Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Q Fever: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Fever of Unknown Origin: Fever in which the etiology cannot be ascertained.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Rheumatic Fever: A febrile disease occurring as a delayed sequela of infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES. It is characterized by multiple focal inflammatory lesions of the connective tissue structures, such as the heart, blood vessels, and joints (POLYARTHRITIS) and brain, and by the presence of ASCHOFF BODIES in the myocardium and skin.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.Lassa Fever: An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral: A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean: A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome: An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo: A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Classical Swine Fever: An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Boutonneuse Fever: A febrile disease of the Mediterranean area, the Crimea, Africa, and India, caused by infection with RICKETTSIA CONORII.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.African Swine Fever: A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: An acute febrile illness caused by RICKETTSIA RICKETTSII. It is transmitted to humans by bites of infected ticks and occurs only in North and South America. Characteristics include a sudden onset with headache and chills and fever lasting about two to three weeks. A cutaneous rash commonly appears on the extremities and trunk about the fourth day of illness.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Paratyphoid Fever: A prolonged febrile illness commonly caused by several Paratyphi serotypes of SALMONELLA ENTERICA. It is similar to TYPHOID FEVER but less severe.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA Virus InfectionsCricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Coxiella burnetii: A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.RNA Virus InfectionsSatellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Orf virus: The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Archaeal Viruses: Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Severe Dengue: A virulent form of dengue characterized by THROMBOCYTOPENIA and an increase in vascular permeability (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive pain test (e.g., TOURNIQUET PAIN TEST). When accompanied by SHOCK (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Fowlpox virus: The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Leukemia Virus, Bovine: The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DucksLymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Hemorrhagic Fever, American: Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).Bunyamwera virus: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.Hendra Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Phlebotomus Fever: Influenza-like febrile viral disease caused by several members of the BUNYAVIRIDAE family and transmitted mostly by the bloodsucking sandfly Phlebotomus papatasii.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Borna disease virus: A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Distemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Rinderpest virus: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Bunyaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Herpesvirus 3, Human: The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Hantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Respirovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.Reticuloendotheliosis virus: A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola: A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by EBOLAVIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Junin virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.
Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ... MVD is caused by two viruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV)family Filoviridae[16] ... Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV).[1] MVD is a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), and the clinical symptoms are ... ViralZone: Marburg virus. *Centers for Disease Control, Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers In the African Health ...
"Capitalize other parts of a virus name only if they are proper nouns: ... Sandfly fever Naples virus"; 22.3.5.2). The guides ...
Angolan yellow fever (2016). *Yemeni cholera (2016-present). *Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis (2017) ... Kerala Nipah virus (2018). *Équateur province Ebola (2018). *Kivu Ebola (2018-present) ...
... lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus), reovirus (Colorado tick virus), and henipaviruses.[10][11] The Powassan virus is a rare ... Headache, fever, confusion, stiff neck, vomiting[1]. Complications. Seizures, trouble speaking, memory problems, problems ... Causes of encephalitis include viruses such as herpes simplex virus and rabies as well as bacteria, fungi, or parasites.[1][2] ... Other causes of acute viral encephalitis are rabies virus, poliovirus, and measles virus.[9] ...
April 2010). "Apoptosis induced by Oropouche virus infection in HeLa cells is dependent on virus protein expression". Virus Res ... characterized by the onset of a sudden fever known as Oropouche fever.[93] ... Many viruses encode proteins that can inhibit apoptosis.[94] Several viruses encode viral homologs of Bcl-2. These homologs can ... Whilst a number of viruses can block the effects of TNF and Fas. For example, the M-T2 protein of myxoma viruses can bind TNF ...
Another risk to rat owners is Rat-bite fever. This is a rare disease among domesticated rats and is most often found in rats ... In 2017, the Centers for Disease Control reported an outbreak of Seoul virus spread by pet rats.[46] ... "Signs and Symptoms , Rat-bite Fever (RBF)". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-02-25.. ... "Multi-state Outbreak of Seoul Virus". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-27.. ...
Dengue and chikungunya fever[edit]. Main article: Dengue fever. There are 50-100 million dengue virus infections annually.[25] ... The virus was first isolated from an outbreak in Tanzania in 1952.[26] Chikungunya virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus ... They are caused by a variety of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths. These diseases are contrasted with ... Their major campaign, End7, aims to end seven of the most common NTDs (elephantiasis, river blindness, snail fever, trachoma, ...
