An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.
Virus infection of the Gasserian ganglion and its nerve branches characterized by pain and vesicular eruptions with much swelling. Ocular involvement is usually heralded by a vesicle on the tip of the nose. This area is innervated by the nasociliary nerve.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Pain in nerves, frequently involving facial SKIN, resulting from the activation the latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). The two forms of the condition preceding the pain are HERPES ZOSTER OTICUS; and HERPES ZOSTER OPHTHALMICUS. Following the healing of the rashes and blisters, the pain sometimes persists.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE. Its species include those causing CHICKENPOX and HERPES ZOSTER in humans (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN), as well as several animal viruses.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Mild to fulminant necrotizing vaso-occlusive retinitis associated with a high incidence of retinal detachment and poor vision outcome.
Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
Skin diseases caused by viruses.
A syndrome characterized by facial palsy in association with a herpetic eruption of the external auditory meatus. This may occasionally be associated with tinnitus, vertigo, deafness, severe otalgia, and inflammation of the pinna. The condition is caused by reactivation of a latent HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN infection which causes inflammation of the facial and vestibular nerves, and may occasionally involve additional cranial nerves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p757)
Infections with viruses of the genus HENIPAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
HERPES ZOSTER but without eruption of vesicles. Patients exhibit the characteristic pain minus the skin rash, sometimes making diagnosis difficult.
Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS, closely related to HENDRA VIRUS, which emerged in Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. It causes a severe febrile VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS in humans and also encephalitis and RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS in pigs. Fruit bats (PTEROPUS) are the natural host.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Multiple protein bands serving as markers of specific ANTIBODIES and detected by ELECTROPHORESIS of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID or serum. The bands are most often seen during inflammatory or immune processes and are found in most patients with MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Diseases in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation. Classically, six such diseases were described with similar rashes; they were numbered in the order in which they were reported. Only the fourth (Duke's disease), fifth (ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM), and sixth (EXANTHEMA SUBITUM) numeric designations survive as occasional synonyms in current terminology.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a short replication cycle. The genera include: SIMPLEXVIRUS; VARICELLOVIRUS; MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES; and ILTOVIRUS.
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
Disorder characterized by symptoms of CATATONIA; HYPOVENTILATION; DYSKINESIAS; ENCEPHALITIS; and SEIZURES followed by a reduced CONSCIOUSNESS. It is often followed by a viral-like prodrome. Many cases are self-limiting and respond well to IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES against the NMDA RECEPTORS antibodies.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.
A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A species of the genus ERYTHROCEBUS, subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE. It inhabits the flat open arid country of Africa. It is also known as the patas monkey or the red monkey.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
An infant during the first month after birth.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS that causes vesicular lesions of the mouth in monkeys. When the virus is transmitted to man it causes an acute encephalitis or encephalomyelitis, which is nearly always fatal.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Other viruses that may cause aseptic meningitis are varicella zoster virus, herpes, and mumps. Other causes may include ... Mumps meningoencephalitis Mosquito carried viruses of the flavivirus family. Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE) and West Nile virus ... These are (HSV)-1, (HSV)-2, varicella-zoster virus, and (HHV6). Bacteria Lyme disease Syphilis Leptospirosis Fungi Cryptococcal ... and herpes virus in the CSF, but many viruses can still escape detection. Other laboratory tests include blood, urine, and ...
These infections include, among others, various viruses (measles, varicella zoster encephalitis, rubella, enterovirus 71). ... Encephalitis and the Child Deviant". Deviant Behavior. 22: 93-115. doi:10.1080/016396201750065009. S2CID 43445475. Tredgold C ( ... an association between brain damage and behavioral or learning problems which was able to be validated by the encephalitis ...
... encephalitis or intractable seizures. Like the other herpesviruses (Epstein Barr virus, varicella zoster virus, etc.), HHV-6 ... Newly Found Herpes Virus Is Called Major Cause of Illness in Young, New York Times HHV-6 Foundation DermNet viral/roseola Virus ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear egress, and budding. Humans serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are direct ... Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a set of two closely related herpes viruses known as HHV-6A and HHV-6B that infect nearly all ...
ISBN 978-1-60795-188-9. Chai W, Ho MG (November 2014). "Disseminated varicella zoster virus encephalitis". Lancet. 384 (9955): ... Varicella zoster virus is not the same as herpes simplex virus; however, they belong to the same family of viruses. The ... 2006). "The epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster in The Netherlands: implications for varicella zoster virus vaccination ... Varicella-zoster virus Steiner I, Kennedy PG, Pachner AR (2007). "The neurotropic herpes viruses: herpes simplex and varicella- ...
Encephalitis Meningitis Herpes simplex virus Varicella zoster virus Shalabi, M; Whitley, RJ (Nov 1, 2006). "Recurrent benign ... Significant Differences in Cerebrospinal Fluid Findings among Herpes Simplex Virus, Varicella Zoster Virus, and Enterovirus ... Jhaveri, Ravi M.D.; Sankar, Raman M.D.; Yazdani, Shahram M.D.; Cherry, James D. M.D. (2003). "Varicella-zoster virus: an ... Some patients also report frequent shingles outbreaks.[citation needed] Varicella zoster virus, which causes chickenpox and ...
Viruses observed before the development of the condition include Epstein-Barr virus, varicella zoster virus, herpes zoster ... Lumbar puncture can determine if encephalitis is the cause. KLS must be differentiated from substance abuse by toxicology tests ... The onset of the condition usually follows a viral infection; several different viruses have been observed to trigger KLS. It ... virus, influenza A virus subtypes, and adenovirus. Several days after symptoms first occur, patients become very tired. In ...
Tick-borne encephalitis West Nile virus Measles Epstein-Barr virus Varicella-zoster virus Enterovirus Herpes simplex virus type ... Meningitis and encephalitis already present in the brain or spinal cord of an animal may form simultaneously into ... "Overview of Meningitis, Encephalitis, and Encephalomyelitis". Merck Manual: Veterinary Manual. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. ... 2008). "Acute meningoencephalitis due to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in 13 patients: clinical description and ...
Rubella Herpes simplex virus HIV Syphilis Toxoplasmosis Varicella zoster virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Lifestyle: ... This indicated that the virus had to cross the placental barrier to reach the fetus and cause malformations. The time of ... There are a number of chemicals, biological agents (such as bacteria and viruses), and physical agents (such as radiation) used ... exposure to the virus also had a direct impact on the incidence of congenital malformations with exposure during week 4, 5-8 ...
... is used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus infections, including: Genital ... including severe localized infections of herpes virus, severe genital herpes, chickenpox and herpesviral encephalitis. It is ... It works by decreasing the production of the virus's DNA. Aciclovir was patented in 1974, and approved for medical use in 1981 ... It is primarily used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections, chickenpox, and shingles. Other uses include ...
... encephalitis virus Varicella-zoster encephalitis La Crosse encephalitis Measles encephalitis Nipah virus encephalitis ... Eastern equine encephalitis St Louis encephalitis Japanese encephalitis West Nile encephalitis Tick-borne encephalitis Herpes ... Poliomyelitis Slow virus infections, which include: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis Progressive multifocal ... chorea Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis Guillain-Barré syndrome Central nervous system viral disease Encephalitis ...
Those causing latent infection include herpes simplex and varicella-zoster viruses. Those causing slow virus infection include ... Neurotropic viruses that cause infection include Japanese Encephalitis, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, and California ... A neurotropic virus is a virus that is capable of infecting nerve cells. A neurotropic virus is said to be neuroinvasive if it ... varicella-zoster, Epstein-Barr, cytomegalovirus and HHV-6 viruses. All seven of the known human coronaviruses are neurotropic, ...
The most important viruses to rule out are herpes simplex virus type one, varicella zoster virus, and (less commonly) ... Likewise, well-known viruses may be introduced into new locales, as is illustrated by the outbreak of encephalitis due to West ... When the virus reaches the brain, it rapidly causes encephalitis, the prodromal phase, which is the beginning of the symptoms. ... The virus has also adapted to grow in cells of cold-blooded vertebrates. Most animals can be infected by the virus and can ...
Louis virus Tahyna virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Varicella-zoster virus, which causes both chickenpox and shingles ... virus Murray Valley encephalitis virus Nipah virus Powassan virus Rabies virus Rubella virus SARS-CoV-2 Snowshoe hare virus St ... California encephalitis virus Chandipura virus Chikungunya virus Cytomegalovirus Dengue virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus West Nile virus Western equine encephalitis virus Zika virus Encephalitic viruses vary in ...
... varicella), which may result in complications including encephalitis, pneumonia (either direct viral pneumonia or secondary ... Varicella-zoster virus) "Pathogen Safety Data Sheets: Infectious Substances - Varicella-zoster virus". Pathogen ... History of Varicella Zoster Virus.Herpes. 2000 Oct;7(3):60-65. Ruska H (1943). "Über das Virus der Varicellen und des Zoster". ... Human alphaherpesvirus 3 (HHV-3), usually referred to as the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), is one of nine herpesviruses known ...
... latent varicella-zoster virus in sensory ganglia), pancreatic tumors (leading to adipose nodular necrosis of subcutaneous ... limbic encephalitis, brainstem encephalitis, opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, and ... January 2007). "Paraneoplastic Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Associated with Ovarian Teratoma". Ann. Neurol. ... 2011). "Investigations of Caspr2, an autoantigen of encephalitis and neuromyotonia". Ann. Neurol. 69: 303-311. van Sonderen, A ...
Example of this include the herpes simplex virus, which causes recurring infections, and the varicella zoster virus, which ... Bradshaw MJ, Venkatesan A (July 2016). "Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis in Adults: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and ... "Varicella zoster virus infection". Nat Rev Dis Primers. 1: 15016. doi:10.1038/nrdp.2015.16. PMC 5381807. PMID 27188665. O'Leary ... As all viruses in the realm are double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses, the realm belongs to Group I: dsDNA viruses of Baltimore ...
Parents who expose their children to Varicella zoster virus in this manner may believe that a case of chickenpox is safer and ... such as encephalitis, chickenpox-associated pneumonia, and invasive group A strep. These serious complications (i.e. they can ... Experts say it is unlikely that these methods will transmit the chickenpox virus effectively or reliably, because the varicella ... US CDC: Chickenpox (Varicella): Transmission US CDC: Chickenpox (Varicella): Vaccination US CDC: Measles The Return of the ...
Mueller N, Gilden D, Cohrs R, (2008). "Varicella Zoster Virus Infection: Clinical Features, Molecular Pathogenesis of Disease, ... deficits Mumps virus Is the leading cause of virus induced aseptic meningitis and encephalitis Human immunodeficiency virus ( ... and sensorineural hearing loss Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) Is associated with neurological complications such as: ... Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) Evidence may support link between virus and Alzheimer's disease, intractable focal epilepsy ...
