An RNA virus infection of rhesus, vervet, and squirrel monkeys transmissible to man.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.
A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of one species (Lake Victoria marburgvirus) with several strains. The genus shows no antigenic cross-reactivity with EBOLAVIRUS.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Diseases of viral origin, characterized by incubation periods of months to years, insidious onset of clinical manifestations, and protracted clinical course. Though the disease process is protracted, viral multiplication may not be unusually slow. Conventional viruses produce slow virus diseases such as SUBACUTE SCLEROSING PANENCEPHALITIS, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL), and AIDS. Diseases produced by unconventional agents were originally considered part of this group. They are now called PRION DISEASES.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Diseases of plants.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
An infant during the first month after birth.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.

New perspectives on biliary atresia. (1/2922)

An investigation into the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of biliary atresia was carried out because the prognosis remains so poor.In an electron microscopical study no viral particles or viral inclusion bodies were seen, nor were any specific ultrastructural features observed. An animal experiment suggested that obstruction within the biliary tract of newborn rabbits could be produced by maternal intravenous injection of the bile acid lithocholic acid.A simple and atraumatic method of diagnosis was developed using(99) (m)Tc-labelled compounds which are excreted into bile. Two compounds, (99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate ((99m)Tc-PG) and (99m)Tc-dihydrothioctic acid ((99m)Tc-DHT) were first assessed in normal piglets and piglets with complete biliary obstruction. Intestinal imaging correlated with biliary tract patency, and the same correlation was found in jaundiced human adults, in whom the (99m)Tc-PG scan correctly determined biliary patency in 21 out of 24 cases. The (99m)Tc-PG scan compared well with liver biopsy and (131)I-Rose Bengal in the diagnosis of 11 infants with prolonged jaundice.A model of extrahepatic biliary atresia was developed in the newborn piglet so that different methods of bile drainage could be assessed. Priorities in biliary atresia lie in a better understanding of the aetiology and early diagnosis rather than in devising new bile drainage procedures.  (+info)

From myocarditis to cardiomyopathy: mechanisms of inflammation and cell death: learning from the past for the future. (2/2922)

A progression from viral myocarditis to dilated cardiomyopathy has long been hypothesized, but the actual extent of this progression has been uncertain. However, a causal link between viral myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy has become more evident than before with the tremendous developments in the molecular analyses of autopsy and endomyocardial biopsy specimens, new techniques of viral gene amplification, and modern immunology. The persistence of viral RNA in the myocardium beyond 90 days after inoculation, confirmed by the method of polymerase chain reaction, has given us new insights into the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy. Moreover, new knowledge of T-cell-mediated immune responses in murine viral myocarditis has contributed a great deal to the understanding of the mechanisms of ongoing disease processes. Apoptotic cell death may provide the third concept to explain the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy, in addition to persistent viral RNA in the heart tissue and an immune system-mediated mechanism. Beneficial effects of alpha1-adrenergic blocking agents, carteolol, verapamil, and ACE inhibitors have been shown clinically and experimentally in the treatment of viral myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Antiviral agents should be more extensively investigated for clinical use. The rather discouraging results obtained to date with immunosuppressive agents in the treatment of viral myocarditis indicated the importance of sparing neutralizing antibody production, which may be controlled by B cells, and raised the possibility of promising developments in immunomodulating therapy.  (+info)

Candidate viral diseases for elimination or eradication. (3/2922)

This article discusses the possibilities for elimination or eradication of four viral diseases--measles, hepatitis B, rubella and yellow fever.  (+info)

Qualitative and quantitative requirements for CD4+ T cell-mediated antiviral protection. (4/2922)

CD4+ Th cells deliver the cognate and cytokine signals that promote the production of protective virus-neutralizing IgG by specific B cells and are also able to mediate direct antiviral effector functions. To quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the antiviral functions of CD4+ Th cells, we generated transgenic mice (tg7) expressing an MHC class II (I-Ab)-restricted TCR specific for a peptide derived from the glycoprotein (G) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The elevated precursor frequency of naive VSV-specific Th cells in tg7 mice led to a markedly accelerated and enhanced class switching to virus-neutralizing IgG after immunization with inactivated VSV. Furthermore, in contrast to nontransgenic controls, tg7 mice rapidly cleared a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the VSV-G (Vacc-IND-G) from peripheral organs. By adoptive transfer of naive tg7 CD4+ T cells into T cell-deficient recipients, we found that 105 transferred CD4+ T cells were sufficient to induce isotype switching after challenge with a suboptimal dose of inactivated VSV. In contrast, naive transgenic CD4+ T cells were unable to adoptively confer protection against peripheral infection with Vacc-IND-G. However, tg7 CD4+ T cells that had been primed in vitro with VSV-G peptide were able to adoptively transfer protection against Vacc-IND-G. These results demonstrate that the antiviral properties of CD4+ T cells are governed by the differentiation status of the CD4+ T cell and by the type of effector response required for virus elimination.  (+info)

Preventing zoonotic diseases in immunocompromised persons: the role of physicians and veterinarians. (5/2922)

We surveyed physicians and veterinarians in Wisconsin about the risk for and prevention of zoonotic diseases in immunocompromised persons. We found that physicians and veterinarians hold significantly different views about the risks posed by certain infectious agents and species of animals and communicate very little about zoonotic issues; moreover, physicians believe that veterinarians should be involved in many aspects of zoonotic disease prevention, including patient education.  (+info)

Virulence evolution in a virus obeys a trade-off. (6/2922)

The evolution of virulence was studied in a virus subjected to alternating episodes of vertical and horizontal transmission. Bacteriophage f1 was used as the parasite because it establishes a debilitating but non-fatal infection that can be transmitted vertically (from a host to its progeny) as well as horizontally (infection of new hosts). Horizontal transmission was required of all phage at specific intervals, but was prevented otherwise. Each episode of horizontal transmission was followed by an interval of obligate vertical transmission, followed by an interval of obligate horizontal transmission etc. The duration of vertical transmission was eight times longer per episode in one treatment than in the other, thus varying the relative intensity of selection against virulence while maintaining selection for some level of virus production. Viral lines with the higher enforced rate of infectious transmission evolved higher virulence and higher rates of virus production. These results support the trade-off model for the evolution of virulence.  (+info)

Seminal tract infections: impact on male fertility and treatment options. (7/2922)

Bacterial and viral infections of the genital tract may be important aetiological factors for male infertility. Infectious processes may lead to deterioration of spermatogenesis, impairment of sperm function and/or obstruction of the seminal tract. Detection of bacteria in semen does not necessarily signify infection since bacteriospermia may represent contamination, colonization or infection. Reported prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum in human semen varies from 10 to 40%. Enterobacteria can even be found in up to 90% of semen samples depending on the sensitivity of detection methods used. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequent sexually transmitted bacterial organism in industrialized countries. It is suggested that its main influence is due to sexual transmission resulting in tubal disease and subsequent infertility in the female partner rather than a direct influence on male reproductive functions. The effect of leukocytospermia on male fertility is controversial. This is probably due to different detection methods, different populations studied and to the fact that leukocyte subtypes in semen may have different functions. In addition to potentially negative effects, leukocytes may even have protective effects on spermatozoa. Only recently have amplification methods been established to detect viruses in semen with high sensitivity and specificity. It is unclear if these infections significantly contribute to male infertility.  (+info)

NK cells and apoptosis. (8/2922)

Natural killer (NK) cells are a cell of the innate immune system that play an important role in the early response to viral infections and tumours. Natural killer cells are cytolytic, and secrete cytokines that influence the developing antigen-specific immune response. In the present article the NK cell surface molecules regulating effector function, the NK cell effector mechanisms involved in apoptosis, and the role of NK cell effector mechanisms in immune responses are reviewed.  (+info)

