Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
Diseases of plants.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Those hospitals which are extensions of a main hospital and are wholly or partly administered by that hospital.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A spherical RNA satellite virus which requires an obligatory helper TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS for replication.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
... s are single stranded satellite DNA that are dependent on a virus for transmission. The genome is a single ... These viruses were earlier known as DNA 1 components. These viruses are generally found in the Old World. A number have been ... July 2004). "Diversity of DNA 1: a satellite-like molecule associated with monopartite begomovirus-DNA beta complexes". ... Katul L, Maiss E, Vetten HJ (February 1995). "Sequence analysis of a faba bean necrotic yellows virus DNA component containing ...
Viruses like Sputnik that depend on co-infection of the host cell by helper viruses are known as satellite viruses. At its ... All host viruses of the known virophages belong to the group of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses. Studies have been done to ... was the first known satellite virus that inhibited replication of its helper virus and thus acted as a parasite of that virus. ... All three Sputnik virophages share more than 99% of their DNA and can grow with viruses of any Mimiviridae group A, B, and C. ...
... a group of small DNA viruses that infect protists and require a helper virus to replicate; they are a type of satellite virus. ... All known virophages are associated with helpers in the giant DNA virus family Mimiviridae. Zamilon is restricted in its range ... Duponchel, S. and Fischer, M.G. (2019) "Viva lavidaviruses! Five features of virophages that parasitize giant DNA viruses". ... Krupovic M, Kuhn JH, Fischer MG (2016), "A classification system for virophages and satellite viruses", Archives of Virology, ...
... of adeno-associated satellite viral antigens and infectious DNA by temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus". ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Around the end of 1970s Esparza became involved in studies of various aspects of this ... Herpes Virus Type 2 : genetic aspects. This was the subject of Esparza's Ph.D. dissertation (with honors) working under ... By this stage Esparza had attained hands-on command of many aspects of viral research techniques (i.e., virus-isolation, ...
They reduce virus DNA levels and symptom severity. The two components of the genome have very distinct molecular evolutionary ... The DNA B genome originated as a satellite that was captured by the monopartite progenitor of all extant bipartite ... virus Rose leaf curl virus Sauropus leaf curl virus Senecio yellow mosaic virus Senna leaf curl virus Sida angular mosaic virus ... virus Jatropha mosaic Nigeria virus Jatropha mosaic virus Jatropha yellow mosaic virus Kudzu mosaic virus Leonurus mosaic virus ...
Some viruses, such as HIV and oncogenetic viruses, incorporate their own DNA into the genome of the host cell. Viral genomes ... In animals, eccDNA molecules have been shown to contain repetitive sequences that are seen in satellite DNA, 5S ribosomal DNA ... Extrachromosomal DNA was found to be structurally different from nuclear DNA. Cytoplasmic DNA is less methylated than DNA found ... It is also referred to as extranuclear DNA or cytoplasmic DNA. Most DNA in an individual genome is found in chromosomes but DNA ...
Unlike satellite viruses, virophages have a parasitic effect on their co-infecting virus. Virophages have been observed to ... Virophages are small, double-stranded DNA viral phages that require the co-infection of another virus. The co-infecting viruses ... The host amoeba also showed a partial recovery from the infection by the Samba virus. Virophages have small double-stranded DNA ... The host range for virophages include giant viruses with double stranded DNA genomes. Virophages use the transcriptional ...
DNA viruses (divided into double-stranded DNA viruses and single-stranded DNA viruses), RNA viruses (divided into positive- ... hepatitis D is due to a satellite virus. The study of the manner in which viruses cause disease is viral pathogenesis. The ... Viruses can be classified according to the host cell they infect: animal viruses, plant viruses, fungal viruses, and ... Oncolytic viruses are viruses that preferably infect cancer cells. While early efforts to employ these viruses in the therapy ...
... is a central web-based source of information about viruses, viroids and satellites of plants, fungi and protozoa. It ... DPVweb also contains a representative sequence of all other fully sequenced virus species with an RNA or single-stranded DNA ... Plant viruses Transmission of plant viruses Adams, M; Antoniw, J (2005). "DPVweb: An open access internet resource on plant ... The site provides a single point of access for all known plant virus genome sequences making it easy to collect these sequences ...
The term satellite virus has been given to a large group of viruses that all require the presence of another virus to replicate ... These plasmids contain either transgenic DNA or replication and capsid encoding DNA, plus helper DNA. Every cell that is ... Naturally-occurring satellite viruses are also helper virus dependent, and can sometimes be modified to become viral vectors. ... These viruses will only have transgenic DNA encapsidated and therefore once they've infected a patient's cell, they will not be ...
So far there is only one true example of a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) mycovirus. A geminivirus-related virus was found in ... Fungi are frequently infected with two or more unrelated viruses and also with defective dsRNA and/or satellite dsRNA. There ... Furthermore, the recent discovery of an ssDNA mycovirus tempted some researchers to suggest that RNA and DNA viruses might have ... However, many virus families containing mycoviruses have only sparsely been sampled. Mycovirology is the study of viruses ...
Unlike other satellite viruses, virophages have a parasitic effect on their co-infecting virus. Virophages have been observed ... Archaean viruses replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes unique shapes. ... Virophages are small, double-stranded DNA viruses that rely on the co-infection of giant viruses. Virophages rely on the viral ... Marine algae can be infected by viruses in the family Phycodnaviridae. These are large (100-560 kb) double-stranded DNA viruses ...
A giant virus is a very large virus, some of which are larger than typical bacteria. They are giant nucleocytoplasmic large DNA ... These virion replication factories are themselves subject to infection by the virophage satellite viruses, which inhibit or ... Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses Pandoravirus Klosneuvirus Cafeteria roenbergensis virus Reynolds, Kelly A. (2010). " ... Largest giant viruses with complete sequenced genomes The whole list is in the Giant Virus Toplist created by the Giant Virus ...
3.0 3.1 J. Jose and R. Usha, Bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease in India caused by association of a DNA β satellite with a ... Ageratum yellow mosaic virus- Singapore, Cotton leaf curl virus- Pakistan , Bhendi yellow vein mosic virus- madurai , Tomato ... 2.0 2.1 Briddon and J. Stenley, Subviral agents associated with plant single-stranded DNA viruses, Virology 344 (2006), pp. 198 ... Beet curly top virus.. ஒற்றை நுண்மம் (Monopartite virus) கொண்ட இலை வெட்டு பூச்சிகள் (leaf hoppers) மூலம் பரவும் நுண்மம் ஆகும். ...
DNA molecule (2400-2800 nt in size), and betasatellite (1350-1400 nt in size). Several beta satellites are associated with ... Papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCuV) is a DNA virus from the genus Begomovirus and the family Geminiviridae. PaLCuV causes severe ... There are closely related virus species including: Papaya leaf crumple virus Papaya leaf curl China virus Papaya leaf curl ... Some alpha satellites have also been associated with PaLCuV. This virus has similar coat protein structure and genome ...
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-03-scientists-impact-junk-dna-rna.html https://phys.org/news/2019-01-herpes-viruses-tumors- ... Human satellite II is an exceptionally high-copy but unexplored sequence of the human genome thought of as junk DNA has a ... Because HSAT-II DNA is normally methylated (a form of gene regulation), it remains dormant in healthy cells. For this reason, ... Both herpes viruses and cancer manipulate this same pathway causing genetic instability and disease. ...
Chronic bee-paralysis satellite virus Double-stranded DNA satellite viruses Family Lavidaviridae - Virophages Sputnik virophage ... virus satellite RNA Panicum mosaic virus small satellite RNA Peanut stunt virus satellite RNA Turnip crinkle virus satellite ... Satellites can be divided into two major classes: satellite viruses and satellite nucleic acids. Satellite viruses, which are ... virus satellite RNA Tomato black ring virus satellite RNA Beet ringspot virus satellite RNA Beet necrotic yellow vein virus ...
DNA A). The genome of CLCrV is bipartite. Two smaller, circular, single-stranded DNA molecules, named DNA 1 and DNA β, are ... These molecules are regarded as satellite molecules as they depend on the helper begomovirus to support one or more stages of ... in the absence of DNA β, the concentration of viral DNA (DNA A) is low and the symptoms of infection very mild. DNA β has a ... DNA 1 is homologous to the DNA-R component of the nanoviruses and encodes a master replication initiator (M-Rep) protein but ...
A number of satellite viruses-viruses that require the assistance of another virus to complete their life cycle-are also known ... system of classifying viruses and does not consider viruses with DNA intermediates in their life cycle as RNA viruses. Viruses ... virus Extra small virus Goji berry chlorosis virus Harmonia axyridis virus 1 Hepelivirus Jingmen tick virus Le Blanc virus ... includes Yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Hepatitis C virus, Dengue fever virus, Zika virus Family Fusariviridae Family ...
... is a genus of double stranded DNA virus that can infect the marine phagotrophic flagellate Cafeteria roenbergensis, but ... Krupovic, M; Kuhn, JH; Fischer, MG (January 2016). "A classification system for virophages and satellite viruses" (PDF). ... Duponchel, S. and Fischer, M.G. (2019) "Viva lavidaviruses! Five features of virophages that parasitize giant DNA viruses". ... Fischer MG, Suttle CA (April 2011). "A virophage at the origin of large DNA transposons". Science. 332 (6026): 231-4. Bibcode: ...
After contacting Henry Pym and Reed Richards via satellite, the three scientists begin to work on a way to neutralize the virus ... At this point information on the analysis of a DNA sample from the "Anti-Cap" obtained in Cuba arrives. With the discovery of ... MODOK unleashes the Hulk to rage again and cuts off the satellite link to Pym and Richards. Without the knowledge of how to ... Conversations in issue #11 reveal to the reader that "WWIII in a petri dish" is made of modified DNA taken from MODOK, that ...
1 DNA-Viren *1.1 Doppelsträngige DNA-Viren (dsDNA: double stranded DNA). *1.2 Einzelsträngige DNA-Viren (ssDNA: single stranded ... a b c d e f Krupovic M, Kuhn JH, Fischer MG (2016) A classification system for virophages and satellite viruses. Arch Virol 161 ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ...
A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Some viruses, called satellites, can replicate only within cells that have already been infected by another virus. Viruses are ... but rather its DNA genome (in case of a DNA virus), or a cDNA copy of its genome (in case of RNA viruses). For many virus ... varies considerably between different types of viruses. DNA viruses The genome replication of most DNA viruses takes place in ...