Varicella Zoster Virus infections of the nervous system The course has been reviewed positively by the British Medical Journal ... Antibody-mediated encephalitis 2010: Professor Richard Whitley, University of Alabama, USA - Viral encephalitis; advances and ... to a programme which covers clinical aspects of common central nervous system infections such as meningitis and encephalitis, ...
... most cases occur in those with congenital rubella syndrome Varicella-zoster encephalitis Acute Measles encephalitis Mumps ... Most viruses that enter can be opportunistic and accidental pathogens, but some like herpes viruses and rabies virus have ... Eastern equine encephalitis Western equine encephalitis St. Louis encephalitis Rabies La crosse encephalitis Progressive ... Treatments of proven efficacy are currently limited mostly to herpes viruses and human immunodeficiency virus. The herpes virus ...
... varicella zoster, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, hepatitis A, coxsackievirus and COVID-19. ... July 1999). "Encephalitis after hepatitis B vaccination: recurrent disseminated encephalitis or MS?". Neurology. 53 (2): 396- ... varicella, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, and polio vaccines have all been implicated. The majority of the studies that ... Takahashi H, Pool V, Tsai TF, Chen RT (July 2000). "Adverse events after Japanese encephalitis vaccination: review of post- ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *Zoster vaccine. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ... A respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (RSV vaccine) is a vaccine which prevents infection by respiratory syncytial virus. No ... Mejias, Asuncion; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rosa; Peeples, Mark E.; Ramilo, Octavio (October 2019). "Respiratory Syncytial Virus ... "Respiratory syncytial virus vaccines". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 11 (3): 430-9. doi:10.1128/CMR.11.3.430. PMC 88889. PMID ...
Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and cytomegalovirus have a specific antiviral therapy. For herpes the treatment of ... causes AIDS La Crosse virus Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) Measles Mumps St. Louis encephalitis virus West Nile ... Patients with varicella zoster meningitis may present with herpes zoster (Shingles) in conjunction with classic meningeal signs ... Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 / HHV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2 / HHV-2); also cause cold sores or genital herpes Varicella zoster ...
These infections include, among others, various viruses (measles, varicella zoster encephalitis, rubella, enterovirus 71).[112] ... Rafalovich A (2001). "The Conceptual History of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Idiocy, Imbecility, Encephalitis and ... an association between brain damage and behavioral or learning problems which was able to be validated by the encephalitis ...
Varicella vaccine Yellow fever vaccine Zoster/shingles vaccine Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine Tick-borne encephalitis ... "Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus: A Quest for Better Vaccines against a Virus on the Rise". Vaccines. 8 (3): 451. doi:10.3390/ ... This is due to the risk of transmission of virus between mother and fetus. In particular, the varicella and yellow fever ... Viruses may be attenuated using the principles of evolution via serial passage of the virus through a foreign host species, ...
... and varicella zoster virus (VZV). Pattern III lesions were for sometime thought to be a MS nascent lesion, though it is not ... It was described by József Mátyás Baló who initially named it "leuko-encephalitis periaxialis concentrica" from the previous ... Also pattern III patients tend to be negative under the MRZ-reaction (measles, rubeola and zoster viruses) Baló's concentric ... Later, in 1928, József Baló studied the encephalitis periaxialis concentrica in a Hungarian patient, showing also demyelination ...
... , also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus ... Inflammation of the brain, or encephalitis, can occur in immunocompromised individuals, although the risk is higher with herpes ... ISBN 978-0-88416-458-6. Teri Shors (2011). "Herpesviruses: Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)". Understanding Viruses (2nd ed.). ... Weller TH (1997). "Varicella-herpes zoster virus". In Evans AS, Kaslow RA (eds.). Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and ...
... complication 052.9 Varicella without complication 053 Herpes zoster 053.0 Herpes zoster with meningitis 053.1 Herpes zoster ... 063 Tick-borne viral encephalitis 064 Viral encephalitis transmitted by other and unspecified arthropods 065 Arthropod-borne ... virus infection causing other specified 044 Other human immunodeficiency virus infection 045 Acute poliomyelitis 046 Slow virus ... zoster dermatitis of eyelid 053.21 Herpes zoster keratoconjunctivitis 053.22 Herpes zoster iridocyclitis 053.29 Herpes zoster ...
Varicella zoster virus Variola virus Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (including E. coli O157) Vibrio cholerae West Nile ... Acute encephalitis Acute infectious hepatitis Acute poliomyelitis Anthrax Botulism Brucellosis Cholera COVID-19 Diphtheria ... Hanta virus Hepatitis A, B, C, delta, and E viruses Influenza virus Junin virus Kyasanur Forest disease virus Lassa virus ... virus Cryptosporidium spp Dengue virus Ebola virus Entamoeba histolytica Francisella tularensis Giardia lamblia Guanarito virus ...
... encephalitis, herpes simplex MeSH C02.256.466.279 - encephalitis, varicella zoster MeSH C02.256.466.313 - epstein-barr virus ... encephalitis, herpes simplex MeSH C02.182.500.300.400 - encephalitis, varicella zoster MeSH C02.182.500.300.450 - ... herpes zoster ophthalmicus MeSH C02.256.466.423.733 - herpes zoster oticus MeSH C02.256.466.423.970 - zoster sine herpete MeSH ... encephalitis, japanese MeSH C02.081.343.350 - encephalitis, st. louis MeSH C02.081.343.360 - encephalitis, tick-borne MeSH ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *Zoster vaccine. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ... Anthrax is now known to be caused by a bacterium, and rabies is known to be caused by a virus. The microscopes of the time ... a virus, or a prion. At present, the science to understand this process is available but not the technology to perform it.[25] ... could reasonably be expected to show bacteria, but imaging of viruses had to wait until the development of electron microscopes ...
... herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly ... efficacy - empirical - encephalitis - end-stage disease - endemic - endogenous - endoscopy - endotoxin - endpoint - enteric - ... V3 loop - vaccination - vaccine - vaccinia - vaginal candidiasis - valley fever - variable region - varicella zoster virus (VZV ... human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV- ...
Shingles is a viral disease produced by the varicella zoster virus (VZV), the same virus that causes chicken pox. Its symptoms ... Sometimes, serious problems like temporary, partial facial paralysis, ear damage, or encephalitis may occur. Persons with ... Herpes zoster (also known as shingles or zona) is a disease in humans. The same virus that causes chickenpox also causes ... The shingles virus is contagious from person to person only by direct contact. For this reason, persons with shingles are ...
B01.9) Varicella without complication. *(B02.) Zoster (herpes zoster) *(B02.0) Zoster encephalitis ... B20-B24) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease[संपादित करें]. *(B20.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting ... A85.) Other viral encephalitis, not elsewhere classified *(A85.8) Other specified viral encephalitis *Encephalitis lethargica ... B24.) Unspecified Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Disease. (B25-B34) Other viral diseases[संपादित करें]. *(B25.) ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *Zoster vaccine. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *Zoster vaccine. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ... The fifth reassortant virus expresses the attachment protein VP4, (type P1A), from the human rotavirus parent strain and the ... Rotavirus antigens for parenteral delivery, such as the P2-VP8 candidate, can be expressed as virus-like particles prepared in ... Both are taken orally and contain disabled live virus. ... and killed virus. These novel approaches are being pursued ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *Zoster vaccine. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *Zoster vaccine. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ... This virus-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ... The first hantavirus vaccine was developed in 1990 initially for use against Hantaan River virus which causes one of the most ... They include a recombinant vaccine and vaccines derived from HTNV and PUUV viruses. However, their prospects are unclear.[1] ...
Herpes zoster oticus. *Ophthalmic zoster. *Disseminated herpes zoster. *Zoster-associated pain. *Modified varicella-like ... Variola virus Smallpox was caused by infection with Variola virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus, the family ... Other complications include encephalitis (1 in 500 patients), which is more common in adults and may cause temporary disability ... While the Dryvax virus was cultured in the skin of calves and freeze-dried, ACAM2000s virus is cultured in kidney epithelial ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *shingles. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ...
Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine. FSME-Immun, Encepur, TBE-Moscow, EnceVi Varicella zoster virus. Chickenpox, Shingles. ... Japanese encephalitis virus. Japanese encephalitis. Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Ixiaro, Jespect, Imojev Measles virus. ... Varicella vaccine, Shingles vaccine, MMRV vaccine. Varivax, Zostavax, ProQuad, Priorix Tetra Variola virus. Smallpox. Smallpox ... Virus. Diseases or conditions. Vaccine(s). Brands Hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis A. Hepatitis A vaccine. Havrix, Avaxim, VAQTA, ...
Varicella zoster (chicken pox#, shingles) · Herpes simplex† · Yellow fever#. combination: MMR · MMRV ... Adenovirus · Tick-borne encephalitis · Japanese encephalitis# · Flu# (LAIV, H1N1 (Pandemrix)) · Hepatitis A# · Hepatitis B# · ... Virus-like particle · Conjugate vaccine · DNA vaccination ...
Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and cytomegalovirus have a specific antiviral therapy. For herpes the treatment of ... Tyler KL (June 2004). "Herpes simplex virus infections of the central nervous system: encephalitis and meningitis, including ... Varicella zoster (VZV / HHV-3); also causes chickenpox and shingles (herpes zoster) ... common stomach viruses).[3][4][5] However, other viruses can also cause viral meningitis. For instance, West Nile virus, mumps ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *shingles. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *Zoster vaccine. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ... "Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *Zoster vaccine. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ... "Effect of microencapsulation on immunogenicity of a bovine herpes virus glycoprotein and inactivated influenza virus in mice". ... Moser CA, Speaker TJ, Berlin JA, Offit PA (1996). "Aqueous-based microencapsulation enhances virus-specific humoral immune ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *shingles. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ... Japanese encephalitis vaccine).[1] ഇത്തരം പ്രതിരോധ മരുന്നുകൾ 90%ത്തിൽ കൂടുതൽ ഫലപ്രദമാണ്. എത്രകാലത്തോളം ഈ പ്രതിരോധകുത്തിവെപ്പു ...
Two other herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus/HHV-4 and varicella zoster virus/HHV-3) and the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae ... Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis, for instance, is part of the group of conditions now regarded as forms of Miller Fisher ... Some cases may be triggered by the influenza virus and potentially influenza vaccine. An increased incidence of Guillain-Barré ... Lehmann HC, Hartung HP, Kieseier BC, Hughes RA (Sep 2010). "Guillain-Barré syndrome after exposure to influenza virus". The ...
... which is caused by varicella zoster virus. The differential diagnosis includes hand, foot and mouth disease due to similar ... Herpesviral encephalitis and herpesviral meningitis Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare life-threatening condition that ... For the virus that causes herpes simplex, see Herpes simplex virus. For all types of herpes viruses, see Herpesviridae. ... It should not be confused with conditions caused by other viruses in the herpesviridae family such as herpes zoster, ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *shingles. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ... "Mumps virus vaccines." *↑ Hviid A, Rubin S, Mühlemann K (March 2008). പുറത്തേക്കുള്ള കണ്ണികൾ[തിരുത്തുക]. *കാ ...