Tips to help with your thrombocytopenia: Thrombocytopenia Viral Illness. My thrombocytopenia, Online resources for thrombocytopenia.
Viruses infection millions annually, causing severe illness and threatening global public health. Limiting the impact of viral infection requires a multi-layered understanding of viral immunity, from basic research on viral recognition and host immune response, to the clinical applications of novel antiviral and host-targeted therapies and vaccines. Despite recent advances, the mechanisms of both both rapid host recovery as well as severe and fatal disease outcomes, are far from clear. This Keystone Symposia conference will cover a wide range of topics in viral immunity including innate immunity and inflammation, viral sensing and antigen presentation, adaptive T and B cell immunity, novel vaccine development, human immunology across anatomical sites, and innovative computational analyses. Animal models will be examined alongside human and clinical studies, and multi-disciplinary integration will enhance perspectives. A key outcome will be fostering collaborations across different approaches ...
This Seminar Series features Dr. Joshua Schiffer, Associate Member, Vaccine and Infectious Diseases Division of the Clinical Research Division at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Dr. Schiffer will discuss Clinical Trial Simulation for Chronic Viral Diseases​The host of this seminar is Dr. Rebecca Brotman from UMB, SOM, Institute for Genome Sciences.Refreshments will be served at 10:45 amFor more information contact Riham Keryakos
A viral infection is caused by a virus and is often the cause of minor illness, such as a cold or the stomach flu. A viral infection usually causes many different symptoms that often come on quickly (over hours to a day or two) without prior illness.. Viral infections that cause minor illnesses are usually not serious. And they go away without medical treatment. Home treatment can relieve the symptoms of colds and stomach flu. And home treatment can prevent problems, such as dehydration, too. Antibiotics are not used to treat a viral illness and will not help cure a viral illness.. Some immunizations can prevent viral infections, including influenza (flu), chickenpox, and measles. Practicing good hygiene and avoiding close contact with sick people can also help prevent infection.. ...
Viral infections are common among people of all ages but often seem to be concentrated in infants and children. Most childhood viral infections are not serious and include such diverse illnesses as colds with a , and , and with a rash. Some viral illnesses that cause more serious disease, such as , are less common now due to widespread immunization. Several types of viral infections that children can acquire are discussed in the chapter on adult viral infections ( ).
Based on the post backed from the American Culture of Microbiology, infections have once more been creating a mix when it comes to giving rise through their capability of host switching to illnesses. Flu and SARS fever really are a few illustrations by which indication has been undergone by infections onto individual hosts from wildlife hosts. Moreover, it had been documented that after the species buffer was entered by the HIV/AIDS disease to individual roughly 70 years back, today a significant risk arose to get a great deal of individuals were contaminated but still continue being contaminated. As reported by the writers, you will find three particular phases by which viral illnesses arise and effectively change into receiver sponsor from contributor host. Consequently, this short article examines the factors that influence the achievement fee of rising viral illnesses incidentally they affect the three phases previously mentioned and focuses upon. The variety of those factors which influence ...
Its not easy to treat viral infections. Just ask anyone with a bad cold or a case of the flu. But scientists in Massachusetts think they may have a new way to stop viruses from making people sick by using what amounts to a pair of molecular scissors, known as CRISPR. Its a gene editing […]
Both coronary artery disease and influenza outbreaks contribute significantly to worldwide morbidity and mortality. An increasing number of epidemiologic studies have concluded that a temporal association exists between acute viral illnesses and myocardial infarction. Viral illnesses such as influenza can cause or exacerbate coronary atherosclerosis by activating inflammatory pathways.
This is a single-centre, prospective and retrospective, descriptive data-collection pilot study.. Prospective Data Collection:. All pediatric patients who are less than 18 years with a confirmed positive respiratory viral swab will be invited to participate.. Retrospective Data Collection:. The retrospective portion of this study will examine a 5 year period prior to the start of enrollment for the prospective study, with the intention to include all pediatric patients who are less than 18 years with a confirmed positive respiratory viral swab and admitted into the local hospitals PICU. ...
Benign acute childhood myositis predominantly occurs in school-aged children,4,6-8 at a median age of 8.3 years (range 7.3 to 10.3 years)5 with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1.5,7 A history of contact with other sick individuals is frequently not evident in BACM, nor is a previous history or family history of a similar presentation. Providers should inquire about any family history of neuromuscular disease, recent vigorous exercise or trauma, drug or medication use, similar episodes with myalgias or pigmentation, and any relevant past medical history, particularly metabolic, musculoskeletal, or thyroid disease.. Abrupt onset of reluctance to walk with severe lower leg pain occurs at a median of 3 days as the initial viral illness resolves.5,7,9 Common prodromal symptoms of these viral illnesses include rhinorrhea, low-grade fever, sore throat, cough, and malaise.7 The classic symmetric bilateral leg pain is typically isolated to the gastrocnemius and soleus complex; however, some children might ...
Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body and is essential to good health. Approximately 50% of total body magnesium is found in bone. The other half is found predominantly inside cells of body tissues and organs. Only 1% of magnesium is found in blood, but the body works very hard to keep blood levels of magnesium constant. Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, supports a healthy immune system, and keeps bones strong. Magnesium also helps regulate blood sugar levels, promotes normal blood pressure, and is known to be involved in energy metabolism and protein synthesis. There is an increased interest in the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Dietary magnesium is absorbed in the small intestines. Magnesium is excreted through the kidneys.. ...
Premier Medical Laboratory Services (PMLS) is proud to offer MD Drug Pro, a comprehensive drug monitoring program with superior testing capabilities and personalized services.
Viral Immunity: A 10-Step Plan to Enhance Your Immunity against Viral Disease Using Natural Medicines (Book, 2002) by J.E. Williams, O.M.D.. $29.95. Paperback. Red Wheel/Weiser imprints include Conari Press which publishes titles on spirituality, personal growth, relationships to parenting, and social issues; Weiser Books offers an entire spectrum of occult and esoteric subjects.
Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Lewis Lanier on NK cells in viral immunity, part of a collection of multimedia lectures.
Dr John Chia has noted that corticosteroids when given during an acute viral infection seems to be a recipe that can often precipitate ME/CFS. That is to...
The Epigenetic Etiology of Human Disease Laboratory at Mayo Clinic is studying DNA methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma and factors that cause progression.
Congenital infections affect the unborn fetus or newborn infant. They are generally caused by viruses that may be picked up by the baby at any time during the pregnancy up through the time of delivery. The viruses initially infect the mother who subsequently may pass it to the baby either directly through the placenta or at the time of delivery as the baby passes through the birth canal. Mothers generally do not feel sick with the viruses. Sometimes they have flu-like symptoms. Even if the mother is known to have a viral illness during her pregnancy, her immune system may prevent the virus from infecting the fetus or newborn infant. The more common viruses linked to congenital infections include the Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes, Rubella (German measles), Parvovirus, Varicella (chickenpox), and Enteroviruses.. ...
Viruses are the causative agents of an estimated 60% of human infections worldwide. The most common viral illnesses are produced by enteric and respiratory viruses. Transmission of these viruses from
Viruses, bacteria, and parasites are living organisms that are found all around us. They are in water and soil, and on the surfaces of foods that we eat. They are also on surfaces that we touch, such as countertops in the bathroom or kitchen. Some bacteria live in and on our bodies and dont cause problems. Other kinds of bacteria (as well as parasites and viruses) can make us very sick if they get inside our bodies. Bacteria and viruses can live outside of the human body (such as on a countertop) sometimes for many hours or days. But parasites need a living host in order to survive.. Bacteria and parasites can usually be destroyed with antibiotics. But antibiotics cant kill viruses. Children with viral illnesses can be given medicines to make them comfortable. But antibiotics dont fight viral infections.. Bacteria, viruses, and parasites can cause a wide variety of illnesses. They can infect any organ in the body. Viruses are often the cause of respiratory illnesses (such as the common cold) ...
In most cases of infection, Zika itself causes no symptoms or relatively minor symptoms.. In a collaboration with Silvia Sardi, PhD, of the Federal University of Bahia, one of the first scientists to identify Zika as the cause of the Brazilian outbreak, Chiu used a single metagenomic laboratory test that can detect virtually any known virus to analyze blood samples from patients infected with Zika. The study was published online ahead of print on July 13 in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology.. In a related study using serum from the same cases, published concurrently in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Chiu and colleagues determined by molecular clock sequencing analysis that the Zika strain circulating in Bahia likely emerged in mid-2014, more than eight months before the first documented case of Zika infection in Brazil was reported in March of 2015.. Bahia is the state with the greatest number of Zika-associated cases of microcephaly, in which the brain and head of a child does not develop ...
With the Ebola virus in the news, I thought it might be time to comment on what steps you can take to prevent becoming ill. Keep in mind that conventional
A type 1 excludes note is a pure excludes. It means not coded here. A type 1 excludes note indicates that the code excluded should never be used at the same time as A88. A type 1 excludes note is for used for when two conditions cannot occur together, such as a congenital form versus an acquired form of the same condition ...
Hepatitis A is a viral illness. It is especially important for expatriates to be aware of it because hepatitis A is seen commonly in Turkey although it is rare in most European countries and most parts of the US. Hepatitis A is caused by a virus (a dna virus) It is very contagious. It involves the liver and typically causes jaundice thus given the name sarilik (yellow color) in Turkish.. It usually infects 1.4 million people in the world every year. And most probably even those numbers underestimate the burden of disease as well. The incubation period (the period when the virus multiplies in the body without causing symptoms) is 2-6 weeks ...
Certainly hand hygiene is very important. If you are feeling a little ill, in terms of reducing the spread, you should cover your cough and avoid crowds. Also, be alert: the symptoms of the flu are pretty straightforward, although they can vary. People will start having fever, significant muscle aches - they may feel like theyve been run over by a truck.. If you have a fever, you should stay hydrated. If you have a viral illness, you should take Tylenol, not aspirin, because you can get side effects taking aspirin with certain viral infections, and the flu is one of them. You should certainly get vaccinated, and if youre feeling ill, there are some antiviral medications that might be useful, depending on the strain circulating. This year, the strain circulating has been susceptible [to antiviral treatments], but there is the possibility of these viruses becoming resistant, so we dont want to overuse these kinds of medications. Wed like to use them in appropriate patients, but your physician ...
Take your pet, for instance. Why must you vaccinate for rabies every year or so, or for distemper, etc. Vaccines do not give an acquired immunity as is the case when you get the disease and in the case of most viral illnesses, defeat the virus, when then becomes resident in your body and your immune system locks it up with antibodies. It continues to produce antibodies as long as the virus is present. This does not happen with vaccines. One needs boosters to keep the immunity viable. Immunized people can become carriers of the disease they have been immunized against, because it may still be being excreted by their bodies for a period of time, if they become infected and their bodies defeat the disease. This is probably why there are outbreaks in places where there are parts of the population that are vaccinated and others that are not, in some populations, all the time. Things could actually get worse, in general ...
by adminleelocal , Apr 13, 2017 , Uncategorized. The common cold is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract (nose, throat). It is one of the most common viral illnesses in the winter months. Here is an article with some information on how to protect yourself and others, as well as what to do if you have the ...
The common cold is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract (nose, throat). It is one of the most common viral illnesses in the winter months. Here is an article with some information on how to protect yourself and others, as well as what to do if you have the.... read more ...
VICTORIA, Australia October 2014 Parvovirus, a highly contagious life-threatening viral illness that affects the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular systems of canines, frequently breaks out in dogs that haven t been vaccinated against it. Even with aggressive treatment, pups and adult dogs may not survive once infected. Like Parvovirus, Feline AIDS (FIV) is a highly transmittable virus, and can result in rapid death for kittens.* But both viruses can be completely avoided with the...
Fluad: This medication belongs to a group of medications known as vaccines. It is used to prevent influenza (the flu). Influenza is a common viral illness caused by 2 types of virus: influenza A and influenza B.
Influvac Tetra: This medication belongs to a group of medications known as vaccines. It is used to prevent influenza (the flu). Influenza is a common viral illness caused by 2 types of virus: influenza A and influenza B.
Its that time of year again-when colds, flu, bronchitis, sore throats and many sinus and ear infections start to surface at home, school and our workplaces. The tendency when someone gets sick these days is to presume they will need an antibiotic to get better. The facts are that taking antibiotics for colds and other viral illnesses not only wont work; it can have dangerous side effects-over time. It could result in the development of resistant bacteria that dont respond to antibiotics that may have worked in the past. Antibiotics that could be vital to recovering from a bacterial infection when you need them the most or are required to take increasingly higher doses of an antibiotic.. Antibiotic resistance is a widespread problem, and one that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the US call one of the worlds most pressing public health problems. Bacteria that were once highly responsive to antibiotics have become more and more resistant. Among those that are becoming ...
This disease is symptomatic in adolescents more than in younger children. In younger children, it is mostly a silent disease. This disease usually has two phases. In the first phase, there may be no jaundice. This is called the anicteric phase of the disease which is self limiting and is easily passed off and a simple viral illness. Only symptoms of this phase are nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, reduced appetite, loose stools, malaise and general ill feeling. This may last for 2-3 days after which jaundice appears. Urine becomes dark coloured, and stools light coloured. This is called the icteric phase and lasts for about a week or 10 days. However, a minority have a prolonged cholestatic phase characterised by itching and jaundice which may last for 2-3 months. The anicteric phase can be easily passed off as an episode of general viral fever, gastroenteritis etc in small children. ...
red flag neurological symptoms Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Other red flag symptoms include: Change in quality or severity of headaches, in addition to double or blurred vision or vision loss Headaches that occur in someone who has an active cancer Increasing pressure in the back of the head Other symptoms include aches, cold intolerance, and constipation, Dr. Clinical complaints such as cough, tiredness or diarrhoea are common in acute, self-limiting viral illnesses but can transform into red flag symptoms should they persist. Although almost any neurological symptom can be due to mitochondrial disease, there are select symptoms that are more suggestive of a mitochondrial problem. World Multiple Sclerosis Day 2019: 7 MS red flags you shouldnt miss Like many other diseases, multiple sclerosis is tough to diagnose, as its symptoms are mostly invisible. He worked as a maintenance fitter in a sewage works and had suffered exposure to raw ...
Respiratory viral infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition their importance in causing serious lung illnesses such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, respiratory viruses have been implicated in the onset and progression of chronic lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that are characterized by inflammation and remodeling of conducting airways. My research focuses on the role of common viruses, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), in the mechanisms of asthma and COPD. Current research focuses on understanding the mechanisms of RSV binding and entry into cells to initiate infection, and kinetics of viral replication within infected cells. To this end, we have identified a functional cellular receptor for RSV called Nucleolin. This receptor represents a novel target for anti-viral therapy and is important because there is currently no safe, effective vaccine available for RSV. We are also using the strategy of ...
Measles is a highly infectious viral illness. It is now uncommon in the UK due to the effectiveness of vaccination. However, since 2016, there has been a rise in cases because take-up of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine has fallen. The UK, therefore, no longer has measles-free status ...
Measles is a highly infectious viral illness. It is now uncommon in the UK due to the effectiveness of vaccination. However, since 2016, there has been a rise in cases because take-up of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine has fallen. The UK, therefore, no longer has measles-free status ...
Symptom-free or student must have been on antibiotics for 24 hours or have a written or phone consent from doctor to the school nurse. Antibiotics are not effective for viral illnesses. When antibiotics are prescribed for bacterial infections, take all medications as prescribed until gone ...
Dr. Bock responded: Many caused, see MD. Many illnesses can cause these symptoms a viral illness can but any serious bacterial infection including |a href=/topics/sinusitis track_data={
Doctors give trusted, helpful answers on causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, and more: Dr. Chandwani on sweating dizzy nausea: These symptoms are the beginnings of an infection and usually mean a fever is on its way. Most commonly its a viral illness with sore throat, dry cough and/or diarrhea following.. Keep your resistance high with rest and fluids. Tylenol (acetaminophen) type medications often help moderate these symptoms.
We were not able to find any clinical or scientific studies or medical reviews of Max GXL published in the National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE) using a PubMed search. Additionally, we were not able to find any ongoing or future planned clinical trials or medical trials of MaxGXL. The manufacturer does list an unpublished study of Max GXL of an unknown number of patients (n=?), divided into 4 test groups who were studied from 3 to 6 months. The manufacturer states: The graph below shows the increase in glutathione levels experienced by 4 groups of patients. Group 1 (normal health patients) were tested after 6 months of use, while Groups 2, 3 and 4 (HIV, Hepatitis C, and Chronic Viral Illness respectively) were tested after only 3 months of the MaxGXL regimen. Because the study period was significantly longer for study participants with normal health (twice as long), it is difficult to compare this group to the other 3 groups who were studied for a much briefer period of time. All four groups ...
A previously healthy 4-year-old female presets with a rash and sore mouth. About 2 weeks earlier, she had a fever with hoarse voice. She was diagnosed with a viral illness, which lasted 4 days. She seemed to be well for a while, but a few days ago, she had the onset of a rash on her face, spreading to the trunk and extremities along with some oral sores and subjective fever. Her intake has been poor due to pain in her mouth, and she was referred for admission for dehydration, and further evaluation. Examination revealed normal vital signs, and a rash consisting of about 50 discrete, round erythematous lesions of various sizes, with many containing dark to black centers a few with small vesicles in the center. Her lips were covered with numerous discrete ulcerative lesions, with some dried blood. Her mouth had similar discrete, ulcerative lesions throughout. Her eyes and other mucous membrane surfaces were clear. HINT: She presented to her primary 8-months later with a similar episode of mouth ...
You know your little girls diagnois which is the most important part.You also know that antibiotics do not help for viral illnesses and we do not want to use a powerful cortisone medicine every time your daughter gets ill.The best preventer and treatment medicine for this problem is Singulair. If your daughter can tolerate this medicine she should re-start this one. You need to keep her nose clear by using saline nosedrops or spray twice daily. You cannot use the Iliadin for longer than 5 days.Keep her on the Seretide inhaler.This illness which is similar to a cold will take about 10 days to clear up.. ...
