of ...
Haemagglutination in Virus Hepatitis | The BMJ
Hepatitis virus panel: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
... hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. It can screen blood samples for more than one kind of hepatitis ... The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A, ... The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or ... Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ...
How does the hepatitis C virus spread?
razors, toothbrushes, and tattoo needles also could carry and transmit the virus ... the hepatitis c virus spreads most often among people who share needles for injected drugs, and through sexual contact. ... How does the hepatitis C virus spread?. ANSWER The hepatitis C virus spreads most often among people who share needles for ... Merck Manual: "Hepatitis C, Chronic," "Hepatitis C, Acute," "Overview of Chronic Hepatitis." ...
Hepatitis A-like virus identified in seals
... in the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia Universitys Mailman School of Public Health have discovered a new virus ... "Hepatitis A-like virus identified in seals ." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 25 Aug. 2015. Web.. 20 Apr. 2019. ,https ... "Our data suggest that hepatitis A and this new virus share a common ancestor, which means that a spillover event must have ... "It raises the question of whether hepatitis A originated in animals, like many other viruses that are now adapted to humans." ...
Hepatitis C Virus Clearance in Older Adults
... Antonio Massimo Ippolito, MD; Angelo Iacobellis, MD; Michele Milella, MD; Fabio ... Objectives To determine whether older adults with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) achieve a sustained viral response (SVR) after ... New epidemiological data indicate that the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is almost null in young and middle- ... Table 1. Baseline Characteristics and Sustained Viral Response (SVR) of Individuals with Hepatitis C Virus Infection After ...
Hepatitis B, Perinatal Virus Infection | Summary | NNDSS
Hepatitis B, Perinatal Infection , 2017 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/hepatitis-b-perinatal-virus- ... Hepatitis B, Perinatal Virus Infection , 1995 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/hepatitis-b-perinatal- ... Hepatitis C, Perinatal Infection (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/hepatitis-c-perinatal-infection/) ... virus-infection/case-definition/1995/) Related Condition(s). * Hepatitis A, acute (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/ ...
Thermal stability of hepatitis E virus. - PubMed - NCBI
The thermal stability of virulent hepatitis E virus (HEV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) was compared. Fecal suspensions of virus ... Thermal stability of hepatitis E virus.. Emerson SU1, Arankalle VA, Purcell RH. ... and residual infectivity was determined in a cell culture system that was permissive for both viruses. Although HEV was less ...
Viral dynamics in hepatitis B virus infection | PNAS
Viral dynamics in hepatitis B virus infection. M A Nowak, S Bonhoeffer, A M Hill, R Boehme, H C Thomas, and H McDade ... Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor lamivudine leads to a rapid ... daily turnover of the free virus population. Total viral release into the periphery is approximately 10(11) virus particles per ... The total daily production of plasma virus is, on average, higher in chronic HBV carriers than in HIV-infected patients, but ...
Hepatitis B, Perinatal Virus Infection | 1995 Case Definition
Hepatitis B, Perinatal Infection , 2017 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/hepatitis-b-perinatal-virus- ... Infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers should receive hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and the first dose of hepatitis B ... Perinatal hepatitis B in the newborn may range from asymptomatic to fulminant hepatitis. ... Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive. Case Classification. Confirmed. HBsAg positivity in any infant aged ,1-24 months ...
Ultrastructural analysis of hepatitis C virus particles | PNAS
virus assembly. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen that infects the liver and establishes chronic infection ... Ultrastructural analysis of hepatitis C virus particles. Maria Teresa Catanese, Kunihiro Uryu, Martina Kopp, Thomas J. Edwards ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease, with an estimated 170 million people infected worldwide. Low ... 2013) Hepatitis C virus-specific directly acting antiviral drugs. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 369:289-320. ...
Hepatitis C Virus (ExLib) 9783805558662 for sale online
Hepatitis C virus epitopes - Genelabs Incorporated
Peptide antigens which are immunoreactive with sera from individuals infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are disclosed. ... Viral hepatitis resulting from a virus other than hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been referred to as ... is serologically distinct from hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis E virus (HEV). ... 1. "Parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis viral agent (PT-NANBH)" means a virus, virus type, or virus class which (i ...