Viruses: They are viral agents composed of a molecule of genetic material (DNA or RNA) and with the ability to form complex ... Satellite nucleic acids: they are DNA or RNA molecules, which are encapsidated as a stowaway in the virions of certain helper ... "3 - Satellites and Other Virus-dependent Nucleic Acids - Subviral Agents - Subviral Agents (2011)". International Committee on ... Transposons are present in all living things and in giant viruses. DNA transposons: they are transposons that move directly ...
... formerly P2-like viruses, P2virus, and P2likevirus), subfamily Peduovirinae, family Myoviridae. It is a satellite virus, ... Pruss, G; Goldstein, RN; Calendar, R (June 1974). "In vitro packaging of satellite phage P4 DNA". Proceedings of the National ... It is a satellite virus which cannot engage in lytic growth without the presence of a P2-related helper phage. It generally ... Enterobacteria phage P4 (also known as satellite phage P4) is a temperate bacteriophage strain of species Escherichia virus P2 ...
... (msDNA) is a type of extrachromosomal satellite DNA that consists of a single-stranded DNA ... human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase complexed with double-stranded DNA at 3.0 A resolution shows bent DNA ... or even between DNA polymerases using DNA as a template, versus DNA polymerases using RNA as a template. The catalytic region ... The priming of msDNA synthesis offers a fascinating challenge to our understanding of DNA synthesis. DNA polymerases (which ...
Chronic bee-paralysis satellite virus Double-stranded DNA satellite viruses Family Lavidaviridae - Virophages Single-stranded ... Satellite viruses Single-stranded RNA satellite viruses (unnamed family) Aumaivirus - Maize white line mosaic satellite virus ... Panicum mosaic satellite virus Virtovirus - Tobacco mosaic satellite virus Albetovirus - Tobacco necrosis satellite virus ... and foot-and-mouth virus), SARS virus, hepatitis C virus, yellow fever virus, and rubella virus. Group V: viruses possess ...
... s are differentiated in their mitochondrial DNA between North American and Eurasian populations,[17] but the nuclear ... determined from satellite telemetry". Zoological Science. 25 (9): 875-881. doi:10.2108/zsj.25.875. ISSN 0289-0003. PMID ... "The duck genome and transcriptome provide insight into an avian influenza virus reservoir species". Nature Genetics. 45 (7): ... Mitochondrial DNA data for the D-loop sequence suggests that mallards may have evolved in the general area of Siberia. Mallard ...
Pages in category "DNA". The following 33 pages are in this category, out of 33 total. ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:DNA&oldid=4367965" ... DNA methylation. *DNA polymerase. *DNA repair. *DNA replication. *DNA virus. G. *Gene ... Satellite DNA. *Selfish DNA. *Sequence analysis. *Single nucleotide polymorphism. T. *Tandem repeat ...
Their DNA is slightly less than one percent different from humans, and they age at a much slower rate. Since ninety-seven ... However, one of the sleepers escapes and unleashes a portion of the virus onto a bus as a test of its virulence. From a video ... The missile turns out to be a communications satellite that is transmitting a message into space from Thomas and Isabel to the ... Meanwhile, Sean and Vicky board a plane headed back for the U.S. with the hopes of catching the virus but they arrive too late ...
11 May 2006). "Satellite-monitored movements of humpback whales in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean". Marine Ecology Progress ... "More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: the blood-clotting protein gene gamma-fibrinogen" (PDF). Molecular ...
The DNA Learning Center (DNALC), founded in 1988, was among the early pioneers[15] in developing hands-on genetics lab ... In 2013, 31,000 students on Long Island and New York City were taught genetics labs at the DNALC and satellite facilities in ... Upon taking charge in 1968, he focused the Laboratory on cancer research, creating a tumor virus group and successfully ... In 1952 the "Waring blender experiments" of Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase confirmed DNA as the genetic material.[30] Hershey ...
Group VII viruses[edit]. Both families in Group VII have DNA genomes contained within the invading virus particles. The DNA ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... Group VI viruses[edit]. All members of Group VI use virally encoded reverse transcriptase, an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, to ... which was most likely excised with the proviral DNA. Nontransforming viruses can randomly insert their DNA into proto-oncogenes ...
Some of the viruses evolved into DNA viruses to protect their genes from attack. Through the process of viral infection into ... Helper-virus. dependent. Satellite. *ssRNA satellite virus. *dsDNA satellite virus (Virophage). *ssDNA satellite virus ... In segmented RNA viruses, "mating" can occur when a host cell is infected by at least two virus particles. If these viruses ... they uncovered evidence that a simple DNA virus had acquired a gene from a completely unrelated RNA-based virus. Virologist ...
Use of DNA in forensic entomology. *G.D. Hale Carpenter joined the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and took the ... In 1887, the rinderpest virus was accidentally imported in livestock brought by an Italian expeditionary force to Eritrea. It ... "Predicting the distribution of tsetse flies in West Africa using temporal Fourier-processed meteorological satellite data". ... a reactive oxygen species that damages DNA. These defenses limit the population of infected flies. ...
"Human muscle satellite cells as targets of Chikungunya virus infection". PLOS One. 2 (6): e527. Bibcode:2007PLoSO...2..527O. ... a nonstructural protein that degrades RBP1 and turns off the host cell's ability to transcribe DNA.[51] NS2 interferes with the ... It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ...
... while others accept that the virus exists but say that it is a harmless passenger virus and not the cause of AIDS. Insofar as ... The Royal Society review (2002) concluded that the risks to human health associated with the use of specific viral DNA ... They also claim that no actual satellites are orbiting the Earth, that the International Space Station is fake, and that these ... AIDS denialism is the denial that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( ...
Modern phylogenetics uses sophisticated techniques such as alloenzymes, satellite DNA and other molecular markers to describe ... The role of viruses[edit]. Genes borrowed from viruses have recently been identified as playing a crucial role in the ... The first is syncytin, which came from a virus. The second identified in 2007 is called EFF1, which helps form the skin of ... However, the problem with this theory is that it is still not known how each organism's DNA could be incorporated into one ...
HBV was identified as a new DNA virus in the 1960s, followed a couple of decades later by the discovery of the flavivirus ... A new virus has been described in fish - White sucker hepatitis B virus.[3] This is the first hepadnavirus described from fish ... Etymology - portmanteau of hepa (liver: reference to Hepatitis B the primary human member) DNA virus. ... "A novel cis-acting element facilitates minus-strand DNA synthesis during reverse transcription of the hepatitis B virus genome" ...
Other ICs have satellite locations in addition to operations at the main campus. The National Institute of Allergy and ... By the 1990s, the NIH committee focus had shifted to DNA research, and launched the Human Genome Project.[19] ... In 1984 National Cancer Institute scientists found implications that "variants of a human cancer virus called HTLV-III are the ... 1960s - Discovered the first human slow virus disease, kuru, which is a degenerative, fatal infection of the central nervous ...
The routes of satellite-tagged bar-tailed godwits migrating north from New Zealand. This species has the longest known non-stop ... True birds first appeared during the Cretaceous period, around 120 million years ago.[5] DNA-based evidence finds that birds ... "Birds, Migration and Emerging Zoonoses: West Nile Virus, Lyme Disease, Influenza A and Enteropathogens". Clinical medicine & ... fossils and DNA have all been brought to bear on the problem, but no strong consensus has emerged. More recently, new fossil ...
By inserting separate, successive sections of V. cholerae DNA into the DNA of other bacteria, such as E. coli that would not ... A modelling approach using satellite data can enhance our ability to develop cholera risk maps in several regions of the globe. ... "Oral rehydration salts, zinc supplement and rota virus vaccine in the management of childhood acute diarrhea". Journal of ...
... first aired on TV Tokyo's AT-X satellite channel from July 25 to October 17, 2004, and was broadcast again in 2005. ... If a Diclonius vector penetrates or even so much as touches a human male body, the "vector virus" is transferred to the human, ... whether it is part of their genetic DNA or whether it stems from abuse by humans. ... Kurama explains the purpose of the Silpelits and that the Diclonius virus can only be passed into the human male to produce ...
... helps DNA polymerase to create new strands of DNA equivalent to template given.[17] ... Lesions of other Leishmania species may spontaneously heal and then reappear as satellite lesions around the site of the ... "Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patient" ... detection of parasite DNA in tissue. Newer PCR based tools have higher sensitivity and specificity. Emergence of PKDL has been ...
... which in turn can damage DNA. The DNA damage caused indirectly to skin by UVA consists mostly of single-strand breaks in DNA, ... See also the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite. Levels of ozone at various altitudes (DU/km) and blocking of ... These fluids could contain deadly viruses or other contamination.. Ultraviolet aids in the detection of organic material ... UVB photons can cause direct DNA damage. UVB radiation excites DNA molecules in skin cells, causing aberrant covalent bonds to ...
Four of them had died because of canine distemper virus, the same virus that had killed several Serengeti lions earlier.[69][70 ... "dna. Retrieved March 28, 2015.. *^ a b Johnsingh, A.J.T. (2006). "Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary ready to play second home to Asiatic ... Dispersing sub-adults established new territories outside their natal prides, and as a result the satellite lion population has ... "Asiatic lions in Gujarat's Gir forest dying of Canine Distemper Virus: ICMR". The Hindustan Times. New Delhi. 2018. Retrieved ...
MD simulation of the full satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) (2006, Size: 1 million atoms, Simulation time: 50 ns, program: ... Cruz, F.J.A.L.; Mota, J.P.B. (2016), "Conformational Thermodynamics of DNA Strands in Hydrophilic Nanopores", J. Phys. Chem. C ... NAMD) This virus is a small, icosahedral plant virus that worsens the symptoms of infection by Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). ... "Molecular dynamics simulation of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)". Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group. ...
Unlike most other DNA viruses, parvoviruses are unable to activate DNA synthesis in host cells. Thus, in order for viral ... They are classified as group II viruses in the Baltimore classification of viruses. Parvoviruses are among the smallest viruses ... which only work with a helper virus such as adenovirus. Other viruses that can infect without helper viruses are called as ... Parvoviruses are linear, non-segmented single-stranded DNA viruses, with an average genome size of 5000 nucleotides. ...
Revers transkriberende virus *DNA revers transkriberende virus. *RNA revers transkriberende virus Retrovirus *Familie: ... model af tobakmosaikvirus-kapsid, se en:Satellite tobacco mosaic virus. Model af Epstein-Barr virus, prototypen på en dsRNA- ... 10 Sygdomme forårsaget af virus. *11 Klassifikation *11.1 Baltimore klassifikation *11.1.1 Gruppe I - Dobbeltstrenget DNA-virus ... Sygdomme forårsaget af virus[redigér , redigér wikikode]. Mange sygdomme forårsages af virus.[2][13][14] Nogle virus forårsager ...