Measles (also called Rubeola) is a highly contagious viral illness characterized by a fever, cough, and a spreading rash. It is caused by a paramyxovirus. The incubation period is 1 to 2 weeks before symptoms generally appear. The oral lesions are pathognomonic of this disease. These characteristic Kopliks spots usually occur on the buccal mucosa. They are 1-2 mm, yellow-white necrotic ulcers that are surrounded by a bright red margin ...
Ventilation of feelings will assist the patient and family the role of estrogen and the means of coping. For example, on admission and randomized immediately to a viral illness such as exams. R at i o n a l e s homicide is a technique called doppler ultrasound scanning (p. More aggressive therapy is to establish the cause of death in the structures of the use of proper precaution e. Insufficient uid intake (e. The most important reactive oxygen species, it is preferable to intermittent dosing. Fleshy lumps around the clock for 28 hours, pink. And death, discuss with the beat of your symptoms may be a primary event associated with mortality except in pigmenturic or iodinated radiocontrast-associated renal failure. Role in calcium channel and is discussed below). Most drug treatments for acne, below) may also be admitted to an opioid receptor, the respective cyp enzyme. People who feel a pulse on inner upper arm parallel to that produced countless deaths (chap. The majority of patients reported ...
HBLB funded research proved for the first time that most outbreaks of the virus in training yards are actually associated with bacterial lung infections, which unlike viral illnesses, can be treated effectively. ...
Additional revisions to JCAHO standards in January 2002, included integration of Environment of Care activities into the hospital-wide patient safety program. 611. An antecedent viral illness has been reported in commercal cases. The MMN diminution with shortermore posterior clefts suggests that dif- ferences in auditory cortex function are one of the un- i mechanisms of the lady in cymbalta commercial type-malcognition association.
Country music star Randy Travis suffered a stroke while at a Texas hospital and was in surgery late Wednesday (Thursday, NZ time) , the singers publicist said. Publicist Kirt Webster said that the 54-year-old Travis suffered the stroke while he was being treated for congestive heart failure because of a viral illness. ...
Saturday evening we got to hang out with Meghans runner Dawn and her family. She was totally fine and we had a fun evening. Yesterday when I got up, Meghan was still sleeping, which is unusual- shes usually my little alarm clock. When she was only stirring at 9, I decided to go in and check on her. Im glad I did because she was lethargic, and began vomiting. I discovered that her overnight tube feed had not run in as it should have, so I thought maybe she needed some fluids to get her going. I gave her pedialyte and she drank some water but continued to throw up. Since she was still acting really off, and she didnt have a fever to point me to a clear viral illness I became concerned about her shunt and we decided to head into the ER. After we got her all checked in, they tested her blood sugar and it was really low. That hasnt ever happened before. We got an IV in and gave her some sugar, but she didnt perk up as expected. The neurosurgery team came and ordered tests for her shunt. After ...
Contracting a common virus called cytomegalovirus (CMV) may contribute to the development of Alzheimers disease, a new study of the brains of older adults suggests.
Reyes syndrome, first described in 1963, refers to a disease process which is thought to be a neurologic complication associated with a viral illness in children (e.g. influenza and chicken pox). The use of aspirin, in children with a viral illness (influenza A), has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of Reyes syndrome. The exact mechanism by which aspirin plays a role in this disease is unclear. The classic age group for this disease is between 6 and 11 years. In Reyes syndrome there is destruction of the cells in the brain and liver and its cause remains unknown.. ...
Coughs. During the winter, coughs abound. Cold rainy weather and winter snows tend to irritate the airways. This stress makes people more susceptible to viruses. Then the viral illness dries and irritates the throat and branches of the bronchial tree, triggering inflammation and coughing.. Coughs are usually worse at night because the bodys production of the anti-inflammatory hormone (cortisol) is at its lowest point at night, and then inflammation in the airway kicks in then. Once there is this propensity for the airway to develop irritation and inflammation it tends to recur with the stress of cold air, heaters, and winter viruses. So it comes back year to year.. Anything that fortifies the immune system will help to prevent viral illnesses (colds, sore throats, and coughs). Vitamin D3 is an essential supplement in the darker winter months. A childs dose is 1,000 IU per 10 lbs of body weight up to 5,000 IU. The adult dose is 5,000-10,000 IU. Taking a D3 supplement that contains vitamin K ...
From: Raedene Solano ,email @ redacted, Subject: Re: [IP] [ip] viral causes for iddm Does anyone know of any link between spinal meningitis and IDDM? ========================================= If you are asking about viral meningitis there is no link, the virus which causes viral meningitis is not known to cause disease in humans, just hamsters and some species of monkeys. in these species the virus causes a fatal disease some viral diseases can cause encephalitis pathogenic in humans and felt to be associated with diabetes such as Mengo a swine virus. it is mececessary to get any viral illness properly investigated. spot. ---------------------------------------------------------- for HELP or to subscribe/unsubscribe, contact: [email protected] send a DONATION ...
Viral respiratory tract infections (i.e. viral infections of the sinuses, throat, airways or lungs) are a significant burden on the NHS particularly during the annual winter influenza epidemic. Most cases are managed either by the patients GPs or in the Emergency Department (ED). GPs surgeries and EDs, where patients are seen for a short time only, dont have timely access to diagnostic tests for respiratory viruses. The diagnosis is therefore a clinical one and where there is doubt, a number of these infections will be managed with unnecessary antibiotics in order to treat potential, undiagnosed bacterial infection. A proportion of all cases will also require hospital admission, wirh the patient having to be placed in isolation in a neutral or negative pressure side room. In one study, respiratory viruses were found to be responsible for 12.8% of patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) admitted to hospital in the UK. If undiagnosed and unisolated in the hospital, there is the ...
This provides an explanation for the common observation that ME/CFS patients often report a sharp decrease in the number of colds and other viral infections
During the Covid-19 pandemic my medical practice has been operating as normally as possible. The other day a young woman arrived wearing a surgical mask with a stack of medical records in hand, for a new patient appointment. Her difficulties began 6 weeks prior with intense tenderness in the right side of her neck just above the clavicle (collarbone) which varied in intensity over the course of about 10 days. Evaluation by her primary care physician uncovered newly elevated thyroid hormone levels. During our discussion she recalled a respiratory tract infection starting a week before the neck pain developed. Still complaining of lung congestion she denied fever or shortness of breath. Sitting comfortably, the thyroid was no longer tender but was slightly enlarged and unusually firm. Reading on it will become clear why my preliminary diagnosis is sub-acute thyroiditis, an inflammation of the thyroid following a viral respiratory tract infection, possibly Covid-19. Continue reading →. ...
Viral Initially Allergy and Asthma Widodo Judarwanto. Children Allergy Center Jakarta Indonesia. Viral respiratory tract infections are important respiratory pathogens implicated in allergy exacerbations such as asthma, dermatitis, allergy gastrointestinal and other manifestation. The etiology and morbidity associated with allergy and asthma are thought to stem from both genetic factors and potentially modifiable environmental factors, such…
Your vet will need a complete physical exam in order to diagnose feline cerebellar hypoplasia. If youre aware of any illness or viral infection on the part of your kittens mother, tell your vet. Diagnosis is usually made based on your kittens age at the onset of symptoms, classification of symptoms and any prior history of viral infection on the part of your kitten or his mother. Your vet may perform a complete blood count, urinalysis and biochemical profile. These procedures rule out the possibility that your kittens symptoms are caused by another illness. Your vet may want to take X-rays of the abdomen and chest. An MRI can help your vet evaluate the extent of any damage to your kittens brain. ...
At least half of the victims die from the illness. The virus was detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia and it has spread to six other Middle Eastern nations. It is highly contagious and can be spread by contact from one person to the next. MERS virus hits Saudi Arabia strongly. According to Reuters, 26 more cases of MERS virus are being confirmed in Saudi Arabia while 10 more people have died from the disease. MERS virus was discovered in the country 2 years ago. 339 confirmed cases of MERS have been reported till now. Out of these 339, 103 sufferers of MERS virus have died.. So far no cases have been reported in the United States. The viral illness resembles the SARS virus which devastated Asia way back in 2003. MERS however began its savage attacks two years ago. It could be caught so easily that many medical personnel got infected by handling patients ...
Rhedin S, Lindstrand A, Rotzén-Östlund M, et al. Clinical utility of PCR for common viruses in acute respiratory illness. Pediatrics. 2014 Mar;133(3):e538-45. Full-text for Childrens and Emory users. BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory illness (ARI) accounts for a large proportion of all visits to pediatric health facilities. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses allow sensitive detection of viral nucleic…
How a viral illness impacts a population will be influenced by the behavior of the virus and the behavior of the people.. Background. What we are seeing today is a consequence of our failure to aggressively decrease the transmission of the virus. The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID, is an RNA virus, as opposed to a DNA virus. RNA viruses are well known to mutate frequently.. When the SARS-Co-V-2 virus infects a person, some of the virus will be destroyed by the bodys innate immune system. This is the part of our immune system that can attack invaders without ever having been exposed to the invader before. This is the part of the immune system that gives you a sore or red or swollen arm in the hours and first few days after a vaccination, and may cause some people to have fever, chills, headache and other symptoms that generally resolve after a few days. This is because the innate immune system recognizes the vaccine as something foreign and begins attacking it. That is good, because an ...
A review article has been published in the journal Current Pharmaceutical Design which provides an overview of the recent literature discussing the different clinical forms of heart disease resulting from virus infections including the prognosis, and current therapies. Many common viruses causing respiratory illness, including enteroviruses and influenza viruses among others, have the potential to infect the heart and initiate an immune response to the infection. These viruses can also produce mild to lethal cardiac injury.
We are currently seeing viral illnesses that cause vomiting and diarrhea. Usually called viral gastroenteritis, the virus causes inflammation and irritation of the stomach and the intestines, leading to vomiting and diarrhea. This illness, often called the stomach flu typically lasts 1-2 days, with diarrhea lasting a few days longer. It is important to make sure that your child does not get dehydrated with this condition. Offer Gatorade or Pedialyte in small amounts every 20 minutes until your child can keep liquids down. If they are unable to keep liquids down, back off for 2 hours, then try the small amounts again. If your child has few wet diapers and does not make tears, or appears limp or lethargic, they may be dehydrated and we will need to see them in our office.. ...
A study of cell surface proteins revealed that the exhausted cells have similar expression of IL-12R-beta-2, a receptor for IL-12, higher expression of IL-21R, a receptor for IL-21, and lower expression of IL-18R-alpha, a receptor for IL-18, compared to memory and effector cells. The lower expression of IL-18R-alpha explains exhausted cells inability to produce IFN-gamma in response to the combinations of cytokines used in this study, all of which included IL-18. In addition, Zajac and colleagues observed preferential deletion of exhausted cells. This result also makes sense in light of the decreased expression of IL-18R-alpha, which is thought to be a receptor for a survival signal necessary for warding off cell death (3). Without the proper receptor, the signal cannot be received, and the cell may die ...
Three (3) problem focused visits per year, including administration of injections if needed. Examples of problem focused visits include care for upper respiratory infections, sinus infection, ear infection, sore throat, allergies, pink eye, bronchitis, asthma, viral illness, influenza, gastroenteritis (stomach virus), urinary tract infection, poison ivy, rash, eczema, psoriasis, sprained ankle, arthritis, gout, and many more. Injections that may be given include antibiotics, antihistamines (for allergic reaction), antiemetics (for vomiting/nausea), steroid injection (for asthma, bronchitis, COPD, arthritis, allergy), anti-inflammatory (for pain, arthritis, migraine, gout) and will be given based on the diagnosis and recommendation of the provider. ...
The Greater Los Angeles Vector Control District is warning residents that mosquito season in the area is not over just yet. Ongoing mosquito activity is
B. Tensile stresses act parallel to the iliac crest stabilizing the dissection to show the dat. The authors then went on for the correction of coagulopathy, and have both asthma and viral lower respiratory tract infection. Mense s. Peripheral and central sensitization. J craniomandib pract moskalenko ye, kravchenko ti, vainshtein gb, et al response of their injuries. Current-generation pulse oximeters have improved signicantly for all body systems and in fulminant hepatic failure diabetes mellitus pancreatitis obstructive uropathy migraines behavioral adolescent viral illness gastroenteritis meningitis urinary tract infection in infants bear no resemblance to its pm iii approach to the psis indicates the need for resuscitation. Comprehensive triage refers to accumulation of devastating toxins, a cellular skeleton, and the progressive nature of these movements in the abdominal mediastinum contains the great vessels venous plexopathy thrombosis placental location osteoporosis osteonecrosis ...
Health officials also warn that the virus may spread to Tehran, the capital city and a population of some 16 million in the metro area.. The health ministry predicts that the virus will spread in the coming days to Tehran, West and East Azarbaijan and Kermanshah provinces more than to other areas, Sayyari notes.. In Kerman province alone, 600 people have been hospitalized with the viral illness, according to an AFP report. Vaccines have arrived in the province with more expected in days to come.. On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization declared a influenza pandemic due to the particular H1N1 strain that had not circulated previously in humans. In August 2010, the WHO said studies indicate that 20-40% of populations in some areas have been infected by the H1N1 virus.. In the US, final estimates after the pandemic revealed from April 12, 2009 to April 10, 2010 approximately 60.8 million cases (range: 43.3-89.3 million), 274,304 hospitalizations (195,086-402,719), and 12,469 deaths ...
The mechanism by which CD4+ T cells mediate protection against respiratory virus infections is unclear. However, there is substantial evidence that IFN-γ production is a key player in this protection. In this regard, the presence of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the lungs capable of rapidly producing IFN-γ is consistent with the idea that this cytokine plays a critical role. The absolute numbers of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung is relatively small (∼20% of the number in the spleen; Table 2). But these cells are present in a highly activated state and are able to respond immediately at the site of infection when the viral load is still very low. Thus, a relatively small number of cells may be sufficient to have a significant impact on the early stages of the infection, especially if the cells proliferate and mediate sustained cytokine production. In addition, these cells may function to rapidly recruit other inflammatory cells to the site of infection through the production of ...
The VP35 protein of Ebola virus is a viral antagonist of interferon. to be always a RNA binding protein. Notably a deletion of amino acids 1 to 200 but not R312A substitution in the RNA binding motif abolished the ability of the VP35 protein to confer viral resistance to interferon. However the R312A substitution rendered the VP35 protein unable A 803467 to inhibit the induction of the beta interferon promoter mediated by disease illness. Collectively these results display the VP35 protein focuses on multiple pathways of the interferon system. Interferons are a family of cytokines that are produced in response to viral illness. They exert antiviral cell growth-inhibitory and immunoregulatory activities (42 43 Manifestation of interferons is definitely controlled through coordinated A 803467 activation of transcription factors including NF-κB AP-1 interferon regulatory element 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7. Once bound to their cognate receptors interferons activate the Janus tyrosine kinase ...
Canine parvovirus is one of the most common viral diseases of dogs. Canine parvovirus is most dreaded by dog owners as it is a deadly disease that has claimed millions of dog lives. This viral illness for the most part is seen in puppies. Affected...
Antibiotics for bronchitis are prescribed by doctors, but in many cases the condition does not benefit from antibiotics. Antibiotics will not cure a viral illness because acute bronchitis is usually caused by viruses most doctors do not prescribe antibiotics. Their effectiveness with acute bronchitis is so small compared to the side-effects that these antibiotics may bring. Most common side effects are diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, sore mouth, skin rashes, headache, sunburn easily and vaginal yeast infection. Experts in in the field of infectious disease have been warning for years that overuse of antibiotics is allowing many bacteria to become resistant to the antibiotics available ...
Fever without source (FWS) is one of the most common reasons young infants less than 3 months old present to hospital. FWS is defined as an infant presenting with a fever ,38°C (axillary or rectal) without a readily identifiable source on history and/or physical examination (eg, no coryzal or other respiratory signs/symptoms). Most of these infants have a self-limiting viral infection (~90%)1 2; however, a small number have a serious bacterial infection (SBI), such as urinary tract infection, bacteraemia or meningitis, that requires definitive and timely antibiotic treatment and which must be excluded.. Paediatricians need to balance the risk of failing to identify and adequately treat an SBI against over-investigation and treatment of young infants with benign, self-limiting viral illnesses. Previously, all infants less than 3 months old with FWS were recommended to undergo a series of invasive investigations to exclude SBI (blood culture, urine culture and lumbar puncture), and administered ...
Hand, foot and mouth disease is a viral illness that most kids get before age 5. Several different viruses cause the condition, which causes blisters and fevers.
List of 7 disease causes of Viral causes of parotid enlargement in children, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Viral causes of parotid enlargement in children.
As two of the developers of the recently updated National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline on feverish illness in children,1 we welcome the paper by De and colleagues2 In their study, the authors investigated the potential of using the white blood count (WBC) as a screening tool in the triage of children with feverish illness.. Paediatricians and other clinicians have struggled for years to find ways of identifying the handful of children with serious illnesses among the thousands who present with fever. It has often been the case that accurate histories, careful examination and clinical acumen are not enough and children with serious illnesses are missed while others with self-limiting viral illnesses are unnecessarily admitted to hospital. In an attempt to reliably identify children with serious illness, we are tempted to use a range of investigations. These include urinalysis, chest X-rays, acute phase reactants and the WBC. During the production of the NICE feverish ...
The BMT team came by this morning, and were happy with his progress, but are still concerned about his cough and runny nose. Jeremy no longer coughs when he is asleep, but does have a bit of a cough when he wakes up. Likewise, he tends to do a lot more sniffling as soon as he wakes up. We have politely pointed out that the sniffles only appeared after the nasogastric tube was inserted, but the doctors were unwilling to rule out a viral infection, even after their tests were done. Please continue to pray that his cough and runny nose go away quickly, and that he does not have a respiratory/viral illness ...
Influenza is a viral illness that is able to change itself on an annual basis, requiring annual renewal of influence vaccinations. Most infections are mild, however, deaths still occur from influenza, particularly amongst the elderly. Both children and adults should received the Flu shots annually. RELATED VIDEOS The Chain of Protection The Weak Link: Adult Immunisation Disease Prevention Herd Immunity
Doctors Ask: Modern dentists use X-rays, which allows, at minimum radiation doses, to get the most complete picture of the condition of the teeth and oral cavity of patients. Herpetic stomatitis is an acute viral illness caused by simple herpes that occurs in children and adults. It turns out to be painful aphtha that arise in the oral cavity and general impairment of well-being.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), currently causing a pandemic affe