Hepatitis C virus infection. - PubMed - NCBI
Hepatitis C virus infection.. Lauer GM1, Walker BD.. Author information. 1. Infectious Disease Division and Partners AIDS ... Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001]. *Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001] ... Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001]. *Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001] ... Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001]. *Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001] ...
Hepatitis E virus | Food Standards Agency
What Hepatitis E is, the ways it can spread and advice on how to avoid it when cooking pork. ... Hepatitis E is an infection caused by the hepatitis E virus (also known as HEV). Both humans and animals can be infected by HEV ... This is so that we can better assess the risk from hepatitis E virus in the food chain. Well then be able to take steps to ... While its possible to identify the hepatitis E virus in food, we cant tell whether its infectious and capable of making us ...
Vaniprevir (Hepatitis C Virus) - Forecast and Market Analysis to 2022
Hepatitis C Virus) - Forecast and Market Analysis to 2022 Summary Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by ... Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that results in acute or chronic presentation. The ... Reportbuyer.com just published a new market research report: Vaniprevir (Hepatitis C Virus) - Forecast and Market Analysis to ... Vaniprevir (Hepatitis C Virus) - Forecast and Market Analysis to 2022. http://www.reportbuyer.com/pharma_healthcare/diseases/ ...
duck hepatitis A virus
Duck hepatitis is caused by at least three different viruses, previously referred to as types I, II and III (Tseng and Tsai, ... Identification of chicken enterovirus-like viruses, duck hepatitis virus type 2 and duck hepatitis virus type 3 as astroviruses ... DHV I, the most common of the three viruses, with international distribution, is now known as duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) in ... Classification of duck hepatitis virus into three genotypes based on molecular evolutionary analysis. Virus Genes, 37(1):52-59 ...
Hepatitis B Virus and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpes virus 8, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Human T-cell lymphoma viruses I and ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic DNA virus. However, it also exhibits a significant capacity to infect and replicate ... HBV, hepatitis B virus; NHL, non-Hodgkin lymphoma; patient control, diagnosed with other cancers (except HCC); health control, ... HBV, hepatitis B virus; NHL non-Hodgkin lymphoma; CI, confidence interval, sOR, summary odds ratio; patient control, diagnosed ...
Hepatitis C Virus Infection | AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS | Pediatrics
1994) Transmission of hepatitis C virus from mothers to infants: the Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Collaborative ... hepatitis C virus • ALT = alanine aminotransferase • anti-HCV = antibody to HCV • HIV = human immunodeficiency virus • PCR = ... persistence of anti-hepatitis C virus in children is associated with the mothers anti-hepatitis C virus immunoblotting pattern ... Most cases of blood-borne non-A, non-B hepatitis have been proven to be caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, one of the ...
Entry point of hepatitis C virus identified
Researchers have now identified the entry point of hepatitis C virus - the first step leading to the chronic infection- thus ... London, Jan 25 (ANI): Researchers have now identified the entry point of hepatitis C virus - the first step leading to the ... They used the drug to block the receptor before, during and after inoculation with the virus, in cell culture and in a small- ... embedded in the membrane of human liver cells that aids in cholesterol absorption also allows the entry of hepatitis C virus. ...
Hepatitis C virus infection in kidney donors
Transplantation of a kidney from a hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected kidney donor may cause HCV infection in the recipient. HCV ... Impact of donor hepatitis C virus infection status on death and need for liver transplant in hepatitis C virus-positive kidney ... Shorter waiting times for hepatitis C virus seropositive recipients of cadaveric renal allografts from hepatitis C virus ... Prevalence of hepatitis C virus RNA in organ donors positive for hepatitis C antibody and in the recipients of their organs. N ...