病毒性出血熱:克里米亞 - 剛果出血熱(英語:Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever) *CCHFV(英語:Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) ... 病毒性出血熱:鄂木斯克出血熱(英語:Omsk hemorrhagic fever) *OHFV(英語:Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus) ... 科羅拉多蜱熱(英語:Colorado tick fever) *CTFV(英語:Colorado tick fever virus) ... 出血熱腎病
The virus was confirmed in one monkey and suspected in others among a group of 100. In March 1996 two macaques that had been ... "Known Cases and Outbreaks of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, in Chronological Order", accessed October 4, 2008. Clemons, Donna J. et ... "Monkey ebola virus likely not harmful to humans", San Antonio Express News, April 17, 1996. Rollin, Pierre E. et al. "Ebola ( ... "Monkey ebola virus likely not harmful to humans", San Antonio Express News, April 17, 1996. In-Pharma. "Covance under fire in ...
For all types of herpes viruses, see Herpesviridae.. Herpes simplex. Other names. Cold sores, fever blisters. ... "Helping You With Herpes - Herpes Viruses Association". Herpes Viruses Association. Archived from the original on 2015-07-26. ... Laboratory tests include culture of the virus, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) studies to detect virus, skin biopsy, and ... For the virus that causes herpes simplex, see Herpes simplex virus. ...
Q fever. S. *Sleeping sickness. W. *West Nile virus. Z. *Zika fever ...
This is to keep the virus in circulation thereby exposing the population to the virus at an early age, when it is less harmful ... This is followed by the characteristic rash or oral sores, malaise, and a low-grade fever that signal the presence of the ... After a chickenpox infection, the virus remains dormant in the body's nerve tissues. The immune system keeps the virus at bay, ... "Understanding Viruses (2nd ed.). Jones & Bartlett. p. 459. ISBN 978-0-7637-8553-6. . Archived from the original on 1 October ...
Arenavirus: Guanarito virus,[2] Junín virus,[2] Lassa fever virus,[2] Lujo virus,[3] Machupo virus[2] ve Sabiá virus[2] ... Hantaan virus,[6] Puumala virus,[7] Rift Valley fever virus,[8] Seoul virus[9] ve SFTS virus[10] ... Flavivirus: Akhurma virus,[13]Dengue,[14] Hepatit C, Kyasanur Forest disease virus,[15] Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus,[15] Sarı ... Herpesvirus: Cytomegalovirus,[17] Epstein Barr virus,[18] Varicella zoster virus, Human herpesvirus 6, Human herpesvirus 7 ve ...
... (HFMD) is a common infection caused by a group of viruses. It typically begins with a fever and ... The viruses that cause HFMD are spread through close personal contact, through the air from coughing, and the feces of an ... The viruses that cause the disease are of the Picornaviridae family. Coxsackievirus A16 is the most common cause of HFMD. ... Fever reducers and lukewarm baths can help decrease body temperature. A minority of individuals with hand, foot and mouth ...
Tete virus. *Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV ... The enveloped virus is closely related to the West Nile virus and the St. Louis encephalitis virus. The positive sense single- ... Japanese encephalitis virus JEV is a virus from the family Flaviviridae, part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of 9 ... The virus appears to have originated from its ancestral virus in the mid-1500s in the Indonesia-Malaysia region and evolved ...
"Pepper Mild Mottle Virus, a Plant Virus Associated with Specific Immune Responses, Fever, Abdominal Pains, and Pruritus in ... These viruses are enveloped. There is one family of single-stranded DNA viruses that infect humans: Parvoviridae. These viruses ... All are RNA viruses. Only one family of enveloped viruses causes gastroenteritis (Coronaviridae). All other viruses associated ... "Viral Fever". Web Health Centre. Retrieved August 15, 2013. Viruses portal. ...
Incubation of the virus may range from 2-9 weeks.[14] Death often occurs within 4-5 days of infection of the virus.[13] There ... Signs include aggression, incoordination, head-pressing, circling, lameness, muscle tremors, convulsions, colic and fever.[13] ... Beamer PD, Mohr CO, Barr TR (1960). "Resistance of the opossum to rabies virus". Am. J. Vet. Res. 21: 507-10. PMID 13797881.. ... Baynard, Ashley C. et al. (2011). "Bats and Lyssaviruses." In: Advances in VIRUS RESEARCH VOLUME 79. Research Advances in ...