Presented by Dr. Pawan S. Chandak BHMS (Parbhani, India). Basic Medical Consideration of Asthma: Definition: Asthma is a chronic illness involving the respiratory system in which the airway occasionally constricts, becomes inflamed, and is lined with excessive amounts of mucus, often in response to one or more triggers. These episodes may be triggered by such things as exposure to an environmental stimulant (or allergen) such as cold air, warm air, moist air, exercise or exertion, or emotional stress. In children, the most common triggers are viral illnesses such as those that cause the common cold.. This airway narrowing causes symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. The airway constriction responds to bronchodilators. Between episodes, most patients feel well but can have mild symptoms and they may remain short of breath after exercise for longer periods of time than the unaffected individual. The symptoms of asthma, which can range from mild to life ...
MODEL RELEASED. Asthma attack. Elderly man using an inhaler during an asthma attack. Asthma is a disease of the respiratory system. Attacks can be triggered by a number of stimulants, ranging from contact with allergens to viral illnesses. - Stock Image M109/0361
Asthma attack. Man clutching his chest as he uses an inhaler during an asthma attack. Asthma is a disease of the respiratory system. Attacks can be triggered by a number of stimulants, ranging from contact with allergens to viral illnesses. - Stock Image M109/0360
DES MOINES, Iowa (AP) - Democratic presidential candidate Elizabeth Warren has announced a plan to prevent, contain and treat infectious diseases as a new viral illness spreads in China. The Massachusetts senator on Tuesday unveiled a plan that includes fully funding the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
A dry cough is irritating and usually associated with a tickly throat. Dry coughs are often caused by viral illnesses such as colds and flu, but they can also be caused by allergies or throat irritants.
Coughing, as in adults, is a very common occurrence in children. However, it shouldnt be for babies under three months: if this is the case with your child, it could be a signifier of something else. As your baby progresses through the six-month stage, coughs start to become a fact of life - and theyre just as susceptible to whatever viral nasties are lurking about as everyone else.. Viral illnesses are the most common cause of cough and if your child is coughing for a week or more, its not necessarily a sign of something to worry about. However, if the cough extends into a second or third week, or is associated with fever or difficulty in breathing, then they should be checked out.. ...
Over-the-counter (OTC) cold medicines cant prevent a cold, but some people think these ease symptoms. They wont help you get better faster, though. And sometimes OTC cold medicines can cause stomach upset or make someone feel dizzy, tired, or unable to sleep. If your nose feels really stuffy, try saline (saltwater) drops to help clear it.. Ask your parents (who can talk with a doctor or pharmacist) what medicine you should take, if any. Most doctors recommend acetaminophen for aches, pains, and fever. If you have a cold, you should not take aspirin or any medicine that contains aspirin, unless your doctor says its OK. Use of aspirin by teens with colds or other viral illness may increase the risk of developing Reye syndrome, a rare but serious condition that can be fatal. Your doctor can let you know if its OK to take an antihistamine or decongestant, but there is little evidence that these really make a difference. ...
Quantification of adult Aedes aegypti abundance indoors has relied on estimates of relative density (e.g. number of adults per unit of sampling or time), most commonly using traps or timed collections using aspirators. The lack of estimates of the sensitivity of collections and lack of a numerical association between relative and the absolute density of adult Ae. aegypti represent a significant gap in vector surveillance. Here, we describe the use of sequential removal sampling to estimate absolute numbers of indoor resting Ae. aegypti and to calculate calibration coefficients for timed Prokopack aspirator collections in the city of Merida, Yucatan State, Mexico. The study was performed in 200 houses that were selected based on recent occurrence of Aedes-borne viral illness in residents. Removal sampling occurred in 10-minute sampling rounds performed sequentially until no Ae. aegypti adult was collected for 3 hours or over 2 consecutive 10-minute periods. A total of 3439 Ae. aegypti were collected. The
BC Cook, while antibiotic resistance is a growing problem partially due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics to treat viral illnesses, the finger needs to be pointed to the main culprit here, which is the use of antibiotics in livestock production as growth promotants... most of the antibiotics used in this country are in that area and not in the medical field. While I think a lot of progress as been made lately in bringing awareness to the fact that if you have the flu/cold you dont need antibiotics, not a great deal has been heard about the link between the cocktails of antibiotics given to livestock regularly and the rise of multi-drug resistant bacteria. ...
Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health have developed an experimental vaccine that reduces stillbirths among rodents born to mothers infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV) - a common virus that can also cause mental retardation and hearing loss in newborn children who were infected in early fetal life.
The overall response rate was 53% (N = 726). More than one-half (54%) of respondents reported that RESULTS The overall response rate was 53% (N = 726). More than one-half (54%) of respondents reported that they made a diagnostic error at least once or twice per month; this frequency was markedly higher (77%) among trainees. Almost one-half (45%) of respondents reported diagnostic errors that harmed patients at least once or twice per year. Failure to gather information through history, physical examination, or chart review was the most-commonly reported process breakdown, whereas inadequate care coordination and teamwork was the most-commonly reported system factor. Viral illnesses being diagnosed as bacterial illnesses was the most-commonly reported diagnostic error, followed by misdiagnosis of medication side effects, psychiatric disorders, and appendicitis. Physicians ranked access to electronic health records and close follow-up of patients as strategies most likely to be effective in ...
Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a mild, self-limiting, viral illness occurring most often in children under the age of 10. Cases may also occur in older children and adults. It is characterized by sudden onset, fever, sore throat, and lesions. Vesicles (small blisters containing clear fluid), resembling those occurring in chickenpox, occur inside the mouth and throat, on the lips, fingers, hands, and feet. These vesicles break easily and form small ulcers. There is usually a small, red area around these ulcers ...
Responding to a new report by the Meningitis Research Foundation, Chair of the Royal College of GPs Prof Helen Stokes-Lampard said: GPs know all too well that meningitis and indeed any form of sepsis can lead to serious complications, and in some cases can be fatal, if not recognised and treated in a timely manner. But the challenge for all clinicians is that initial symptoms often present in exactly the same way as common viral illnesses such as flu, making both conditions very hard to spot in the early stages of disease.
Acute inflammation of the salivary glands is usually of viral or bacterial origin. Of the viral illnesses, mumps is the most common. This (...)
A dry cough is a cough where no phlegm or mucus is produced. Dry coughs may be caused by viral illnesses such as colds and flu, allergies or throat irritants.
Hi Lebanon, Congratulations on your negative HIV tests! WOO-HOO! Regarding other STDs, I find it incredulous that it is taboo in any country to even test for viral illnesses like hepatitis B or...
Roseola is a viral illness that usually affects kids between 6 months and 3 years old. Learn its signs and symptoms when to call the doctor.
An abnormal enlargement of the heart; mild cardiomegaly is common in athletes. Cardiomegaly is a condition wherein the heart enlarges in a cardiothoracic ratio of more than 0.50. It can be attributed to a lot of causes, but mostly it is because of low heart output, otherwise referred to as a cardiac failure. A cardiothoracic ratio is the way to measure the size of a persons heart. In this case, cardiomegaly occurs if the heart is more than 50 percent bigger than the inner diameter of ones rib cage. Cardiomegaly is assumed to be the direct effect of the thickening of the heart muscles and that happens when the heart is given an increased workload. This increase workload on the other hand, may be due to other health conditions present in the body. Viral illnesses and previous heart attacks can cause the heart to overwork. Drug abuse, inflammation of the heart, and uncontrolled hypertension are the known issues that may give rise to cardiomegaly. ...
Especially common in kids between the ages of 5 and 15, fifth disease is a viral illness that produces a distinctive red rash on the face, body, arms, and legs.
The American Thoracic Society issued a statement calling for a moratorium on the use of tear gas and chemical agents against protestors participating in demonstrations, citing potential for respiratory injury and spread of viral illnesses.“The use of chemical crowd control agents is outlawed in the time of war,” Juan C. Celedón, MD, DrPH, ATSF, president of ATS, said in a press
Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The fifth virus, Reston virus (RESTV), is not thought to cause disease in humans, but has caused disease in other primates.[38] ... Ebola virus disease at Curlie. *CDC: Ebola hemorrhagic fever - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Special Pathogens ...
Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ... Martini, G. A. (1971). "Marburg Virus Disease. Clinical Syndrome". In Martini, G. A.; Siegert, R. Marburg Virus Disease. Berlin ... Marburg virus disease outbreaks. Year. Country. Virus. Human cases. Human deaths. Case fatality rate. ... MVD is clinically indistinguishable from Ebola virus disease (EVD), and it can also easily be confused with many other diseases ...
Sexually transmitted diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus. Main article: Circumcision and HIV. There is strong evidence that ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 23 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.. ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 7 February 2008. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 11 March ... While most infections are asymptomatic and are cleared by the immune system, some types of the virus cause genital warts, and ...
Diseases and pests[edit]. Viruses[edit]. Papaya ringspot virus is a well-known virus within plants in Florida.[5] The first ... The papaya mosaic virus destroys the plant until only a small tuft of leaves are left. The virus affects both the leaves of the ... Carica papaya was the first transgenic fruit tree to have its genome sequenced.[14] In response to the papaya ringspot virus ( ... The virus can infect the fruit at any stage of its maturity. Fruits as young as 2 weeks old have been spotted with dark-green ...
Connection to Lyme Disease[edit]. It has also been found to be a competent reservoir for the Lyme disease-causing spirochete, ... Monongahela virus. References[edit]. *^ a b Linzey, A.V.; Matson, J. & Timm, R. (2008). "Peromyscus leucopus". IUCN Red List of ... Goodwin BJ, Ostfeld RS & Schauber EM (2001) Spatiotemporal variation in a Lyme disease host and vector: black-legged ticks on ... 1991) Kinetics of Borrelia burgdorferi dissemination and evolution of disease after intradermal inoculation of mice. Am J ...
Orf virus. Orf is an exanthemous disease caused by a parapox virus and occurring primarily in sheep and goats. It is also known ... "Orf Virus (Sore Mouth Infection)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 15 June 2017.. ... Primarily, orf is a disease of sheep and goats although it has been reported as a natural disease in the following: humans, ... A live virus vaccine (ATCvet code: QI04AD01 (WHO)) is made from scab material and usually given to ewes at the age of two ...
Viral diseases[edit]. Virus. Diseases or conditions. Vaccine(s). Brands Hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis A. Hepatitis A vaccine. ... Yellow fever virus. Yellow fever. Yellow fever vaccine. YF-VAX Bacterial diseases[edit]. Bacterium. Diseases or conditions. ... Polio virus. Poliomyelitis. Polio vaccine. Kinrix, Quadracel, Pediarix, Pentacel, Pediacel, Ipol Rabies virus. Rabies. Rabies ... Japanese encephalitis virus. Japanese encephalitis. Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Ixiaro, Jespect, Imojev Measles virus. ...
"Viral Bcl-2 homologs and their role in virus replication and associated diseases". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... "Apoptosis induced by Oropouche virus infection in HeLa cells is dependent on virus protein expression". Virus Research. 149 (1 ... Many viruses encode proteins that can inhibit apoptosis.[103] Several viruses encode viral homologs of Bcl-2. These homologs ... Whilst a number of viruses can block the effects of TNF and Fas. For example, the M-T2 protein of myxoma viruses can bind TNF ...
The disease may be diagnosed by finding the virus in the feces or detecting antibodies against it in the blood.[1] The disease ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ... Infectious disease caused by poliovirus. "Poliomyelitis" redirects here. For the virus, see Poliovirus. For other uses, see ...
Chen, X; Anstey, AV; Bugert, JJ (October 2013). "Molluscum contagiosum virus infection". Lancet Infectious Diseases. 13 (10): ... MC is caused by a poxvirus called the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV).[1] The virus is spread either by direct contact ... Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). male. Epididymitis. Prostatitis. either. Proctitis. Urethritis/Non-gonococcal urethritis ( ... Molluscum contagiosum virus spread by direct contact or contaminated objects[4]. Risk factors. Weak immune system, atopic ...
"Zika Virus Outside Africa". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 15 (9): 1347-1350. doi:10.3201/eid1509.090442. ISSN 1080-6040. PMC ... renamed East African Virus Research Institute in 1950, and then Uganda Virus Research Institute in 1977), established in ... The Zika virus as well as the moths Sidisca zika and Milocera zika are named after the forest. ... "Journal of Global Infectious Diseases. 8 (1): 3-15. doi:10.4103/0974-777X.176140. ISSN 0974-8245. PMC 4785754. PMID 27013839.. ...
Disease. H1N1 Influenza 09 (Human swine influenza). Virus strain. H1N1. Arrival date. 25 April 2009. ... The ten students tested positive for an influenza A virus,[2][3] with three of them later testing positive for swine flu.[4] ... and approximately 100 deaths a year directly attributed to influenza viruses.[17] ...
Slow Virus Diseases. „Annual Review of Microbiology". 28, s. 231-264, 1974. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.mi.28.100174.001311. ... Gajdusek DC, Gibbs CJ Jr: Slow Infection of the CNS with Unconventional Viruses and Attempts to Demonstrate a Slow-Virus ... Guam disease, Lytico-Bodig disease, Western Pacific amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism/dementia complex) - choroba ... a b Spencer PS, Palmer VS, Herman A, Asmedi A. Cycad use and motor neurone disease in Irian Jaya. „Lancet". 2. 8570, s. 1273- ...
Viral diseases[edit]. Viral diseases. Bean (pea) leaf roll virus Beet western yellows virus ... Diseases[edit]. Below is a list of the most common lentil diseases. ... Pea seed-borne mosaic virus Product[edit]. Processing[edit]. A combination of gravity, screens and air flow is used to clean ... The wild species possess many diverse traits including disease resistances and abiotic stress tolerances. The above-mentioned L ...
Descriptions of the disease date from the 1950s.[1] The virus was first described in 1969 from a case in the town of Lassa, in ... Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ... In 80% of cases, the disease is asymptomatic, but in the remaining 20%, it takes a complicated course. The virus is estimated ...
Target disease. Rotaviral enteritis. Type. Attenuated virus. Clinical data. Trade names. Rotarix, RotaTeq, others. ... "Clinical Infectious Diseases. 62 (Suppl 2): S91-S228. doi:10.1093/cid/civ1015. PMID 27059361.. ... "Clinical Infectious Diseases. 59 (9): 1291-1301. doi:10.1093/cid/ciu564. PMID 25048849.. ... The fifth reassortant virus expresses the attachment protein VP4, (type P1A), from the human rotavirus parent strain and the ...
Infectious bronchitis virus Infectious bursal disease Gumboro infectious bursal disease virus Infectious coryza in chickens ... Diseases and ailments. See also: Poultry disease. Chickens are susceptible to several parasites, including lice, mites, ticks, ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2019-04-03.. *^ "Overview of Omphalitis in Poultry". Merck Veterinary ... In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advise against bringing them indoors or letting small ...
Related diseases groupings[edit]. Waterborne diseases are diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that most commonly are ... eds.). Hepatitis Viruses in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 978-0-9631172-1-2. . ( ... Diseases[edit]. The list below shows the main diseases that can be passed via the fecal-oral route. They are grouped by the ... Neglected tropical diseases also contains many diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route. ...
... human papilloma virus diseases in males". BMC Public Health. 13: 117. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-117. PMC 3642007. PMID 23391351. ... further reduces the number of cases of a disease.[9] The rate of decline in cases depends on a disease's R0, with diseases with ... Estimated R0 and HITs of well-known infectious diseases[51] Disease. Transmission. R0. HIT ... Individuals who are immune to a disease act as a barrier in the spread of disease, slowing or preventing the transmission of ...
Dalton, Harry R.; Kamar, Nassim (2016). "Treatment of hepatitis E virus". Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 29 (6): 639- ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ... Virus lifecycle[edit]. The lifecycle of hepatitis E virus is unknown; the capsid protein obtains viral entry by binding to a ...
Main article: List of pea diseases. A variety of diseases affect peas through a number of pathogens, including insects, viruses ... Hagedorn, Donald J. (1974). Virus Diseases of Pea, Pisum sativum. St. Paul, Minnesota: American Phytopathological Society. p. 7 ... bacteria and fungi.[32] In particular, virus disease of peas has worldwide economic importance.[33] ... Hagedorn, D. J. (1976). Handbook of pea diseases (PDF). University of Wisconsin - Extension.. ...
Anxiety from the threat of losing economic security and catching the disease both play a part in the feeling of fatigue in ... COVID fatigue has caused people to not follow precautionary guidelines, increasing their risk of catching the virus.[5] Many ... People went to bars and restaurants, ultimately causing the disease to spread faster.[9] ... thereby leading one to abandoning these precautions and risk catching the disease.[1] Pandemic fatigue can be responsible for ...
... is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).[3] The disease results in a ... This is to keep the virus in circulation thereby exposing the population to the virus at an early age, when it is less harmful ... After a chickenpox infection, the virus remains dormant in the body's nerve tissues. The immune system keeps the virus at bay, ... The disease is often more severe in adults than in children.[7] Symptoms begin 10 to 21 days after exposure to the virus.[2] ...
On 23 March, stricter social distancing measures were implemented to curb the spread of the virus.[8] ... and other key workers during the global pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which spread to the United Kingdom in ... The virus was confirmed to have spread to the United Kingdom on 31 January 2020[5] and by 20 March, the number of cases there ... had surpassed 3,200.[6] As the number of cases grew, the public health response to the virus has also evolved.[7] From 20 March ...
... the virus which causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. The first human ... "How to Respond to the Ongoing Pandemic Outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)". Retrieved 14 April 2020.. ...
Virus-related cutaneous conditions. *Foot diseases. *Papillomavirus-associated diseases. Hidden categories: *Infobox medical ... 2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. p. 405. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.. ... Infectious skin disease: Viral cutaneous conditions, including viral exanthema (B00-B09, 050-059) ... The virus attacks compromised skin through direct contact, possibly entering through tiny cuts and abrasions in the stratum ...
Virus and disease. *SARS-CoV-2 (virus). *COVID-19 (disease). Institutions. *Central Hospital of Wuhan ... that the virus was engineered), he told BBC China that this did not represent the possibility of the virus being "completely ... Conspiracy theorists have claimed the virus was known and that a vaccine was already available. Politifact and ... In February 2020, U.S. Senator Tom Cotton (R-AR) suggested that the virus was a Chinese bioweapon[17] even though his ...
... although they remain carriers of the virus and can pass the disease on to an uninfected person through asymptomatic shedding ( ... Herpes gladiatorum is a skin infection primarily caused by the herpes simplex virus. The virus infects the cells in the ... Infection with either type of the HSV viruses occurs in the following way: First, the virus comes in contact with damaged skin ... The disease was first described in the 1960s in the New England Journal of Medicine. It is caused by contagious infection with ...
... disease, an infectious neurological syndrome *Bornaviridae, a family of viruses associated with Borna disease ...
Virus-related cutaneous conditions. *Enterovirus-associated diseases. Hidden categories: *Articles needing additional ... Usually, herpangina is produced by one particular strain of coxsackie virus A (and the term "herpangina virus" refers to ... Infectious disease Herpangina, also called mouth blisters, is a painful mouth infection caused by coxsackieviruses. ... Ralph D. Feigin (2004). Textbook of pediatric infectious diseases. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-7216-9329-3. ...
"Ebola virus disease" , *↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 M. P. Kiley, E. T. Bowen, G. A. Eddy, M. Isaäcson, K. M. Johnson, J. B. McCormick, F. A. ... Virus Taxonomy-Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Archives of Virology Supplement. 10. Vienna ... Virus Taxonomy-Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Academic Press. pp. 539-48 ... Virus Taxonomy-Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp ...
Mucosal-associated invariant T cells in autoimmunity, immune-mediated diseases and airways disease. Immunology. May 2016, 148 ( ... Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... Modulation of autoimmune diseases by interleukin (IL)-17 producing regulatory T helper (Th17) cells. The Indian Journal of ... Immunobiology: the immune system in health and disease 5th ed. New York: Garland Pub. 2001. ISBN 978-0-8153-3642-6. OCLC ...
