The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A mitochondrial disorder characterized by focal or generalized seizures, episodes of transient or persistent neurologic dysfunction resembling strokes, and ragged-red fibers on muscle biopsy. Affected individuals tend to be normal at birth through early childhood, then experience growth failure, episodic vomiting, and recurrent cerebral insults resulting in visual loss and hemiparesis. The cortical lesions tend to occur in the parietal and occipital lobes and are not associated with vascular occlusion. VASCULAR HEADACHE is frequently associated and the disorder tends to be familial. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, p117)
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
Sexual intercourse between persons so closely related that they are forbidden by law to marry.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
ATPases that are members of the AAA protein superfamily (ATPase family Associated with various cellular Activities). The NSFs functions, acting in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEINS (i.e. SNAPs, which have no relation to SNAP 25), are to dissociate SNARE complexes.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)

Propagation of Semliki Forest virus in various human lymphoblastoid cell lines. (1/1664)

Semliki Forest virus (SFV) propagation was studied in one marmoset and eight human lymphoblastoid cell lines. In eight of these cell lines SFV propagated well. Only in the Daudi (human) cell line virus replication was suppressed. This suppression takes place after virus adsorption but before virus inhibitory effects on cell functions.  (+info)

The clinical utility of CMV surveillance cultures and antigenemia following bone marrow transplantation. (2/1664)

At our institution, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis protocol for allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients who are CMV-seropositive or receive marrow from a CMV-seropositive donor consists of a surveillance bronchoscopy approximately 35 days posttransplant. Patients with a positive surveillance bronchoscopy for CMV receive pre-emptive ganciclovir. In order to determine the utility of other screening methods for CMV, we prospectively performed weekly CMV antigenemia, and blood, urine and throat cultures from time of engraftment to day 120 post-BMT in 126 consecutive patients. Pre-emptive ganciclovir was given to 11/81 patients (13.6%) because of a positive surveillance bronchoscopy for CMV. Results of CMV blood, urine and throat cultures and the antigenemia assay done prior to or at the time of the surveillance bronchoscopy were analyzed for their ability to predict the bronchoscopy result. The antigenemia test had the highest positive and negative predictive values (72% and 96%, respectively). The ability of these tests to predict CMV disease was evaluated in the 70 patients with a negative surveillance bronchoscopy who did not receive pre-emptive ganciclovir. Of 19 cases of active CMV disease, CMV antigenemia was positive in 15 patients (79%) a mean of 34 days preceding symptoms. Blood cultures were positive in 14/19 patients (74%) a mean of 31 days before onset of disease. CMV antigenemia is useful for predicting the surveillance bronchoscopy result, and also predicts the development of CMV disease in the majority of patients missed by the surveillance bronchoscopy.  (+info)

Infection of apheresis cells by parvovirus B19. (3/1664)

Parvovirus B19 is the only member of the Parvoviridae family known to cause disease in humans. Owing to the high level of cell tropism the virus can only replicate in proliferating and differentiating erythroid precursor cells, which are present in human bone marrow and foetal liver. As human bone marrow is very difficult to obtain, an alternative in vitro system for the propagation of B19 virus has been developed, based on the application of mobilized haemapoietic progenitor (apheresis) cells. These cells are routinely harvested from cancer patients after treatment with recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Replication of parvovirus B19 in vitro is possible in these cells after stimulation with erythropoietin. Therefore, this system is an easily, accessible alternative to the use of human bone marrow in parvovirus B19 infection assays.  (+info)

Tracheal aspirate as a substrate for polymerase chain reaction detection of viral genome in childhood pneumonia and myocarditis. (4/1664)

BACKGROUND: Infectious respiratory disorders are important causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. Viral causes are common and may lead to rapid deterioration, requiring mechanical ventilation; myocardial dysfunction may accompany respiratory decompensation. The etiologic viral diagnosis may be difficult with classic methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic method for identification of causative agents. METHODS AND RESULTS: PCR was used to amplify sequences of viruses known to cause childhood viral pneumonia and myocarditis. Oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify specific sequences of DNA virus (adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and Epstein-Barr virus) and RNA virus (enterovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, and influenza B) genomes. Tracheal aspirate samples were obtained from 32 intubated patients and nucleic acid extracted before PCR. PCR results were compared with results of culture, serology, and antigen detection methods when available. In cases of myocarditis (n=7), endomyocardial biopsy samples were analyzed by PCR and compared with tracheal aspirate studies. PCR amplification of viral genome occurred in 18 of 32 samples (56%), with 3 samples PCR positive for 2 viral genomes. Amplified viral sequences included RSV (n=3), enterovirus (n=5), cytomegalovirus (n=4), adenovirus (n=3), herpes simplex virus (n=2), Epstein-Barr virus (n=1), influenza A (n=2), and influenza B (n=1). All 7 cases of myocarditis amplified the same viral genome from heart as found by tracheal aspirate. CONCLUSIONS: PCR is a rapid and sensitive diagnostic tool in cases of viral pneumonia with or without myocarditis, and tracheal aspirate appears to be excellent for analysis.  (+info)

Replication of subgenomic hepatitis C virus RNAs in a hepatoma cell line. (5/1664)