The most urgent matter was to vaccinate the troops against typhoid fever, easily contracted by the soldiers who often had no ... This worldwide biomedical research organization based in Paris was the first to isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in ... One area of particular interest is the study of human papilloma viruses (HPV) and their role in cervical cancers. Researchers ... Luc Montagnier, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and colleagues discovered the two HIV viruses that cause AIDS, in 1983 and 1985, was ...
Fever blisters on the lips. The herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a virus. It causes two common diseases. Both diseases have ... An infection on the lips is commonly known as a cold sore or fever blister. A cold sore is not the same as a canker sore, which ...
Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji (2011-05-06). "The Pathogenesis of Rift Valley Fever". Viruses. 3 (5): 493-519. doi:10.3390/ ... Human immunodeficiency virus (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Ebola Rift Valley Fever Dengue Hantavirus Bwaka, Mpia A.; ... Asthma Atopic dermatitis Atopic eczema Hay fever Urticaria Vernal conjunctivitis Acne rosacea Albinism Atopic dermatitis ... "Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo: Clinical Observations in 103 Patients". The Journal of ...
... characterized by the onset of a sudden fever known as Oropouche fever. The Oropouche virus also causes disruption in cultured ... April 2010). "Apoptosis induced by Oropouche virus infection in HeLa cells is dependent on virus protein expression". Virus Res ... Whilst a number of viruses can block the effects of TNF and Fas. For example, the M-T2 protein of myxoma viruses can bind TNF ... Some viruses express caspase inhibitors that inhibit caspase activity and an example is the CrmA protein of cowpox viruses. ...
"Phase 2a Immunogenicity Study of Hantaan/Puumala Virus DNA Vaccine for Prevention of Hemorrhagic Fever". ClinicalTrials.gov. ... This virus-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ... The first hantavirus vaccine was developed in 1990 initially for use against Hantaan River virus which causes one of the most ... They include a recombinant vaccine and vaccines derived from HTNV and PUUV viruses. However, their prospects are unclear.[1] ...
Colorado tick fever *Organism: Colorado tick fever virus (CTF), a coltivirus from the Reoviridae ... Powassan virus/deer tick virus[13][14] *Organism: Powassan virus (POWV), a flavivirus from family Flaviviridae. Lineage 2 POWV ... Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever *Organism: CCHF virus, a nairovirus, from the Bunyaviridae ... Relapsing fever (tick-borne relapsing fever, different from Lyme disease due to different Borrelia species and ticks) * ...
DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... mild fever, and dark urine, and then progresses to development of jaundice. It has been noted that itchy skin has been an ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the hepadnavirus family.[36] The virus particle (virion) consists of an outer lipid ...
"Newly Discovered Ebola Virus Associated with Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak in Uganda" (Full free text). PLOS Pathogens. 4 (11): ... Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Reston virus (RESTV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV), and Bundibugyo virus (BDBV). Four of the ... Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo--update". Weekly Epidemiological Record. 82 (40): 345-346. ... "Ebola Virus Disease." WHO. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 September 2014. Hayes, C. G.; Burans, J. P.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Del Rosario, R. A.; ...
"Countries with risk of yellow fever virus". cdc.gov. CDC. Retrieved 24 January 2016. "How To Enter Tanzania". countryreports. ... Proof of Yellow fever vaccination is required for all travellers travelling through or from the following countries: Angola, ... countries during transit as a possible health threat and requires travelers in such situations to possess Yellow Fever ...
Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ... West nile virus (WNV), Gadgets-Gully-Virus - en. Gadgets Gully virus (GGYV), FSME-Virus - en. Tick-borne encephalitis virus ( ...
Colorado tick fever (CTF) Colorado tick fever virus (CTFV) Common cold (Acute viral rhinopharyngitis; Acute coryza) usually ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Relapsing fever Borrelia hermsii, Borrelia recurrentis, and other Borrelia species Respiratory syncytial virus infection ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ...
... virus RNA) or sense (virus-complementary RNA) orientation flanked by the noncoding regions of the CCHF virus S segment. ... The widespread geographical distribution of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus (more than 30 countries) and its ... We describe here the successful establishment of a reverse genetics technology for CCHF virus, a member of the genus Nairovirus ... The successful transfer of reporter gene activity to fresh cells demonstrated the generation of recombinant CCHF viruses, ...