Viral HepatitisHepatocellular carcinomaAntibodyAbstractAntiviralGenomeFulminantGenotypesTests for hepatitisSimilar to hepatitisCases of hepatitisEpidemiologyDiagnosisPatientsSerum2017CausativeFecal-oralGenusReal-TimInfectiousHepadnaviridaeContagiousOrthohepadnavirus1995Blood-borneCauses hepatitisImmunologyTransfusion-associated hepatitisAdultsAMERICAN ACADEMY OFSymptomsSingle-stranded RNA virusTreatment of chronic hepatitisGeneticMolecular
- Chronic HBV/HDV coinfection leads to the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis, so it is important to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating virus-host interplay and pathogenesis. (springer.com)
- Pawlotsky J-M. Acute viral hepatitis. (medlineplus.gov)
- A mild form of viral hepatitis, without jaundice. (dictionary.com)
- Friend C, Braunsteiner H. Viral hepatitis associated with transplantable mouse leukemia. (atcc.org)
- Delta hepatitis is considered to be the most severe viral hepatitis. (natap.org)
- Unlike other forms of viral hepatitis, HBV cannot be transmitted by contaminated food or water. (brightkite.com)
- Pawlotsky J-M, Wedemeyer H. Acute viral hepatitis. (sutterhealth.org)
- Monday, July 28, 2014 is World Hepatitis Day--a day organized by WHO to increase awareness and understanding of viral hepatitis. (eurekalert.org)
- Each month, the distinguished Editorial Board monitors and selects only the best articles on subjects such as immunology, chronic hepatitis, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, genetic and metabolic liver diseases and their complications, liver cancer, and drug metabolism. (eurekalert.org)
- John McLauchlan, a professor of viral hepatitis at the University of Glasgow, called the three laureates "pioneers" and said their discovery made the global elimination of the disease possible. (theepochtimes.com)
- These new recommendations are critical to identifying people who are living with the disease without the benefits of medical attention, said John W. Ward, M.D., director of CDC′s Division of Viral Hepatitis. (webwire.com)
- Viral hepatitis is a silent epidemic. (idsociety.org)
- The hepatitis C virus is the cause of hepatitis C and some cancers such as liver cancer ( hepatocellular carcinoma , abbreviated HCC) and lymphomas in humans. (wikipedia.org)
- 2 Hepatocellular carcinoma develops in a small proportion of patients who have chronic hepatitis, but the true rate of this complication is unknown. (aappublications.org)
- Omata, M. Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. (mdpi.com)
- The vaccine has been particularly important for countries where the incidence of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma is high. (who.int)
- That may induce hepatocellular carcinoma, peliosis hepatitis, and general liver dysfunction," Dr. Bereket-YÃ¼cel said. (medpagetoday.com)
- However, integrated parts of the Hepatitis B virus genome are found in the chromosomes of many hepatocellular carcinoma patients. (kenyon.edu)
- Note: Hepatitis D only causes disease in people who also have hepatitis B. It is not routinely checked on a hepatitis antibody panel. (medlineplus.gov)
- We assessed hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibody software (Mikrogen). (cdc.gov)
- Hepatitis B core antibody. (cigna.com)
- HCV RNA testing may be done to double-check a positive result on an HCV antibody test, measure the level of virus in the blood (called viral load), or show how well a person with HCV is responding to treatment. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- We assessed hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibody seroprevalence in a sample of the adult population in Germany. (biomedsearch.com)
- Objectives To determine whether older adults with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) achieve a sustained viral response (SVR) after treatment with direct-acting antiviral therapy. (medscape.com)
- Their discovery also allowed the rapid development of antiviral drugs directed at hepatitis C," it added. (theepochtimes.com)
- As the first study to identify exosomes with antiviral potency, this research suggests the potential for a new therapy for hepatitis C to address some of challenges with current treatment, including non-response in some patients and side effects, said Anthony Atala, MD, Editor-in-Chief of STEM CELLS Translational Medicine and director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine. (prweb.com)
- In the latest study, lead author Abigail Jarret, now a graduate student at Yale University, and her group showed that hepatitis C virus sabotages the antiviral defenses of liver cells by blunting the effect of key immune proteins called interferons. (eurekalert.org)
- Thus, these hepatitis C virus-induced microRNAs can blunt liver cell interferon-driven antiviral defenses in two ways, Jarret explained. (eurekalert.org)
- The Nature Medicine article is " Hepatitis-C-virus-induced microRNAs dampen interferon-mediated antiviral signalling . (eurekalert.org)