An estimated 170 million persons worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major cause of chronic liver disease. Despite increasing knowledge of genome structure and individual viral proteins, studies on virus replication and pathogenesis have been hampered by the lack of reliable and efficient cell culture systems. A full-length consensus genome was cloned from viral RNA isolated from an infected human liver and used to construct subgenomic selectable replicons. Upon transfection into a human hepatoma cell line, these RNAs were found to replicate to high levels, permitting metabolic radiolabeling of viral RNA and proteins. This work defines the structure of HCV replicons functional in cell culture and provides the basis for a long-sought cellular system that should allow detailed molecular studies of HCV and the development of antiviral drugs.  (+info)

Isolation and partial characterization of a lentivirus from talapoin monkeys (Myopithecus talapoin). (6/1664)

We have identified a novel lentivirus prevalent in talapoin monkeys (Myopithecus talapoin), extending previous observations of human immunodeficiency virus-1 cross-reactive antibodies in the serum of these monkeys. We obtained a virus isolate from one of three seropositive monkeys initially available to us. The virus was tentatively named simian immunodeficiency virus from talapoin monkeys (SIVtal). Despite the difficulty of isolating this virus, it was readily passed between monkeys in captivity through unknown routes of transmission. The virus could be propagated for short terms in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of talapoin monkeys but not in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells or human T cell lines. The propagated virus was used to infect a naive talapoin monkey, four rhesus macaques (M. mulatta), and two cynomolgus macaques (M. fascicularis). All animals seroconverted and virus could be reisolated during a short period after experimental infection. A survey of SIVtal-infected captive talapoin monkeys revealed a relative decrease in CD4(+) cell numbers in chronically (>2 years) infected animals. No other signs of immunodeficiency were observed in any of the infected animals. PCR amplification followed by DNA sequencing of two fragments of the polymerase gene revealed that SIVtal is different from the presently known lentiviruses and perhaps most related to the SIV from Sykes monkeys.  (+info)

Quantification of endogenous viral polymerase, 3D(pol), in preparations of Mengo and encephalomyocarditis viruses. (7/1664)

Measurement of an antigenic response to the aphthovirus infection-associated antigen (VIA), the viral RNA polymerase 3D(pol), is frequently used as a discriminating assay for the extent of viral replication in animals. In practice, animals seropositive for VIA are assumed to have been exposed to live virus, although in fact it is suspected that endogenous 3D(pol) in commercial inactivated vaccines may occasionally stimulate analogous responses and result in false-positive tests for virus exposure. Cardiovirus infections in mice produce similar anti-VIA antibodies, and in view of recently developed attenuated Mengo vaccines and live Mengo vectors, these VIA responses are also under investigation as potential correlates of vaccine efficacy. We have purified recombinant Mengo 3D(pol), developed monoclonal antibodies to the protein, and used these reagents in highly sensitive Western blot assays to quantify the levels of endogenous 3D(pol) in Mengo and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) preparations. The presence of 3D(pol) was detected at all stages of standard vaccine purification procedures, including materials purified by CsCl. Clarified suspensions of Mengo- or encephalomyocarditis virus-infected HeLa cells were found to contain very high quantities of 3D(pol), averaging approximately 1.2-1.5 micrograms of protein/micrograms of virus. Pelleting through 30% sucrose or purification by CsCl removed much of this material, but even these samples retained approximately 0.2-0.4 ng of 3D(pol)/micrograms virus. These ratios represent approximately 1 3D(pol) molecule/20 virus particles in the most highly purified materials and probably indicate that 3D(pol) is a contaminant on the particle surface rather than an intrinsically packaged molecule. In clarified cell lysates, which are commonly used as vaccine inocula, the protein to virus ratio was approximately 210:1, a level that could represent serious contamination problems for future VIA detection if such inocula are used without further purification.  (+info)

Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus in A549 and MRC-5 cell cultures. (8/1664)

Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) has been diagnosed either serologically or by virus isolation. Until now, the recovery of EEE virus has been delegated to reference laboratories with the expertise and resources needed to amplify the virus in a susceptible vertebrate host and/or to isolate and identify the virus in cell culture. We report a case in which EEE virus was recovered directly from a patient's cerebrospinal fluid in A549 and MRC-5 cell cultures. Many clinical virology laboratories routinely use these cells to recover adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, and enterovirus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of EEE virus in A549 cell culture. This report demonstrates the possibility of recovery of EEE virus in cell culture without the necessity of bioamplification or maintaining unusual cell lines.  (+info)