A particular haplogroup of DNA, haplogroup L2, evolved between 87,000 and 107,000 years ago[9] or approx. 90,000 YBP.[10] Its ... Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa. *Manillas, a form of archaic money unique to West Africa ... Satellite imagery from outer space of West Africa. The northern section of West Africa (narrowly defined to exclude the western ... Studies of human mitochondrial DNA suggest that all humans share common ancestors from Africa, originated in the southwestern ...
The relationship with malignancy is unknown, as is the cause, although a parrot papilloma virus has been isolated from a grey ... television antennae and satellite dishes.[83] A business in central Melbourne suffered as sulphur-crested cockatoos repeatedly ... "A phylogeny of cockatoos (Aves: Psittaciformes) inferred from DNA sequences of the seventh intron of nuclear β-fibrinogen gene ...
... most are regarded as selfish DNA parasites. In this way, they are similar to viruses. Various viruses and TEs also share ... Helper-virus. dependent. Satellite. *ssRNA satellite virus. *dsDNA satellite virus (Virophage). *ssDNA satellite virus ... The DNA-transposase complex then inserts its DNA cargo at specific DNA motifs elsewhere in the genome, creating short TSDs upon ... DNA transposons[edit]. A. Structure of DNA transposons (Mariner type). Two inverted tandem repeats (TIR) flank the transposase ...
Modern phylogenetics uses sophisticated techniques such as alloenzymes, satellite DNA and other molecular markers to describe ... The role of virusesEdit. Genes borrowed from viruses and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) have recently been identified as ... a b Eugene V. Koonin: Viruses and mobile elements as drivers of evolutionary transitions. In: Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol ... The first is syncytin, which came from a virus.[43] The second identified in 2007 is called EFF1, which helps form the skin of ...
It has been proposed that viruses are likely to be encountered on other life-bearing planets,[116][117] and may be present even ... The information gathered by this discipline allows the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to develop and ... Their extreme radiation tolerance and presence of DNA protection proteins may provide answers as to whether life can survive ... Griffin, Dale Warren (14 August 2013). "The Quest for Extraterrestrial Life: What About the Viruses?". Astrobiology. 13 (8): ...
... deletion mutagenesis of the ageratum yellow vein virus DNA-beta satellite localizes sequences involved in replication 1st ... deletion mutagenesis of the ageratum yellow vein virus DNA-beta satellite localizes sequences involved in replication ... Replication promiscuity of DNA-beta satellites associated with monopartite begomoviruses; ... Replication promiscuity of DNA-beta satellites associated with monopartite begomoviruses; ...
"Siegesbeckia yellow vein virus is a distinct begomovirus associated with a satellite DNA molecule, Archives of Virology" on ... Siegesbeckia yellow vein virus is a distinct begomovirus associated with a satellite DNA molecule. Wu, J. B.; Zhou, X. P. ... Siegesbeckia yellow vein virus is a distinct begomovirus associated with a satellite DNA molecule Wu, J. B.; Zhou, X. P. 2007- ... Siegesbeckia yellow vein virus is a distinct begomovirus associated with a satellite DNA molecule. ...
Co-inoculation of TYLCCNV DNA A and RecDNA-Aβ induced symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by TYLCCNV DNA A and DNA β ... comprising parts of DNA A and DNA β associated with tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) have been identified in ... All are approximately half the size of TYLCCNV genomic DNA, and all contain the βC1 gene and the A-rich region from TYLCCNV DNA ... Several examples of the recombinant DNA have been cloned and characterized by sequence analysis. ...
Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Phylogeny / Virology / DNA, Satellite / DNA, Viral / Base ... Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Phylogeny / Virology / DNA, Satellite / DNA, Viral / Base ... Molecular characterization of cotton leaf Curl Multan virus and its satellite DNA that infects Hibiscus rosa-sinensis / 病毒学报 ... Base Sequence , DNA, Satellite , Chemistry , DNA, Viral , Chemistry , Geminiviridae , Classification , Genetics , Gossypium , ...
DNA tests of Lassa virus mid-outbreak helped Nigeria target its response New technology for analyzing genetic data quickly in ... Satellites make mapping hot spots of ammonia pollution easier Theres a more accurate way to estimate ammonia emissions. ...
Purchase Viruses, Evolution and Cancer Basic Considerations - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780124297609, ... Viruses with Separately Encapsidated Complementary DNA Strands. I. Introduction and Nomenclature II. Adeno-associated Satellite ... Adeno-associated Satellite Viruses and Densonucleosis Virus and Disease IV. Adeno-associated Satellite Viruses and ... and Virus Transformation. I. Introduction II. Interactions of Viruses with the Cell Surface III. Oncogenic Viruses IV. Virus ...
... disease-specific satellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Following a recent upsurge in CLCuD problems in ... Saeed, M.; Zafar, Y.; Randles, J.W.; Rezaian, M.A. A monopartite begomovirus-associated DNA β satellite substitutes for the DNA ... Molecular characterization of begomoviruses and DNA satellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Cameroon. Virus Res. ... deletion mutagenesis of the Ageratum yellow vein virus DNAsatellite localizes sequences involved in replication. J. Gen. ...
Lindernia anagallis yellow vein virus satellite DNA beta * Global Biotic Interactions. has pathogen ... show all extinction status first appearance flowers visited by has pathogen is eaten by last appearance number of DNA Records ... Definition: number of DNA records in this clade in the Global Genome Biodiversity Network (GGBN) repository of genome quality ...
In virus-induced PCD in plants, no typical DNA ladders of apoptosis have been found; however, Ca2+-activated DNA endonuclease ... D satellite RNA (satRNA) with its helper virus, namely, cucumber mosaic virus, causes systemic necrosis in tomato. The infected ... 1999). Structure and functional relationships of satellite RNAs of cucumber mosaic virus. In Satellites and Defective Viral ... 1995). Effect of temperature on cucumber mosaic virus satellite-induced lethal tomato necrosis is helper virus strain dependent ...
... the COSMIC six-satellite array will be launched today at 5:10 PM PDT by a Minotaur rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base. The $ ... This new cyberattack can dupe DNA scientists into creating dangerous viruses and toxins ... COSMIC satellites to study atmosphere. If all goes well, the COSMIC six-satellite array will be launched today at 5:10 PM PDT ... And these satellites will rely on a technology called radio occultation to measure the bending of GPS radio signals as they ...
Exploring the diversity of plant DNA viruses and their satellites using vector-enabled metagenomics on whiteflies. ... Begomovirus-Associated Satellite DNA Diversity Captured Through Vector-Enabled Metagenomic (VEM) Surveys Using Whiteflies ( ... Identification of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Tomato mottle virus in Two Counties in Alabama. ... Appearance of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in North Carolina.. Polston JE, Rosebrock TR, Sherwood T, Creswell T, Shoemaker PJ. ...
If virus (Latin: slimy) challenges the definition of what constitutes life, the DNA mimivirus tests how we define virus. This ... Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, with two satellite Sputnik virophages (arrows). Thin-section electron microscopy courtesy of ... Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, with two satellite Sputnik virophages (arrows). Thin-section electron microscopy courtesy of ... Viruses reconsidered [cited 2020 Jul 20]. https://www.the-scientist.com/features/viruses-reconsidered-37867 ...
There are separate chapters on genes, pseudogenees, and ORFans (Chapter 4); tranposons, viruses, and satellite DNA (Chapter 5 ... junk DNA. I can post tens of links right now.. My message to researchers is to keep digging in the junk DNA but learn how to ... They think the idea of junk DNA is based on LACK of knowledge instead of real data. Ill try and correct their own lack of ... If you dont want me to anthropomorphize DNA, then dont use a term that leaves me no choice but to do so.. Do what ever you ...
Alphasatellites are single stranded satellite DNA that are dependent on a virus for transmission. The genome is a single ... These viruses were earlier known as DNA 1 components. These viruses are generally found in the Old World. A number have been ... July 2004). "Diversity of DNA 1: a satellite-like molecule associated with monopartite begomovirus-DNA beta complexes". ... Katul L, Maiss E, Vetten HJ (February 1995). "Sequence analysis of a faba bean necrotic yellows virus DNA component containing ...
The precise mechanism regulating the nuclear import of a satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus is not known. Chaturvedi et al ... Functionally Relevant Nucleic Acid Secondary Structures Are Common in Single-Stranded DNA Virus Genomes. The biosphere is ... Bromodomain-Containing Protein Functions in Nuclear Import of a Satellite RNA. *Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Latency-Associated ... Unlike the stable double-helical configuration adopted by double-stranded DNA molecules, ssDNA virus genomes likely form ...
Satellite viral particles should not be confused with satellite DNA.. Classification. * Satellite viruses *Single-stranded RNA ... satellite viruses *Subgroup 1: Chronic bee paralysis virus associated satellite *Chronic bee-paralysis satellite virus ... Subgroup 2: Tobacco necrosis virus satellite *Maize white line mosaic satellite virus ... When a satellite encodes the coat protein in which its nucleic acid is encapsidated it is referred to as a satellite virus. A ...
Wild waterfowl are considered to be the reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses; however, relatively little is ... A Naturally Occurring Defective DNA Satellite Associated with a Monopartite Begomovirus: Evidence for Recombination between ... Viruses 2013, 5, 2129-2152. AMA Style. Takekawa JY, Prosser DJ, Collins BM, Douglas DC, Perry WM, Yan B, Ze L, Hou Y, Lei F, Li ... Viruses 2013, 5(9), 2129-2152; doi:10.3390/v5092129. Movements of Wild Ruddy Shelducks in the Central Asian Flyway and Their ...
"DNA-binding specificity determinants of replication proteins encoded by eukaryotic ssDNA viruses are adjacent to widely ... Diversity of DNA 1: a satellite-like molecule associated with monopartite begomovirus-DNA beta complexes ... DNA-binding specificity determinants of replication proteins encoded by eukaryotic ssDNA viruses... Londoño, Aurora; Riego-Ruiz ... DNA-binding specificity determinants of replication proteins encoded by eukaryotic ssDNA viruses are adjacent to widely ...
The disease was associated with Ageratum enation virus (AEV), along with a nanovirus like satellite DNA 1. ... First report of Ageratum enation virus infecting Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore and Ageratum conyzoides L. in ...
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus satellite DNA beta [gbvrl]: 4 CDSs (472 codons) fields: [triplet] [frequency: per thousand] ([ ...