- New research sheds light on how a hepatitis B viral protein stimulates the expansion of immune cells that impair antiviral responses, according to a study published April 18 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Haitao Guo of the Indiana University School of Medicine, Bin Wang and Jiming Zhang of Fudan University, and colleagues. (news-medical.net)
- Recipients were then treated with an antiviral therapy in an effort to cure the virus. (eurasiareview.com)
- Hepatitis C virus has a positive sense single-stranded RNA genome . (wikipedia.org)
- The proteins of this virus are arranged along the genome in the following order: N terminal-core-envelope (E1)-E2-p7-nonstructural protein 2 (NS2)-NS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5A-NS5B-C terminal. (wikipedia.org)
- This volume is composed of chapters that review important fundamental aspects of HCV biology and disease pathogenesis including, for example, the discovery and identification of the HCV genome, early virus-cell interactions including identification of various cellular receptors, HCV gene expression studied using the HCV replicon system, identification and characterization of HCV structural- and non-structural HCV proteins, HCV replication in cultured cells, and host factors involved in viral replication. (springer.com)
- Hepatitis B virus subtype ADR DNA, complete genome, isolate:HBV-115. (genome.jp)
- HCV is a single-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 9,400 nucleotides that encodes six to eight proteins. (aacc.org)
- Long-fingered bat hepatitis B virus isolate 776, complete genome. (genome.jp)
- The Hepatitis B genome makes 4 mRNAs. (kenyon.edu)
- Although expression of Core as well as E1 and E2 envelope proteins produces virus-like particles in heterologous expression systems, there is increasing evidence that non-structural viral proteins and p7 are also required for the production of infectious particles, suggesting that HCV genome replication and virion assembly are closely linked. (frontiersin.org)
- Hepatitis C virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus, and its ∼9.6-kb genome contains an open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of ∼3000 amino acids (aa) flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs) at both ends. (frontiersin.org)
- However, its genome more closely resembles the rubella virus. (wikipedia.org)
- Bensag A (1983) Labrea hepatitis and other fulminant hepatitis in Serra Madureira Acre and Boca de Acre Amazonas Brasil. (springer.com)
- Perinatal hepatitis B in the newborn may range from asymptomatic to fulminant hepatitis. (cdc.gov)
- Fulminant hepatitis occurs but is extremely uncommon. (aappublications.org)
- Positive and negative strand of hepatitis C virus RNA sequences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with chronic hepatitis C: no correlation with viral genotypes 1b, 2a, and 2b. (ahajournals.org)
- The genotypes have a distinct geographical distribution and are used in tracing the evolution and transmission of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
Tests for hepatitis2
- The availability of serological tests for hepatitis A and B viruses in the 1970s made it clear that most parenterally transmitted hepatitis was due to neither of these viruses. (bmj.com)
- There are different tests for hepatitis A and hepatitis B. A positive test is considered abnormal. (medlineplus.gov)
Similar to hepatitis2
- They discovered a new virus that was genetically similar to hepatitis A and named it phopivirus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Viruses similar to hepatitis B have been found in all apes (orangutan, gibbons, gorillas and chimpanzees), in Old World monkeys, and in a New World woolly monkeys suggesting an ancient origin for this virus in primates. (wikipedia.org)
Cases of hepatitis5
- virus isolated in 1996, the hepatitis G virus (HGV), is believed to be responsible for a large number of sexually transmitted and bloodborne cases of hepatitis. (britannica.com)
- The Lake County Health Department is informing the public that there has been a recent increase in reported cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) throughout the State of Illinois and in Lake County. (dailyherald.com)
- CLEVELAND, Ohio -- Cases of hepatitis A and the number of mosquitoes carrying West Nile Virus continue to rise in Ohio, according to the Ohio Department of Health (ODH). (cleveland.com)
- WHO estimates there are over 70 million cases of hepatitis C worldwide and 400,000 deaths from it each year. (theepochtimes.com)
- In the U.S., 85 percent of travel-related cases of hepatitis A occur following travel to Mexico, Central America or South America. (dailyherald.com)
- Until now, we didn't know that hepatitis A had any close relatives, and we thought that only humans and other primates could be infected by such viruses," said lead author Simon Anthony, assistant professor of Epidemiology. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Overview of Hepatitis C, including epidemiology, etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, pathology and treatment guidelines as well as an overview on the competitive landscape. (prweb.com)