Yellow fever virus belongs to the Flavivirus family (subgroup arbovirus) and is an enveloped RNA virus. The virus shape is ... The yellow fever virus is transmitted to humans when an infected female mosquito bites a human. Symptoms include fever, ... Yellow fever virus is carried by mosquitoes and is common in Africa, Central and South America. In Africa, Aedes sp. is the ... Yellow fever causes yellowing of the skin due to jaundice. There is no treatment for yellow fever and 5% of those infected die ...
CCHFV can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever with high-case fatality rates in humans. CCHFV has a wide geographic range and has ... Abstract Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus ... Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, ... Serosurvey of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Cattle, Mali, West Africa * Authors: Ousmane Maiga1, Miriam Andrada Sas2 ...
The zoonotic Rift Valley fever virus affects livestock and humans in Africa and on the Arabian Peninsula.The economic impact of ... Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing Rift Valley fever virus antigens: Mice exhibit systemic immune responses as the result ... Antigen production, Arabidopsis thaliana, Rift valley fever virus, Plant vaccine, Transformation National Category Immunology ... Thus, we show that transgenic plants can be readily used to express and produce Rift Valley Fever virusproteins, and that the ...
Complete Genome Sequence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Strain Lunyo.pdf - Version of Record Available under License Creative ... Using next-generation sequencing technologies, the first complete genome sequence of Rift Valley fever virus strain Lunyo is ... Complete Genome Sequence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Strain Lunyo Genome Announcements, 4 (2). e00170-16. ...
Explore our range of mammalian expressed recombinant Rift Valley Fever virus antigens, supporting all of your research and ... Rift Valley fever virus is an enveloped RNA virus that belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, a member of the Bunyaviridae family. ... Rift Valley Fever. Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute, fever-inducing viral disease, most commonly observed in domesticated ... Rift Valley Fever Virus antibodies are specific for RVFV nucleoprotein and suitable for use in ELISA and western blot. ...
... is a haemorrhagic fever agent caused by an infection with an enveloped negative-stranded RNA Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). It ... Development of Rift Valley fever virus candidate vaccines and reagents produced in Nicotiana benthamiana. 0. 0. 0. 0. 8. 42. 12 ... Development of Rift Valley fever virus candidate vaccines and reagents produced in Nicotiana benthamiana. DSpace/Manakin ... Development of Rift Valley fever virus candidate vaccines and reagents produced in Nicotiana benthamiana 62. ...
... and fidelity of African swine fever virus DNA polymerase X by a reversible disulfide switch. ... African swine fever virus polymerase X (pol X) is the smallest DNA polymerase known (174 amino acids), and its tertiary ... Modulation of the structure, catalytic activity, and fidelity of African swine fever virus DNA polymerase X by a reversible ... African swine fever virus polymerase X (pol X) is the smallest DNA ... ...
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ALANINES; FEVER; GLYCOPROTEINS; MATURATION; MUTAGENESIS; MUTANTS; VIRUSES. *Word Cloud ... The G2 fusion subunit of the Junin virus envelope glycoprotein GP-C contains two hydrophobic heptad-repeat regions that are ... fusion proteins and suggest pharmacologic and immunologic strategies for targeting arenavirus infection and hemorrhagic fever. ...
You are here: Research Topics , diseases , virus diseases , arbovirus infections , tick borne diseases , rocky mountain spotted ... Agrobacterium and rickettsiae (bacteria which cause trench fever, Q fever, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever in humans) share ... Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are the etiologic agents of serious human diseases including Rocky Mountain spotted fever ... There are no vaccines against boutonneuse fever and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Previous studies have identified a Rickettsia ...
... caused by the Epstein Barr virus (EBV) - spread from person-to-person by saliva and stays for life usually with no further ... Glandular fever - including symptoms, treatment and prevention Glandular fever is an infection caused by the Epstein Barr virus ... How glandular fever is spread. Glandular fever is spread from person-to-person through contact with saliva. Young children may ... Once a person catches Epstein Barr virus, it is believed that the virus remains in his or her body for life, though it usually ...
This graphic shows the ecological cycle for the Rift Valley Fever virus. Mosquitoes are both a reservoir and vector for RVFV, ... After periods of heavy rainfall and flooding, an increased number of RVF virus-infected mosquitos may hatch and pass virus to ... which means that they can maintain virus for life and transmit it to their offspring via eggs. ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... African species circulate virus but rarely die. Some species of Marsupials circulate virus. Wild rodents generally resistant, ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... 8. STRODE, G.K. "Yellow fever". McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1951.. 9. BAKER, T.H. 1968. Bull. Hist. Med. 42:241-264.. 10. ... 7. CARTER, H.R. "Yellow fever: an epidemiological and historical study of its place of origin". Williams and Wilkins Co., ...