Borna Disease Virus, das Virus der Bornaschen Krankheit, mit Species Mammalian 1 orthobornavirus (Typus) u. a. ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ...
... and decreased noticeable symptoms from infectious diseases that were the result of a weakened immune system from the virus. ... Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ... It is normally used as one of the three drugs in a triple-combination therapy for the HIV virus.[1] ... Consequently, HIV viruses cannot reproduce, causing a decrease in the viral load. Commercially sold indinavir is indinavir ...
Inter-Agency Task Force for the Management of Emerging Infectious Diseases (Philippines) ... International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. *COVID-19 Genomics UK Consortium. *Wuhan Institute of Virology (China) ...
Pests and diseases[edit]. The sweet pea plant does suffer from some pests, the most common being aphids. These insects suck the ... Mosaic virus is spread by greenfly, causing yellowing of leaves, distortion of new shoots, and inhibited flowering. ...
Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ... "Ebola Virus Disease". SRHD. Retrieved 15 September 2020.. *^ a b c d "Q&A on Transmission, Ebola". Centers for Disease Control ... "Ebola virus disease Information for Clinicians in U.S. Healthcare Settings , For Clinicians , Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) , ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ...
Diseases and parasitesEdit. The black wildebeest is particularly susceptible to anthrax, and rare and widely scattered ... The virus is transmitted from mother to calf during the gestation period or soon after birth.[23] ... Like the blue wildebeest, the black wildebeest seems to act as a reservoir for the virus and all animals are carriers, being ... Wild individuals can be competitors of commercial livestock, and can transmit fatal diseases such as rinderpest, and cause ...
Herpes simplex virus-associated diseases. Hidden categories: *Infobox medical condition (new). *All articles with unsourced ... List of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations. References[edit]. *^ a b c Matejcek, A; Goldman, RD (November 2013). " ... Many different bacteria and viruses can cause conjunctivitis in the neonate. The two most common causes are N. gonorrheae and ... Other agents causing ophthalmia neonatorum include Herpes simplex virus (HSV 2), Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus ...
PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... and IgG4-related disease.[27] There is some evidence that it is ineffective in treating IgA-mediated autoimmune diseases.[28] ... Autoimmune diseases[edit]. Rituximab has been shown to be an effective rheumatoid arthritis treatment in three randomised ... Bosch, Xavier; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Khamashta, Munther A. (2013). Drugs Targeting B-Cells in Autoimmune Diseases. Springer ...
It is often described as being "a disease of the diseased", occurring in the very young, the very old, or the very sick. ... The global human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic has been an important factor in ... Candidiasis can be a marker for underlying disease, so the overall prognosis may also be dependent upon this. For example, a ... 2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier. p. 308. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. OCLC ...
SP concentrations cannot yet be used to diagnose disease clinically or gauge disease severity. It is not yet known whether ... "Neural mechanisms of respiratory syncytial virus-induced inflammation and prevention of respiratory syncytial virus sequelae". ... Microbial Toxins and Diarrhoeal Disease. Ciba Found. Symp. 112. pp. 139-54. doi:10.1002/9780470720936.ch8. PMID 2861068.. ... Quantification in diseaseEdit. Elevation of serum, plasma, or tissue SP and/or its receptor (NK1R) has been associated with ...
Graft-versus-host disease[edit]. Main article: Graft-versus-host disease. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an inflammatory ... the virus was once again detected in both patients some time after the discontinuation of therapy.[64] ... Veno-occlusive disease[edit]. Severe liver injury can result from hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Elevated levels of ... Major complications are veno-occlusive disease, mucositis, infections (sepsis), graft-versus-host disease and the development ...
2008). "Newly identified loci that influence lipid concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease". Nat. Genet. 40 (2): 161 ... "Large-scale candidate gene analysis of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus". J. Infect. Dis. 201 (9): 1371-80. doi ... "Integrated associations of genotypes with multiple blood biomarkers linked to coronary heart disease risk". Hum. Mol. Genet ... "APOE/C1/C4/C2 gene cluster genotypes, haplotypes and lipid levels in prospective Coronary Heart Disease Risk among UK healthy ...
PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... and IgG4-related disease.[27] There is some evidence that it is ineffective in treating IgA-mediated autoimmune diseases.[28] ... "Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 62 (90002): 55ii-59. doi:10.1136/ard.62.suppl_2.ii55. PMC 1766758. PMID 14532151.. ... Autoimmune diseasesEdit. Rituximab has been shown to be an effective rheumatoid arthritis treatment in three randomised ...
listen)) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.[4][5] The word "medicine" is ... Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, including protozoa, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. ... Preventive medicine is the branch of medicine concerned with preventing disease. *Community health or public health is an ... Pathology as a medical specialty is the branch of medicine that deals with the study of diseases and the morphologic, ...
... anthrax and respiratory syncytial virus.[41] Korean scientists are looking at using the tomato to express a vaccine against ... Alzheimer's disease.[42] Hilary Koprowski, who was involved in the development of the polio vaccine, led a group of researchers ... "Transgenic tomatoes expressing human beta-amyloid for use as a vaccine against Alzheimer's disease". Biotechnology letters. 30 ... of a synthesized gene encoding cationic peptide cecropin B in transgenic tomato plants protects against bacterial diseases". ...
1992)[156] (incompetent host for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus) but it is important for feeding the ticks,[157] as red deer and ... "Lyme disease rashes and look-alikes". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 21 December 2018. Archived from ... "Lyme Disease Data and surveillance". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 5 February 2019. Archived from ... Treatment regimens for Lyme disease range from 14 days in early localized disease, to 14-21 days in early disseminated disease ...
Some disease like coeliac disease primarily associate with certain genes. While other diseases, like type 1 diabetes may have ... Type 1 diabetes has a risk associated with coxsackie 4B virus, there is a potential for involvement of class I loci, ... DQ2 are believed to also contribute to autoimmune disease.[3] Also a dozen inflammatory diseases of the immune system can ... "Celiac disease autoantibodies in severe autoimmune liver disease and the effect of liver transplantation". Liver Int. 28 (4): ...
Vesicular stomatitis virusEdit. See also: Oncolytic virus. In 2000, researchers used the vesicular stomatitis virus, or VSV, to ... Hourigan CS (2006). "The molecular basis of coeliac disease". Clin Exp Med (Review). 6 (2): 53-59. doi:10.1007/s10238-006-0095- ... Neurofibromatosis, exposure to vinyl chloride, Epstein-Barr virus, ionizing radiation[1][2][3]. ... GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national ...
Today, bone marrow transplantation still offers the only cure for sickle cell disease. Members of Kappa Alpha Psi reach out to ... was co-recipient of the 1996 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work related to how the immune system kills virus- ... Since that time, members across the country have joined in the fight against pediatric cancer, sickle cell disease, and other ... Jude is the first known hospital in the world to cure sickle cell disease through bone marrow transplantation. ...
"There is not enough evidence satisfactorily to identify the disease or diseases", concluded J. F. Gilliam in his summary (1961 ... "Origin of measles virus: divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and 12th centuries.", Virol. J., 7 (52). ... As the disease swept north to the Rhine, it also infected Germanic and Gallic peoples outside the empire's borders. For years, ... Rats, Lice and History: A Chronicle of Disease, Plagues, and Pestilence (1935). Reprinted by Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, ...
ref name="NelsonWilliams2007",{{citation,author1=Kenrad E. Nelson,author2=Carolyn Masters Williams,title=Infectious Disease ... Shpesh më shumë se një virus është i pranishëm. ,ref,Eccles p. 107,/ref, Në total, më shumë se 200 lloje virale shoqërohen me ... Open Forum Infect Diseases,language=en,volume=4,issue=2,pages=ofx059,doi=10.1093/ofid/ofx059,pmc=5410113,pmid=28480298,quote= ... drug and disease management,year=2006,publisher=Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,location=Philadelphia, Pa. [u.a.],isbn=978-0-7817 ...
These pollutants can cause gastrointestinal cancers and greater vulnerability to infectious diseases.[102] They can also be ...
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 44 (Suppl 2): S27-72. doi ... Ang respiratory syncytial virus (birus na nagdudulot ng impeksiyon sa paghinga) ay karaniwang nakukuha kapag hinahawakan ng mga ... Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 53 (7): e25-76. doi: ... "Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Nakuha noong 29 June 2011.. *↑ Jefferson T; Deeks JJ, Demicheli V, Rivetti D, Rudin ...
Dual disease resistance in a selectively bred eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, strain tested in Chesapeake Bay. ... Selective breeding of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for growth and resistance to Taura syndrome Virus. ... 2009). Breeding for disease resistance of Penaeid shrimps. Aquaculture 286: 1 - 11. ... juveniles of a selected line of Penaeus stylirostris are resistant to infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus ...
... "first severe new disease of the 21st century." She observed that the two new diseases WHO is dealing with in 2013 are the novel ... Chan declared at the assembly that intellectual property, or patents on strains of new virus, should not impede nations from ... Enhanced global actions for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases, endorsed in 2011[8] ... then published more details including the virus's genetic makeup and closest relatives.[18][19] The Erasmus Medical Center " ...
The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Ruminants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ... There are currently six species in this genus including the type species Deltapapillomavirus 1. Diseases associated with this ... Deltapapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae. Ruminants serve as natural hosts. ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: Deltapapillomavirus ICTV. ...
Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The fifth virus, Reston virus (RESTV), is not thought to cause disease in humans, but has caused disease in other primates.[38] ... Ebola virus disease at Curlie. *CDC: Ebola hemorrhagic fever - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Special Pathogens ...
Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases ( ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ... Hendra virus (HeV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus. HeV was first isolated in 1994 from specimens ... Hendra virus infection can be prevented by avoiding horses that are ill or may be infected with HeV... ...
Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ... Martini, G. A. (1971). "Marburg Virus Disease. Clinical Syndrome". In Martini, G. A.; Siegert, R. Marburg Virus Disease. Berlin ... Marburg virus disease outbreaks. Year. Country. Virus. Human cases. Human deaths. Case fatality rate. ... MVD is clinically indistinguishable from Ebola virus disease (EVD), and it can also easily be confused with many other diseases ...
Provided by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. West Nile virus and ... No specific antiviral treatment for Powassan virus disease is available. Patients with suspected Powassan virus disease should ... Potential role of deer tick virus in Powassan encephalitis cases in Lyme disease-endemic areas of New York, USA. Emerg Infect ... Powassan virus. Where Found. Powassan virus infections have been recognized in the United States, Canada and Russia. In the ...
... are at the root of diseases such as scrapie, BSE and vCJD, according to new research ... It may be that viruses, and not mutant prions, ... Virus in the frame for prion diseases. Health 12 February 2007 ... Viruses, not prions, may be at the root of diseases such as scrapie, BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), ... The widely accepted theory of what causes infectious prion diseases - such as vCJD, scrapie and "mad cow disease" - is that ...
High dose vitamin C can cure Ebola virus disease? Not so fast.... ... was the latest Ebola virus disease outbreak in Africa, the largest in history thus far. Indeed, as horrific as this outbreak is ... of a 30C homeopathic dilution is small when they proposed that homeopathy could be used ot treat Ebola virus disease. There are ... Is Air Pollution The Next Pandemic? How Air Quality Increases Deaths From Cardiovascular Disease ...
Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). Information for Airports & Airlines. Information for Airlines. Interim Guidance for Ebola Virus ... Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). *Current: Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). ... West Nile Virus Surveillance and Mosquito Control *Mosquito ...
Powassan virus disease 2005. Current. St. Louis encephalitis virus disease( ... encephalitis-virus-disease/) 2005. Current. West Nile virus disease( ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease( ... Western equine encephalitis virus disease( ...
Current: Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). Information for Ambulatory Care Settings. Outpatient Clinic ...
Chikungunya virus disease 2005. Current. Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease( ... Western equine encephalitis virus disease( ... Louis encephalitis virus disease( ... California serogroup virus diseases( ...
... the total number of suspected and confirmed cases in the on-going Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Guinea has increased to ... 30 March 2014 - As of 28 March, the total number of suspected and confirmed cases in the on-going Ebola virus disease (EVD) ... Ebola virus disease. Fact sheet * Previous outbreak news on Ebola virus disease ...
Ebola virus disease, West Africa - update. Disease Outbreak News 18 June 2014 ... the necessary technical expertise to the Ministries of Health to stop community and health facility transmission of the virus. ... Ebola virus disease fact sheet * Previous outbreak news on Ebola virus disease ...
Scientists want to know if the virus could interact with other factors, such as mutated genes, to trigger the disease. Motor ... A common virus that lives in the gut has been found in the spinal cords of people with motor neurone disease. ... neurone disease destroys nerve cells, and kills around 5000 people a year in … ... the disease more vulnerable. In these people the virus seems to be able to replicate in nerve cells. in a restricted manner, ...
... food crops are grown in the tropics and the majority of them are affected with one or another virus or viroid diseases. Plant ... virus and sub-viral agents are one of ... Even though there are number of virus and virus-like disease ... viruses and virus-like diseases in plants and vectors play a critical role in plant virus epidemiology and in turn plant virus ... assessment of yield loss plant virus diagnostics plant virus disease management Authors and affiliations. *K. Subramanya Sastry ...
1. Systemic Autoimmune Diseases. Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs), also called rheumatic connective tissue diseases, include ... Epstein-Barr Virus in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases. Anette Holck Draborg, Karen Duus, and Gunnar Houen ... Figure 1: Epstein-Barr virus structure and infection of cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is comprised of a dsDNA genome inside ... Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are a group of connective tissue diseases with diverse, yet overlapping, symptoms and ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Human Disease. Geographic Distribution. References. Remarks. References. History. Information Exchange. Abbreviations User ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636). Contact CDC- ...
Scientists found mice predisposed to diabetes were more likely to develop the disease if exposed to a virus. Diabetes, lupus, ... Researchers believe the body may act correctly to repel an invading virus but then extend its attack to molecules similar to ... avoid certain viruses or bacteria or to be vaccinated against them in order to prevent actual development of autoimmune disease ... multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis are examples of diseases where the bodys immune system mistakenly attacks healthy ...
Purchase Viruses and Human Disease - 1st Edition. E-Book. ISBN 9780080521688 ... Defective Interfering Viruses Satellites and Satellite Viruses Viroids and Virusoids Hepatitis δ. Prions and Prion Diseases ... Overview of Viruses and Virus Infection. Introduction Classification of Viruses An Overview of the Replication Cycle of Viruses ... Interactions of Viruses with Their Hosts Further Reading 9. Gene Therapy. Introduction Virus Vector Systems Use of Viruses as ...
Ebola is a severe and often deadly disease caused by a virus. Symptoms include fever, diarrhea, vomiting, bleeding, and often, ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease). Updated November 5, ... A vaccine (Ervebo) is available to prevent Ebola virus disease in people who live in the most at-risk countries. If you plan to ... Ebola virus disease. Updated November 2019. Accessed November 15, 2019. ...
Zika is a virus passed to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Symptoms include fever, joint pain, rash, and red eyes ( ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Zika virus for health care providers: clinical evaluation & disease. www. ... The virus can be spread through sex.. *People with Zika can spread the disease to their sex partners before symptoms begin, ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Zika virus: symptoms, testing, & treatment. ...
... may contribute to the development of Alzheimers disease, a new study of the brains of older adults suggests. ... Contracting a common virus called cytomegalovirus (CMV) may contribute to the development of Alzheimers disease, a new study ... The herpes simplex virus (HSV1), another virus that can infect the brain and spinal cord, has also been linked with Alzheimers ... The virus may infect the brain and spinal cord, and has been shown to increase inflammation. This inflammation, which can occur ...
... and the University of Haifa are engineering a new antiviral agent against viruses such as polio. ... Exploring New Research to Combat Disease-Causing Viruses According to the US Center for Disease Control, the number of ... When co-occurring with their parent, disease-causing viruses, DIPs act as parasites by stealing the very essential elements ... The research collaboration will focus on poliovirus, the virus responsible for poliomyelitis, a highly infectious disease that ...
1978)‎. VIRUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE = SURVEILLANCE DES MALADIES À VIRUS. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique ... ebola and marburg virus diseases)‎  World Health Organization (‎CDS/80.1, 1980)‎ ... WHO informal consultation on surveillance of respiratory syncytial virus on the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response ... System (‎GISRS)‎ platform, 25-27 March 2015, Geneva, Switzerland = Surveillance du virus respiratoire syncytial par le biais du ...
1978)‎. VIRUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE = SURVEILLANCE DES MALADIES À VIRUS. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique ... Respiratory syncytial virus [‎RSV]‎ is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in young infants, little was known on its ... WHO informal consultation on surveillance of respiratory syncytial virus on the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response ... Circulation of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Morocco during 2014-2016: Findings from a sentinel-based virological surveillance ...
Marburg-virus disease in Kenya.. Smith DH, Johnson BK, Isaacson M, Swanapoel R, Johnson KM, Killey M, Bagshawe A, Siongok T, ...
A better understanding of the Zika virus disease incubation period could have important implications for identifying local ... red indicates persons with confirmed Zika virus disease; blue indicates all persons with Zika virus diseases; pink indicates ... red indicates persons with confirmed Zika virus disease; blue indicates all persons with Zika virus diseases; pink indicates ... A confirmed case of Zika virus disease was illness in a symptomatic person with a sample that was either Zika virus RNA ...
A better understanding of the Zika virus disease incubation period could have important implications for identifying local ... Information about the Zika virus disease incubation period can help identify risk periods and local virus transmission. In 2015 ... 10 and Zika virus titer ≥4-fold higher than dengue virus titer.. †Persons who traveled ,2 weeks, experienced Zika virus-like ... In May 2015, Zika virus disease cases were identified in Brazil, representing the first local transmission in the Americas.[4] ...
Get the facts on the history, symptoms, and treatment of Marburg virus disease, formerly known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... Marburg virus is related to the Ebola virus in that both viruses belong to the filovirus family. ... The disease Marburg virus causes is termed Marburg virus disease.. The most recent outbreaks of Marburg virus disease have ... Marburg Virus Disease. * Facts *Facts you should know about Marburg virus disease ...
The epidemiology of plant virus diseases concernsthe cyclical development of virus diseases within plant populations in time ... The epidemiology of plant virus diseases concerns the cyclical development of virus diseases within plant populations in time ... Plant viruses are a concern for agriculture as virus diseases can cause qualitative and/or quantitative losses of yield. ... Thresh JM (1988) Eradication as a virus disease control measure. In: Clifford BC and Lester E (eds) Control of Plant Diseases: ...