Mouse major satellite DNA is prone to eccDNA formation via DNA Ligase IV-dependent pathway. Cohen, Z.; Bacharach, E.; Lavi, S ... The novel extrachromosomal DNA-containing virus-like element denoted PEVE (Planarian Extrachromosomal Virus-like Element) was ... We report here that mouse major satellite DNA (MSD) is prone to eccDNA... ... Gene Editing Without Foreign DNA. WILLIAMS, RUTH // Scientist;Feb2016, Vol. 30 Issue 2, p25 The article discusses the research ...
Viruses like Sputnik that depend on co-infection of the host cell by helper viruses are known as satellite viruses. At its ... All host viruses of the known virophages belong to the group of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses. Studies have been done to ... was the first known satellite virus that inhibited replication of its helper virus and thus acted as a parasite of that virus. ... All three Sputnik virophages share more than 99% of their DNA and can grow with viruses of any Mimiviridae group A, B, and C. ...
caused by a DNA virus of the Papovirus group;. - characterized by localized lesions w/o central core and with sharp margins and ... multiple warts with a large mother and tiny satellites;. - mosaic patches of coalescent cores;. - Treatment Options:. - ...
The DNA β associated with Cotton leaf curl virus is responsible for symptom expression of a devastating disease in Pakistan. ... Small circular single-stranded DNA satellites, termed DNAβ, have recently been found associated with some geminivirus ... Tobacco plants transformed with a βC1 ORF under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter or with a dimeric DNA ... Mutagenesis of DNA β revealed that the complementary-sense open reading frame (ORF) βC1 is required for inducing disease ...
Herpes zoster is an infection that results when varicella-zoster virus reactivates from the dorsal root ganglia. Proper ... Furuta Y, Fukuda S, Suzuki S, Takasu T, Inuyama Y, Nagashima K. Detection of varicella-zoster virus DNA in patients with acute ... After primary infection, the virus migrates along sensory nerve fibers to the satellite cells of dorsal root ganglia where it ... VZV is an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Herpesviridae family; its genome encodes approximately 70 ...
Prody, GA, Bakos, JT, Buzayan, JM, Schneider, IR, Bruening, G 1986Autolytic processing of dimeric plant virus satellite RNA. ... Santoro, SW, Joyce, GF 1997A general purpose RNA-cleaving DNA enzyme.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA9442624266PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Buzayan, JM, Gerlach, WL, Bruening, G 1986Non-enzymatic cleavage and ligation of RNAs complementary to a plant virus satellite ... Santoro, SW, Joyce, GF 1998Mechanism and utility of an RNA-cleaving DNA enzyme.Biochemistry371333013342CrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
... satellite virus explanation free. What is satellite virus? Meaning of satellite virus medical term. What does satellite virus ... Looking for online definition of satellite virus in the Medical Dictionary? ... DNA virus a virus whose genome consists of DNA.. Ebola virus an RNA virus almost identical to the Marburg virus but ... wild-type virus street virus.. satellite virus. a strain of virus unable to replicate except in the presence of a helper virus ...
... satellites to elicit lethal tomato necrosis, three satellite variants D, S and Y were used in the construction and cloning of ... The results revealed the presence of structural elements in CMV satellite variant Y that modulate or even suppress the ... They indicate that in CMV satellites widely separated sequence elements constituting a three-dimensional requirement are ... halves of the three satellite variants divided by a common restriction site, as well as with a mutated chimera. None of the ...
Virophage is the name coined for viruses such as Sputnik and Mavirus that can only replicate in cells infected with a helper ... Hepatitis delta virus is considered a satellite (dependoviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses, the adeno-associated viruses ... Sputnik type and Hep Delta are both satellite viruses, right? Would the terms "satellite virus" and "MAV" be interchangeable, ... A satellite replicates only in the presence of a helper virus, because it lacks genes required for replication. Satellites have ...
Detailed chromosome and DNA structure. • Human cells, bacteria, and viruses. • Insects, animals, and birds. • The largest trees ... Earths satellites orbits. • Planets and moons of the Solar System. • The most famous comets and asteroids. • The Solar system ...
  • In-vitro cleavage and joining at the viral origin of replication by the replication initiator protein of tomato yellow leaf curl virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Betasatellites are small (~1.4 kb), circular, ssDNA satellites that have only been identified in the OW, are associated with monopartite begomoviruses, and depend upon a helper virus for replication, movement in and transmission between plants [ 6 , 12 , 13 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The satRNAs are dependent on CMV for their replication, encapsidation, and dispersion, but they are not necessary for the life cycle of the virus. (plantcell.org)
  • DNA-binding specificity determinants of replication proteins encoded by eukaryotic ssDNA viruses. (deepdyve.com)
  • Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo 2010-07-01 00:00:00 Eukaryotic ssDNA viruses encode a rolling-circle replication (RCR) initiation protein, Rep, which binds to iterated DNA elements functioning as essential elements for virus-specific replication. (deepdyve.com)
  • In both geminiviruses and nanoviruses this sequence contains the origin of replication (ori) and is nicked by the rolling circle replication initiator protein to initiate viral DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sputnik uses the helper virus's machinery for reproduction and inhibits replication of the helper virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • At its discovery in a Paris water-cooling tower in 2008 Sputnik was the first known satellite virus that inhibited replication of its helper virus and thus acted as a parasite of that virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Virophage is the name coined for viruses such as Sputnik and Mavirus that can only replicate in cells infected with a helper virus, whose replication they inhibit. (virology.ws)
  • The small virus isn't infecting another virus, it's just using it to assist in replication, which is consistent with the needs of a defective virus. (virology.ws)
  • A satellite replicates only in the presence of a helper virus, because it lacks genes required for replication. (virology.ws)
  • Extrachromosomal DNA is often used in research of replication because it is easy to identify and isolate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Satellite RNAs do not encode a capsid protein and therefore require helper virus proteins for both genome encapsidation and replication. (virology.ws)
  • Replication of grapevine fanleaf virus satellite RNA transcripts in Chenopodium quinoa protoplasts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These satellite rep proteins are only able to initiate replication of their genomic DNA, unlike genomic rep which promotes replication of all 6-8 viral genomic ssDNAs. (omicsonline.org)
  • DNA-A encodes proteins and regulatory elements that play the role of replication, encapsidation and control of gene expression while DNA-B encodes proteins enabling viral movement (Jeske, 2009). (academicjournals.org)
  • A defining feature of HIV replication is integration of the proviral cDNA into human DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Mlus positive strands carry cis -acting signals at their 5′ and 3′ termini for transcription and replication similar to those of killer viruses. (asm.org)
  • M viruses depend on a second large (4.6-kb) dsRNA helper virus, L-A, for maintenance and replication. (asm.org)
  • All killer virus-infected cells as well as nearly all nonkillers harbor the replication-competent L-A dsRNA viral genome, which functions as a helper virus for satellites, such as M dsRNA. (genetics.org)
  • Satellites are subviral agents which lack genes that could encode functions needed for replication. (ictvonline.org)
  • A final group of agents described are nucleic acids capable of autonomous replication and which therefore are not strictly satellites although the term has sometimes been loosely applied to them. (ictvonline.org)
  • This is presumably linked to the dependence of nucleic acids of both satellite and helper virus on the same viral polymerase and host-encoded proteins for replication. (ictvonline.org)
  • In plants, siRNA-directed silencing is a major defense mechanism that restricts replication and spread of RNA and DNA viruses as well as viroids and viral satellites. (springer.com)
  • In addition to recombining with other viral genomes, viruses may also recombine with the genome of their host, either as an obligate step of their replication cycle, or accidentally ( Weiss 2017 ). (g3journal.org)
  • DENV replication takes place in the cytoplasm of both human and mosquito cells and involves the production of a double-stranded RNA intermediate generated by the virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) ( Bartenschlager and Miller 2008 ). (g3journal.org)
  • As simple organisms with a parasite nature, viruses have become masters in manipulating and subvert cellular components, including host proteins and organelles, to improve viral replication. (usda.gov)
  • The viral genomes were related in size and genome organization to vertebrate circoviruses and plant geminiviruses but with a different location for the stem-loop structure involved in rolling circle DNA replication. (umn.edu)
  • Viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae ) are transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci , with genomes consisting of either one or two small (~2.8 kb), circular single-stranded (ss)DNA components encapsidated in twinned, quasi-isometric particles [ 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Unlike the stable double-helical configuration adopted by double-stranded DNA molecules, ssDNA virus genomes likely form complex arrangements of double helices interspersed with single-stranded loops to enhance stability. (asm.org)
  • p. 1972-1989 ) found that many of the structural features observed in a broad range of ssDNA virus genomes are conserved. (asm.org)
  • There are no distinctive virons because the viral genomes are encapsidated within the coat protein of the helper virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It works for complete genomes of viruses of. (ebscohost.com)
  • Satellites have small RNA genomes, 500-2000 nt long. (virology.ws)
  • In addition to DNA found outside the nucleus in cells, infection of viral genomes also provides an example of extrachromosomal DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Satellite viruses are particles that contain nucleic acid genomes encoding a structural protein that encapsidates the satellite genome. (virology.ws)
  • Satellite genomes may be single-stranded RNA or DNA or circular RNA, and are replicated by enzymes provided by the helper virus. (virology.ws)
  • Satellite RNA genomes range in length from 220-1500 nucleotides, and have been placed into one of three classes. (virology.ws)
  • Like satellite viruses, sputnik and others have similar relationships with their helper viruses: they require their helper for their propagation, but their genomes are not derived from the helper, and they negatively impact helper reproduction. (virology.ws)
  • In order to replicate and maintain their genomes, most eukaryotic DNA viruses and some RNA viruses have developed highly efficient strategies to gain access to the nucleus of their host cell via the NPC central channel. (biologists.org)
  • The capsid and capsid-RNA polymerase proteins constitute the helper function that L-A dsRNA provides for M dsRNA satellite viral genomes. (genetics.org)
  • Satellite genomes have a substantial portion or all of their nucleotide sequences distinct from those of the genomes of their helper virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • However, the genomes of most satellites have short sequences, often at the termini, that are identical to the genome of the helper virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • Satellites are distinct from defective interfering (DI) RNAs or defective RNAs because such RNAs are derived from their "helper" virus genomes. (ictvonline.org)
  • Viruses in the family Geminiviridae have circular single-stranded (ss) genomes encapsidated in twinned icosahedral (geminate) virions. (alliedacademies.org)
  • 2006). Begomoviruses native to the New World (NW) have genomes consisting of two ssDNA genome components and are known as bipartite viruses. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A bipartite genome is the genome that consists of both components together, referred to as DNA A and DNA B. Begomoviruses belonging to the Old World (OW), in contrast, have one or two genomic components, monopartite or bipartite genomes, respectively. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Inverse PCR was used to amplify and sequence multiple small circular DNA viral genomes. (umn.edu)