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Methods Eleven geographically diverse clinical centers participated in the study, with nine of the sites enrolling participants. The UVT was collected first followed by the QS specimen. A portion of each UVT specimen was transferred to a Qx Diluent Tube (diluted UVT) and a cryovial. The remainder of the UVT in the original tube was frozen at −70°C and sent to one of two sites for HSV viral culture using the ELVIS®HSV ID and D3 Typing Test System (Diagnostic Hybrids, Inc). The diluted UVT and QS specimens were shipped to one of three sites for HSV testing on the BD Viper. The UVT aliquot in the cryovial was stored at −70°C and shipped to the University of Washington for PCR testing for HSV.. ...
Boston-based filmmaker Clennon King is bringing his film, Passage at St. Augustine, to the Reggie Lewis Track and Athletic Center at Roxbury Community College. The film features several Massachusetts connections to the story, including the arrest of a WGBH radio news reporter covering the St. Augustine movement. Watch the film on February 21st at 1:30 p.m. and join us for a question-and-answer session following the screening.. ...
I joke that, as a Peds ID doc, it is my duty to say this at least once a day... Ok, I may not literally be slapping people upside the head, but there are certainly times when Im doing it in my mind. The situation is common enough - a patient, parent or doctor, faced…
Elvis has entered the building. The Elvis Dress is made in a textured cotton and features sporty stripe detail, Elvis text at front, and
Its been 40 years since Elvis Presley passed away. Weve pulled together 50 facts to celebrate The King and recall your favourite memories.
Elvis Dumervil has given money to help those in his parents native country of Haiti. Now hes personally going to make sure people are being helped and to witness it for himself. Dumervil is ac
See what Elvis Huskic (ehuskic1808) has discovered on Pinterest, the worlds biggest collection of everybodys favorite things.
Elvis Juice is a IPA - American style beer brewed by BrewDog in Ellon, GB6, United Kingdom. Score: 89 with 542 ratings and reviews. Last update: 11-30-2020.
Hi. Ive just been hit with the [email protected] virus, which has infected Nortons (so that it wont run, although it does still pick up atempts to run infected programs), Stay Connected, Textpad and,...
Elvis was only however grooming at that insert that it was priding to help rehearsal for carl he was killing it as more of a collection popularity organisation.
both Elvis CDs by the BIG BOYS were available independently. at least some years ago when they came out:...and now some POISON 13 please ...
Specimens submitted for the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) were inoculated into conventional cell-culture tubes and fresh MRC-5 shell vials. The shell vial centrifugation cultures (SVCs) were examined at 16 hr postinoculation for HSV by using type-specific monoclonal antibodies (SVC-FA); th …
In: Proceedings of a symposium on continuous cell lines as substrates for biologicals, Arlington, Virginia USA, May 1988. Basel: Karger, 1989;113-24 (Developments in biological standardization; 70 ...
Species, Research Grants, Research Topics, Publications, Genomes and Genes, Scientific Experts about indirect fluorescent antibody technique
Since Elvis Presleys death, impersonations of the star and sightings have become the ongoing subject of jokes. The Elvis Files may change that. At the time of his reported death, Elvis had sold more than 600 million singles and albums, had made 33 films, and was the heartthrob for more than one generation of young women. While his popularity fell off during the 1960s, the King of rock & roll made a strong comeback in the 1970s. A weight problem and an increasing dependency on stimulants and depressants became difficult for the King to hide from the public. On August 16, 1977, Elvis suffered what was an apparent heart attack and was pronounced dead. But is he dead or still alive? Did Elvis escape the prison of fame? This video examines the unusual circumstances surrounding the stars reported death. Based on the book by Gail Brewer-Giorgio, it features never-before-seen footage, and exclusive interviews supporting the theory that Presley lives. Viewers must decide for themselves whether the King ...
1) Faeces - a walnut sized portion should be submitted in a stool container. 2) Swabs - special viral swabs complete with transportation tube are available from the Pathology Department on request. 3) Vesicle Fluid - must be collected into a PLAIN universal container (white cap) and sent to the Microbiology Laboratory as soon as possible. 4) Urine (children only) - urine samples for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) must be collected into a PLAIN universal container (white cap) and sent to the Microbiology Laboratory as soon as possible. 5) Tissue - Samples must be sent directly to the Microbiology Laboratory and kept cool at all times. Do NOT add formalin to the tissue. ...
lyrics of All Shook Up by Elvis Presley in Elvis In Person At The International Hotel album - A well I bless my soul|br|Whats wrong with me?|br|Im itching like a man on a fuzzy tree|br|My friends say Im actin wild as a bug|br|Im in love|br|Im all shook up|br|Mm mm oh, oh, yeah, yeah!|br||br||br|M...
Download the inlay cover of Elvis Elvis Presley found in the DVD section of / Worlds Largest CD Covers and DVD Covers Archive
A month ago Nate was hospitalized due to something called a subarachnoid hemorrhage which is when you have bleeding in your brain. The thing...
Who was the real king of rock n roll? Elvis the Pelvis? Or The Killer - Jerry Lee Lewis?. This is your opportunity to decide as the two come head to head! Be excited once more by the sheer energy of Elvis hits such as Hound Dog, All Shook Up, Dont Be Cruel and Teddy Bear and Jerry Lee Lewis hits such as Great Balls of Fire, Whole Lotta Shakin, High School Confidential and Breathless.. ...