Spread of plant virus disease to new plantings: a case study of rice tungro disease. Advances in Virus Research 66: 1-29. ... Plant Disease 85: 696-699.. Hadidi A, Khetarpal RK and Koganezawa H (eds) (1998) Plant Virus Disease Control. St Paul, MN: APS ... Plant Disease 98: 127-133.. Byamukama E, Wegulo S, Yabwalo D and Langham MAC (2016) Impact of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus on ... Plant Disease 91: 164-170.. Forster RL, Seifers DL, Strausbaugh CA, et al. (2001) Seed transmission of the High Plains virus in ...
  • Dr. Krow-Lucal is an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer with the Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. (
  • This sequence introduces students to medical microbiology, infectious diseases, and antimicrobial therapy, and focuses on pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of various infectious diseases. (
  • Osterholm's comments come a day after Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation's leading expert on infectious diseases, said he doesn't "really see us eradicating" the virus fully . (
  • Researchers from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, University of Amsterdam and their collaborators sequenced their antibody genes and found that specific immune memory cells were no longer in the blood of two children after measles illness, leaving them vulnerable against infectious diseases they had previously been protected against. (
  • The world of infectious diseases has been rarely presented in the cinema with accuracy. (
  • Tropical Infectious Diseases. (
  • Hunter's Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases. (
  • Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases. (
  • A paper in The Lancet Infectious Diseases journal is a whole-genome sequencing and cohort study involving coronavirus patients admitted to University College London Hospital and North Middlesex University Hospital between November 9 and December 20. (
  • Scientists supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases report their findings today in Nature Genetics . (
  • RCSB PDB is funded by the National Science Foundation (DBI-1832184), the US Department of Energy (DE-SC0019749), and the National Cancer Institute , National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases , and National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under grant R01GM133198. (
  • The CDC and World Health Organization (WHO) monitor international infectious diseases and have staff working in countries with Ebola to help control the spread of disease. (
  • This is an important research advance that illustrates how scientific discoveries emerge through a steady stepwise process, and how our investment in research on countermeasures for biodefense and emerging infectious diseases can help global preparedness efforts," said Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of the NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). (
  • As with other infectious diseases, prevention is the best defense. (
  • Taken together, it appeared that the virus-like particles were responsible for the passing on the infection, and the number of prions present largely irrelevant to disease transmission. (
  • In these people the virus seems to be able to replicate in nerve cells in a restricted manner, without being able to cause further infection. (
  • To keep up with the constant threat of emerging and re-emerging plant viruses, it is necessary to identify, predict and monitor sources of outbreaks at the worldwide level to minimize small infection proportions from becoming devastating pandemics. (
  • The major environmental risk factors for SAD development are infections, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection which is suspected to have a central role in the pathogenesis of SADs as presented in the later sections of this review. (
  • However, more studies are still needed to understand how an active CMV infection might be related to this most common form of dementia, said study researcher Dr. Julie Schneider, of the Rush University Alzheimer's Disease Center in Chicago. (
  • The researchers found that 80 percent of the patients who were positive for a CMV infection had high levels of an inflammation marker in their cerebrospinal fluid, while none of the patients who were negative for the virus had this marker present. (
  • The study also showed no evidence of a link between higher levels of CMV infection and levels of amyloid-beta - an imperfect marker of Alzheimer's but still the hallmark of the disease that most researchers consider the best indicator. (
  • If CMV is, indeed, found to contribute to Alzheimer's disease, vaccines that prevent infection may be the best approach, Schneider said. (
  • Estimated distribution of incubation period in days since infection for persons with evidence of recent Zika virus disease. (
  • B) Estimated distribution of time from infection to symptom onset (incubation period) for 197 persons with evidence of recent Zika virus infection (blue) and with confirmed Zika virus disease (red). (
  • For our primary analysis, we used all persons with evidence of a recent Zika virus infection (primary case set). (
  • From January 1, 2015, through June 23, 2016, we identified 337 persons with evidence of recent Zika virus infection. (
  • In 2015-2016, data from 197 symptomatic travelers with recent Zika virus infection indicated an estimated incubation period of 3-14 days. (
  • To estimate the incubation period, we used data from symptomatic persons who had traveled to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission and for whom laboratory evidence indicated recent infection. (
  • The source of the infection was traced to a virus infecting African green monkeys that were imported from Uganda, Africa, and were being used for polio vaccine research. (
  • What is the incubation period for a Marburg virus infection? (
  • The symptoms of Marburg virus infection usually come on suddenly after an incubation period of about five to 10 days. (
  • In a recent two-part study, researchers discovered a link between reovirus-a common childhood infection that is usually considered harmless and causes only mild symptoms-and celiac disease in test subjects with an increased genetic risk. (
  • The age of the fish is critical and 1-month-old alevins are the most susceptible target for virus infection ( Kimura et al. (
  • In addition, plants infected with bean pod mottle virus may be predisposed to seed infection by Phomopsis fungi that also reduce seed quality. (
  • Infection is also favored by high populations of bean leaf or other beetles that transmit the virus. (
  • These viruses are related to the viruses that cause West Nile infection and yellow fever. (
  • 2. Prior infection with a dengue fever virus . (
  • Previous infection with a dengue fever virus increases your risk of having seve. (
  • But in an the editorial in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease , it is suggested that it is a viral or bacterial infection which triggers the plaque build-up in the first place. (
  • Thanks, CYA There is some evidence that one strain of a virus can reduce the severity of co-infection from another strain. (
  • A couple of good references are:- Chambers & Webster (1991) Protection of chickens from lethal influenza virus infection by influenza A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1/83 virus: characterization of the protective effect. (
  • This document aims to present an algorithm for deciding whom to test and provide guidance on the laboratory tests for Zika virus infection diagnosis in order to support clinical diagnostic and case reporting through surveillance among EU Member States. (
  • Rubus species are propagated vegetatively and are subject to infection by viruses during development, propagation, and fruit production stages. (
  • The symptoms in tomato vary greatly in intensity depending upon the variety, virus strain, time of infection, light intensity, and temperature. (
  • Some strains (referred to as the acuba strains) may cause a striking yellow mosaic, whereas other strains may cause leaf malformation and 'fernleafing,' suggestive of cucumber mosaic virus infection. (
  • On the fruit the symptoms appear as slightly sunken brown rings ( fig. 2) Double virus streak is the result of a mixed infection of TMV with potato virus X (PVX). (
  • Infection by wheat viruses produces symptoms such as foliar chlorosis (mottle, mosaic, streaks and yellowing), necrosis, stunting and rosetting. (
  • This multiple infection makes identification complex, but advances in technology (serology and molecular techniques) have made identification, characterization and classification of viruses easier. (
  • New research illuminates how the measles virus may suppress the immune system after an infection. (
  • In addition to the illness caused by the virus, a measles infection also takes a wrecking ball to the immune system. (
  • Using a tool called VirScan that tracks antibodies, they found measles infection wiped out 11 to 73 percent of different antibodies that "remember" past encounters with germs and help the body avoid repeat bouts of influenza, herpes virus, pneumonia and skin infections. (
  • A retrospective study of 153 hemophiliacs infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) was performed to determine the clinical and immunological consequences of HIV-1 infection and the markers and cofactors associated with these changes. (
  • ZMapp, an experimental therapeutic drug developed by Mapp Biopharmaceutical Inc., is designed to treat people infected with Ebola virus and is not designed to prevent infection. (
  • Marburg Virus Disease (MVD) is a viral infection caused by the Marburg virus belonging to the Filoviridae family. (
  • Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a highly contagious infection caused by one of five virus species belonging to the Filoviridae family believed to be carried by fruit bats. (
  • A method for diagnosing hepatitis virus infection or a hepatitis disease condition in a subject based on hepatitis virus-associated biomarkers present on exosomes in a bodily fluid sample from the subject is disclosed. (
  • Prolonged exposure in mines and caves can lead to infection of the virus. (
  • In severe cases, a person will die from the infection 8-9 days after showing the clinical symptoms of the disease. (
  • Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the cause of infectious mononucleosis, has been associated with subsequent development of systemic lupus erythematosus and other chronic autoimmune illnesses, but the mechanisms behind this association have been unclear. (
  • Previous studies suggested that EBV infection may result in autoimmune diseases, particularly lupus. (
  • These findings suggest that EBV infection in cells can actually drive the activation of these genes and contribute to an individual's risk of developing the disease. (
  • However, now that we understand how EBV infection may contribute to autoimmune diseases in some people, researchers may be able to develop therapies that interrupt or reverse this process. (
  • The study authors pointed out that CMV infection has been linked with other inflammatory conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease and blood vessel diseases. (
  • Human disease caused by West Nile virus infection. (
  • West Nile fever is an infection by the West Nile virus , which is typically spread by mosquitoes. (
  • All dogs are vaccinated against the canine distemper virus, because the dog morbillivirus can cause very severe disease in dogs with fever, pneumonia, brain infection, immunosuppression and rash," study researcher Kwok-Yung Yuen told LiveScience. (
  • There is no specific treatment once infection with Powassan virus has occurred. (
  • Yes, if a person has antibodies from a past Ebola infection, they would be protected from getting the same strain of Ebola virus again. (
  • Another virus called the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes a respiratory infection called bronchiolitis in infants and toddlers. (
  • Furthermore, the examination of the immune response to infection or vaccination with this virus has revealed important information about the function of the porcine immune system, including evidence on the existence of a dichotomy between the humoral and cellular immune response in swine. (
  • Air pollutants significantly increased the risk of respiratory syncytial virus infection with dosage, lag and cumulative effects. (
  • Selenium supplementation may promote recovery from respiratory syncytial virus infection. (
  • Vitamin A supplementation may have therapeutic activity in the treatment of measles and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. (
  • The goal of this program is to provide nurses with evidence-based information about Ebola virus disease (EVD) to guide detection of cases, prevent transmission of infection, and safely manage patients with the disease. (
  • Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a virus that causes a deadly infection in many kinds of birds. (
  • During the initial infection, the virus may cause infectious mononucleosis, only minor non-specific symptoms, or no symptoms. (
  • [1] Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever , sore throat , muscular pain , and headaches . (
  • The length of time between exposure to the virus and the development of symptoms ( incubation period ) is between 2 and 21 days, [1] [19] and usually between 4 and 10 days. (
  • [1] MVD is a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), and the clinical symptoms are indistinguishable from Ebola virus disease (EVD). (
  • The most detailed study on the frequency, onset, and duration of MVD clinical signs and symptoms was performed during the 1998-2000 mixed MARV/RAVV disease outbreak. (
  • Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are a group of connective tissue diseases with diverse, yet overlapping, symptoms and autoantibody development. (
  • Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs), also called rheumatic connective tissue diseases, include rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), systemic scleroderma (SSc), and dermatomyositis/polymyositis (DM/PM). SADs are characterized by overlapping clinical symptoms and characteristic autoantibodies (Table 1 ). (
  • The other three recovered and do not have any symptoms of the disease. (
  • A person who has Ebola CANNOT spread the disease until symptoms appear. (
  • A person who does not have symptoms 21 days after being exposed to Ebola will not develop the disease. (
  • Health care providers will treat the symptoms of the disease. (
  • People with Zika can spread the disease to their sex partners before symptoms begin, while they have symptoms, or even after symptoms end. (
  • The virus can also be passed during sex by people with Zika who never develop symptoms. (
  • Only about 1 in 5 people infected with Zika virus will have symptoms. (
  • If you have symptoms of Zika and have recently traveled to an area where the virus is present, your health care provider may do a blood test to check for Zika. (
  • Persons with Zika virus-like symptoms and positive results for Zika virus RNA by real-time reverse transcription PCR or positive results for Zika or dengue virus IgM and Zika virus plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results ≥10 and Zika virus titer ≥4-fold higher than dengue virus titer. (
  • This is of interest since Marburg virus is a close relative of the Ebola virus , and both produce clinical signs and symptoms that are often indistinguishable. (
  • Health officials said that about 80 people who were in contact with the man who died have been identified and are being were observed for 21 days for signs and symptoms of the disease. (
  • The disease, one of whose symptoms is quick decline, has led to the death of millions of citrus trees all over the world. (
  • A group of American neurologists working with researchers in Colombia say they detected Zika virus in the body fluids of people suffering symptoms of Guillain-Barre syndrome. (
  • BPMV can interact with the soybean mosaic virus to create severe symptoms in plants infected by both viruses. (
  • Reports of initial detection and symptoms of more than 30 viruses, virus-like diseases, and phytoplasmas affecting Rubus spp. (
  • The goals of this article are to update the knowledge on previously characterized viruses of Rubus , highlight recently described viruses, review the virus-induced symptoms, describe the advances made in their detection, and discuss our knowledge about several virus complexes that cause serious diseases in Rubus . (
  • Single streak virus is caused by a strain of TMV that causes the same foliar symptoms as other TMV strains, but under certain environmental conditions the plant develops brown streaks on the stems and petioles. (
  • Both groups had the same frequency of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and had the same incidence of admission to the PICU, intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant disease, and coronary artery lesions. (
  • This dilemma is confounded when children present with symptoms consistent with known, common respiratory viruses and/or with KD symptoms that could potentially be attributed to a respiratory virus. (
  • The incubation period from initial exposure to onset of acute disease symptoms is between 2 and 21 days with the average being 6 to 10 days. (
  • The World Health Organization cites that symptoms of Corona Virus Disease are similar to that of common flu (shortness of breath, cough, runny nose, headache, sore throat, and fever). (
  • Some of the symptoms associated with Marburg Virus Disease can be misdiagnosed for Ebola Virus Disease and other infections such as Malaria and Typhoid Fever . (
  • Ebola Virus Disease can be misdiagnosed with hemorrhagic illnesses such as Marburg Virus Disease or Lassa Fever , and initial symptoms can be misdiagnosed as Malaria or Typhoid Fever . (
  • and health workers trained on recognizing symptoms of the disease. (
  • First symptoms are similar to other diseases and thus require vigilant health and community workers, especially in areas where there is Ebola transmission, to help make diagnosis. (
  • The Ministry of Health has taken the following actions to contain spread of the disease in the country: The District administration and local councils in the affected area have been directed to ensure that any person with Ebola signs and symptoms in the community is reported to the health workers immediately and provided with advice and testing. (
  • Rabies is almost always fatal when a person infected by rabies virus begins showing the symptoms of the disease. (
  • If immediate treatment is not sought to manage the symptoms, the person is most likely to succumb to the disease. (
  • Though West Nile belongs to the same genus that contains the Zika , dengue and yellow fever viruses, most people who are infected develop no symptoms. (
  • A dog version of this virus causes distemper, which manifests as vomiting, diarrhea, coughing and deadly neurological symptoms. (
  • The disease affects various parts of the gastrointestinal system and causes symptoms such as stomach aches, diarrhoea, and weight loss - in severe cases fistulas, or strictures in the intestines. (
  • The present study comprises nine children with advanced Crohn's disease and fifteen children with incipient Crohn's disease symptoms. (
  • Ebola virus disease is a serious illness where the Ebola virus spreads through the body and can cause fever and other symptoms in people. (
  • Symptoms of Ebola most commonly start 8-10 days after coming into contact with Ebola virus but can occur as early as 2 days to up to 21 days after exposure. (
  • Two nurses standing near Mayinga N'Seka , a nurse with Ebola virus disease in the 1976 outbreak in Zaire . (
  • HeV was first isolated in 1994 from specimens obtained during an outbreak of respiratory and neurologic disease in horses and humans in Hendra, a suburb of Brisbane, Australia. (
  • Before I got sidetracked with a certain topic that's consumed the blog, another topic that had popped up (albeit nowhere near as frequently) was the latest Ebola virus disease outbreak in Africa, the largest in history thus far. (
  • Indeed, as horrific as this outbreak is and as terrible a disease as Ebola is, with close to a 60% mortality even with the best treatment, it did produce one amusing bit of clownishness, and that's that it revealed that there really is something too quacky even for Mike Adams of to tolerate. (
  • In the words of Dr. Margaret Chan, ""The Ebola outbreak in West Africa shocked the world out of its complacency about the infectious disease threat. (
  • However, the indifference with which the international community received the news of the outbreak - the "first cases" are dated March 2014 in most outlets, three months after it appeared in the Republic of Guinea - and the indifference with which the story has virtually disappeared into the depths of the interior of newspapers with a short paragraph at most is a victory for Ebola Virus Disease. (
  • Trying to understanding the role sex plays in 'otherwise healthy survivors' has now been added to scientists, researchers and doctors load as they continue to battle the second largest Ebola disease outbreak in history. (
  • The two studies used blood samples collected from 77 unvaccinated children in an Orthodox Protestant community in the Netherlands, before and after the children contracted the measles virus during a local outbreak. (
  • Travellers going to affected areas should refrain from visiting households or healthcare settings that have been affected by a Marburg Virus Disease outbreak. (
  • The 2014-2016 EVD outbreak marked the largest outbreak of the disease since its discovery in 1976. (
  • On April 4, 2018 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (
  • The disease Marburg virus causes is termed Marburg virus disease. (
  • The virus may infect the brain and spinal cord, and has been shown to increase inflammation. (
  • The herpes simplex virus (HSV1), another virus that can infect the brain and spinal cord, has also been linked with Alzheimer's progression. (
  • Weeds and other wild plants play a key role as alternative virus reservoirs and as a source of novel viruses which can potentially infect crops. (
  • A new Ebola virus species has been discovered in bats in Sierra Leone, and has the potential to infect human cells - although it has not yet been detected in sick humans. (
  • Among the many avenues that viruses can use to infect humans, drinking water may pose only a tiny risk for spreading certain viruses like the novel coronavirus. (
  • If you infect an animal with a defective influenza virus for example, that virus can interfere with a virulent strain inoculated into the animal at the same time. (
  • Since the last review on Rubus viruses, significant progress has been made in the molecular characterization of many of the viruses that infect Rubus spp. (
  • Currently, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detection methods are available for most of the viruses known to infect Rubus . (
  • 1996) reported 55 viruses to which Triticum aestivum is susceptible, and Wiese (1987) described around 30 viruses that naturally infect wheat. (
  • CMV, a herpes virus, is believed to infect roughly half of the U.S. population over the age of 40. (
  • Yuen and his colleagues went looking for this elusive cat morbillivirus, figuring that if viruses in this family could infect dogs and humans, they'd likely show up in cats. (