Shingles (Herpes zoster) Varicella zoster virus (VZV) Smallpox (Variola) Variola major or Variola minor ... Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing ... Arbovirus encephalitis. Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *shingles. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *shingles. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ... Tick-borne encephalitis virus. Type. Killed/Inactivated. Identifiers. ATC code. J07BA01 (WHO) ... "Vaccines against tick-borne encephalitis: WHO position paper" (PDF). Releve epidemiologique hebdomadaire / Section d'hygiene du ...
Chai W, Ho MG-R. Disseminated varicella zoster virus encephalitis. Lancet Available online 3 July 2014(0). Archived 29 November ... 2006). "The epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster in The Netherlands: implications for varicella zoster virus vaccination ... Varicella zoster virus is not the same as herpes simplex virus; however, they belong to the same family of viruses.[10] ... "Incidence of herpes zoster in pediatricians and history of reexposure to varicella-zoster virus in patients with herpes zoster ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *Zoster vaccine. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ... Two forms of the disease of smallpox were recognised, now known to be due to two strains of the Variola virus. Those ... The smaller, localised infection is adequate to stimulate the immune system to produce specific immunity to the virus, while ... published the results of his experiments and thus introduced the far superior and safer method of inoculation with cowpox virus ...
Herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus may respond to treatment with antiviral drugs such as aciclovir, but there are ... Encephalitis, brain tumor, lupus, Lyme disease, seizures, neuroleptic malignant syndrome,[5] naegleriasis[6]. ... varicella zoster virus (known for causing chickenpox and shingles), mumps virus, HIV, LCMV,[20] Arboviruses (acquired from a ... Viruses that cause meningitis include enteroviruses, herpes simplex virus (generally type 2, which produces most genital sores ...
Fatal varicella-zoster encephalitis; a rare complication of herpes zoster]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1998 Mar 21. 142(12):654-7. ... Drugs & Diseases , Dermatology , Herpes Zoster Q&A Which lab studies are used to detect varicella-zoster virus (VZV)?. Updated ... Caple J. Varicella-zoster virus vaccine: a review of its use in the prevention of herpes zoster in older adults. Drugs Today ( ... Quantitation of latent varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus genomes in human trigeminal ganglia. J Virol. 1999 Dec. ...
... is the cause of chickenpox and herpes zoster (also called shingles). Chickenpox follows initial exposure to the virus and is ... Fatal varicella-zoster encephalitis; a rare complication of herpes zoster]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1998 Mar 21. 142(12):654-7. ... encoded search term (Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV)) and Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) What to Read Next on Medscape ... Varicella-zoster virus. The virus. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1996 Sep. 10(3):457-68. [Medline]. ...
... is the cause of chickenpox and herpes zoster (also called shingles). Chickenpox follows initial exposure to the virus and is ... Fatal varicella-zoster encephalitis; a rare complication of herpes zoster]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1998 Mar 21. 142(12):654-7. ... encoded search term (Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV)) and Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape ... attenuated varicella-zoster virus (VZV). It has been shown to boost immunity against herpes zoster virus (shingles) in older ...
Meningitis and Encephalitis. Inflammation of the membrane around the brain (meningitis) or in the brain itself (encephalitis) ... Other Herpes Viruses. The varicella-zoster virus belongs to a group of herpes viruses that includes eight human viruses (it ... Chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus, a member of the herpes virus family. The same virus also causes herpes ... Herpes Zoster (Shingles). During a bout of chickenpox, the varicella-zoster virus travels to nerve cells called dorsal root ...
... , Chickenpox, Chicken Pox, VZV, Human Herpesvirus 3, Varicella-Zoster Virus. ... Herpes Zoster Viral Encephalitis CSF PCR Erythema Multiforme Causes Aseptic Meningitis Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura ... varicella zoster virus VZV, varicella-zoster virus VZV, Varicella zoster virus, VZV, Varicella Zoster Virus, Herpes zoster, ... Herpesvirus varicellae, Ocular Herpes zoster Virus, Varicella-Zoster Virus, Varicella-Zoster Viruses, VZ Virus, VZ Viruses, ...
Focal encephalitis following varicella-zoster virus reactivation without rash in a healthy immunized... ... Focal encephalitis following varicella-zoster virus reactivation without rash in a healthy immunized young adult.. Halling G1, ... Focal encephalitis following varicella-zoster virus reactivation without. Discussion in Other Health News and Research ... study on Varicella-Zoster virus and the dorsal ganglia on PR. Light on ME/CFS III: A Different Herpes Virus for CFS? - ...
For example, chickenpox can cause a syndrome of cerebellar ataxia or, rarely, encephalitis. With shingles, granulomatous ... Are you sure your patient has infection caused by varicella-zoster virus? What should you expect to find?. * Varicella-zoster ... How can varicella-zoster virus infection be prevented?. There are now licensed vaccines for both chickenpox and shingles. These ... Are you sure your patient has infection caused by varicella-zoster virus? What should you expect to find?*How did the patient ...
Keywords: Ramsay Hunt syndrome, encephalitis, Varicella-zoster virus. Bilge Ko er, Ay e Seda Eren, Selim Sel uk omo lu. ... Coexistence of Atypical Ramsay Hunt Syndrome and Varicella-Zoster Virus Encephalitis. Bilge Ko er, Ay e Seda Eren, Selim Sel uk ... Coexistence of Atypical Ramsay Hunt Syndrome and Varicella-Zoster Virus Encephalitis. Turk J Neurol. 2018; 24(2): 168-170. ...
To describe the clinical presentation and long-term disease outcomes of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection-related myelitis ... Encephalitis, Varicella Zoster. Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3 ... Encephalitis associated with Zika virus infection and reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus in a Brazilian child. ... We report a case of encephalitis associated with Zika virus infection and reactivation of varicella-zoster virus in the central ...
Anti-NMDAR encephalitis with concomitant varicella zoster virus detection and nonteratomatous malignancy. Preeti A. Prakash, ... Anti-NMDAR encephalitis with concomitant varicella zoster virus detection and nonteratomatous malignancy ...
Anti-NMDAR encephalitis with concomitant varicella zoster virus detection and nonteratomatous malignancy ... Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Induced Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspa. rtate Receptor Encephalitis: A Case Report and Review of Literature ... World Encephalitis Day is the global awareness day for people who have been directly or indirectly affected by encephalitis. ... Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a kind of encephalitis which associates with specific neuronal antigens. Most patients with AE ...
New Prize offered by The Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Foundation at the 54th annual Congress of the Canadian Neurological ... Anti-NMDAR encephalitis with concomitant varicella zoster virus detection and nonteratomatous malignancy ... Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Induced Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspa. rtate Receptor Encephalitis: A Case Report and Review of Literature ... World Encephalitis Day is the global awareness day for people who have been directly or indirectly affected by encephalitis. ...
Varicella Zoster Virus Encephalitis.. Lizzi J, Hill T, Jakubowski J.. Clin Pract Cases Emerg Med. 2019 Oct 14;3(4):380-382. doi ...
Virus not present in breast milk and no transmission to babies. study at 6 weeks post partum ... - A free PowerPoint PPT ... Varicella Zoster Virus - Herpes Zoster (Shingles) Reactivation of varicella zoster virus ... May vaccinate regardless of prior ... encephalitis) *Reactivation *Typical herpes zoster in adult. 4. Is risk severe chickenpox increased in pregnancy?*Confidential ... Varicella zoster virus in pregnancy. 1. Varicella zoster virus in pregnancy*Mike McKendrick ...
Varicella-zoster virus encephalitis also requires intravenous aciclovir;24 ganciclovir is more potent but also more toxic. ... Herpes simplex virus: Temporal lobe signs often prominent (personality change, hallucinations). Varicella-zoster virus: ... Less common causes include herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein- ... Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) virus causes seasonal epidemics of encephalitis at times of high regional rainfall.17 This ...
However, complications may include varicella pneumonia, hepatitis, encephalitis, and secondary bacterial infections. ... C. Y. Pumphrey and W. L. Gray, "The genomes of simian varicella virus and varicella zoster virus are colinear," Virus Research ... W. L. Gray, C. Y. Pumphrey, W. T. Ruyechan, and T. M. Fletcher, "The simian varicella virus and varicella zoster virus genomes ... "Antigenic relationships among several simian varicella like viruses and varicella zoster virus," Infection and Immunity, vol. ...
The differential diagnosis for travel-associated encephalitis should include MVEV, particularly during outbreak years. ... a flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, can cause severe clinical manifestations in humans. We report a ... Herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 PCR. Negative. Varicella zoster virus PCR. Negative. ... Louis encephalitis, Powassan, dengue, and West Nile viruses.. §MVEV IgM ELISA positive, MVEV IgG ELISA negative, and MVEV ...
In fact, many viruses can cause encephalitis, and the viral loads in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the early stage of the ... We report a case of acute VZV encephalitis in a child without obvious skin manifestations, which was rapidly diagnosed by AFA. ... AFA was performed to screen the common 18 encephalitis related pathogens in CSF. Obvious VZV DNA fragments were observed by ... Here we report a case of VZV encephalitis diagnosed by advanced fragment analysis (AFA), which could potentially to contribute ...
Biopsy-negative, varicella zoster virus (VZV)-positive giant cell arteritis, zoster, VZV encephalitis and ischemic optic ... Varicella-Zoster Virus Meningitis and Encephalitis: An Understated Cause of Central Nervous System Infections.. Authors:. Jose ... Background Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and herpes zoster cause infections of the central nervous system (CNS) manifesting as ... Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one of the most common agents causing viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS). VZV ...
Antiviral drugs work by killing the varicella zoster virus, or by stopping viral replication. This can shorten the length of a ... Very rarely, shingles can also lead to pneumonia, hearing problems, blindness, brain inflammation (encephalitis) or death (2)." ... polyDNA Recommends Gene-Eden-VIR Against the Latent Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV). ... We recommend Gene-Eden-VIR, which was designed to target latent viruses. - Mike Evans, polyDNA. Past News Releases. RSS. * ...
VZV auricularis VZV in any of the zoster zones of the head and neck (herpes auricularis, herpes facialis, and herpes occipito- ... Ramsay Hunt Syndrome Complicated by Brainstem Encephalitis in Varicella-zoster Virus Infection. Chin Med J (Engl). 2015 Dec 5. ... High prevalence of varicella-zoster virus reactivation in herpes simplex virus-seronegative patients with acute peripheral ... Utility of direct immunofluorescence and virus culture for detection of varicella-zoster virus in skin lesions. J Clin ...