- We find that in persistently infected patients, HBV particles are cleared from the plasma with a half-life of approximately 1.0 day, which implies a 50% daily turnover of the free virus population. (pnas.org)
- These two independent methods give equivalent results: we find a wide distribution of half-lives for virus-producing cells, ranging from 10 to 100 days in different patients, which may reflect differences in rates of lysis of infected cells by immune responses. (pnas.org)
- The total daily production of plasma virus is, on average, higher in chronic HBV carriers than in HIV-infected patients, but the half-life of virus-producing cells is much shorter in HIV. (pnas.org)
- We now know that there are more people, particularly immunosuppressed patients, with hepatitis E who haven't travelled abroad. (food.gov.uk)
- Giving hepatitis B patients the modified hepatitis delta virus reduced levels of the virus in their blood by nearly 90 per cent. (scidev.net)
- However, this method means that if patients are re-infected with hepatitis B, they need another injection. (scidev.net)
- Because it was only identified recently, it isn't clear at this time how widespread hepatitis G is and what its precise effects are on infected patients. (factmonster.com)
- Hepatitis diet should be carefully monitored and prepared for easy and quick recovery of hepatitis patients. (medindia.net)
- These treatments helped many patients get rid of the virus, but the treatment fails to cure more than 60 percent of patients. (eurekalert.org)
- If patients are also HIV+, the effect of antiretroviral therapy on the recovery of hepatitis C immunity will be investigated. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- For those patients enrolled who begin hepatitis C treatment, we will evaluate the immune system of people who respond compared to those who do not respond. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patients who begin hepatitis C therapy or antiretroviral therapy if HIV coinfected will provide serial specimens for examination. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patients who undergo liver biopsy as a part of their routine hepatitis care will provide a sample for further studies of the immune response to see if it is different in the liver compared to the blood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The recommendations, published today in CDC′s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Recommendations & Reports, also for the first time give health professionals guidance for effective management of chronically infected hepatitis B patients. (webwire.com)
- Hepatitis A vaccines (Havrix or Vaqta) can be administered to children as young as 1 year of age, with a larger adult dose given to patients 19 years of age and up. (dailyherald.com)
- The Department of Veterans Affairs Hepatitis C Resource Center Program and the National Hepatitis C Program Office developed updated recommendations for standard of care for hepatitis C patients. (idsociety.org)
- We appreciate the comments of Drs Kao and Hwang regarding the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) we used for genomic analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) R1 in 3 patients with chronic active myocarditis. (ahajournals.org)
- Ten patients at Penn Medicine have been cured of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) following lifesaving kidney transplants from deceased donors who were infected with the disease. (eurasiareview.com)
- In 2016, Penn Medicine launched an innovative clinical trial to test the effect of transplanting kidneys from donors with HCV into patients currently on the kidney transplant waitlist who do not have the virus, and who opt in to receive these otherwise unused organs. (eurasiareview.com)
- So it was interesting to see that patients were quick to jump at the chance to get this transplant, despite the possibility that they could get Hepatitis C permanently," Reese said. (eurasiareview.com)
- Also known as serum hepatitis, Hepatitis B spread through blood and sexual sexual contact. (kenyon.edu)
- Pregnant or peripartum women with acute febrile hepatitis require prompt evaluation for HSV with serum PCR screening. (medworm.com)
- Reacts strongly with human Hepatitis A Virus positive serum. (abcam.com)
- The hepatitis C virus belongs to the genus Hepacivirus , a member of the family Flaviviridae . (wikipedia.org)
- There is also at least one virus in this genus that infects horses. (wikipedia.org)
- Several additional viruses in the genus have been described in bats and rodents. (wikipedia.org)
- HCV is an enveloped, single stranded positive-sense RNA virus, which belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Hepacivirus 3 . (nature.com)
- Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) is a 27nm nonenveloped, spherical, positive stranded RNA virus, classified within the genus hepatovirus of the picornavirus family and is among the smallest and structurally simplest of the RNA animal viruses. (abcam.com)
- Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated HBV, is a double stranded DNA virus, a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus, and a member of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