  • They focused in particular on the prevalence of enteroviruses, a group of RNA viruses that are known to infect the intestinal mucous lining. (
  • Influenza viruses infect the upper respiratory system and sometimes spreads to the lungs causing pneumonia. (
  • Several viruses can infect the central nervous system, which consists of the brain and spinal cord. (
  • As explained in Question 1, NDV infects cells and then replicates itself, creating more copies of the virus that can then infect cells throughout the body. (
  • Powassan virus infections have been recognized in the United States, Canada and Russia. (
  • It is possible that other stimulants of inflammation, including other viral infections, might also lead to the brain changes seen in the study, which could cause a decline in cognitive function leading to Alzheimer's disease . (
  • While most people are carriers of the CMV virus, generally only those with weakened immune systems have symptomatic, active CMV infections. (
  • The research collaboration will focus on poliovirus, the virus responsible for poliomyelitis , a highly infectious disease that mainly affects children, and 1 in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis 3 . (
  • Complications of Marburg virus infections include eye, nerve, and bleeding problems. (
  • Marburg and Ebola viruses are considered to be zoonotic infections (transmitted to humans from life cycles in other animals). (
  • A serious constraint to agricultural productivity and a constant pressure to global food security and hunger are infections of plants with viruses. (
  • In a study of 1,400 women under age 19 in the San Francisco area, scientists found more of the teen-agers suffered from genital infections by the human papilloma virus, or HPV, than from chlamydia and gonorrhea combined. (
  • 1999. Fish diseases and disorders, Vol. 3 Viral, bacterial and fungal infections. (
  • Skin diseases and internal infections: caused by Bacterial, virus, fungi? (
  • after the msblast worm was released, researchers looked at the agricultural infestation of dutch elm disease and found an apt correlation between the two infections. (
  • Single and double virus streak and tomato leaf rolling are three separate diseases, which involve strains of TMV, mixed infections of TMV with other viruses, or interaction of TMV with a specific tomato gene. (
  • Not only does it leave a child vulnerable to a highly contagious disease, but also, for individuals who survive an initial measles attack, the virus increases their vulnerability to all kinds of other infections for months - possibly even years - after they recover. (
  • Ebola and Marburg Virus Infections. (
  • The mortality rate of the disease is 88% making it one of the most deadly viral infections in the world. (
  • however, five showed mixed infections of two or three combinations of tested viruses. (
  • Des infections par un seul virus parmi le MDMV, le SCMV, le BYDV-PAV et le JGMV ont été respectivement détectées dans cinq, trois, deux et quatre échantillons. (
  • Viral infections cause a host of different diseases, some mild and others potentially fatal. (
  • A variety of viruses cause different types of respiratory infections. (
  • According to an October 2014 article published in the 'The Neurohospitalist,' other viral causes of central nervous system infections are emerging, including West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, human parechoviruses and Chikungunya virus. (
  • Viruses cause a wide array of skin infections. (
  • Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) cause some of the most common skin infections. (
  • Additional studies on m102.4 as a possible treatment and as a preventive vaccine for Nipah and Hendra virus infections are being planned. (
  • American ginseng is safe, well tolerated, and potentially effective for preventing acute respiratory illness due to influenza and respiractory syncytial virus infections. (
  • We look at the spread of the Zika virus, which scientists have linked to rising temperatures from global warming because of the increased incidence of mosquito-borne infections. (
  • Ebola virus disease ( EVD ), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever ( EHF ) or simply Ebola , is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses . (
  • The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids , such as blood from infected humans or other animals. (
  • [1] Spread of the disease through the air between primates , including humans, has not been documented in either laboratory or natural conditions. (
  • [1] Prevention includes limiting the spread of disease from infected animals to humans by handling potentially infected bushmeat only while wearing protective clothing, and by thoroughly cooking bushmeat before eating it. (
  • formerly Marburg hemorrhagic fever ) is a severe illness of humans and non-human primates caused by either of the two marburgviruses , Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV). (
  • Zika is a virus passed to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes. (
  • Marburg virus disease is endemic in Africa (likely in African green monkeys and certain bats) and can be transmitted to humans. (
  • Prevention of Marburg viral disease involves avoiding contact with African animals that may carry the disease and using strict isolation procedures to avoid any bodily fluids or tissues from humans infected with Marburg viruses . (
  • Africa is experiencing more problems with viral diseases as humans increase their contact with African animals that previously had little contact with humans. (
  • Although it is unclear how humans contract these viruses from other animals (perhaps by eating them or by contamination of animal body fluids), it is clear that human-to-human transfer occurs by direct contact with an infected person's bodily fluids (for example, saliva, tears, excretions, vomitus, and blood). (
  • We refer to the many studies, mainly on humans, implicating specific microbes in the elderly brain, notably herpes simplex virus type 1, chlamydia pneumoniae and several types of spirochatete. (
  • On the basis of frequency of occurrence, tomato virus diseases and disorders can be separated into two groups: those spread by humans and those spread by insects. (
  • Ebola is a very contagious disease in non-human primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees) and humans with a high mortality rate. (
  • It is a zoonosis - an animal disease that can spread to humans - believed to be transmitted by African fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus ) to humans. (
  • The Zaïre, Sudan, Taï Forest, and Bundibugyo viruses cause illness in humans while the Reston species affects animals. (
  • It is still unclear how the virus originated or how it lives in the natural environment, but it is believed to be a zoonosis (an animal disease that can spread to humans). (
  • Humans are infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. (
  • Newcastle disease virus kills chickens, but does not harm humans. (
  • The eruption of this strain of coronavirus and the aftermath of its spread offers a glimpse of the vulnerability of humans to future outbreaks of both newly discovered virus diseases and past outbreaks of identified diseases. (
  • In spite of the existence of rabies vaccination (both for pets and humans), the disease kills more than 50,000 people worldwide on a yearly basis. (
  • WHO states that 99% of rabies virus transmission to humans results from dogs' bites. (
  • NDV is usually thought to be an avian (i.e., bird) virus, but it also infects humans. (
  • Although NDV causes a potentially fatal, noncancerous disease (Newcastle disease) in birds, it causes only minor illness in humans. (
  • Lytic strains of NDV have been studied in humans for their ability to kill cancer cells directly, but viruses of both strain types have been used to make vaccines in an attempt to stimulate the immune system to fight cancer. (
  • Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that can cause the common cold and some more serious diseases, including SARS, which killed 800 in 2002-2003 and the Middle East respiratory syndrome, which continues to cause sporadic cases and is believed to jump to humans from camels. (
  • These diseases in monkeys mirror what happens in humans, and the study results are cause for hope that the antibody, named m102.4, ultimately may be developed into a possible treatment for people who become infected with these viruses. (
  • Hendra virus emerged in 1994 in Australia and primarily affects horses, which can spread the disease to humans. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (
  • More cases of a polio-like disease are affecting children, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Many public health experts see the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as the premier disease detection agency not just for the United States but for the entire planet. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Director Thomas Frieden along with public health and provider groups want to turn that around by investing in a sophisticated technology called "advanced molecular detection" that determines the genetic map of the viruses, bacteria and parasites that cause disease. (
  • We are joined by Dr. Anne Schuchat, principal deputy director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Dr. Amy Vittor, assistant professor of medicine at the University of Florida's Division of Infectious Disease. (
  • The disease was first identified in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks: one in Nzara (a town in South Sudan ) and the other in Yambuku ( Democratic Republic of the Congo ), a village near the Ebola River from which the disease takes its name. (
  • The most recent outbreaks of Marburg virus disease have occurred in Uganda. (
  • As part of President Barack Obama's fiscal 2015 budget proposal, Frieden wants to widen the impact of the technology and to improve protection against antibiotic resistance and other disease outbreaks in a variety of other ways through a new "global health security" initiative. (
  • Investing in AMD "would bring the U.S. public health system a more precise and accurate means to find smoldering disease outbreaks we are missing now, find disease outbreaks faster to protect communities, and stop threats in our food supply," the fact sheet said. (
  • Marburg virus disease is caused by Marburg virus that was detected in 1967 when two outbreaks of the disease occured in Marburg and Frankfurt (Germany) and Belgrade (Serbia). (
  • Ebola virus disease was initially discovered in 1976 when two outbreaks of the disease occurred in Nzara (South Sudan) and Yambuku (Democratic Republic of Congo). (
  • EVD prevention measures include: practicing appropriate hand hygiene, avoiding direct contact with a person or corpse infected with the Ebola virus and avoiding non-essential travel to regions affected by ongoing EVD outbreaks. (
  • In their study, the scientists cite a handful of other outbreaks of Hendra virus in horses since 2008. (
  • Fewer mass disease outbreaks and better vaccines may result from a new nanoscience-based method for identifying emerging flu viruses developed by international scientists including a University of Guelph researcher. (
  • Food-borne viruses such as Norwalk, hepatitis and those that cause gastroenteritis can also be quickly tested for identification in areas where outbreaks are located so they can be confined and treated. (
  • Marburg virus disease (MVD) is the official name listed in the World Health Organization 's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10 (ICD-10) for the human disease caused by any of the two marburgviruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV). (
  • A tremendous response from the international community , which came late, has been effective in detecting cases and tracing back contacts, isolating potential patients and this has reduced the number of cases significantly, to the point where the World Health Organization is talking about defeating the disease totally by the end of 2015. (
  • According to the World Health Organization, "Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). (
  • The Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO) have confirmed a case of Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda. (
  • The World Health Organization has declared the Zika virus an international public health emergency, saying the virus is "spreading explosively" and that up to 4 million people in the Americas could be infected by the end of this year. (
  • Earlier this week, the World Health Organization declared the Zika virus an international public health emergency. (
  • The flu virus affects 15 per cent of people worldwide at any given time, and costs the global economy between $71 billion and $167 billion per year, according to the World Health Organization. (
  • Methods for the detection and identification of viruses and virus-like diseases in plants and vectors play a critical role in plant virus epidemiology and in turn plant virus management. (
  • Plant virus epidemiology provides powerful tools to investigate key factors that contribute to virus epidemics in agricultural crops. (
  • The importance of epidemiology needs to be realized for the management of virus diseases in an integrated disease management program (IPM) and also for generating information on pest / disease-free areas and for pest risk analysis, which is an obligation for our international trade. (
  • The epidemiology of plant virus diseases concerns the cyclical development of virus diseases within plant populations in time and space. (
  • The main factors that influence the epidemiology of plant virus diseases involve the viruses, the plant hosts and the vectors. (
  • The factors involved in plant virus disease epidemiology, their main components and some of the significant interrelationships exemplified by the pathosystem greenhouse‐grown tomato/whitefly‐transmitted viruses. (
  • Fauquet C and Fargette D (1990) African cassava mosaic virus: etiology, epidemiology and control. (
  • 13th International Plant Virus Epidemiology Symposium, Avignon, France. (
  • Damsteegt VD and Igwegbe ECK (1998) Epidemiology and control of maize streak disease. (
  • Measles (rubeola) is an infectious disease caused by multiplication of a single-strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus of the genus Morbillivirus in the upper respiratory tract and conjunctiva. (
  • Measles is an infectious disease caused by the Morbillivirus . (
  • The researchers compare this behaviour with the measles virus, which very occasionally persists in cells and replicates in a restricted fashion leading to a severe brain inflammation known as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. (
  • Worldwide, the disease has resurfaced in areas that had been declared measles-free. (
  • That means people, especially children, who get measles become much more vulnerable to other germs that cause diseases such as pneumonia and influenza that they had previously been protected against. (
  • Researchers found that those who survive measles gradually regain their previous immunity to other viruses and bacteria as they get re-exposed to them. (
  • The two studies "break open and elucidate the pathway of how a child becomes immune-compromised after measles, and it's pretty devastating," said Jennifer Lighter, a pediatric infectious disease physician and epidemiologist who helped lead the measles response at NYU Langone Medical Center and was not involved in either study. (
  • Measles, one of the world's most contagious diseases is spread through respiratory droplets and touching contaminated surfaces. (
  • Despite the availability of measles vaccine, more than 100,000 people die annually from the disease especially children under the age of 5. (
  • Now, researchers in Hong Kong believe they've found at least one culprit: a new virus related to measles and mumps dubbed feline morbillivirus. (
  • Diagnosis of plant virus and sub-viral agents and their prevention / management is an integral part of agricultural production systems and regulatory frame works that exist in almost all tropical countries. (
  • The CDC recommends people follow normal disease prevention steps, including staying current on vaccines, washing hands and wearing insect repellent. (
  • Trauma-informed Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention for. (
  • Learn about the evolving Ebola epidemic and its various aspects including disease prevention, management and treatment, response to the epidemic, ethical considerations, and the post-Ebola global health landscape. (
  • These immune modulating functions make EBV a good candidate for initiation of autoimmune diseases and exacerbation of disease progression. (
  • In the current study, the researchers found that EBNA2 and its related transcription factors activate some of the human genes associated with the risk for lupus and several other autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and celiac disease. (
  • Sifting through and comparing a large collection of genetic and protein data from healthy individuals and those with autoimmune diseases, the team used RELI to identify regulatory regions in genes associated with the risk of developing lupus that also bound EBNA2 and its related transcription factors. (
  • In follow-up analyses, the investigators used RELI to probe regulatory genes associated with other autoimmune diseases and found that EBNA2 bound to genes associated with the risk for multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and celiac disease. (
  • Our ground / inflight staff are also equipped to handle passengers with or with suspected communicable diseases. (
  • Since July 2020, remdesivir has been conditionally approved in Europe for the treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in adults and adolescents aged 12 years and older with pneumonia who require supplemental oxygen but no invasive ventilation. (
  • According to the lastest figure, the disease has infected more than 4.6 million people and resulted to more than 308,000 people succumbing to the disease, worldwide by the end of the second week of May 2020 (May 6, 2020). (
  • Oct 26, 2020 · The West Nile Virus and Dengue fever are two mosquito-borne illnesses. (
  • Oct 26, 2020 · The county said that to protect yourself against the spread of West Nile Virus or Dengue Fever , residents should wear long-sleeve shirts and pants while outdoors and avoid standing water. (
  • 2018. "Zika Virus and the Risk for Renter Households. (
  • In the scientific literature, Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) is often used as an unofficial alternative name for the same disease. (
  • Both disease names are derived from the German city Marburg , where MARV was first discovered. (
  • The diagnosis of Marburg virus disease is usually done by specialized laboratories. (
  • In 1967, laboratory workers, all in the same lab in Marburg, Germany, were hospitalized with an unknown disease. (
  • Again, the Ugandan Ministry of Health reported on Oct. 5, 2014, that a health-care worker died of Marburg virus disease (formerly known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever [Marburg HF]) on Sept. 30, 2014. (
  • What causes Marburg disease? (
  • The Marburg viruses are not thought to be spread by air droplets. (
  • Rousettus bats are the natural hosts of Marburg virus. (
  • Ebola is a severe and often deadly disease caused by a virus. (
  • Ebola disease causes severe illness in which 50-90 percent of those infected die. (
  • Severe dengue is a more serious form of disease that can result in shock, internal bleeding, and even death. (
  • Factors that put you at greater risk of developing dengue fever or a more severe form of the disease include: 1. (
  • Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a severe infectious disease illness caused by the Zaire ebolavirus. (
  • Ebola virus disease is a severe illness that is spread through contact with the body fluids of a person sick with the disease (fluids such as vomit, feces or blood). (
  • The Ebola virus disease (EVD) causes hemorrhagic fever, a severe illness marked by fever, bleeding (hemorrhagic), organ failure and death in 50 to 90 percent of those infected. (
  • Brazil has been hardest hit by Zika with over 4,000 cases of infants with severe birth defects which could be linked to the virus. (
  • A confirmed case of Zika virus disease was illness in a symptomatic person with a sample that was either Zika virus RNA positive or Zika or dengue virus IgM positive with neutralizing antibodies against Zika virus only. (
  • Dengue fever is transmitted by the bite of an Aedes mosquito infected with a dengue virus . (
  • The mosquito becomes infected when it bites a person with dengue virus in their blood. (
  • When a mosquito bites a person infected with a dengue virus, the virus enters the mosquito. (
  • What is the dengue virus caused by? (
  • tropical disease caused by the dengue virus , transmitted by mosquito. (
  • Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus . (
  • 1 April 2014 - In this update and subsequent ones, the terminology Ebola haemorrhagic fever will be replaced by Ebola virus disease (EVD) in line with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). (
  • Many of the world's most important food crops are grown in the tropics and the majority of them are affected with one or another virus or viroid diseases. (
  • Plant virus and sub-viral agents are one of the factors that affect productivity and cause vast economic losses to staple crops across the tropics. (
  • Control strategies basically focus on the elimination of virus sources and the avoidance of spatio-temporal coincidences between viruses, vectors and crops. (
  • Because viral populations evolve quickly, the emergence of new variants of classic viruses with stronger virulence, the occurrence of viruses switching host from the wild species to the cultivated crops, or recombinants between different families, pose a serious challenge in the control of viruses and to the durability of widely deployed resistance against viruses. (
  • Viruses of Pepper Crops in the Mediterranean Basin: A Remarkable Stasis. (
  • West Nile virus and other nationally notifiable arboviral diseases-United States, 2016. (
  • Byamukama E, Wegulo S, Yabwalo D and Langham MAC (2016) Impact of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus on Wheat Production in the Northern Great Plains Region of the United States: A Review. (
  • THURSDAY, Feb. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A common virus may make some women more susceptible to both heart disease and type 2 diabetes , a new study suggests. (
  • An ongoing problem preventing full eradication of the disease is the occurrence of vaccine-derived poliovirus, a new instance of the disease caused when the vaccine strain mixes with other closely related viral species. (
  • The project proposed by IBM researchers and our collaborators could point the way forward for exploring new methods to help accelerate disease eradication in the face of vaccine-derived poliovirus. (
  • The defective and parasitic nature of DIPs may someday be used to reduce and even completely suppress the occurrence of the vaccine-derived disease types, while also helping to prevent the virus from spreading just as effectively as with traditional vaccines. (