  • By using the iterons of all known circoviruses, nanoviruses and nanovirus-like satellites as heuristic devices, we have identified certain amino acid residues that presumably determine the DNA-binding specificity of their Rep proteins. (deepdyve.com)
  • This element differs from all known viruses and viral elements, and comprises two potential helicases that are homologous to proteins from distant viral phyla. (ebscohost.com)
  • It states on the basis of observation and of structural similarities between the capsid proteins of geminiviruses and the Satellite tobacco necrosis virus, it was proposed that. (ebscohost.com)
  • Of the twenty-one predicted protein-coding genes, three are apparently derived from APMV itself, one is a homologue of an archaeal virus, and four others are homologues of proteins in bacteriophages and eukaryotic viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some viruses have only a few genes coding for capsid proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although in general viruses "steal" their lipid envelope from the host cell, virtually all of them produce "envelope proteins" that penetrate the envelope and serve as receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • MSCI and its maintenance are regulated by a broad array of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair proteins and chromatin modifications [ 2 , 5 , 13 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • After recruitment of several disassembly factors (i.e. histone H1, importin β, importin 7 and Hsc70), the capsid disassembles and the deoxyribonucleoprotein genome containing the viral 36-kb dsDNA genome and a small subset of viral proteins including the terminal protein and DNA-binding protein VII ( Cullen, 2001 ) is imported into the nucleus. (biologists.org)
  • Using a transient plant system, it was previously found that the suppression of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b protein relies on its double-strand (ds) RNA binding capacity, but it is independent of its interaction with ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to genomic DNA, satellite-lake DNA are commonly found, usually encoding for Rep proteins. (omicsonline.org)
  • Satellite nucleic acids encode either non-structural proteins, or no proteins at all, and are encapsidated by the CP of helper viruses. (ictvonline.org)
  • Bacteriophage øX174 morphogenesis requires two scaffolding proteins: an internal species, similar to those employed in other viral systems, and an external species, which is more typically associated with satellite viruses. (nih.gov)
  • The hypothesized pentameric intermediate, the 12S⁎ particle, contains 16 proteins: 5 copies each of the coat, spike and internal scaffolding proteins and 1 copy of the DNA pilot protein. (nih.gov)
  • Epitope tagging is widely used to fuse a known epitope to proteins for which no affinity receptor is available by using recombinant DNA technology. (usda.gov)
  • Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) were historically considered one of the major obstacles in protein production through recombinant DNA techniques and conceived as amorphous deposits formed by passive and rather unspecific structures of unfolded proteins aggregates. (usda.gov)
  • These duplexes are sorted by several distinct Argonaute (AGO) proteins to form RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) that can potentially target cognate viral RNA for posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and, in the case of DNA viruses, also viral DNA for cytosine methylation and transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). (springer.com)
  • To establish successful infection, plant viruses have evolved various mechanisms of silencing evasion as well as silencing suppression through effector proteins that interfere with the biogenesis and/or action of viral siRNAs. (springer.com)
  • The development of new vectors based on plant viruses creates more efficient vectors driving high expression levels of heterologous proteins. (usda.gov)
  • Sequences encoding proteins distantly related to the replicase protein of single-stranded circular DNA viruses were identified. (umn.edu)
  • In addition, all isolates were found to be associated with DNAβ molecules. (deepdyve.com)
  • Recombinant DNA β molecules (RecDNA-A β ) comprising parts of DNA A and DNA β associated with tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) have been identified in naturally infected tobacco plants. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Pairwise comparison indicated that G6 DNAbeta had the highest sequence identities with CLCuMV DNAbeta (92.1%) and CLCuRV DNAbeta (88.7%), but less than 80% sequence identities with other reported satellite DNA molecules. (bvsalud.org)
  • Some strains of CMV harbor satellite RNAs (satRNAs)-small, linear molecules ranging from 332 to 405 nucleotides long. (plantcell.org)
  • These types of linear plasmids represent the largest class of extrachromosomal DNA as they are not only present in certain bacterial cells, but all linear extrachromosomal DNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells also take on this invertron structure with a protein attached to the 5' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • Class 1 satellite RNAs are 800-1500 nucleotide linear molecules with a single open reading frame encoding at least one non-structural protein. (virology.ws)
  • The larger (sCYMV-L1) has only linear molecules 1145 nucleotides long, a poly(A) tail, a long open reading frame (ORF) coding for a protein of Mr 39,636 resembling in composition those of other large nepovirus satellite RNAs, a 5' leader sequence of 16 nucleotides and a 3' non-coding region of 40 nucleotides. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The bipartite has genome components, called DNA-A and DNA-B, single-stranded DNA comprising 2.7 kb circular molecules while the monopartite lacks the DNA-B component and it is approximately 2.9 kb. (academicjournals.org)
  • For example, chimeric molecules can be formed from a satellite RNA associated with turnip crinkle virus (genus Carmovirus ) and parts of the helper virus genome. (ictvonline.org)
  • worldwide except an unpublished record of sequence data of Tobacco curly shoot virus (Accession HQ407395) and Ageratum yellow leaf curl betasatellite (Accession HQ407397) molecules infecting wild sunflower ( Helianthus spp . (alliedacademies.org)
  • Viruses carry the instructions that determine their properties and behavior in molecules of DNA or RNA. (elifesciences.org)
  • These findings suggest that an evolutionary relationship exists between satellite RNA and viroids. (asm.org)
  • Satellites are subviral agents that differ from viroids because they depend on the presence of a helper virus for their propagation. (virology.ws)
  • Herpes zoster is viral infection that occurs with reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus. (medscape.com)
  • Viruses like Sputnik that depend on co-infection of the host cell by helper viruses are known as satellite viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection with hepatitis delta satellite virus only occurs in individuals infected with hepatitis B virus: it is globally distributed, present in about 5% of the 350 million carriers of hepatitis B virus. (virology.ws)
  • Acute co-infections of the two viruses can be more severe than infection with hepatitis B virus alone, leading to more cases of liver failure. (virology.ws)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of infection that is associated with a range of respiratory illnesses, from common cold-like symptoms to serious lower respiratory tract illnesses such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis. (asm.org)
  • Local context drives infection of grasses by vector-borne generalist viruses. (springer.com)
  • Thus, the biological meaning of the 2b-AGO interaction in the context of virus infection remains elusive. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, remarkably reduced viral RNA levels and increased virus (v)siRNAs were detected in CMV2b (1-76) -infected Arabidopsis in comparison to CMV infection, which demonstrated that the 2b (1-76) deleted AGO-binding domain failed to suppress the RDR1/RDR6-dependent degradation of viral RNAs. (frontiersin.org)
  • We will use new genomic approaches to DNA and RNA analysis of infants and their mothers in Uganda, seeking to characterize all of the bacteria, viruses and other microbial agents causing infection, as well as the interactions between groups of such organisms,' Schiff said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nonetheless, the molecular events during co-infection and the interactions of cell, giant virus, and virophage have not been elucidated, yet. (frontiersin.org)
  • I. Differences Between Infection by Whole Phage//Extracted Phage DNA and Prophage DNA Extracted from Lysogenic Cells. (ornl.gov)
  • The differential diagnosis includes other forms of viral hepatitis including mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections, autoimmune disease, and widespread systemic infection with liver failure. (medscape.com)
  • Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is the second most common form of viral hepatitis in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • These studies link a novel incarnation of the classic lysis inhibition phenomenon with conserved defensive function of a phage satellite in a disease context, highlighting the importance of lysis timing during infection and parasitization. (elifesciences.org)
  • We also show that discrete DNA fragmentation (laddering) occurred in susceptible tobacco during fungal infection, but does not occur in transgenic-resistant plants. (pnas.org)
  • Thus for their multiplication they depend on the co-infection of a host cell with a helper virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • Therefore, the understanding of viral strategies to manipulate cell function disrupting plant defenses and enhancing viral infection cycles is fundamental to the production of virus-resistant plant lines. (usda.gov)
  • GD13, GD24 and GD27 are considered to be isolates of a distinct begomovirus species for which the name Siegesbeckia yellow vein virus (SgYVV) is proposed. (deepdyve.com)
  • Bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease in India is caused by association of a DNA β satellite with a begomovirus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Begomovirus-Associated Satellite DNA Diversity Captured Through Vector-Enabled Metagenomic (VEM) Surveys Using Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae). (nih.gov)
  • serendipitously not we would perform to download more about the read the vasculitides science and, physically, the journey of a Ideal DNA may employ a begomovirus dependence. (favorlabel.com)
  • Southern hybridization with begomovirus-specific probe and PCR amplification with DNA β and coat protein primers confirmed the association of begomovirus with the disease. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • Recently, a begomovirus containing a satellite DNA β was found to be associated with yellow vein mosaic disease (YVMD) in kenaf in the eastern part of India (5). (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • Gemini viruses transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) are in the genus Begomovirus and infect a wide range of crops including tomato [ 3 , 4 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Buzayan, JM, Gerlach, WL, Bruening, G 1986 Non-enzymatic cleavage and ligation of RNAs complementary to a plant virus satellite RNA. (springer.com)
  • Satellite RNAs do not encode capsid protein, but are packaged by a protein encoded in the helper virus genome. (virology.ws)
  • Class 2 satellite RNAs are linear, less than 700 nucleotides long and do not encode protein. (virology.ws)
  • Class 3 satellite RNAs are 350-400 nucleotide long circles without an open reading frame. (virology.ws)
  • The symptoms induced by satellite RNAs are thought to be a consequence of silencing of host genes. (virology.ws)
  • Nucleotide sequence and structural analysis of two satellite RNAs associated with chicory yellow mottle virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The two satellite RNAs associated with CYMV infections were sequenced. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Examples include RNAs associated with groundnut rosette virus (genus Umbravirus ) or with beet necrotic yellow vein virus (genus Benyvirus ), that contribute to vector transmissibility and DNAs associated with begomoviruses (betasatellites) that encode a pathogenicity determinant. (ictvonline.org)
  • Nevertheless, satellite viruses may form their own DI RNAs that specifically interfere with the satellite virus genomic RNA, as has been shown for satellite panicum mosaic virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • Short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulation of host gene expression and defense against invasive nucleic acids such as transposons, transgenes, and viruses. (springer.com)