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Encephalitis in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of ... Epstein-Barr virus. Varicella-zoster virus. Herpes simplex virus. Rubella (German measles). Mumps. Measles (rubeola). Source: U ... Encephalitis Arboviruses. Viruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks (arboviruses). Common Causes of Encephalitis ... Primary encephalitis (also called acute viral encephalitis) is caused by a direct viral infection of the spinal cord and brain. ...
... and the varicella-zoster virus, including varicella symptoms, transmission, how its diagnosed, and prevalence. ... encephalitis, brain atrophy, and death.1,11 ... Chickenpox and herpes zoster (varicella-zoster virus). In: ... Varicella. *What is varicella? Varicella (commonly known as chickenpox) is caused by varicella-zoster virus. It usually occurs ... How is varicella transmitted? The most common mode of transmission of varicella-zoster virus is believed to be person to person ...
Complications include varicella pneumonia (2.5/1000), encephalitis (15/100,000) and hepatitis.5 6 The illness is more often ... 1996) Varicella-zoster virus epidemiology-A changing scene? J Infect Dis 174 (suppl 3) S314-S319. ... 1992) Varicella-zoster virus susceptibility in day-care workers. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 7:191-194. ... The varicella zoster virus (VZV) is highly contagious and is spread from person to person by contact with respiratory ...
... encephalitis or intractable seizures. Like the other herpesviruses (Epstein Barr virus, varicella zoster virus, etc.), HHV-6 ... Newly Found Herpes Virus Is Called Major Cause of Illness in Young, New York Times HHV-6 Foundation DermNet viral/roseola Virus ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear egress, and budding. Humans serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are direct ... Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a set of two closely related herpes viruses known as HHV-6A and HHV-6B that infect nearly all ...
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis. … Varicella-zoster virus (VZV)infection. … human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy/ ... ヘルペス亜科に分類される単純ヘルペスウイルス1型 (herpes simplex virus type 1: HSV-1), 2型 (HSV-2), 水痘・帯状疱疹ウイルス (varicella-zoster virus: VZV) 感染症は皮膚科, 耳 ... A case of herpes simplex virus encephalitis recurring after a seven-year interval [in Japanese] M.D. Kogawa Shuro , M.D. Oi ... p,【要旨】単純ヘルペスウイルス1型(herpes simplex virus-1、以下 HSV-1)に
polymerase-chain-reaction, cerebrospinal-fluid, clinical-manifestations, complement-fixation, encephalitis, gb, neutralization ... Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) cause serious central nervous system (CNS) diseases that are ... Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) Glycoprotein E Is a Serological Antigen for Detection of Intrathecal Antibodies to VZV in Central ... by cross-reactions between HSV-1 and VZV IgG antibodies and are commonly reported in patients with herpes simplex encephalitis ...
o Varicella-Zoster Virus (HHV-3) = 85-95%. o Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) = 80-95%. o Human Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) = 40-70%. o ... Encephalitis (HSV-1) • Leading cause of sporadic encephalitis in US. • Initial generalized symptoms: malaise. • Progresses: CNS ... Periodically = virus reactivates in latently infected cells → releases infectious virus. o Infectious virus can now be detected ... o Virus persists as the genome in the cell nucleus. o Infectious virus cannot be detected in the host during latent periods. ...
  • Current research is considering whether the varicella vaccine may also prove efficacious as treatment for active varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. (
  • Are you sure your patient has infection caused by varicella-zoster virus? (
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox as a primary infection and shingles with recurrent infection. (
  • How did the patient develop disease caused by varicella-zoster virus infection? (
  • Which individuals are of greater risk of developing varicella-zoster virus infection? (
  • Vesiculopapular diseases that mimic chickenpox include disseminated herpes simplex virus infection, and enterovirus disease. (
  • What imaging studies will be helpful in making or excluding the diagnosis of varicella-zoster virus infection? (
  • Long-term outcomes of varicella zoster virus infection-related myelitis in 10 immunocompetent patients. (
  • Encephalitis associated with Zika virus infection and reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus in a Brazilian child. (
  • We report a case of encephalitis associated with Zika virus infection and reactivation of varicella-zoster virus in the central nervous system of a Brazilian child. (
  • Varicella-zoster virus infection: natural history, clinical manifestations, immunity and current and future vaccination strategies. (
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the etiologic agent of varicella (chicken pox), a childhood exanthematic disease that develops as a result of primary infection, and zoster (shingles), caused by reacti. (
  • Here we present a case of atraumatic splenic rupture secondary to varicella infection requiring emergency splenectomy. (
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a herpesvirus that causes two distinct clinical syndromes.Primary infection is manifested as varicella (chickenpox), whereas reactivation of latent VZV resu. (
  • Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). (
  • Later maternal infection may cause neonatal varicella. (
  • Virus infection of the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract is followed by virus multiplication in tonsillar or gut lymphatics. (
  • Varicella results from primary infection with the VZV whereas zoster or shingles occurs as a result of reactivation of latent virus. (
  • The collective clinical and laboratory findings revealed a remarkably close temporal association of zoster, multifocal VZV vasculopathy with temporal artery infection, biopsy-negative VZV-positive GCA and VZV encephalitis. (
  • Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) occurs due to reactivation of latent Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) infection in the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. (
  • Immunocompromised children and adults are at increased risk for severe disease and death following varicella zoster virus infection. (
  • Varicella zoster immune globulin (human) (VARIZIG) is recommended for post-exposure prophylaxis to prevent or attenuate varicella infection in high-risk individuals. (
  • Encephalitis can be caused by bacterial infection and, most often, viral infections. (
  • Primary encephalitis (also called acute viral encephalitis) is caused by a direct viral infection of the spinal cord and brain. (
  • Secondary encephalitis, also known as post-infective encephalitis, a viral infection first occurs elsewhere in your body and then travels to your brain. (
  • Ramsay Hunt Syndrome Complicated by Brainstem Encephalitis in Varicella-zoster Virus Infection. (
  • Ganesan V, Bandyopadhyay D, Kar SS, Choudhury C, Choudhary V. Herpes Zoster Infection Involving Mandibular Division of Trigeminal Nerve and Ramsay Hunt Syndrome with Meningitis in an Immunocompetent Patient: A Rare Association. (
  • Although rare, this initial infection can also cause febrile seizures, encephalitis or intractable seizures. (
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV)infection. (
  • Primary VZV infection results in chickenpox (varicella), which may rarely result in complications including VZV encephalitis or pneumonia. (
  • On the contrary, many cases of aseptic meningitis represent infection with viruses or mycobacteria that cannot be detected with routine methods. (
  • However, when this barrier is weakened by the HSV-2 viral infection, it is much easier to transmit the AIDS virus. (
  • Herpes zoster encephalitis (HZE) is a rare complication of varicella-zoster virus infection. (
  • This reactivated VZV infection is called zoster or shingles. (
  • Chicken pox or varicella is a highly contagious infection and is transmitted by respiratory secretions by coughing or sneezing, coughs. (
  • Patients with encephalitis, newborns, and people with compromised immune systems do need treatment for VZV infection. (
  • ABSTRACT - Although most children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have neurological dysfunction, in childhood the incidence of symptomatic cerebrovascular disease is low. (
  • The majority of children with human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection have neurologi-cal dysfunction but the development of symptomatic cerebrovascular disease is low (1.3%) 1 . (
  • Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection occurs in 1:2500-5000 deliveries and around 70% of the cases were related to HSV-2. (
  • Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a double-stranded DNA herpes virus, causes clinical infection with the development of primary infection, chicken pox, or reactivation, herpes zoster (shingles).Although the morbidity of infection is significantly greater within the adult population, most of the primary infections occur during childhood. (
  • Varicella-zoster virus primary infection, chicken pox, can present at any stage of the disease process, with many patients presenting later in the course of disease with a "rash. (
  • Congenital varicella syndrome is typically identified following maternal infection between 12-20 weeks gestation. (
  • Fortunately, the risk of congenital varicella syndrome is relatively low, with an expected rate of 0.4-2% when maternal infection occurs at 20 weeks or less gestation, and rarely thereafter. (
  • Additionally, no reports of congenital varicella infection have been reported in the setting of maternal zoster infection at any point in gestation. (
  • Neonatal varicella infection can present with pneumonia, disseminated mucocutaneous lesions, visceral infection, fever and as previously mentioned, results in death in 25% of cases. (
  • Initially, a determination of prior VZV exposure and/or immunization should be obtained as primary VZV infection - chicken pox - differs in presentation, management, and outcome from reactivated VZV - herpes zoster or shingles. (
  • Although varicella disease is usually mild, there are potentially serious complications including bacterial infection of skin lesions, pneumonia, Reye syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, aseptic meningitis or encephalitis. (
  • Congenital varicella syndrome, resulting from maternal primary infection with varicella during the first 20 weeks of gestation, is associated with low birth weight, localized muscular atrophy, skin scarring and eye and neurologic abnormalities. (
  • In addition to acute viral encephalitis, other less established and more unusual manifestations of viral infections include progressive neurologic disorders, such as postinfectious encephalomyelitis (such as may occur after measles or Nipah virus encephalitis) and conditions such as postpoliomyelitis syndrome, which has been considered by some to be as a persistent manifestation of poliovirus infection. (
  • An unusual CNS involvement leading to microcephaly due to infection of pregnant women by Zika virus has also been recently reported and highlights the constant need to look for new types of neurological manifestations of viral infections in humans. (
  • The herpesviruses are large, double-stranded DNA viruses that are well-adapted to human infection as they establish lifelong infection, rarely cause death of the host, and are readily spread between individuals. (
  • This can rarely be caused by the virus responsible for cold sore infection and genital herpes. (
  • A history of central nervous system infection in a patient with acute retinal necrosis syndrome suggests that herpes simplex virus is likely to be the viral cause. (
  • Infection with the herpes virus is categorized into one of several distinct disorders based on the site of infection. (
  • The primary infection is often asymptomatic but the patient may shed infectious virus for many years. (
  • Varicella zoster virus is a human alpha-herpesvirus that causes varicella (chickenpox) with primary infection. (
  • Encephalitis can often be caused by an infection. (
  • West Nile virus infection. (
  • A fatal case of encephalitis associated with Chikungunya virus infection. (
  • Cerebral infarct eight months after primary Varicella-zoster virus infection]. (
  • Natural killer (NK) cell-deficient patients are particularly susceptible to severe infection with herpesviruses, especially varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). (
  • Our study addressed this absence of knowledge and found that infection with VZV was not associated with enhanced NK cell activation, suggesting that the virus uses specific mechanisms to limit NK cell activity. (
  • VZV is the causative agent of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles), while HSV-1 causes recurrent orofacial herpes infection and, in severe cases, encephalitis. (
  • Despite manifestation as distinct diseases, these two viruses share a high degree of homology in the structures of their genomes and encode many similar proteins, as well as employ extensive immune evasion strategies to evade early detection and clearance during primary infection (reviewed in references 1 and 2 ). (