Full online text of Impersonating Elvis by Polly Nelson. Other short stories by Polly Nelson also available along with many others by classic and contemporary authors.
A quote from the king of Rock n Roll Elvis Presley from a new blog I discovered from going to the CNN web site. I discovered it in the humor section. Paulette L. Motzko
Nu ook Elvis Shop in NEDERLAND ClassicClassic AlbumsMedia en RADIO in het bijzonderRadio infoMedia en...
Find out details on the rock climbing route named Elvis is Dead, including topos, photos, user reviews, and route info such as climbing type and grade.
This test checks to see whether an infection is caused by a bacterium or a virus. It can also tell which specific virus is causing your infection.
WHAT CAUSES SNORING? The noisy sounds of snoring occur when there is an obstruction to the free flow of air through the passages at the back of the mouth
Snoring is most annoying health situation, snoring, it is a noise reason when there is an obstacle to the free flow of air through the passages at the back of the mouth and nose. That area is the collapsible part of the airway. Snoring happens when these structures hit each other and vibrate during breathing.. ...
I have been thinking more and more that the industry is going about Malware detection the wrong way... Who wants to make sure they have the latest virus definitions and other security updates to help keep the peace? Its ugly and the programmer in me keeps thinking there has to be a better way, cos this model sucks... The end-user generally doesnt understand the nature of these definitions and will often forget to update. This would all be null if they just implemented some basic
花月正春风/刘墉作/绢本设色/工笔/76.5x46.5CM/2013 即使 天堂 是不愁吃穿3不必工作3永永远远活着3 那活着有什么意义3 正因为有苦恼3才有解决的快乐; 正因为有病痛3才有痊愈的欢喜4 正因为有忧愁3才有忘忧的美好4 正因为有今天的不足3 ...
Shit - I think Ive got this. First noticed it the night of Aylas Fundraiser (thanks Elvis!) - I thought the hotel room had some kind of air ... (Page 4)
4. Staining of shell vials. i) Prior to staining, examine the shell vial monolayer using the inverted microscope:. ii) If there is ,75% CPE, perform IFA or DFA staining on the shell vial monolayer using the required antibody conjugate. For CMV, see shell vial staining under Appendix IV (IFA) and for HSV 1&2, VZV and RS, see shell vial staining under Appendix V (DFA). iii) If ,75% of the monoloayer has lifted from the coverslip, check the colour of the maintenance media and proceed as follows:. iv) If the maintenance media is bright pink (suggesting alkaline pH), yellow or cloudy, check with charge/senior technologist before proceeding further.. iii) If the maintenance media is appropriately coloured (salmon pink), perform IFA or DFA staining using cytospin preparations of scraped shell vial cells. Follow the staining procedure for prepared cytospin slides as outlined in the tube culture section in Appendix IV (IFA) and Appendix V (DFA).. iv) Discard cap. Remove maintenance medium from the shell ...
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The Virology Laboratory performs diagnostic tests for the entire HUG. These activities include viral culture, molecular tests and infectious serology.
With a change in mental state and suffering chronic pain, Elvis Presley entered a ten year spiral towards death. He became hopelessly addicted to pain killers, practiced a terribly unhealthy diet and lethargic lifestyle, and resorted to the typical addicts habit of sneaking a fix wherever he could. This led to early coronary vascular disease and, combined with his escalating weight and pill consumption, Elvis was a heart attack ready to burst.. Recall that I used the term antecedent, like all coroners do when assessing a cause of death. Given Dr. Torrents observations-and all the facts compiled from forty years-if I were the coroner completing Elvis Presleys death certificate today, Id write it like this:. Identity of Deceased - Elvis Aaron Presley.. Time of Death - Approximately 2:00 p.m. on Tuesday, August 16th, 1977.. Place of Death - 3754 Elvis Presley Boulevard, Memphis, Tennessee.. Cause of Death - Cardiac arrhythmia antecedent to hypertensive cardiovascular disease with ...
The Elvis Information Network, home to the best news, reviews, interviews, Elvis photos & in-depth articles about the King of Rock & Roll, Elvis Aaron Presley... The Elvis Information Network has been running since 1986 and is an EPE officially recognised Elvis fan club.
Elvis Presley X-Rays, 1973. An avid karate student, Elvis began pursuing martial arts training in 1959 while stationed in - Available at 2007 April Signature...
Learning Objectives Describe the benefits of immunofluorescent antibody assays in comparison to nonfluorescent assays Compare direct and indirect flu
Elvis Presley My Way for sale. Elvis Presley-Rare limited edition 45 With Sleeve on the RCA label pressed in Canada-MyWay/America.45 in near mint condition.Kept in a smoke free listening room.Buyer pays for shipping.Payment by P...
46 years ago today, Led Zeppelin met the King of Rock and Roll, an encounter which has resulted in a myriad of different stories over the years. Picture it: Los Angeles, May 11, 1974. Led Zeppelin are in L.A. to promote the launch of their record label, Swan Song, and when they discover that Elvis Presley is playing a show at the Los Angeles Forum, they decide to go. As it happens, Elvis is arguably as interested in Led Zeppelin as they are in him, albeit for a different reason.
A hybrid virus is a type of computer virus that combines elements of other virus programs in a new combination that will often...
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Austrian based Emsisoft isnt one of the widely known names in the computer security business, but their products have topped multiple independent tests and reviews for many months. Emsisoft Anti-Malware, the flagship tool against virtual threats of all kinds, has now reached generation seven. Major enhancements include a new second scan engine and lower resource usage. Therefore Emsisoft Anti-Malware 7.0 improves its leading virus detection and ensures crucial real-time protection is possible even on old and slower computers ...