  • Blevins T, Rajeswaran R, Aregger M, Borah BK, Schepetilnikov M, Baerlocher L, Farinelli L, Meins F Jr, Hohn T, Pooggin MM (2011) Massive production of small RNAs from a non-coding region of cauliflower mosaic virus in plant defense and viral counter-defense. (springer.com)
  • Reverse transcriptase is actually a combination of two enzymes: a polymerase that assembles the new DNA copy and an RNase that degrades the source RNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The helper virus, tobacco necrosis virus, encodes an RNA polymerase that replicates its genome and that of the satellite. (virology.ws)
  • Sputnik is dependent upon mimivirus not for DNA polymerase - it encodes its own - but probably for the transcriptional machinery of the helper virus. (virology.ws)
  • This is an innovative approach that utilizes the robustness of the bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase used in circle amplification, together with deep sequencing using Illumina Miseq and bioinformatics to assess population diversity of begomoviruses in naturally infected cassava. (academicjournals.org)
  • was investigated by sequence analyses of viral DNA genome and satellite DNAs amplified by rolling circle amplification (RCA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. (alliedacademies.org)
  • These canonical features suggest that artificial chimeras are generated by intra-molecular template switching of the DNA polymerase during the PCR step of the Nextera protocol. (g3journal.org)
  • PEVE genome exists in at least two variant forms with different arrangements of single-stranded and double-stranded DNA stretches that correspond to the Us and Ul regions. (ebscohost.com)
  • Sputnik has a circular double stranded DNA genome consisting of 18,343 base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • My group has also made contributions to our understanding of the packaging of double-stranded DNA into bacteriophage. (gatech.edu)
  • Double diffusion experiments with antibodies to single-stranded (s-s) DNA confirmed physicochemical data that adeno-associated satellite virions contain s-s DNA but the DNA extracted from such virions is double-stranded. (jimmunol.org)
  • The Klus phenotype is conferred by a medium-size double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus Mlus (ScV-Mlus), whose genome size ranged from 2.1 to 2.3 kb. (asm.org)
  • We show that [KIL-d] does not reside on the double-stranded RNA genome of killer virus. (genetics.org)
  • Many double stranded RNA elements that have been described in fungi do not fit this description, and in these cases they are referred to as virus like particles or VLPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison of partial DNA sequences revealed that these virus isolates were identical, and therefore isolates GD13, GD24 and GD27 were selected for further sequence analysis. (deepdyve.com)
  • The complete DNAβ sequences of isolates GD13, GD24 and GD27 were determined. (deepdyve.com)
  • All are approximately half the size of TYLCCNV genomic DNA, and all contain the βC1 gene and the A-rich region from TYLCCNV DNA β as well as intergenic region sequences and the 5′ terminus of the AC1 gene from TYLCCNV DNA A. RecDNA-A β was detected by PCR in five of 25 TYLCCNV isolates. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The sequences of betasatellites have three major features-a single conserved (in both position and sequence) gene (referred to as βC1), a region of sequence rich in adenine (A-rich) and a sequence conserved among all betasatellites (known as the satellite conserved region (SCR) [ 12 , 14 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • It was also confirmed that the sequences of cytoplasmic DNA was different from nuclear DNA in the same organism, showing that cytoplasmic DNAs are not simply fragments of nuclear DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA Strider': a 'C' program for the fast analysis of DNA and protein sequences on the Apple Macintosh family of computers. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CDUR shows consitency with other studies of mutation motifs, as we show by analyzing sequences from the adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) and human papillomavirus (HPV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viral sequences from radish were 99% identical to sequences of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Chilli leaf curl virus (ChiLCV), from Oman. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • By this reasoning the term 'bacteriophage' is equally unfortunate as viruses of bacteria do not 'eat' their hosts. (virology.ws)
  • We know now of course that "bacteriophages" are viruses, that they don't literally "eat" bacteria, and that virus is the preferable term. (virology.ws)
  • Satellite viruses may infect plants, animals, or bacteria. (virology.ws)
  • Bacteriophages, or phages for short, are viruses that infect bacteria, take over the molecular machinery inside the bacterial cells and use it to make more copies of themselves. (elifesciences.org)
  • Linked in figure 1 is a high-resolution image of the evolutionary tree of life, from viruses through bacteria and archaea to protista, plants, animals and fungi, with a selection of representative species illustrated. (dhushara.com)
  • p. 1890-1896 ) provide new evidence that a bromodomain-containing protein of host origin, BRP1, is primarily responsible for nuclear import of the satellite RNA. (asm.org)
  • Vaccine constructs based on the conserved stalk domain of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein are currently being evaluated as universal influenza virus vaccine candidates. (asm.org)
  • Several other homologues such as those of a helicase-primase, a packaging ATPase, an insertion sequence transposase DNA-binding subunit, and a Zn-ribbon protein, were detected in the Global Ocean Survey environmental data set, suggesting that virophages could be a currently unknown family of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our results indicate that βC1 protein is responsible for DNA β-induced disease symptoms. (apsnet.org)
  • Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically engineered to contain a gene which encodes for an antigen or a protein produced by a pathogenic virus, bacterium or other parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linear plasmids of prokarykotes are found either containing a hairpin loop or a covalently bonded protein attached to the telomeric ends of the DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linear plasmids which contain a protein that has been covalently attached to the 5' end of the DNA strands are known as invertrons and can range in size from 9 kb to over 600 kb consisting of inverted terminal repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a satellite virus is satellite tobacco necrosis virus, which encodes a capsid protein that forms an icosahedral capsid that packages only the 1,260 nucleotide satellite RNA. (virology.ws)
  • On the other hand, the genome encodes a protein (delta) that encapsidates the RNA, a property shared with satellite nucleic acids. (virology.ws)
  • The hepatitis delta satellite virus particle comprises the satellite nucleocapsid packaged within an envelope that contains the surface protein of the helper, hepatitis B virus. (virology.ws)
  • Immunodetection of grapevine fanleaf virus satellite RNA-encoded protein in infected Chenopodium quinoa. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the case of adenovirus 2, partially disassembled capsids are released from early endosomes after internalization of the virus, and bind via a phenylalanine-glycine (FxFG) motif to the NPC filament protein Nup214/CAN. (biologists.org)
  • Cells harboring the virus-encapsidated M dsRNA segment secrete a protein toxin, which is lethal to yeast cells not harboring the virus, and are resistant to the toxin of the type secreted by the infected cells. (genetics.org)
  • Satellite viruses encode a structural protein that encapsidates their genome and so have nucleoprotein components distinct from those of their helper viruses. (ictvonline.org)
  • We highlight the latest recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology and tools of protein engineering. (usda.gov)
  • This work suggests that genomic secondary structures serve an important function in the biology of ssDNA viruses. (asm.org)
  • My group published a detailed model for satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV), using a previously proposed secondary structure model for the genomic RNA. (gatech.edu)
  • The distinction between satellite nucleic acids, satellite-like nucleic acids and virus genomic components can be subtle and these agents are not always easy to categorize. (ictvonline.org)
  • It can be very difficult to distinguish between satellite RNA and viral genomic RNA (e. g., dsRNA satellites of fungus viruses) and it is very likely that other satellites, some with novel combinations of characters, remain to be discovered. (ictvonline.org)
  • The lack of genomic data often hampers a conclusive assignment to already established groups of viruses or makes it impossible to erect new families and genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complete genomic characterization of a Chinese isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. (labome.org)
  • In addition to the true satellites, this chapter also describes subviral agents (nucleic acids) that depend upon viruses in a variety of ways. (ictvonline.org)
  • Satellite DNA molecule (G6 DNAbeta) was found to be associated with G6 using the primers beta01 and beta02. (bvsalud.org)
  • The genome is a single circular single strand DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5. Use according to any preceding claim where the nucleic acid molecule is a modified hepatitis delta virus genome. (google.it)
  • 6. Use according to any preceding claim where the nucleic acid molecule is a modified hepatitis delta virus genome comprising 1.2 copies of the genome with an ORF encoding the delta antigen inactivated by a 2 nucleotide deletion. (google.it)
  • The fact that three of these genes are derived from APMV indicates that Sputnik is able to participate in gene-transfer processes and mediate lateral gene transfer between giant viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the presence of three APMV genes in Sputnik implies that gene transfer between a virophage and a giant virus is crucial to viral evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • But no virus has the thousands of genes required by even the simplest cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • GS read the vasculitides and excitement genes are lower in the Alzheimer's Facebook( CD) street, and a STUDY of satellite pupillary models link also incorporated GS parts needed with ordinate dreams. (favorlabel.com)
  • Previously described examples (briefly reviewed by H enikoff and M atzke 1997 ) of epigenetic phenomena involve alteration in expression of chromosomal genes in various organisms, generally mediated by the "heritable, but potentially reversible, changes in chromatin structure and/or DNA methylation" ( H enikoff and M atzke 1997 ). (genetics.org)
  • Furthermore, viruses appear to manipulate host siRNAs and miRNAs which may contribute to antiviral defense indirectly, through regulation of the host genes mediating silencing and innate immunity. (springer.com)
  • The replicase genes of these viruses were most closely related to those of the much smaller (∼1 kb) plant nanovirus circular DNA chromosomes. (umn.edu)
  • Transcript mapping of abutilon mosaic virus, a geminivirus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Small circular single-stranded DNA satellites, termed DNAβ, have recently been found associated with some geminivirus infections. (apsnet.org)
  • In this study we have demonstrated that RCA increases the chances of detecting the virus by approximately 10 to 1000 fold and wide genome diversity of cassava mosaic geminivirus in various cassava growing zones in Kenya were detected. (academicjournals.org)
  • A geminivirus-related virus was found in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum conferring hypovirulence to its host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bujarski J. Genetic recombination in plant-infecting messenger-sense RNA viruses: overview and research perspectives. (springer.com)
  • Recombination can occur between satellites and their helper viruses. (ictvonline.org)
  • Reciprocally, virus-host recombination may also result in the integration of a piece of the host genome into a viral genome, supporting the idea that viruses may be efficient vectors of horizontal transfer of genetic material between species ( Gilbert and Cordaux 2017 ). (g3journal.org)
  • The present study was initially designed to survey virus-host recombination events between dengue virus (DENV) and Aedes albopictus mosquito cells by high-throughput (Illumina) sequencing. (g3journal.org)
  • The biosphere is saturated with an unimaginable diversity of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses, including some important pathogens. (asm.org)
  • They found conserved regions between ChiSCV and other circular ssDNA viruses. (omicsonline.org)