- Exosomes, although isolated from unfractionated culture media, were absent in highly infectious, purified virus preparations. (pnas.org)
- Some viruses can survive and remain infectious in foods and the environment for prolonged periods of time. (food.gov.uk)
- We suspect that these cases may be due to exposure to infectious hepatitis E virus in pork and pork products. (food.gov.uk)
- While it's possible to identify the hepatitis E virus in food, we can't tell whether it's infectious and capable of making us ill. (food.gov.uk)
- Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C. Joint panel from the American Association of the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. (uptodate.com)
- Authorities suspect that those who consumed food from McDonald's Greenlane on the evening of Dec 15th carry the risk of contracting Hepatitis A. The medical officer confirmed that a particular food handler working on the 7pm to 2am shift was suffering the highly infectious stage of the virus. (medindia.net)
- Margaret Littlejohn of the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory noted that there are also differences in the virus among the 30 communities that offered samples for testing, which allowed the scientists to study its possible transmission routes, and determine when the virus may have first appeared in Australia. (archaeology.org)
- While vaccines have not yet been developed for the rest of the "alphabet" of infectious hepatitis, it is fortunate that safe and effective vaccinations are available against both the hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses. (dailyherald.com)
- AAP infectious disease experts report that most hepatitis A-infected children under the age of 6 show no symptoms of the disease, while more than two-thirds of affected older kids and adults will develop jaundice. (dailyherald.com)
- In response to action taken by some State Medicaid programs to restrict the specialties of providers who can prescribe drug therapies to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV), IDSA has developed an appeals letter template recommending that Infectious Diseases (ID) Specialists and other HIV providers be covered prescribers of all HCV medications. (idsociety.org)
- Viruses are very small and often highly contagious pathogenic agents which cause disease. (food.gov.uk)
- A high level of this DNA means that the virus is multiplying in your body and you are very contagious. (cigna.com)
- Hepatitis A is a highly contagious illness caused by the hepatitis A virus. (cleveland.com)
- Hepatitis C virus is blood-borne, which means it is spread through blood and blood products (Grady). (brightkite.com)
- Announcing the prize, the Nobel Committee noted that the trio's work identified a major source of blood-borne hepatitis that couldn't be explained by the previously discovered hepatitis A and B viruses. (theepochtimes.com)
- Although the frequency of transfusion-associated hepatitis C fell as a result of blood donor screening, the overall frequency of hepatitis C remained the same until the early 1990s, when the overall frequency fell by 80%, in parallel with a reduction in the number of new cases in injection drug users. (ufrgs.br)
- However, they caution that further research is needed in mature seals, because if it acts anything like hepatitis A it might only cause disease in adults. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Hepatitis E Virus refl ects the total adult population with respect to age, Seroprevalence sex, and geographic region, but persons with migration background are underrepresented (non-German citizenship among Adults, 4.6% in the sample vs. 8.7% in the total adult population). (cdc.gov)
- A series of three combination hepatitis A-hepatitis B shots (Twinrix) is also available for use in adults 18 years and older. (dailyherald.com)
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF1
- What are symptoms of acute and chronic hepatitis C? (webmd.com)
- For most people, the symptoms of hepatitis E are mild and clear up within four weeks, but in rare cases the disease can be fatal. (food.gov.uk)
- Only about 1 in every 150 people who contract West Nile virus will develop these serious symptoms. (cleveland.com)
- Most people infected with the hepatitis C virus have no symptoms of the disease until liver damage becomes apparent, which may take several years. (scienceblog.com)
Single-stranded RNA virus2
Treatment of chronic hepatitis2
- The team of researchers, led by Fuhua Yang at Wuhan University, China, modified hepatitis delta to carry 'molecular scissors' that cut into the genetic material of hepatitis B. (scidev.net)
- Hepatitis B DNA , which is the virus's genetic material. (cigna.com)
- In a third set of experiments, the researchers removed the androgen receptor by genetic knockout, once again abolishing the androgen's effect on hepatitis B replication. (asm.org)
- Schlauder, G. G. & Mushahwar, I. K. (2001) Genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis E virus. (wikipedia.org)