Viruses are the causative agents of an estimated 60% of human infections worldwide. The most common viral illnesses are produced by enteric and respiratory viruses. Transmission of these viruses from
Countless great performances were left on the cutting room floor after the initial release of Woodstock. Now, you can see even more from The Who and Santana. Also, to celebrate Elvis Week, a little Viva Las Vegas and The King in concert is in order.
New season at Barebones Black Box Theater in Braddock opens with Drag-Queen Elvis. Produced by Barebones founder Patrick Jordan with his long-time friend, actor David Conrad.
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Did anybody else see Elvis Costellos recent comments in NME? I particularly agree with this quote, British music fans dont have the same
174 Elvis authenticated artifacts are up for auction Thursday evening at Graceland, Presleys longtime Memphis, Tennessee, home.
I got info about virus on net.So checked accordingly, found $Recycle.bin virus in my C drive, how to remove, if it is a virus, without deleting windows related files, if at all existing here. ...
Elvis is the only one that gave him trouble :-) He said somewhere (RSs Lennon Remembers?) that Elvis is why he wanted to be a musician. Said he saw an Elvis movie with a bunch of screaming girls and said to himself, That looks like a good job. ...
A virus is a non-cellular genetic element that hijacks a cell for its own replication. In its extracellular state the virus particle ,also known as a vi...
Is there any type of file that can not have a virus at all? Or betther asking, What types of file that can have virus. The ones I now of. EXE. COM, BAT, PIF, PL. If you had to accept upload , what kind of extension would you accept?
Plaque assay;a) Sf9 cells negative control (Mock)b) one day after virus dilution added to Sf9 cellsc) two days after virus dilution added to Sf9 cellsd) four da
There were reportedly problems with both his health and his finances and, also, it has been claimed that Presleys life was in danger because he was allegedly going to give testimony in a federal case that could have implicated a Mafia group.
WAR - One of the only places on Earth where you meet heroes daily. Be nice to everyone you talk to; You might not get to say Thank-You or Good-Bye later on. demotivational ...
I was browsing pages here one day and SpySweeper stopped a malicious program from installing itself. I didnt even click for an outside page. I was
Its a cliché to say that music gets worse with every generation, from people whining about Elvis and the Beatles in their time to rap today. Im pretty sure at some...
Culturing of viruses like Herpes Simplex Virus, etc. Drug screening studies. Radiotherapy related studies. Allergenicity and ... Helminth cultivation. Oncological investigations. The advantages of using CAM are: It is easy to use as compared to other ... Ribatti D (August 2018). "The use of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane as experimental model to study virus growth and ... Schomann T, Qunneis F, Widera D, Kaltschmidt C, Kaltschmidt B (2013-03-11). "Improved method for ex ovo-cultivation of ...
It is susceptible to viruses, and slug damage. It is extremely rare in cultivation. It is thought that plants found in the US ...
It does suffer virus problems that Iris tectorum. It is not rarely found in cultivation. It can also be propagated by division ... The Latin specific epithet milesii refers to Mr Frank Miles, who introduced it into cultivation in about 1880. These plants ... Their Identification and Cultivation, p. 116, at Google Books Dykes, William (2009). "Handbook of Garden Irises" (PDF). ...
In Vitro Cultivation of M. Leprae: An Improved Medium. Voluntary Health Services Medical Centre. N Veeraraghavan; D S ... N Veeraraghavan; D S Chandrasekhar (1963). "Fluorescent antibody staining of rabies virus antigens using lissamine rhodamine ... Some of his notable publications are: Studies on Leprosy Studies on Leprosy: Supplement 3 In Vitro Cultivation of M. Leprae: An ... N Veeraraghavan (2000). "A rapid method for cultivation of M. tuberculosis : an improved medium". V.H.S. Medical Centre. OCLC ...
Rafferty, KA (1965). "The cultivation of inclusion-associated viruses from Lucke tumor frogs". Annals of the New York Academy ... virus Bohle iridovirus Common midwife toad virus Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus European catfish virus Frog virus 3 ... Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV), Bohle iridovirus (BIV), and frog virus 3). Ranaviruses are large icosahedral DNA viruses ... There are five other genera of viruses within the family Iridoviridae, but Ranavirus is the only one that includes viruses that ...
Watering is one of the most critical aspects of iris cultivation. It can suffer from aphids, viruses and rots. Israel's ... British Iris Society (1997) A Guide to Species Irises: Their Identification and Cultivation, p. 76, at Google Books Archibald, ... hermona is thought to be an easier plant to grow in cultivation, as it can tolerate a Mediterranean climate. In general ' ...
Watering is one of the most critical aspects of iris cultivation. It can suffer from aphids, viruses and rots. I. iberica is ... Their Identification and Cultivation, p. 77, at Google Books Dykes, William (2009). "Handbook of Garden Irises" (PDF). ... containing the best instruction relative to its cultivation) Fourth Edition, p. 319, at Google Books David Gledhill The Names ...
Watering is one of the most critical aspects of iris cultivation. It can suffer from aphids, viruses and rots. A herbarium ... British Iris Society (1997) A Guide to Species Irises: Their Identification and Cultivation, p. 76-77, at Google Books Richard ...
Watering is one of the most critical aspects of iris cultivation. It can suffer from aphids, viruses and rots. Irises can ... British Iris Society (1997) A Guide to Species Irises: Their Identification and Cultivation, p. 75-76, at Google Books "Chapter ...