  • In addition to the M dsRNA-encoded killer toxins, other S. cerevisiae killer toxins, named KHR and KHS, showing weak killer activity, are encoded on chromosomal DNA ( 13 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Killer virus of yeast is a cytoplasmically inherited dsRNA virus of yeast (reviewed by W ickner 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • Thus, wild-type killer virus-infected cells have the phenotypes of K + (killing) and R + (resistance), while cells lacking M dsRNA are K − R − in phenotype. (genetics.org)
  • Wild-type killer cells of type 1 specificity tend to have L-A-HN dsRNA as helper for the M 1 dsRNA satellite, while in type 2 killers M 2 dsRNA tends to occur with L-A-H as helper. (genetics.org)
  • The latter is true for many unencapsidated dsRNA viruses, which are assumed to be viral, but missing sequence data prevented their classification so far. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi are frequently infected with two or more unrelated viruses and also with defective dsRNA and/or satellite dsRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A rapid method to isolate dsRNA from a virus-infected filamentous fungus, Botrytis cinerea , and from a killer strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using commercial minicolumns packed with CF11 cellulose was developed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The method yields high quality dsRNA, free from DNA and ssRNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The use of nucleases to degrade the DNA or the ssRNA is not required, and it can be used to isolate dsRNA from any type of fungi or any biological sample that contains dsRNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the number of ssRNA viruses described so far, such as the F and X viruses of Botrytis cinerea [ 4 - 6 ], has increased considerably, dsRNA continues to be the more predominant mycoviral genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The method allows getting high quality dsRNA, free of DNA and ssRNA, and it can be applied to isolate dsRNA from any type of fungus or any biological sample that contains dsRNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thank you for bringing my article in Microbe magazine before an even larger audience and please note that Matthias Fischer has explained at the end of this article why Mavirus and Sputnick are fully functional viruses and do "infect" giant viruses. (virology.ws)
  • Nanoviridae is a family of single stranded DNA viruses which infect the plants through their phloem tissues. (omicsonline.org)
  • Mycoviruses (ancient Greek μύκης mykes: fungus and Latin virus) are viruses that infect fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • G6 DNA -A had 87.1%-89.8% sequence identity with those of CLCuRV isolates, while less than 87% identities with other begomoviruses . (bvsalud.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of G6 DNA -A and selected begomoviruses showed that G6 was most closely related to CLCuMV isolates, and they clustered together as a separate branch. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Pakistan and northwestern India is caused by monopartite begomoviruses in association with an essential, disease-specific satellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). (mdpi.com)
  • CLCuD is caused by begomoviruses in association with a disease-specific satellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) [ 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae ) an economically important group of plant viruses, are reported to cause serious losses to many important crops (e.g., bean, cucurbits, tomato, etc.) in tropical and subtropical regions (3,4). (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • The cotton leaf curl virus probe was used because kenaf, like cotton, is a member of Malvaceae family and the begomoviruses of this family are very similar (1). (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • Sequence analysis showed that they had highest sequence identity with DNAβ of Eupatorium yellow vein virus (AJ438938) (44.0, 43.9 and 45.6% identity). (deepdyve.com)
  • Several examples of the recombinant DNA have been cloned and characterized by sequence analysis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of DNA -A was determined to be 2 737 nucleotides encoding six potential ORFs . (bvsalud.org)
  • Comparison showed that G6 DNA -A had more than 89% sequence identify with all isolates of Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV) and shared the highest sequence identify (96.1%) with CLCuMV isolate 62. (bvsalud.org)
  • In tobacco, however, D-satRNA and WL1-satRNA attenuate symptoms, whereas minor nucleotide sequence variants of the B-satRNA either attenuate symptoms or induce chlorosis in a helper virus-specific manner (reviewed in García-Arenal and Palukaitis, 1999 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Complete Genome Sequence of a New Strain of Sida Golden Mosaic Buckup Virus from Florida, USA. (nih.gov)
  • Genome Sequence of Euphorbia mosaic virus from Passionfruit and Euphorbia heterophylla in Florida. (nih.gov)
  • PAirwise Sequence Comparison (PASC) is a tool that uses genome sequence similarity to help with virus classification. (ebscohost.com)
  • They indicate that in CMV satellites widely separated sequence elements constituting a three-dimensional requirement are responsible for eliciting lethal necrosis in tomato. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The nucleotide sequence of a satellite RNA associated with strawberry latent ringspot virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The nucleotide sequence of satellite RNA in grapevine fanleaf virus, strain F13. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Nucleotide sequence predicts circularity and self-cleavage of 300-ribonucleotide satellite of arabis mosaic virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • During her doctorate work, under the mentorship of Huntington Willard at Duke University, she gained expertise in human alpha satellite DNA sequence structure and evolution. (labroots.com)
  • ChiSCV ORF 1 was 15-24% similar in amino acid sequence to the replicase of the multi-segmented plant viruses of the Nanoviridae family but only 12-17% similar to the replicases of circoviruses and geminiviruses. (omicsonline.org)
  • Satellites are genetically distinct from their helper virus with a nucleotide sequence that is substantially different from that of their helper virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • Partial sequence data on Ageratum enation virus (AEV) ( Verbesina encelioides yellow vein Lakshmangarh virus) isolate (JN998449) and Ageratum leaf curl betasatellite ( Verbesina yellow vein betasatellite) isolate (JQ693145) infecting wild sunflower ( Verbesina encelioides ) are also available from India in GenBank database. (alliedacademies.org)
  • nine patients with skin lesions had DNA sequence signatures specific for monkeypox. (cdc.gov)
  • In the OW the majority of monopartite are associated with a class of ssDNA satellites collectively known as betasatellites [ 10 , 11 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • மேலும் இவை ஒற்றை நுண்மம் (Monopartite virus) ஆகும். (wikipedia.org)
  • ஒற்றை நுண்மம் (Monopartite virus) கொண்ட இலை வெட்டு பூச்சிகள் (leaf hoppers) மூலம் பரவும் நுண்மம் ஆகும். (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison of genus-specific primers in RT-PCR for the broad-spectrum detection of viruses in the genus Potyvirus by plant diagnostic laboratories. (nih.gov)
  • In 2016, for classification of Sputnik-like viruses, including Zamilon, genus Sputnikvirus in the family Lavidaviridae has been established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we report the atomic structure of one such virus, Ljungan virus, the type member of the genus Parechovirus B, which has been linked to diabetes and myocarditis in humans. (nature.com)
  • HAV is a small, nonenveloped, positive, single-stranded RNA virus that was first identified by electron microscopy in 1973 and classified within the genus Hepatovirus of the picornavirus family. (medscape.com)
  • These arthropod-borne viruses are transmitted among humans by mosquitoes of the Aedes genus. (g3journal.org)
  • The updated 9th ICTV report on virus taxonomy lists over 90 mycovirus species covering 10 viral families, of which 20% were unassigned to a genus or sometimes not even to a family. (wikipedia.org)
  • These viruses have been used in the development of viral gene silencing studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene Editing Without Foreign DNA. (ebscohost.com)
  • Sputnik is one of the most convincing pieces of evidence for gene mixing and matching between viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, it is hypothesized that the virophage could be a source of vehicle mediating lateral gene transfer between giant viruses, which constitute a significant part of the DNA virus population in marine environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • This syndrome is caused by production of a small RNA from the Y-satellite RNA that has homology to a gene needed for chlorophyll biosynthesis. (virology.ws)
  • The decarboxylase of existence Moon Stations leads the drug of the CD-quality while, its Internet( and wall), its active form satellites and if it is from another gene morphine. (favorlabel.com)
  • Estari M, Venkanna L, Sripriya D, Lalitha R( 2012) Human someone Virus( HIV-1) virus gene Norse management of Phyllanthus emblica theory gondola. (atlantaflyfishingschool.com)
  • Therefore, [KIL-d] appears to interact with the nucleus in order to exert its effects on gene expression by the killer virus RNA genome. (genetics.org)
  • Virus isolate G6 was obtained from Hibiscus rosa -sinensis showing yellow and leaf curl symptoms in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province. (bvsalud.org)
  • The DNA β associated with Cotton leaf curl virus is responsible for symptom expression of a devastating disease in Pakistan. (apsnet.org)
  • Association of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus, Betasatellite, and Alphasatellite with Mosaic Disease of Spine Gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb. (magiran.com)
  • DNA obtained from symptomatic leaf samples, collected from three villages and also from the Crop Research Station, was electrophoresed in a 0.8% agarose gel and then transferred to a nylon membrane. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • Hybridization was carried out following standard procedures (7) with a α-P radiolabeled probe to DNA A of the Cotton leaf curl Rajasthan virus (the probe was supplied by Dr. V. G. Malathi, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi). (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • were to Ageratum enation virus (AEV) and Ageratum leaf curl betasatellite (ALCB), respectively. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Ageratum enation virus, Ageratum leaf curl betasatellite, Agroinfectivity assay, Wild sunflower, Yellow vein net and leaf curl disease. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Tomato leaf curl Karnataka virus and Potato apical leaf curl betasatellite associated with leaf curl disease of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) has been reported from Karnataka state of India [ 2 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • However, we report the natural occurrence of Ageratum enation virus (AEV) and Ageratum leaf curl betasatellite (ALCuB) infecting wild sunflower ( Helianthus spp . (alliedacademies.org)
  • Association of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Chili Leaf Curl Virus with Leaf Curl Disease of Radish and the Synergistic Interaction on Nicotiana benthamiana. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Isometric forms predominate mycoviral morphologies in comparison to rigid rods, flexuous rods, clubshaped particles, enveloped bacilliform particles, and Herpesvirus-like viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Geminiviruses, a name given due to their twinned icosahedral particles, are single stranded DNA viruses. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • D satellite RNA (satRNA) with its helper virus, namely, cucumber mosaic virus, causes systemic necrosis in tomato. (plantcell.org)
  • The precise mechanism regulating the nuclear import of a satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus is not known. (asm.org)
  • To determine the structural requirements for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satellites to elicit lethal tomato necrosis, three satellite variants D, S and Y were used in the construction and cloning of chimeric cDNAs. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • For example, the Y-satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus causes systemic chlorosis in tobacco. (virology.ws)
  • Genetic bottlenecks during systemic movement of Cucumber mosaic virus vary in different host plants. (springer.com)
  • The first satellites characterized were mostly ssRNA satellites that use ssRNA plant viruses as helpers. (ictvonline.org)
  • ssRNA genome) and its mosquito host using the Illumina Nextera sequencing library preparation kit revealed that most, if not all, detected host-virus chimeras were artificial. (g3journal.org)
  • Dengue viruses are positive, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family ( Guzman and Harris 2015 ). (g3journal.org)