  • Satellite cell infection and polykaryon formation in neuron-satellite cell complexes provide mechanisms to amplify VZV entry into neuronal cell bodies, which is necessary for VZV transfer to skin in the affected dermatome during herpes zoster. (
  • VZV causes varicella during primary infection, establishes latency in sensory ganglia, and may reactivate to cause herpes zoster ( 4 , 12 ). (
  • Viruses and infection of DRG xenografts. (
  • The high sero-prevalence of both viruses with over 95% and the potential severity of brain infection make them key targets for public health. (
  • Chicken pox is an acute and highly contagious viral infection caused by the varicella zoster virus. (
  • Aims To highlight possible and may be fatal complications of Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) infection. (
  • Method We report a case of an infant with VZV infection who developed meningeococcal sepsi, meningeococcal meningitis, VZV encephalitis and subdural empyema. (
  • He had contact with varicella zoster infection. (
  • West nile virus is caused by an infection transmitted via a mosquito bite. (
  • Can Epstein Barr Virus cause chronic diarrhea during active infection? (
  • In most cases, a varicella zoster infection will lead to a case of chicken pox in children and in adults who are susceptible to the disease and not vaccinated but if a woman is infected during the early stages of pregnancy the fetus could be born with birth defects. (
  • If the mother becomes infected with varicella-zoster during the second or third trimester the fetal immune system is more able to fight off the infection. (
  • Infection during the last 2 weeks of the pregnancy may lead to the baby receiving maternal anti-VZV antibodies through the cord blood but if the infection occurs less than a week from giving birth the baby may develop neonatal chickenpox, which can be life-threatening with very severe symptoms including hepatitis, encephalitis, and pneumonia. (
  • Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of the laboratory mouse provides a well-characterized tractable system to study the pathogenesis of virus encephalitis and virus induced demyelination. (
  • In immunocompetent mice, virus infectivity in the brain was undetectable after the first week of infection, but virus RNA levels declined slowly. (
  • Long-term effects of Semliki Forest virus infection in the mouse central nervous system. (
  • Semliki Forest virus infection of laboratory mice: a model to study the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis. (
  • Identifying patients at risk for reactivation of latent viruses or acquisition of new ones is important, as active infection and diseases can potentially be prevented with pre-emptive monitoring or tailored prophylaxis during the most critical periods. (
  • Three patients developed cryptococcal meningitis, two had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, two had varicella-zoster virus encephalitis, and one had Aspergillus fumigatus infection. (
  • Varicella-zoster virus encephalitis has not been previously reported in heart transplant recipients, to our knowledge, but has been described in patients after bone marrow transplantation or in patients with HIV infection, the authors write. (
  • Primary infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes the characteristic syndrome of varicella, or chickenpox. (
  • Experiments in severe combined immunodeficiency mice with human skin grafts (SCIDhu mice) indicate that VZV infection of T cells can mediate transfer of infectious virus to skin. (
  • In the absence of experimental data, it has been suggested that the progression of VZV infection during the incubation period of varicella may resemble the stages of infection associated with the pathogenesis of mousepox ( 2 ). (
  • Varicella in pregnant women is associated with a risk of intrauterine VZV infection, which might result in congenital varicella syndrome (highest risk during the 13-20 weeks of gestation), neonatal varicella, or herpes zoster during infancy and early childhood. (
  • Norman J, Politz D. Shingles (varicella zoster) outbreaks in patients with hyperparathyroidism and their relationship to hypercalcemia. (
  • In October 2017, the FDA approved zoster vaccine recombinant, adjuvanted (Shingrix) for the prevention of shingles in adults aged 50 years or older. (
  • Indicated for the prevention of shingles (herpes zoster) in adults aged 50 years or older. (
  • It has been shown to boost immunity against herpes zoster virus (shingles) in older patients. (
  • The shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine (Zostavax) is now approved for adults age 50 years and older with healthy immune systems. (
  • Shingles and chickenpox are both caused by a single virus of the herpes family, known as varicella-zoster virus (VZV). (
  • Herpes zoster, or shingles, develops from reactivation of the virus later in life, usually many decades after chickenpox. (
  • A person with shingles cannot transmit the virus by breathing or coughing. (
  • The same virus also causes herpes zoster, or shingles, in adults. (
  • If the virus becomes active after being latent, it causes the disorder known as shingles, or herpes zoster . (
  • Shingles is the consequence of reactivation of latent virus from the sensory ganglia. (
  • Varicella virus is a neurotropic virus that can reactivate later in life to cause zoster or shingles. (
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccines induce immunity against childhood chickenpox and against shingles in older adults. (
  • The VZV Zostavax vaccine protects older adults against herpes zoster (shingles), a vesicular skin disease caused by VZV reactivation from latently infected neural ganglia. (
  • The proven safety and effectiveness of the varicella and shingles vaccines provide support for recombinant VZV (rVZV) vaccines to induce immunity against not only VZV but also against other pathogens. (
  • A study showed that antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir, valacyclovir and famcyclovir, helped to clear a herpes zoster (shingles) outbreak, but had no effect on the lingering pain caused by the virus (1). (
  • Since shingles is caused by a reactivation of the VZV virus, individuals need a remedy that helps the immune system target the latent VZV, before reactivation occurs. (
  • The same antiviral drugs are prescribed for shingles, cold sores, genital herpes, and Kaposi's sarcoma because they are all herpes viruses. (
  • Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, occurs after reactivation of latent VZV and is associated with aging, immunosuppression, and other factors. (
  • Shingles is a painful rash caused by herpes zoster virus. (
  • Shingles , also called herpes zoster, is a painful skin rash . (
  • Shingles is caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox . (
  • Some individuals may experience shingles or chickenpox-like rashes within 42 days after receiving zoster vaccine. (
  • Shingles are caused when the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivates, the same virus that causes chickenpox (varicella). (
  • Only those who have previously had chickenpox can develop shingles later in life, and rarely, those who have received the varicella vaccine can develop shingles later in life. (
  • However, in certain individuals and for reasons that are not completely clear, the varicella-zoster virus may re-emerge years later and travel along nerve fibers to cause shingles. (
  • 2) The treatment of acute attacks of herpes zoster (shingles), when the duration of rash is less than 72 hours. (
  • The varicella-zoster virus, commonly known as shingles, affects about 1 million people in the U.S. each year. (
  • In severe cases, shingles can lead to strokes, spinal cord injuries, loss of vision and encephalitis. (
  • The shingles virus is active in anyone who has had chickenpox. (
  • Once an episode of chickenpox ends, the varicella-zoster virus remains in nerve tissue inactively and can resurface years later as shingles. (
  • VZV is the cause of varicella, also known as chicken pox, a common childhood illness that causes an itchy rash and vesicles (blisters or pox) all over the body. (
  • Prior to the development of the varicella vaccine chicken pox occurred in over 90% of children. (
  • There is a live attenuated (weakened) varicella vaccine which is highly effective at preventing chicken pox. (
  • People who have been infected with VZV (chicken pox) have life-long latency of the virus in dorsal root ganglia. (
  • While patients with HZ may transmit the virus for one week after the lesions erupt, the risk for transmission is much lower than with chicken pox. (
  • Effectiveness of 2 doses of varicella vaccine in children. (
  • Varicella zoster disease of the central nervous system: epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features 10 years after the introduction of the varicella vaccine. (
  • The combined MMRV vaccine (ProQuad) has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of febrile seizure occurring 5-12 days following vaccination at a rate of 1 in 2300-2600 in children aged 12-23 months compared with separate MMR vaccine and varicella vaccine administered simultaneously. (
  • Data from postlicensure studies do not suggest that children aged 4-6 years who received the second dose of MMRV vaccine had an increased risk for febrile seizures after vaccination compared with children the same age who received MMR vaccine and varicella vaccine administered as separate injections at the same visit. (
  • All healthy teenagers and adults who have never had chickenpox or the vaccine should receive 2 doses of the varicella vaccine, given 4 - 8 weeks apart. (
  • The re-activating nature of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) may allow life long boosting when used as a vaccine vector in conjunction with HIV to generate durable immunity systemically and a. (
  • The purpose of these continuing post-licensure studies is to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of VARIVAX® [Varicella Virus Vaccine Live (Oka/Merck)] and to assess the impact of the va. (
  • Varivax is a vaccine against varicella zoster vi. (
  • The live, attenuated varicella vaccine (VARIVAX) immunizes children against chickenpox, a childhood disease characterized by fever and vesicular skin rash. (
  • There is also a zoster vaccine that is recommended for person over 50 years old. (
  • Before the varicella vaccine (Varivax) was released for use in 1995, nearly all of the four million children born each year in the United States contracted chickenpox, resulting in hospitalization in five of every 1,000 cases and 100 deaths. (
  • Chickenpox has been a typical part of growing up for most children in the industrialized world (although this may change if the new varicella vaccine becomes more widely accepted). (
  • All children without contraindications should receive two doses of varicella vaccine (trade name: Varivax®) after 1 year of age and at least 3 months apart. (
  • The ACIP recommends all persons over 13 years of age without evidence of varicella immunity receive 2 doses of varicella vaccine separated by a minimum of 4 weeks. (
  • Varicella vaccine is a live attenuated viral vaccine. (
  • MMRV is a combination vaccine that includes measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccines [1]. (
  • The ZVL vaccine has the same antigen as the aforementioned varicella vaccine but at a much higher titer [1]. (
  • Varicella vaccine effectiveness after a single dose is estimated to be 76-94% in preventing clinically diagnosed or laboratory confirmed disease and 78-100% effective for prevention of severe cases of varicella in children [6-8]. (
  • Below please find general information about the viruses tested including a description of the disease, transmission, whether or not a vaccine is available and geographic and seasonal distribution. (
  • In Norway, varicella vaccine is not currently offered through the national immunization program, but it is recommended for non-immune individuals [ 15 ] and is fully reimbursed for those who are at risk of complications, such as people with immunodeficiencies and stem cell transplantation patients [ 16 ]. (
  • The availability of the varicella and HZ vaccines highlights the urgent need to assess the public health burden of these diseases in Norway in order to inform national vaccine policy decisions. (
  • There is one monovalent varicella vaccine ( Varivax ) licensed for use in adults (Table 4). (
  • Zostavax is a high-potency formulation varicella vaccine (Table 4) for the prevention of HZ in adults older than 60 years of age. (
  • In people older than age 70, the new vaccine is 91 percent effective in preventing the virus, according to research . (
  • Varicella Complications (e.g. (
  • Adults who escape VZV exposure during childhood have more severe varicella symptoms and complications. (
  • What are the complications of varicella? (
  • Complications include varicella pneumonia (2.5/1000), encephalitis (15/100,000) and hepatitis. (
  • Clinicians should also be vigilant for the development of acute complications, including cerebral edema and status epilepticus, as well as chronic complications, including the development of autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies to the N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor and other neuronal cell surface and synaptic epitopes. (