This graphic shows the ecological cycle for Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), a member of the virus family Flaviviridae. ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
... is a globe-shaped virus covered by a dense icosahedral array of glycoproteins Gn/Gc that mediate the attachment of the virus to ... Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a globe-shaped virus covered by a dense icosahedral array of ... Hantavirus Gn and Gc envelope glycoproteins: key structural units for virus cell entry and virus assembly. Viruses, 6: 1801- ... Rift Valley fever virus M segment: cellular localization of M segment-encoded proteins. Virology, 166: 275-280.CrossRefPubMed ...
China reported another outbreak of deadly African swine fever late on Monday, its third new case in two days, as the highly ... The latest case, the eighth since the virus was first reported in the country a month ago, was found in the city of Wuxi, the ... The virus is transmitted by ticks and direct contact between animals, and can also travel via contaminated food, animal feed ... HONG KONG/BEIJING (Reuters) - China reported another outbreak of deadly African swine fever late on Monday, its third new case ...
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Yellow fever virus definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... yellow fever virus in Medicine Expand. yellow fever virus n. An arbovirus of the genus Flavivirus that causes yellow fever and ...
Some people who fell prey to a 2009-2010 outbreak of dengue fever in Florida carried a particular viral strain that they did ... home/infectious disease center/ infectious disease a-z list/ homegrown strain of dengue fever virus pinpointed article ... "Every year more countries add another one of the dengue virus subtypes to their lists of locally transmitted viruses, and this ... Dengue fever is the most widespread mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, now found in roughly 100 countries, the study ...
Wall Street is running hot again on hopes China can contain its killer virus epidemic, while investors refocus on good earnings ... China virus no match for bulls buying fever. Robert GuySenior Writer ... Its economic trends that investors appear to be refocusing on as new daily cases of the virus appear to be stabilising - at ... While reports of a virus cure have bolstered sentiment, the resurgent bullishness has been helped by the collective shoulder ...
China detected African swine fever in pigs being transported to Guangxi region from outside provinces, the agriculture ministry ... The deadly African swine fever disease is much more severe than officially reported in China, leading to the death or killing ... BEIJING (Reuters) - China detected African swine fever in pigs being transported to Guangxi region from outside provinces, the ...
It takes two (viruses) to tango. The functional virus and defective virus travel in unison. The two transmit together in an ... One is that the presence of the defective virus with the functional virus in the same cell makes the functional virus replicate ... "Weve shown that the defective virus not only goes with the normal virus, but increases the transmission of that virus," says ... Virus may have led to widespread disease in Myanmar in 2001 Mosquitoes transmit the virus that causes the often deadly disease ...
  • Characteristics include a sudden onset with headache and chills and fever lasting about two to three weeks. (labome.org)
  • RVF is generally found in regions of eastern and southern Africa where sheep and cattle are raised, though the virus exists in most of sub-Saharan Africa, including west Africa and Madagascar. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • This visualization with corresponding data dashboard shows the relationship between vegetation index anomalies and outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) during 2008 and 2011 in the South Africa region. (nasa.gov)
  • During the period of 2009-2011, a series of Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks occurred in South Africa and neighboring countries. (nasa.gov)
  • The visualization featured on this page showcases the relationship between El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) induced anomalous vegetation and Rift Valley fever outbreaks in the region of South Africa. (nasa.gov)
  • Furthermore, the science team has been carrying out long-term comprehensive research studies in South Africa to gain a better understating of all components of Rift Valley fever including livestock, wildlife, human and collecting data on mosquito vectors from different sites. (nasa.gov)
  • RVF is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which was first recognised in the 1930s, in the Rift Valley region of Kenya. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Rift Valley Fever Virus Nucleoprotein has been manufactured in response to the unmet need for highly purified, concentrated protein, for use in serological-based diagnostic assays. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • It is spread by the bite of various Aedes and Culex mosquito species that carry the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). (nasa.gov)
  • The G2 fusion subunit of the Junin virus envelope glycoprotein GP-C contains two hydrophobic heptad-repeat regions that are postulated to form a six-helix bundle structure required for the membrane fusion activity of Class I viral fusion proteins. (osti.gov)
  • Molecular analysis of skin samples indicated the agent was a novel spotted fever group strain closely related to Rickettsia africae, R. parkeri, and R. sibirica. (labome.org)
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