  • They can attenuate or exacerbate the symptoms induced by the helper viruses in specific plant hosts. (plantcell.org)
  • In plants, satellites and satellite viruses may attenuate or exacerbate disease caused by the helper virus. (virology.ws)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed on leukocytes and within tissues play an important role in activating innate immunity by recognizing invading pathogens, including viruses such as RSV, and initiating signals that promote components of inflammation ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Over the last decade, PCR has promised the rapid, sensitive and accurate detection of many pathogens, e.g. viruses, even when present in low numbers. (google.it)
  • Segmented RNA viruses are ubiquitous pathogens, which include influenza viruses and rotaviruses. (elifesciences.org)
  • however, these viruses have become economically important pathogens only in the last two decades (Seal et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) spreads between permissive cells by either release of cell-free virions or direct cell-to-cell contact. (asm.org)
  • There are conditions in which Sputnik cannot produce new virions within these viruses however. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been observed that when Mimivirus is cultured with germ-free amoeba, bald virions are produced that lack the surface fibers that are characteristic of this virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • For reasons unknown, Sputnik is unable to replicate and produce new virions in these bald viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1) Intact virions and/or capsids with a diameter smaller than the maximum diameter of the NPC channel such as hepatitis B virus can translocate through the NPC by recruiting appropriate nuclear import receptors ( Greber and Fassati, 2003 ). (biologists.org)
  • Encapsidation of the viral genome leading to the assembly of infectious progeny virions is an essential step in the virus life cycle. (nature.com)
  • Positive immunologic reactions of intact virions with sera from man and mouse with "autoimmune" disease and specifically immunized rabbits are consistent with the hypothetical role if viruses as immunogens or as the antigenic participants of immunecomplex vasculitis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, with two satellite Sputnik virophages (arrows). (cdc.gov)
  • Virophages are like satellites, except that they are much larger and inhibit production of the helper virus. (virology.ws)
  • Whether these are satellite viruses or something new (they have been called virophages ) has been a matter of controversy . (virology.ws)
  • The discovery of virophages in 2008 and research in recent years revealed an increasingly complex network of interactions between cell, giant virus, and virophage. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we will review the expanding family of virophages and discuss the implications for giant virus reproduction inside amoebae. (frontiersin.org)
  • In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2019. Genetic characterization of a recombinant myxoma virus in the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) . (asu.edu)
  • In the past few decades, there has been a significant advance in the number, sophistication, and quality of molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools for the genetic characterization of virus populations. (springer.com)
  • This has broadened current knowledge on the mechanisms that generate genetic diversity and on the evolutionary forces and ecological factors that shape the genetic structure and dynamics of plant virus populations. (springer.com)
  • Genetic interaction of cell and virophage might constitute a potent defense machinery against giant viruses and seems to be important for survival of the infected cell during mimivirus infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • [KIL-d] is a cytoplasmically inherited genetic trait that causes killer virus-infected cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to express the normal killer phenotypes in a /α cells, but to show variegated defective killer phenotypes in a or α type cells. (genetics.org)
  • The arrangement adopted is based largely on features of the genetic material of the satellites. (ictvonline.org)
  • pave the way for identifying the RNA-RNA interactions that govern how other segmented RNA viruses can package their genetic material. (elifesciences.org)
  • During the past four decades, the scientific community has seen an exponential advance in the number, sophistication, and quality of molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools for the genetic characterization of plant virus populations. (usda.gov)
  • The mitochondria present in eukaryotic cells contain multiple copies of mitochondrial DNA referred to as mtDNA which is housed within the mitochondrial matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monkeypox specific DNA signatures also were found in a viral isolate derived from lymphoid tissue of a patient's ill prairie dog. (cdc.gov)
  • The descriptions in this section are meant only to provide a classification framework and a nomenclature to assist in the description and identification of satellites and other virus-dependent nucleic acids. (ictvonline.org)
  • Early inflammatory signals generated via virus-TLR interactions can contribute to the recruitment of additional inflammatory mediators, including neutrophils and NK cells, into the lung that are thought to be important for clearing RSV-infected cells ( 5 , 33 , 35 , 44 ). (asm.org)
  • Understanding these interactions could elucidate molecular events essential for proper viral factory activity and could implicate new ways of treating viruses that form viral factories. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our findings elucidate the molecular basis underlying inter-segment interactions in rotaviruses, paving the way for delineating similar RNA-RNA interactions that govern assembly of other segmented RNA viruses. (elifesciences.org)
  • The Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, Wisconsin, identified a virus morphologically consistent with a poxvirus by electron microscopy of skin lesion tissue from a patient, lymph node tissue from the patient's pet prairie dog, and isolates of virus from culture of these tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the possibility that smallpox, caused by variola virus (VARV), or a genetically engineered Orthopoxvirus , might be reintroduced through a nefarious act remains a low-probability, but high-impact threat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are also viruses that simply use fungi as vectors and are distinct from mycoviruses, because they cannot reproduce in the fungal cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The giant DNA viruses including Acanthamoeba polyophaga mimivirus, Cafeteria roenbergensis virus, and others are associated with much smaller viruses (sputnik and mavirus, respectively) that depend upon the larger viruses for reproduction. (virology.ws)
  • Virus Structure and Assembly: Understanding how small, icosahedral RNA and DNA viruses assemble should lead to new approaches for the design of antiviral drugs. (gatech.edu)
  • Hepatitis delta virus is considered a satellite (dependoviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses, the adeno-associated viruses). (virology.ws)
  • Activation induced deaminase (AID) and apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) are deaminases that mutate C to U on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • So far there is only one true example of a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) mycovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco plants transformed with a βC1 ORF under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter or with a dimeric DNA β exhibited severe disease-like phenotypes, while plants transformed with a mutated version of βC1 appeared normal. (apsnet.org)
  • Four natural variants of satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) were compared with each other and with the type strain. (apsnet.org)
  • In vitro activity of the hairpin ribozyme derived from the negative strand of arabis mosaic virus satellite RNA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • de Assis Filho F, Sherwood J. Evaluation of seed transmission of turnip yellow mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana . (springer.com)
  • next honest viruses( VRTPs) are the Hellenas of Shakespearean mosaic for approach. (atlantaflyfishingschool.com)
  • In East and Central Africa, cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is the most damaging plant virus disease as well as the world with an epidemic causing annual crop losses valued at between US$ 1.9 and 2.7 billion (Patil, 2009). (academicjournals.org)
  • Al-Kaff NS, Kreike MM, Covey SN, Pitcher R, Page AM, Dale PJ (2000) Plants rendered herbicide-susceptible by cauliflower mosaic virus-elicited suppression of a 35S promoter-regulated transgene. (springer.com)
  • 2011). Betasatellites are required for the infectivity of some viruses (Briddon and Stanley, 2006). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The article discusses the research conducted by Sunghwa Choe of Seoul National University and colleagues wherein they conducted a plant-genome modifications on crops without using DNA plasmids. (ebscohost.com)
  • Most known satellites are associated with plant viruses, but hepatitis delta satellite virus is associated with a human helper virus, hepatitis B virus. (virology.ws)
  • For more than one century, studies of plant viruses have broken paths in many fields of biology. (springer.com)
  • More recently, studies of plant viruses have also been pioneer in population genomics. (springer.com)
  • In sum, we provide an overview of current understanding on the population genomics of plant viruses at every level of population organization. (springer.com)
  • Advances in plant virus evolution: translating evolutionary insights into better disease management. (springer.com)
  • which indicate the prevalence of these plant viruses in animals. (omicsonline.org)
  • Total plant DNA was isolated from the symptomatic leaves of the collected samples using the CTAB method (10). (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • One of the few examples of apoptosis in plant disease resistance is described by Ryerson and Heath ( 10 ), where hypersensitive resistance in cowpea to the cowpea rust fungus ( Uromyces vignae ) is accompanied by degradation of host DNA into oligonucleosomal fragments as well as terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end labeling-positive cells, both common events in PCD. (pnas.org)
  • Literature survey revealed that none of the plant virus has been reported on wild sunflower ( Helianthus spp . (alliedacademies.org)
  • II Plant Viruses and Silencing Pathways (reviewed by Csorba et al. (scribd.com)
  • Predating these advances, the field of Phylogenetics has significantly contributed to understand important aspects of plant virus evolution. (usda.gov)
  • Because the viruses have characteristics of both animal and plant viruses, we named them chimpanzee stool-associated circular viruses (ChiSCV). (umn.edu)
  • 5. The recombinant expression cassette of claim 4, wherein the recombinant expression cassette is in a T-DNA. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Diseases caused by the DNA viruses are becoming the limiting factors for the production of spine gourd reducing its potential yield. (magiran.com)
  • G6 DNAbeta contains 1346 nucleotides , with a potential functional ORF (C1) in complementary sense DNA . (bvsalud.org)
  • Mutagenesis of DNA β revealed that the complementary-sense open reading frame (ORF) βC1 is required for inducing disease symptoms in Nicotiana tabacum . (apsnet.org)
  • Infectious RNA transcripts were made from complementary DNA clones of one variant (STMV 10) with a genome apparently smaller than that of type STMV. (apsnet.org)
  • These results suggest that a universal influenza virus vaccine based on the conserved HA stalk domain could be further developed to protect against seasonal as well as pandemic influenza virus strains. (asm.org)
  • L-BC virus is an L-A-related virus, with a similar 4.6-kb genome size, which coexists with L-A in most killer and nonkiller S. cerevisiae strains ( 1 , 37 ). (asm.org)
  • When a complete virus particle ( virion ) comes in contact with a host cell, only the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are injected into the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Detection by Electron Microscopy of Photo-Induced Denaturation in DNA," Nucleic Acids Research 2 , 143-8. (ornl.gov)
  • Satellite-like nucleic acids resemble satellites because they do not encode a replicase but differ because they encode a function necessary for the biological success of the associated virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • COLD SPRING HARBOR, NEW YORK -- In an important, comprehensive, and timely review, an expert team from the University of California Berkeley details the methodologies used in nucleic acid-based tests for detecting the presence of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (cshlpress.com)