Viruses have been variably classified as organisms, as they have been considered either as very simple microorganisms or very ... "Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation". Microbiological Reviews. ... While his work on the tobacco mosaic virus established the basic principles of virology, it was his development of enrichment ... Rice G (2007-03-27). "Are Viruses Alive?". Retrieved 2007-07-23. Mahavira is dated 599 BC - 527 BC. See Dundas, Paul; John ...
For cultivation, environmental approval determines whether a crop can be legally grown. Separate approval is generally required ... Other common traits include virus resistance, delayed ripening, modified flower colour or altered composition. In 2014, 28 ... In the US, separate regulatory agencies handle approval for cultivation (USDA, EPA) and for human consumption (FDA). Two ... Less than one million hectares contained other traits, which include providing virus resistance, delaying senescence, modifying ...
They have been grown successfully in large-scale cultivation systems. Hepatitis B virus surface antigens have not been detected ...
Padgett BL, Walker DL, ZuRhein GM, Eckroade RJ, Dessel BH (June 1971). "Cultivation of papova-like virus from human brain with ... most notably BK virus, JC virus, and SV40. It is essential for proliferation in the viruses that express it and is thought to ... Two viruses-HPyV6 and HPyV7-are most closely related to KI and WU viruses, while HPyV9 is most closely related to the African ... Most of these viruses are very common and typically asymptomatic in most human populations studied. BK virus is associated with ...
May 1957). "Cultivation of Measles Virus in Human Amnion Cells and in Developing Chick Embryo". Experimental Biology and ... Milan V. Milovanovic and John Enders, Anna Mitus published their research "Cultivation of Measles Virus in Human Amnion Cells ... The main conclusion from this paper was that in a proportion of giant-cell pneumonia cases, the measles virus was found to be ... After the 28th passage in human amnion cells, the measles virus was then inoculated into chick embryos. This procedure was key ...
1971). "Cultivation of papova-like virus from human brain with progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy". Lancet. 1 (7712): ... Human polyomavirus 2, commonly referred to as the JC virus or John Cunningham virus, is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly ... shedding virus particles in the urine. In addition, recent studies suggest that this virus may latently infect the human semen ... The virus then remains latent in the gastrointestinal tract and can also infect the tubular epithelial cells in the kidneys, ...
Through cultivation of Gamedeus' virus, Graphite can free himself from Cronus' Pause ability. Graphite is portrayed by Shouma ... Kuroto was the first person to discover the virus in his laptop. In 2011, Kuroto initiated Zero Day by spreading the virus and ... the virus manifests into a Bugster monster and is accompanied by a few Bugster Virus foot soldiers in various attire. The host ... are micro-sized computer viruses known as Bugster Viruses (バグスターウイルス, Bagusutā Uirusu) that aim to destroy humanity in order to ...
"Influenza virus growth in eggs". Virology Blog.. *^ Izzat, Fakhrul (Apr 2012). "Viral Cultivation in Chicken Embryo". Youtube. ... Pada titik ini, virus telah melemah atau terbunuh dan antigen virus dimurnikan dan ditempatkan di dalam botol, semprotan, atau ... VLP menyerupai virus, tapi tidak perlu inaktivasi, karena tidak termasuk unsur pengkodean virus, tetapi hanya menghadirkan ... "Influenza virus-like particles elicit broader immune responses than whole virion inactivated influenza virus or recombinant ...
Goodpasture, E. W.; Woodruff, A. M.; Buddingh, G. J. (October 1931). "The cultivation of vaccine and other viruses in the ... "The Susceptibility of the Chorio-Allantoic Membrane of Chick Embryos to Infection with the Fowl-Pox Virus". The American ... Ernest William Goodpasture and Alice Miles Woodruff publish their results on growing influenza and several other viruses in ...
It is susceptible to virus infections when in cultivation, including from Iris mosaic virus. Which produces some necrotic ... This strain of virus also attacks Belamcanda chinensis, Iris pumila and Iris ricardi. Irises can generally be propagated by ... Due to its range being much farther north than most Oncocyclus irises, it is more hardy in cultivation, than others. It is ... Brunt, A. A.; Derks, A. F. L. M.; Barnett, O. W. "Iris severe mosaic virus". Retrieved 14 September 2016. "How to ...
Enders JF, Weller TH, Robbins FC (January 1949). "Cultivation of the Lansing Strain of Poliomyelitis Virus in Cultures of ... which helps prevent infection with wild virus in areas where the virus is endemic. The live virus used in the vaccine can ... polio viruses have no nonprimate reservoir in nature, and survival of the virus in the environment for an extended period of ... The live virus also has stringent requirements for transport and storage, which are a problem in some hot or remote areas. As ...
Enders JF, Weller TH, Robbins FC (1949). "Cultivation of the Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus in cultures of various human ... John F. Enders on including the Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1954 The Cultivation of the Poliomyelitis Viruses in ... for his work on the growing of virus of poliomyelitis and other studies in viruses. "Robert Koch Stiftung - Robert Koch Award ... This paper is an attempt to review in the light of earlier research certain recent work on measles virus with emphasis on the ...
... brown streak virus disease has been identified as a major threat to cultivation worldwide. A wide range of plant ... An outbreak of the virus in Africa in the 1920s led to a major famine. The virus is spread by the whitefly and by the ... This mutated virus spread at a rate of 80 kilometres (50 miles) per year, and as of 2005 was found throughout Uganda, Rwanda, ... "Virus ravages cassava plants in Africa". The New York Times. 31 May 2010. "Hungry African nations balk at biotech cassava". St ...