  • Herein, we review the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and clinical and radiological features of herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis in adults, including a discussion of the most common complications and their treatment. (
  • Varicella is a common infectious disease, usually benign and self-limited, and complications are believed to be rare. (
  • The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of severe varicella complications in immunologically healthy children in Germany. (
  • This is the first prospective nationwide study of severe complications of varicella in immunologically healthy children. (
  • As cell-mediated immunity wanes, the virus may reactivate to cause zoster which can lead to various complications, including vasculopathy [ 1 ]. (
  • Lung and neurologic complications, including encephalitis and post-infectious vasculopathy also occur. (
  • Adults are at a much higher risk than children of developing serious complications, which include cerebellar ataxia, encephalitis and bacterial superinfections. (
  • ACIP recommends that varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) be administered within 96 hours of exposure for post-exposure prophylaxis in susceptible persons at high risk for varicella complications. (
  • Chickenpox or varicella is one of the most common acute viral infections of childhood in western countries. (
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one of the most common agents causing viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS). (
  • Varicella-Zoster Virus Meningitis and Encephalitis: An Understated Cause of Central Nervous System Infections. (
  • Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) cause serious central nervous system (CNS) diseases that are diagnosed with PCR using samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and, during later stages of such infections, with assays of intrathecal IgG antibody production. (
  • More specifically, the invention relates to cyclic peptide derivatives (hereinafter called "peptides" or "cyclic peptides") exhibiting activity against herpes viruses, to pharmaceutical compositions comprising the peptides, and to a method of using the peptides to treat herpes infections. (
  • The family of herpes viruses is responsible for a wide range of infections that afflict humans and many important domestic animals. (
  • The diseases caused by these viruses range from bothersome cold sores to highly destructive infections of the central nervous system (encephalitis). (
  • The relatively selective action of these peptides against herpes viruses, combined with a wide margin of safety, renders the peptides as desirable agents for combating herpes infections. (
  • Written by experts in infectious diseases, the book covers topics that are the most devastating, including healthcare-acquired infections, autoimmune encephalitis, and infections as they present in HIV patients. (
  • If the herpes virus spreads through the baby's bloodstream, it can cause serious infections of the brain and other vital organs. (
  • MedlinePlus says that herpes simplex virus type 1 infections are more common than herpes simplex virus type 2 infections. (
  • The reactivation VZV can also cause severe infections of the nervous system including meningitis and encephalitis. (
  • It has been discussed whether the vasculitis is directed related to HIV or secondary to associated infections such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), mycobacteria, or fungi 1,3,4 . (
  • Clinically relevant involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) by viruses is an uncommon event, considering the overwhelming number of individuals affected by the different human viral infections. (
  • however, most CNS viral infections involve the meninges to a greater or lesser extent, leading to aseptic meningitis or causing mild meningoencephalitis rather than pure encephalitis. (
  • There is no other book that provides a careful case description that includes all the neurologic features of 19 neurologic diseases produced by virus, as well as cases of bacterial meningitis and other infections produced by spirochetes, protozoans and prions, as well as inflammatory diseases of the nervous system of unknown etiology. (
  • Pathogenesis and Clinical Features of Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile Virus Infections. (
  • Ischemic stroke is a recognised complication of Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections. (
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes more than 2.500 annual infections in central Europe with approx. (
  • Our research group aims at resolving pathomechanisms of virus infections with focus on the neurotransmission of pathogens at the blood-brain barrier and on the host-virus interaction (Lenhard Brain Res 2013). (
  • Viruses are also responsible for the common cold, childhood exanthems (such as chickenpox, measles, rubella), latent infections (such as herpes simplex), some cancers or lymphomas (such as Epstein-Barr virus), and diseases of all organ systems. (
  • The virus is harmless to macaques or may cause only a herpetic rash in macaques, but in humans it often produces fatal infections of the brain and meninges. (
  • Safety and efficacy of high-dose intravenous acyclovir in the management of neonatal Herpes simplex virus infections, Pediatrics 2001;108:230-238. (
  • What viruses cause congenital infections? (
  • Many viruses can cause congenital infections. (
  • Patients with suspected arboviral infections such as West Nile Virus should have serology prior to considering molecular testing in the CSF. (
  • Viral infections of the central nervous system: viral infections of the CNS are caused by a broad range of viruses. (
  • Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) include both acute and chronic conditions caused by a broad range of different viruses. (
  • Table I. Classification of viral infections of the CNS Anatomical area Acute Chronic Meninges Viral meningitis Brain Viral Measles: SSPE [dagger] parenchyma encephalitis ADEM * HIV-associated, e.g. (
  • Outcomes of these infections are variable, ranging from generally benign in aseptic meningitis to severe with neurological sequelae and even death in encephalitis. (
  • Disease manifestations may occur due to reactivation of latent infections, such as with herpes viruses, which are often already present in the recipient before transplant, or as a consequence of de-novo acquisition after the transplant. (
  • Acyclovir has been used in the treatment of herpes simplex and varicella zoster viral infections for over 30 years. (
  • The VZV is responsible for both chickenpox and herpes zoster (HZ) infections. (
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of encephalitis and pneumonia in children. (
  • An investigation that cross validated encephalitis surveillance with ED pneumonia surveillance and senitenal reference laboratory data revealed probable epidemic M.pneumoniae disease activity in Sydney during 2015. (
  • Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (
  • Less common causes include herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesviruses 6, 7 and 8. (
  • We recently found that the viral RNA transcription of DNA viruses requires cyclin dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) in the host cells, and that FIT039, a specific inhibitor of CDK9, suppressed the proliferation of DNA viruses such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, human adenovirus, human cytomegalovirus, hepatitis virus B, and HPVs. (
  • Polymerase chain reaction has increased the ability of clinicians to detect viruses such as enterovirus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes virus in the CSF, but many viruses can still escape detection. (
  • CSF PCR was negative for herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella-zoster virus (HZV), enterovirus, and human herpesvirus 8. (
  • Varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA were detected in aqueous and/or vitreous specimens from 27 of 28 patients (29 of 30 eyes with a clinical history of acute retinal necrosis syndrome). (
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus member of the Herpes virus family. (
  • Other viral causes include cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), arboviruses and lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus. (
  • This book seeks to improve outcomes for meningitis and encephalitis cases handled by physicians who may or may not be thoroughly trained for these challenges. (
  • Meningitis and Encephalitis is a well-rounded resource for all medical professionals encountering these neurological syndromes, including infectious disease specialists, neurologists, primary care physicians, and immunologists. (
  • Available at: (
  • For example, meningoencephalitis describes the occurrence of both meningitis and encephalitis and encephalomyelitis refers to simultaneous encephalitis and myelitis. (
  • Quantitation of latent varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus genomes in human trigeminal ganglia. (
  • Pain in nerves, frequently involving facial SKIN, resulting from the activation the latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). (
  • We recommend Gene-Eden-VIR, which was designed to target latent viruses. (
  • Scientists scanned thousands of scientific and medical papers published in various medical and scientific journals around the world to identify the safest, most effective natural ingredients that target the latent form of herpes zoster. (
  • The discovery explains how foreign DNA fragments, and specifically, DNA of latent viruses, cause most major diseases. (
  • polyDNA developed Gene-Eden-VIR, an antiviral natural remedy that helps the immune system kill latent viruses. (
  • Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. (
  • Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV6) is a ubiquitous neurotropic virus latent in most adults. (
  • Reactivation of latent viruses has been implicated in a number of organic diseases. (
  • Subsequently, the virus becomes latent in cranial nerve and dorsal root ganglia along the neuraxis. (
  • Ramsay - Hunt's syndrome (RHS) is a disorder characterized by facial paralysis, herpetic eruptions on the auricle, and otic pain due to the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus in the geniculate ganglion. (
  • Viral encephalitis encompasses a group of inflammatory diseases of the brain caused by a variety of viral agents and exhibiting common clinical symptoms. (
  • The Viral Encephalitis Laboratory offers a molecular test panel for health care providers to assist in the diagnosis of hospitalized viral encephalitis cases. (
  • The table below lists the Test Menu of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that are performed for Viral Encephalitis testing. (
  • A printable version of Collection and Submission Instructions for Viral Encephalitis Testing is also available. (
  • Most commonly, clinically relevant viral encephalitis affects children, young adults, or elderly patients, but the spectrum of involvement depends on the specific viral agent, host immune status, and genetic and environmental factors. (
  • Management of acute viral encephalitis in Brazil. (
  • LaCrosse viral encephalitis mimics herpes simplex viral encephalitis. (
  • The evolving epidemiology of viral encephalitis. (
  • the virus likely accounts for at least 10 to 20% of all viral encephalitis in the United States ( 60 ). (
  • Mark Twain's words hold true in many situations in medicine, particularly in critical illnesses that carry both risk of death and the chance of full recovery, exemplified by autoimmune encephalitis. (
  • Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a kind of encephalitis which associates with specific neuronal antigens. (
  • The concept of 'autoimmune' as an etiology has recently been revisited thanks to advances in autoimmune encephalitis and precision medicine with immunotherapies. (
  • Both autoimmune encephalitis and post-ictal pleocytosis are important differential diagnoses to be considered. (
  • and miscellaneous conditions, such as CNS lymphoma, autoimmune encephalitis and demyelinating disorders. (
  • Vesicular lesions can be cultured, but the virus does not survive well in transport media, even when the sample is placed on ice. (
  • Utility of direct immunofluorescence and virus culture for detection of varicella-zoster virus in skin lesions. (
  • Pruritic vesicular lesions consistent with Varicella reactivation presenting postpartum along the unilateral posterior flank (lumbar dermatomal distribution). (
  • Goodpasture [ 3 ] and others demonstrated that material from herpetic lip and genital lesions produced encephalitis when introduced into the scarified cornea or skin of rabbits. (
  • Usually affecting children, varicella spreads by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. (
  • The purpose of these experiments was to use SCID mice with human skin xenografts (SCIDhu) to examine whether VZV-infected tonsil T cells have the capacity to deliver infectious virus from the venous circulation and cause the development of cutaneous lesions in vivo. (
  • To observe the effect of this drug on herpes simplex virus lesions in patients who have failed to heal i. (
  • Other viruses that may cause aseptic meningitis are varicella zoster virus, herpes, and mumps. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Mumps meningoencephalitis Mosquito carried viruses of the flavivirus family. (