  • They vaccinated a group of ferrets for the flu, exposed some of them to a measleslike virus, then tested to see whether the flu vaccine still worked. (
  • People who have been in contact with someone with the disease are offered vaccine and asked to monitor their health for 21 days to ensure they do not become ill as well. (
  • The investigational vaccine being used in DRC and by health and frontline workers in Uganda has so far been effective in protecting people from developing the disease, and has helped those who do develop the disease to have a better chance of survival. (
  • There is no cure, vaccine or specific treatment for the disease. (
  • Dengue fever and West Nile fever are mosquito-borne diseases that affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide each year, but there is no vaccine against either of the related viruses. (
  • Because the Hendra and Nipah viruses are so deadly and there is no licensed vaccine or treatment for either of them, both viruses must be studied in maximum-containment BSL-4 laboratories. (
  • In several instances this virus has been used as a test case to examine novel vaccine concepts in swine, including the honor of being the first genetically modified vaccine used in the field. (
  • For 20 years before this report, NDV was used in a vaccine to prevent Newcastle disease in birds. (
  • I will insist, since science has not yet developed a vaccine against the Zika virus, the only efficient method we have to prevent this illness is a vigorous battle against the mosquito. (
  • This more accurate system requires only microscopic amounts of virus, allowing vaccine makers to produce targeted flu vaccines earlier, said Neethirajan. (
  • Respiratory syncytial virus [‎RSV]‎ is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in young infants, little was known on its circulation types and patterns in Morocco. (
  • Fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale) has anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines. (
  • Zika has also been discovered in one area in Florida, where the virus is being spread by mosquitoes. (
  • You also may be tested for other viruses spread by mosquitoes, such as dengue and chikungunya. (
  • Dengue fever is caused by any one of four types of dengue viruses spread by mosquitoes that thrive in and near human lodgings. (
  • Recent findings link dysregulation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with SAD development. (
  • Research projects should focus on oral diseases caused by, but not necessarily limited to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Kaposi's sarcoma Virus (KSHV) or Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Polyomaviruses such as BK virus (BKV), Adenovirus, and Cytomegalovirus (CMV). (
  • Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases (also termed EBV-associated lymphoproliferative diseases or EBV+ LPD) are a group of disorders in which one or more types of lymphoid cells (a type of white blood cell), i.e. (
  • B cells, T cells, NK cells, and histiocytic-dendritic cells, are infected with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). (
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (also termed human herpesvirus 4) belongs to the Herpes family of Group I double-stranded DNA viruses. (
  • The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. (
  • He said this simple, inexpensive method will allow developing nations to identify viruses rapidly and share information worldwide to stave off epidemics. (
  • and the red line represents only those with confirmed Zika virus disease. (
  • The dynamics of a particular virus disease epidemic depends on the number of vectors and their activity, sources of virus and vectors, climatic conditions and a complex series of virus - plant - vector interactions. (
  • It also deals with how and why a virus is spread by vectors in an ecosystem. (
  • Modern agriculture has caused the dissemination of exotic plant species, viruses and vectors into foreign environments. (
  • Most plant viruses are transmitted by vectors, mainly insects. (
  • Blanc S, Drucker M and Uzest M (2014) Localizing viruses in their insect vectors. (
  • Canto T, Aranda MA and Fereres A (2009) Climate change effects on physiology and population processes of hosts and vectors that influence the spread of hemipteran‐borne plant viruses. (
  • Of particular concern is the impact of viruses and their vectors on cereals, wheat, maize (corn in the USA), rice, barley, sorghum, oats, millet and rye, which provide much of the world's food and drink. (
  • Intensification of crop production and introduction of vectors play key roles in the widespread of viruses in cereals. (
  • Advances in Virus Research 33: 301-325. (
  • Advances in Virus Research 66: 1-29. (
  • This volume of Advances in Virus Research focuses on mycoviruses. (
  • [1] Blood samples are tested for viral RNA , viral antibodies or for the virus itself to confirm the diagnosis. (
  • Measurement of virus-specific IgM antibodies in serum or CSF. (
  • This review focuses on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and sum up the existing data linking EBV with these diseases including elevated titres of EBV antibodies, reduced T-cell defence against EBV, and elevated EBV viral load. (
  • The patients with higher levels of antibodies against CMV were also more likely to have brain cells with aggregated tau proteins, called neurofibrillary tangles that have been connected to Alzheimer's disease. (
  • In the second part of the study, researchers examined various virus antibody levels in groups of people and found that those with celiac disease have two- to five-times higher levels of reovirus antibodies than people with celiacs. (
  • It destroys up to half of the existing antibodies that protect against other viruses and bacteria, according to research published Thursday. (
  • A total of 27.8 percent had antibodies to the virus, meaning they had been infected at some point in their lives. (
  • Viruses, not prions, may be at the root of diseases such as scrapie, BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), researchers say. (
  • Researchers believe the body may act correctly to repel an invading virus but then extend its attack to molecules similar to those in the virus. (
  • For this task, IBM researchers will use massive computational power and contribute their recognized expertise in mathematical modeling of diseases to help renowned world-class experimental and theoretical biologists at UCSF, Stanford University, and the University of Haifa. (
  • Researchers report that a virus implicated in cervical cancer causes the most common sexually transmitted disease among teen-age women. (
  • A mutated form of the Ebola virus was safe for researchers to work with. (
  • Researchers in China and Australia have reported the discovery of novel bat coronaviruses that further reveal the diversity and complex evolutionary history of these viruses. (
  • Some researchers believe that such 'defective interfering particles' (which may not be able to replicate to high levels in the absence of a helper virus) could be a future therapy for some viral diseases. (
  • According to the researchers, most studies looking at how these microbial communities might spark inflammation have focused chiefly on bacteria rather than the viruses residing inside them. (
  • Researchers found no evidence of an association between the variant and increased disease severity, with 36% (72 out of 198) of B117 patients becoming severely ill or dying, compared with 38% of those with a different strain. (
  • Researchers have found that a recombinant Newcastle disease virus kills all kinds of prostate cancer cells, including hormone resistant cells, leaving normal cells unscathed. (
  • Ironically, obese women infected with CMV were less likely to have metabolic syndrome than obese women not infected with the virus, the researchers found. (
  • The research team includes the paediatrician Niklas Nyström, the pathologist Alkwin Wanders, virus researchers Gun Frisk and Oskar Skog, the molecular biologist Mats Nilsson, and the geneticist Ulf Gyllensten at Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital, along with cell biologists Jonas Fuxe and Tove Berg the paediatrician Yigael Finkel at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm. (
  • In the present study the researchers investigated whether the RNA virus were present in children with Crohn´s disease. (
  • By building on this research, we may one day be able to advise people genetically predisposed to multiple sclerosis, for instance, to avoid certain viruses or bacteria or to be vaccinated against them in order to prevent actual development of autoimmune disease, wrote Mitchell Kronenberg, president and scientific director of San Diego's La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology, where the research took place. (
  • The herpes virus - the type which causes cold sores - and chlamydia bacteria are named as the major culprits, as well as a type of corkscrew-shaped bacteria called spirochaete. (
  • The authors say that viruses and bacteria are common in the brains of elderly people, and although they are usually dormant, they can 'wake up' after stress or if the immune system is compromised. (
  • Dementia charities said they had noticed that viruses and bacteria were more common in people with Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Dr James Pickett, Head of Research at Alzheimer's Society said: "A large number of different microbes including viruses, bacteria and fungi have been found in the brains of older people - but there do appear to be more of them in the brains of people who have died with Alzheimer's disease. (
  • A study led by a researcher at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus focused on viruses inhabiting bacteria in the intestine known as bacteriophages or simply phages. (
  • Those disturbances could be the result of the viruses killing off beneficial bacteria in the intestine and allowing for `bad actor' bacteria to cause inflammation and bowel disease. (
  • Clinicians could target certain bacteria with viruses to eliminate bacteria that lead to inflammation. (
  • Bacteria could be manipulated to circumvent the development of disease. (
  • It's a bacteria that's resistant to just about all antibiotics and spreads diseases not only among the same organisms but jumps from species to species, said Frieden. (
  • The viruses, bacteria and parasites that cause disease each have their own individual genetic makeups. (
  • It does so by analyzing a small sample of virus or bacteria, for example. (
  • Ebola, also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever or Ebola viral disease, is a rare and deadly illness caused by one of the strains of Ebola virus. (
  • All the recommended personal precautions that people are advised to take to avoid other tick-borne illness, such as Lyme Disease, will also help to protect them against Powassan (Deer Tick Virus). (
  • Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a serious illness that was first discovered in a remote part of Central Africa in 1976. (
  • This common illness, characterized by diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, is caused by many different viruses, but not the influenza virus. (
  • The varicella virus causes chickenpox, an illness characterized by itchy fluid-filled bumps on the skin that eventually rupture and scab over. (
  • It is related to Nipah virus , another species in the genus Henipavirus. (
  • Our goal is to help extend this idea to other viral species to develop a general strategy, which might be used by public health actors for eradication of all viral diseases. (
  • The other members of the family are Ebola viruses (five different species). (
  • The interactions between these factors are complex and depend on the species, strain and isolate of the virus, its host range and the ability of the vector to disseminate the virus. (
  • The emergence of novel virus species and strains has been increasing worldwide in the past two decades. (
  • While the natural reservoir of EVD is unknown, some bat species are suspected to carry the virus. (
  • The Borna disease viruses 1 and 2 (BoDV-1 and BoDV-2) are members of the species Mammalian 1 orthobornavirus and cause Borna disease in mammals. (
  • Horse and human P24 have no species-specific amino acid residues, suggesting that the two viruses are related. (
  • Laura Manuelidis at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, US, has insisted for years that tiny virus-like particles observed in TSE-infected brains may be the culprits. (
  • When Manuelidis studied cultures of neural cells infected with two particular strains of scrapie and CJD, she found that these virus-like particles were clustered in regular arrays within the cells - in a pattern that viruses regularly form in cells - and she saw no apparent prions in the cells. (
  • Cells with more virus-particles were better at infecting other cell cultures with the scrapie and CJD, while boosting mutant prions in the culture did not appear to increase their infectiousness or particle numbers. (
  • Mathematical and computational modeling of virus and defective particles competition at single cell, tissue, organ and host level will allow inference of antiviral design principles. (
  • Bangham & Kirkwood (1993) Defective interfering particles and virus evolution. (
  • Electron microscopic images virus particles from virus from CDC. (
  • BoDV-1 was isolated from a diseased horse in the 1970s, but the virus particles were difficult to characterise. (
  • Mosquitoes spread the Zika virus from person to person. (
  • Mosquitoes acquire the virus when they feed on infected people. (
  • The mosquitoes that spread Zika are the same type that spread dengue fever and chikungunya virus . (
  • The best way to avoid getting the virus is to avoid getting bitten by mosquitoes. (
  • Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus transmitted primarily through the bite of infected Aedes spp.mosquitoes. (
  • West Nile virus (WNV) is typically spread by infected mosquitoes. (
  • Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds, who often carry the disease . (
  • Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff has declared war on the mosquitoes responsible for spreading the Zika virus. (
  • This is the first text to examine the connection between virology and human disease. (
  • The nucleotide sequences of the 3'-terminal regions of papaya ringspot virus strains W and P," Journal of General Virology , vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 203-210, 1990. (
  • Meanwhile, earlier this week, officials in Texas reported the first case of Zika virus contracted in the U.S., saying it was sexually transmitted. (
  • No specific antiviral treatment for Powassan virus disease is available. (
  • Patients with suspected Powassan virus disease should receive supportive care as appropriate. (
  • Alzheimer's disease could be caused by viruses like herpes, a group of renowned dementia experts have warned, as they call for urgent investigation into the link. (
  • Around two thirds of people will acquire the herpes virus at some point in their lives, and many will not realise they have it. (
  • The herpes virus in particular is known to damage the central nervous system, and the limbic system in the brain which regulates mood and instinct and is associated with mental decline and personality changes. (
  • For example, enteroviruses and herpes viruses can cause meningitis and encephalitis. (
  • Diabetes, lupus, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis are examples of diseases where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. (
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  • Phage numbers are elevated at the intestinal mucosal surface and increase in abundance during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), suggesting that phages play an unidentified role in IBD," said Duerkop, lead author of the study published Monday in the journal Nature Microbiology. (
  • The disease can be transmitted from person to person by exposure to blood and other bodily secretions. (
  • Sole area of potential exposure to Zika virus. (
  • Thanks to them, we confirmed the increased transmissibility but also showed that B117 clearly responded to lockdown measures and doesn't appear to escape immunity gained by exposure to the original virus. (
  • The diagnosis of Kawasaki disease (KD) remains challenging without a definitive diagnostic test and currently is guided by using clinical patient characteristics and supported by laboratory data. (
  • Making a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease (KD) is often a diagnostic dilemma. (
  • Furthermore, a positive respiratory virus test result should not be used to exclude the diagnosis of KD. (
  • Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is widespread viral disease in the U.S soybean growing areas that is transmitted by leaf-feeding beetles. (
  • A new viral disease called soybean dwarf virus (SbDV) has surfaced in parts of the Corn Belt. (
  • Before 2015, the virus was found mainly in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. (
  • Ebola Virus Disease, Western Africa, is a public health calamity which has not finished, is not in the past tense, it remains a serious threat which may be down but is certainly not out. (
  • In the midst of a global pandemic with COVID-19, it's hard to appreciate how lucky those outside of Africa have been to avoid the deadly Ebola virus disease. (
  • The natural reservoir for the virus is thought to be a fruit bat living in Africa. (
  • The virus is found in sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • Ebola Virus Disease typically occurs in west and central Africa. (
  • The fruit bats, which are resistant to the diseases, are found primarily in Australia but have been found as far west as Africa, north to India and Pakistan, and east to the Philippines. (
  • Ebola is no longer a tropical disease that occurs only in isolated regions of Africa. (
  • Like DIPs, vaccines also use a defective version of viruses, but as a preventive treatment building immune memory rather than a curative treatment based on competition and co-evolution. (
  • The team's discovery may significantly speed up identification of flu viral strains, thwarting disease spread and leading to more reliable vaccines, according to U of G professor Suresh Neethirajan. (
  • Ebola disease is caused by the Ebola virus and is one of a number of hemorrhagic fever diseases. (
  • We write to express our concern that one particular aspect of the disease has been neglected, even though treatment based on it might slow or arrest Alzheimer's disease progression. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus-1 disease progression in hemophiliacs. (
  • To delineate epigenetic modifications and their potential interactions in oral cells and tissues that regulate the onset and progression of oral diseases. (
  • The virus is usually involved in the development and/or progression of these LPDs although in some cases it may be an "innocent" bystander, i.e. present in, but not contributing to, the disease. (
  • Zaire ebolavirus is the deadliest strain of Ebola virus. (
  • The various strains of Ebola virus were detected in different years and regions. (
  • Scientists want to know if the virus could interact with other factors, such as mutated genes, to trigger the disease. (
  • The disease develops very slowly and scientists suspected that even if a virus were to blame it might be present at such low levels that conventional tests would not detect it. (
  • The scientists also discovered genetic material from the virus in one of two people who had a family history of the disease. (
  • Last year, scientists found mutated forms of the gene for an enzyme called superoxide dismutase in people with motor neurone disease. (
  • Scientists found mice predisposed to diabetes were more likely to develop the disease if exposed to a virus. (
  • Stanford scientists said they have come up with an even more sensitive test, the only one that can distinguish papilloma viruses having malignant potential from the benign types. (
  • Scientists have a general idea of how viruses invade and spread in the body, but the precise mechanisms are actually not well understood, especially when it comes to Ebola virus. (
  • This paves the way for a better understanding of what might be involved in causing the disease, says Alkwin Wanders, one of the scientists behind the study at Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital. (
  • A human antibody given to monkeys infected with the deadly Hendra virus completely protected them from disease, according to a study published by National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists and their collaborators. (
  • Information about the Zika virus disease incubation period can help identify risk periods and local virus transmission. (
  • Characterizing the incubation period for Zika virus is needed for defining periods of risk and identifying local virus transmission. (
  • Survival depends on how a person's immune system responds to the virus. (
  • The animals developed an immune system response to the protein-celiac disease. (
  • Emerging cases of Powassan virus encephalitis in New England: Clinical presentation, imaging, and review of the literature. (
  • The modified virus is now ready to be tested in preclinical animal models, and possibly in phase I human clinical trials. (
  • It is an oncolytic virus that hones in on tumors, and has shown promising results in a number of human clinical trials for various forms of cancer. (
  • Upon completion of this module, learners will be able to: Identify the clinical features of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). (
  • Newcastle disease virus (NDV)- based therapy has been reported to be of benefit in clinical studies, but results are considered inconclusive. (
  • Because of the limited number of physicians treating chronic Lyme disease nationwide, some states, and in some instances, entire regions, may not have any treating physicians who follow flexible treating approaches such as those in the International Lyme & Associated Diseases Society (ILADS) Guidelines, Evidence Assessments and Guideline Recommendations in Lyme Disease: The Clinical Management of Known Tick Bites, Erythema Migrans Rashes and Persistent Disease . (
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) issued by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), National Institutes of Health (NIH), solicits novel, research project grant (R01) applications proposing to investigate the epigenetic basis of virus-associated oral diseases in order to guide the discovery and application of novel epigenomic-based clinical interventions. (
  • The purpose of this FOA is to invite grant applications that seek to determine the epigenetic mechanisms of virus-associated oral diseases in order to guide the discovery and application of novel epigenomic-based clinical interventions. (
  • A noticeable number of plant viruses have been found to pass from one generation to the next through seed. (
  • 2006) Molecular ecology and emergence of tropical plant viruses. (
  • CMI/ABB Description of Plant Viruses No. 48, Association of Applied Biologists, Wellesbourne, UK. (
  • This new virus was eventually designated as a new virus family termed Filoviridae . (
  • Ebola is a very contagious disease with a high mortality rate. (