Essential oils in chia leaves have repellant properties against insects, making it suitable for organic cultivation. Virus ... "Detection and Identification of the First Viruses in Chia (Salvia hispanica)". Viruses. 6 (9): 3450-3457. doi:10.3390/v6093450 ... New patented varieties of chia have been bred in Kentucky for cultivation in northern latitudes of the United States. Chia is ... Traditional cultivation techniques of S. hispanica include soil preparation by disruption and loosening followed by seed ...
Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Broad Bean Wilt Viruses (BBWV) Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato black ring virus (TBRV), Tomato ... Cultivation is also documented in Britain at this time, although contemporary accounts show it was well known as a favourite ... Narcissus mosaic virus, Narcissus yellow stripe virus (NYSV, Narcissus yellow streak virus), Narcissus tip necrosis virus (NTNV ... Less host specific viruses include Raspberry ringspot virus, Nerine latent virus (NeLV) =Narcissus symptomless virus, ...
Traub E, Cultivation of Pseudorabies Virus, J Exp Med, November 30, 1933, 58(6), 663-81. Barthold SW, Introduction: microbes ... performing research on vaccines and viruses, including pseudorabies virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCM). During ... Also in 1953, he published another paper for the Navy with Worth I. Capps on the foot-and-mouth disease virus and methods for ... In 1944, Blome sent Traub to pick up a strain of Rinderpest virus in Turkey; upon his return, this strain proved inactive ( ...
Virus particles can range between 70-80 nm. Morphologically, the virus is a double stranded RNA virus that is composed of ten ... Cultivation and observation of the effects of avian reovirus is most often performed in chicken embryos. If infected into the ... infectious bursal disease virus, and chicken anemia virus. Avian reoviruses are also typically resistant to certain ... Virus neutralization identifies type-specific antibodies, which allows for differentiation between strains of viruses through ...
Tyrrell DA, Buckland FE, Bynoe ML, Hayflick L (August 1962). "The cultivation in human-embryo cells of a virus (D.C.) causing ... infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). Tyrrell sent her the specimen, including one new human virus ... Tyrrell DA, Bynoe ML (June 1965). "Cultivation of a Novel Type of Common-cold Virus in Organ Cultures". British Medical Journal ... Specimen B814 could the be confirmed as a virus, but was unique from all known cold viruses based on its antigenic property and ...
4 Cultivation *4.1 Pollination. *4.2 Diseases *4.2.1 Viruses. *4.2.2 Phytoplasma ... VirusesEdit. Passion fruit woodiness virus is one of the most well-known viruses to the passion fruit. It belongs to the ... One of the most serious viruses pertaining to vegetation is the Cucumber mosaic virus. In the passion fruit, this virus appears ... The virus is spread by sap-sucking insects such as aphids and mites. Woodiness can also spread through vegetation propagation ...
Steinhardt, E; Israeli, C; and Lambert, R.A. (1913) "Studies on the cultivation of the virus of vaccinia" J. Inf Dis. 13, 294- ... In 1913, E. Steinhardt, C. Israeli, and R. A. Lambert grew vaccinia virus in fragments of tissue culture from guinea pig cornea ...
Virus particles can range between 70-80 nm. Morphologically, the virus is a double stranded RNA virus that is composed of ten ... Cultivation and observation of the effects of avian reovirus is most often performed in chicken embryos. If infected into the ... Virus neutralization identifies type-specific antibodies, which allows for differentiation between strains of viruses through ... Virus-host interactions[edit]. Alpha and beta interferons belong to a family of multifunctional cytokines, which are expressed ...
M. incognitus is thought to be a mutated form of the Brucella bacterium combined with the Visna virus, from which the ... incognitus because it is more fastidious in cultivation requirements than other mycoplasmas. It is known that the most ... "Virus-like infectious agent (VLIA) is a novel pathogenic mycoplasma: Mycoplasma incognitus". The American Journal of Tropical ...
In 2004, Mendocino County, California became the first county to impose a ban on the "Propagation, Cultivation, Raising, and ... The Virus-Serum-Toxin Act (VSTA) (USDA); The Public Health Service Act (PHSA)(FDA); The Dietary Supplement Health and Education ... ". "Mexico: controlled cultivation of genetically modified maize". Archived from the original on 2013-10-05. Retrieved 2017-08- ...
Virus or phage cultures require that a population of bacteria be grown in the dish first, which then becomes the culture medium ... Petri dishes are also used for cell cultivation of isolated cells from eukaryotic organisms, such as in immunodiffusion studies ...
The cultivation is similar to carrots and parsnips. An adequate site for cultivation is characterized by light and fertile ... Furthermore, it can be host for other aphids, erysiphe heracley or celery mosaic virus. The Plant List: A Working List of All ... The crop cultivation starts therefore in the autumn. The dormancy ends with at least 8 weeks of continuous humidity and ... Cultivation period is from 9 up to 10 months. The seeds require exposure to cold temperatures (vernalization) to break dormancy ...
"Maize cultivation in Moneragala ruined by 'Sena' caterpillar". Sunday Times. Retrieved 28 January 2019. "Sri Lankan Prez ... The use of two biopesticides - Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear polyhedrosis virus/SfNPV (the SNPV/single nuclear polyhedrosis ... In December 2018, heavy infestations in corn cultivation were identified. The spread of the moth leads to attack corn all ... On 29 December 2018, armyworms were recorded from paddy cultivations in the Sinhapura area of Polonnaruwa. In January 2019, ...