  • Most cases of viral meningitis are caused by enteroviruses (70 - 90%), herpes simplex virus type 2 or mumps. (
  • Trigeminal herpes zoster and Ramsay Hunt syndrome in an elderly adult: Presentation with prodromal toothache. (
  • What can be observed in Ramsay Hunt syndrome (herpes zoster oticus)? (
  • Ramsay Hunt syndrome in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. (
  • Varicella-zoster virus-specific cell-mediated immunity in Ramsay Hunt syndrome. (
  • Gunbey HP, Kutlar G, Aslan K, Sayit AT, Incesu L. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence of Varicella Zoster Virus Polyneuropathy: Involvement of the Glossopharyngeal and Vagus Nerves Associated With Ramsay Hunt Syndrome. (
  • The coexistence of Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis is rare. (
  • Ramsay Hunt Syndrome with Multiple Cranial Neuropathy in an Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Patient BACKGROUND Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a rare otologic complication resulting from varicella zoster virus reactivation that can present with a myriad of clinical presentations. (
  • Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) complicated with encephalitis is rare, and the appearance of hemi-motosensory deficit in RHS is even rarer. (
  • Like the other herpesviruses (Epstein Barr virus, varicella zoster virus, etc. (
  • One shared property is virus structure-all herpesviruses are composed of relatively large double-stranded, linear DNA genomes encoding 100-200 genes encased within an icosahedral protein cage called the capsid which is itself wrapped in a lipid bilayer membrane called the envelope. (
  • During a bout of chickenpox, the varicella-zoster virus travels to nerve cells called dorsal root ganglia. (
  • Herpes zoster arises as a reactivation of dormant virus particles within the dorsal root ganglia following prior exposure. (
  • Characteristics and long-term prognosis of Danish patients with varicella zoster virus detected in the cerebrospinal fluid, compared with the background population. (
  • Risk factors for and long-term outcomes following detection of varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are unknown. (
  • Cognitive impairment without altered levels of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in patients with encephalitis caused by varicella-zoster virus: a pilot study. (
  • In January 2008, a 59-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus was admitted to our hospital with herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis of his right temporal lobe, which was diagnosed by PCR testing of his cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from hospitalized encephalitis patients are automatically tested for the first eight viruses all year. (
  • Conventional laboratory diagnosis has traditionally depended on cell culture recovery of the virus from brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), detection of virus-specific intrathecal antigen or antibodies, or imaging techniques that provide characteristic wave patterns or focal inflammatory loci in the temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex. (
  • Acute encephalitis is a severe neurologic syndrome. (
  • Depending on the gestational age, maternal varicella causes congenital varicella syndrome, herpes zoster during infancy or early childhood, or severe neonatal varicella. (
  • In contrast, HHV6-associated encephalitis is an emerging syndrome in transplant recipients, especially those undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). (
  • The data suggest that varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus type 1 cause acute retinal necrosis syndrome in patients older than 25 years, whereas herpes simplex virus type 2 causes acute retinal necrosis in patients younger than 25 years. (
  • Congenital Varicella Syndrome (CVS) is a rare but serious disease that affects about 2% of pregnancies exposed to the virus in the first trimester. (
  • A study published on November 18, 2013 in the French medical journal Medicine et Maladies Infectieuses found that "HZ (herpes zoster) - related pain was at least as frequent in patients treated by antiviral therapy … (as in those who) did not receive antiviral treatment (1). (
  • Antiviral drugs work by killing the varicella zoster virus, or by stopping viral replication. (
  • VZV encephalitis is associated with severe neurological sequelae, despite antiviral treatment. (
  • Antiviral drugs such as acyclovir and are available that slow down the virus reproduction and reduce symptoms, but cannot eliminate the virus. (
  • A series of analogues of potent antiviral perylene nucleoside dUY11 with methylthiomethyl (MTM), azidomethyl (AZM) and HO-C1-4-alkyl-1,2,3-triazol-1,4-diyl groups at 3`-O-position as well as the two products of copper-free alkyne-azide cycloaddition of the AZM derivative were prepared and evaluated against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (
  • Despite acyclovir as available specific antiviral drug, encephalitis patients still are at high risk to die (20%) and more than 50% survive with considerable neuropsychiatric sequelae. (
  • Rapid laboratory diagnosis is now essential for timely treatment of CNS disease caused by HSV ( 106 ), and as is the case for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the use of molecular diagnostic testing in this setting has become popular because of the availability of a specific and effective antiviral therapy. (
  • The prolonged varicella incubation period appears to represent the time required for VZV to overcome antiviral responses of epidermal cells and generate vesicles at the skin surface. (
  • Herpes zoster, which occurs primarily, but not exclusively, in older adults, is characterized by unilateral pain and a vesicular rash that are limited to the dermatome innervated by a single spinal or cranial nerve [ 1 ]. (
  • A positive history of varicella was a good predictor of immunity, but a negative history had no value as a predictor of susceptibility in adults. (
  • In the healthcare setting varicella is an occupational hazard for a few adults who did not contract varicella in childhood. (
  • The association of AIDS and VZV encephalitis was previously described in both adults and children 4,7 . (
  • Chickenpox (also called varicella) is a common and extremely infectious childhood disease that also affects adults on occasion. (
  • Study results reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that more than 90% of American adults are immune to the chickenpox virus. (
  • And - for the first time - the recommendation includes adults ages 50 through 59 among those who should be vaccinated against the virus. (
  • Focal encephalitis following varicella-zoster virus reactivation without rash in a healthy immunized young adult. (
  • Herein we describe an episode of focal varicella-zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis in a healthy young man with neither rash nor radicular pain. (
  • When VZV reactivates, the characteristic dermatomal rash of herpes zoster is attributed to the axonal transport of VZ virions that were assembled in neuronal cell bodies to the skin. (
  • Clinically, herpes zoster is characterized by severe acute pain and a dermatomal rash and often by prolonged neurologic signs and symptoms ( 12 ). (
  • Zika virus is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes which causes mild fever with maculopapular rash. (
  • Reactivation of the dormant virus results in the characteristic painful dermatomal rash of herpes zoster, which is often followed by pain in the distribution of the rash (postherpetic neuralgia). (
  • When reactivated, the virus causes HZ, a painful vesicular rash typically appearing in a dermatomal distribution affecting one or two sensory nerve roots. (
  • Here, the virus can hide from the immune system and remain inactive but alive for years, often for a lifetime. (
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccines provide immune protection against diseases that affect both the young and the elderly. (
  • Varicella zoster immune globulin (human) (VARIZIG) in immunocompromised patients: a subgroup analysis for safety and outcomes from a large, expanded-access program. (
  • Immune Responses to Japanese Encephalitis Virus. (
  • So far, available data on polygenetic virus-host interactions however are essentially all based on in vitro- and/or animal models crucially neglecting the human immune system with its individual genetic context. (
  • Viruses with lipid envelopes have a greater ability to adhere to cell membranes and to avoid destruction by the immune system. (
  • Does dengue virus cause illness only in immune compromised person? (
  • Role of immune responses in protection and pathogenesis during Semliki Forest virus encephalitis. (
  • Semliki Forest virus-induced, immune-mediated demyelination: adoptive transfer studies and viral persistence in nude mice. (
  • Reconstitution of Semliki Forest virus infected mice, induces immune mediated pathological changes in the CNS. (
  • Varicella zoster immune globulin (VariZIG) is indicated for administration to high-risk individuals within 10 days (ideally within 4 days) of chickenpox (VZV) exposure. (
  • Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. (
  • Silver B, Nagel MA, Mahalingam R, Cohrs R, Schmid DS, Gilden D. Varicella zoster virus vasculopathy: a treatable form of rapidly progressive multi-infarct dementia after 2 years' duration. (
  • VZV encephalitis is predominantly a vasculopathy involving small and large vessels and can lead to ischemic or hemorrhagic infarcts. (
  • During an attack of herpes zoster ophthalmicus, it has been hypothesized that the virus replicates in the trigeminal ganglion and travels via the trigeminal nerve centrally to cause cerebral vasculopathy. (
  • The case is used to provide a literature review of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of cerebral varicella zoster vasculopathy. (
  • In situations where an isolated unilateral cerebral vasculopathy is identified, neurologists are urged to consider varicella zoster as a treatable etiologic agent, as untreated vasculopathy can lead to further strokes. (
  • We describe a case of varicella zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy in a 69 year old woman with myasthenia gravis on immunosuppressive therapy who presented with recurrent strokes in the same vascular territory three months after an episode of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. (
  • While the literature on this entity is limited, VZV vasculopathy was initially described as herpes zoster ophthalmicus with contralateral hemiplegia in 1896 [ 2 ]. (
  • Goh CL, Khoo L. A retrospective study of the clinical presentation and outcome of herpes zoster in a tertiary dermatology outpatient referral clinic. (
  • In short, this case represents VZV reactivation, most likely in the trigeminal ganglion, in the absence of clinical herpes zoster. (
  • What are the clinical features of varicella over time? (
  • Murray Valley encephalitis: a review of clinical features, diagnosis and treatment. (
  • A 72-year-old man developed clinical features of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and ipsilateral ophthalmic-distribution zoster, followed within 2 weeks by VZV encephalitis and 2 months later by ischemic optic neuropathy. (
  • Rarely clinical findings include retrograde transaxonal spread of the virus from the ganglion into the brain parenchyma with developing the encephalitis or multiple cranial nerve involvement. (
  • Shin DH, Kim BR, Shin JE, Kim CH. Clinical manifestations in patients with herpes zoster oticus. (
  • What are the clinical manifestations of parainfluenza virus? (
  • We report the evolution of MR imaging findings and clinical course in 4 patients with limbic encephalitis probably related to HHV6. (
  • Herein, we review the clinical and radiological manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSVE), the most common infectious cause of sporadic encephalitis. (
  • Emerging Cases of Powassan Virus Encephalitis in New England: Clinical Presentation, Imaging, and Review of the Literature. (
  • Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain with clinical evidence of neurological dysfunction. (
  • Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Use of Herpes Zoster Vaccines. (
  • [ 10 , 11 ] As a result, the CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that separate MMR and varicella vaccines be used for the first dose, although providers or parents may opt to use the combined MMRV for the first dose after counseling regarding this risk. (
  • Research on pseudorabies virus (PrV), the causative agent of Aujeszky's disease in pigs, has pioneered animal disease control with genetically modified vaccines. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: Current Vaccines and Future Prospects. (
  • The common influenza viruses have antigens that mutate or combine readily, requiring new vaccines with each mutation. (
  • Based on the National Immunization Registry SYSVAK, approximately 550 doses of varicella vaccines are given to 450 individuals annually in Norway, with a birth cohort of 60,000 children per year. (
  • The diagnosis can also be confirmed with a culture of vesicular fluid that is positive for varicella-zoster virus (VZV). (
  • In cases of zoster sine herpete, DNA analysis via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used for early diagnosis if laboratory turnaround time is reasonably short. (
  • Detection of varicella-zoster virus DNA in patients with acute peripheral facial palsy by the polymerase chain reaction, and its use for early diagnosis of zoster sine herpete. (
  • Often, the appearance of herpes simplex virus is typical and no testing is needed to confirm the diagnosis. (
  • cerebellitis was the leading diagnosis ( n = 48), followed by encephalitis ( n = 22), meningitis ( n = 2), and central facial palsy ( n = 1). (
  • Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis: diagnosis, optimal management, and challenges. (
  • But - encephalitis is an extremely rare diagnosis to be associated with eb virus . (
  • Varicella is a highly contagious disease of children and adolescents [ 1 ]. (
  • The varicella zoster virus (VZV) is highly contagious and is spread from person to person by contact with respiratory secretions and vesicle fluid. (
  • Varicella is a contagious childhood disease that is usually benign [ 1 ]. (
  • Highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). (
  • Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a set of two closely related herpes viruses known as HHV-6A and HHV-6B that infect nearly all human beings, typically before the age of two. (
  • and Epstein-Barr virus which causes infectious mononucleosis. (
  • Varicella is a highly infectious acute disease caused by the DNA herpesvirus varicella zoster virus (VZV). (
  • The avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus is phylogenetically distant from these two viruses and serves to underline similarity and diversity within the Alphaherpesvirinae. (
  • In DRG xenografts, VZV inoculation results in viral DNA synthesis, expression of immediate-early (IE) regulatory/tegument proteins IE62 and IE63 and envelope glycoproteins, and the production of infectious virus. (
  • Does the eb virus cause infectious mononucleosis? (
  • In μMT mice, which have no antibodies, infectious virus persisted in both the serum and the brain for several weeks, indicating that antibodies are required to eliminate infectious virus. (
  • Compartmentalization of acyclovir-resistant varicella zoster virus: implications for sampling in molecular diagnostics. (
  • Cost-benefit of oral acyclovir in the treatment of herpes zoster. (
  • Sacchetti D, Alawadhi A, Albakour M, Rapose A. Herpes zoster encephalopathy or acyclovir neurotoxicity: a management dilemma. (
  • Rarely, especially in children under 1 year, the virus disseminates to the brain, causing herpes encephalitis, which in the absence of treatment with acyclovir is lethal in 80% of cases. (
  • This is more common in immunosuppressed patients who use acyclovir (or other agents) as zoster prophylaxis. (
  • Acyclovir is widely indicated for the treatment of herpes labialis (cold sores), typically caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). (
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human alphaherpesvirus that infects sensory ganglia and reactivates from latency to cause herpes zoster. (
  • VZV is related to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2), which are also neurotropic human alphaherpesviruses that establish latency in sensory ganglia, but in contrast to VZV, HSV reactivations are common and usually asymptomatic ( 30 ). (
  • Here, we've broken the discussion down into herpes viruses, which are classically characterized by prolonged latency and "reactivated" after BMT, and viruses that are typically acquired via the respiratory tract. (
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chickenpox), establishes latency in sensory ganglia, and reactivates as zoster. (
  • These mechanisms of VZV neuropathogenesis help to account for the often severe neurologic consequences of herpes zoster. (
  • The Herpesviridae are a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and animals. (
  • Some of the most virulent diseases are caused by viruses, e.g., the hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola virus. (
  • What are the symptoms of varicella zoster and its manifestations? (
  • These experiments provide new insights about how VZV interactions with neural cells in sensory ganglia result in the characteristic manifestations of herpes zoster. (
  • Chickenpox is generally a benign disease in otherwise healthy children with symptoms usually completely resolved within two weeks of disease onset and with subsequent life-long immunity against varicella. (
  • OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence of varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibodies in Flemish (Belgian) healthcare workers, to investigate the association between seronegativity and selected variables, and to assess the reliability of recall about disease as a predictor of immunity. (
  • Over the past two decades, a dramatic decline in disease incidence - with concomitant increase in immunity - has been seen with the implementation of routine childhood varicella vaccinations. (
  • Immunity to varicella is especially important for health care personnel [1, 2]. (
  • Herpes zoster ophthalmicus: the virus strikes back. (
  • Pavan-Langston D. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus. (
  • The Skin and the Eye - Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in a Healthy 18-month-old Toddler. (
  • Even more uncommon is herpes zoster ophthalmicus, defined as herpes zoster of the ophthalmic branch of the fift. (
  • Here we present a case of a 69 year-old Caucasian immunocompromised woman who suffered recurrent ischemic infarcts within the same vascular distribution following an episode of zoster ophthalmicus three months prior. (
  • Herpes zoster ophthalmicus followed by contralateral hemiparesis: report of two cases and review of literature. (
  • Herpes zoster ophthalmicus with delayed cerebral infarction and meningoencephalitis. (
  • Monkey B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus-1, Herpesvirus simiae ) is a simplexvirus endemic in macaque monkeys. (
  • Taxonomic assignment of viruses to the herpesvirus family is determined by virion morphology and composition. (
  • How can one reduce the antibody counts for herpes simplex virus, rubella, cytomegalo virus? (
  • A live attenuated varicella virus prepared from the Oka/Merck strain. (
  • This is a lyophilized preparation of the Oka/Merck strain of live, attenuated varicella-zoster virus (VZV). (
  • Prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission: are we following guidelines? (
  • The 400 known viruses are classified in several ways: by genome core (RNA or DNA), host (animals, plants, or bacteria), method of reproduction (such as retrovirus), mode of transmission (such as enterovirus), and disease produced (such as hepatitis virus). (
  • Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain itself. (
  • treat Herpes Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain. (
  • Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito borne viral disease associated with inflammation of the brain. (
  • Herpes is caused by two different viruses (see The Difference Between Genital Herpes and Oral Herpes link), which are active on a person's skin. (
  • Though similar in name, herpes zoster is not the same disease as herpes simplex (which is caused by the herpes simplex virus causing cold sores , fever blisters , or genital herpes ). (
  • Prompt recognition and treatment can be life-saving in the care of patients with herpes simplex-1 virus encephalitis, the most commonly identified cause of sporadic encephalitis worldwide. (
  • Herpes simplex virus 1 and Varicella Zoster Virus, are the most frequent pathogens of sporadic encephalitis. (
  • The Lyra Direct HSV 1+2/VZV Assay is a multiplex in vitro test that detects and differentiates Herpes simplex virus type 1, Herpes simplex virus. (
  • The Lyra Direct HSV 1+2/VZV Assay is a multiplex in vitro test that detects and differentiates Herpes simplex virus type 1, Herpes simplex virus type 2, and Varicella-zoster virus nucleic acids isolated and purified from cutaneous or mucocutaneous swab specimens obtained from symptomatic patients. (
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA was detected in seven patients (seven eyes). (
  • Herpes simplex virus type 2 DNA was detected in six patients (six eyes). (
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are two medically important human alphaherpesviruses that cause widespread disease in human hosts. (
  • Herpes simplex virus type-1 encephalitis (HSE) is the most common cause of sporadic fatal encephalitis worldwide and is a medical emergency. (
  • The membrane, tegument and capsid can be seen in the electron micrograph of herpes simplex virus type 1 shown. (
  • More severe presentations can include cranial nerve palsies, encephalitis, and recurrent meningitis. (
  • Blein C, Gavazzi G, Paccalin M, Baptiste C, Berrut G, Vainchtock A. Burden of herpes zoster: the direct and comorbidity costs of herpes zoster events in hospitalized patients over 50 years in France. (
  • Herpes zoster in immunocompromised patients: incidence, timing, and risk factors. (
  • It is indicated for the prevention of herpes zoster in patients who have no contraindications. (
  • Immunocompromised children, including cancer and AIDS patients, are particularly susceptible to severe, sometimes life-threatening varicella [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • Immunosuppressed cancer and AIDS patients are at risk for severe herpes zoster with possible disseminated disease [ 3 ]. (
  • 1. A score that predicts one year functional status in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis patients. (
  • In the first segment, Dr. David Lapides talks with Dr. Ramani Balu about his paper on a score that predicts one year functional status in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis patients. (
  • A score that predicts 1-year functional status in patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis From. (
  • Nevertheless, varicella is not a harmless disease, especially for people at risk-for example, immunocompromised patients, premature infants, and neonates of seronegative mothers. (
  • However, serological diagnoses have been hampered by cross-reactions between HSV-1 and VZV IgG antibodies and are commonly reported in patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). (
  • Characteristics of hearing loss in patients with herpes zoster oticus. (
  • There's no cure for VZV, and treatment for the virus generally is not recommended for healthy patients. (
  • We describe the serial MR imaging findings in 4 patients undergoing HSCT who exhibited acute onset of anterograde amnesia and were diagnosed with HHV6-associated encephalitis on the basis of positive CSF polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HHV6 at the time of presentation and the lack of other identifiable cause. (
  • Varicella-zoster virus DNA was detected in 13 patients (15 eyes). (
  • Six of these patients had a history of herpes simplex virus encephalitis. (
  • in contrast, CSF from six patients with other microbial causes of encephalitis or systemic lupus erythematosis gave negative results ( 84 ). (
  • Seroprevalence data were compared to the varicella and herpes zoster-associated consultation rates in patients attending primary healthcare. (
  • Testing for viruses that cause diarrhea are suggested for, in-patients admitted with diarrhea, patients associated with outbreaks in long-term care or other closed facilities and public health intrest in clusters of cases. (
  • Both patients had a peripheral type facial palsy, facial numbness and zoster in the ipsilateral ear canal. (
  • Effectiveness after two doses is estimated to be 94% against any varicella and 98% against moderate or severe varicella [8]. (
  • Prior to routine vaccination, varicella was annually responsible for 100-200 varicella-related deaths and 11,000 hospitalizations in the U.S. (
  • Currently Norway does not recommend universal varicella vaccination for healthy children. (
  • There is a concern that universal varicella vaccination may result in an increased incidence of HZ due to the possible decline of exogenous boosting following a reduced circulation of the wild type virus [ 14 ]. (
  • In addition, high vaccination coverage is needed to avoid shifting varicella morbidity to older age groups [ 10 ]. (
  • Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses are members of the Japanese encephalitis serological group of the genus Flavivirus and therefore closely related genetically and antigenically. (
  • The Japanese Encephalitis Serological Group of Flaviviruses: A Brief Introduction to the Group. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis Virus: Ecology and Epidemiology. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis As an Emerging Virus: The Emergence and Spread of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Australasia. (
  • Molecular Epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis Virus. (
  • Evolution of the Japanese Encephalitis Serocomplex Viruses. (
  • Control of Japanese Encephalitis in Japan: Immunization of Humans and Animals, and Vector Control. (
  • Host Genetic Resistance to Japanese Encephalitis Group Viruses. (
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE). (
  • The Japanese encephalitis virus or 'brain fever' virus damages the brain in two ways, a new study by the National Brain Research Center at Manesar, Haryana, has found. (