They can feed on the roots or the aerial parts of plants and transmit viruses. Some examples are the big bud mite that ... the disturbance caused by ploughing and cultivation favouring them over other species. Any plant is a weed if it appears in a ... Microorganisms, whether bacteria, microscopic fungi, protists, or viruses that cause trouble, on the other hand, are generally ... and viruses. The term "plant pest", mainly applied to insect micropredators of plants, has a specific definition in terms of ...
It is believed to be caused by mismatch between the rootstock and scion rather than an infection by a fungus or a virus. In ... Syrah is a variety that during the last few decades has been imported for cultivation in several countries. It is primarily ... in 2007 making up a total area under cultivation of 9,856 hectares (24,350 acres). In South Africa, the variety is ...
There is ongoing research into the cultivation of new types of human hepatocytes capable of improved longevity and efficacy in ... "Effect of molecular adsorbent recirculating system in hepatitis C virus-related intractable pruritus". Liver Transplantation. 9 ... "Cultivation of immortalized human hepatocytes HepZ on macroporous CultiSpher G microcarriers". Biotechnology and Bioengineering ...
... the Fay student from whom Peebles had taken the culture that led to the virus's cultivation. In the mid-20th century, measles ... Peebles was able to isolate the virus from blood samples and throat swabs, and was later able to cultivate the virus and show ... In that year, the Edmonston-B strain of measles virus was turned into a vaccine by John Enders and colleagues and licensed in ... While the vaccine is made with a live virus which can cause side effects, these are far fewer and less serious than the ...
Evidence of its cultivation by man is found since around 2000 BC. Alexander the Great and the Romans planted chestnut trees ... Chestnut mosaic virus is probably transmitted by the oak aphid Myzocallis castanicola. Root rot is caused by the honey fungus ... The cultivation of Castanea sativa (Mill.) in Europe, from its origin to its diffusion on a continental scale Archived ... Chestnut mosaic virus : Transmission by the aphid Myzocallis castanicola on Chestnut tree. By J.-C. Desvignes and D. Cornaggia ...
Prior to human cultivation, it consisted of just a few species, though the status of some as distinct species has yet to be ... the viral infections to which some of these ectoparasites serve as vectors such as the aphid-transmitted Citrus tristeza virus ... From there its cultivation spread into Micronesia and Polynesia by the Austronesian expansion (c. 3000-1500 BCE); and to the ... The agronomists of classical Rome made many references to the cultivation of citrus fruits within the limits of their empire. ...
... the Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 from 2004, the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa and onwards. As infectious diseases have ... Monardez researched these medicines and performed experiments to discover the possibilities of spice cultivation and medicine ... became hubs for spice cultivation and trade. The Spanish Empire also wanted to benefit from the international spice trade, so ... several strains of influenza and human papilloma virus. The long-known vaccine against Smallpox finally eradicated the disease ...
... as assessed through cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent techniques. Vaginal lactobacilli have been shown to ... Hydrogen peroxide-producing lactobacilli have been shown to inactivate HIV-1, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), Trichomonas ... "Characterization of vaginal microbial communities in adult healthy women using cultivation-independent methods". Microbiology. ...
Mosaic diseases in p. somniferum are caused by rattle virus and the Carlavirus. In 2006, a novel virus tentatively called " ... As an additional source of profit, the seeds of the same plants are sold for use in foods, so the cultivation of the plant is a ... Burma bans cultivation in certain provinces. In northern Burma bans have ended a century-old tradition of growing the opium ... The cultivation and manufacture of Indian opium was further centralized and controlled through a series of acts issued between ...
"Shima, capital of pearl cultivation, to host G-7 summit in 2016". Japan Times. 5 June 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2015. "G7 2016 ... like the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa. They will also discuss the promotion of universal health care. The G7 leaders ...
Harper, Glyn; Hart, Darren; Moult, Sarah; Hull, Roger (2004). "Banana streak virus is very diverse in Uganda". Virus Research. ... It is often used in the cultivation of fruit and vegetables, rice, wheat and other grains, sugar, corn, soybeans, palm oil and ... The desired outcomes of the farm are achieved without the need for more land cultivation or destruction of natural habitat; the ... Often thought of as inherently destructive, slash-and-burn or slash-and-char shifting cultivation have been practised in the ...
Cultivation of the vine subsequently spread to the Mediterranean and surrounding regions. Croatia once had several indigenous ... Both clones are being propagated in California under the aegis of Ridge Vineyards, although virus infections have delayed their ... the fad of hothouse cultivation faded in the 1850s as attention turned to the Concord and other grape varieties that could be ...
In 2011, transgenic cotton was found in Mexico among wild cotton, after 15 years of GMO cotton cultivation. Transgenic rapeseed ... Transgenic or genetically modified organisms, be they bacteria, viruses or fungi, serve many research purposes. Transgenic ...
D. odora is also susceptible to virus infection, which causes leaf mottling. All parts of the plant are poisonous to humans and ... D. odora 'Aureomarginata' has yellow edged leaves, and is hardier and more suitable to cultivation than the plain-leaved forms ...
"State Broadcaster-Turned-Citizen Journalist Incommunicado in Virus-Hit Wuhan". Radio Free Asia. 27 February 2020. "Opening the ... only the way is concentrate all energy on cultivation of the good nature of the heart, do not act in extreme, do not change ... "Northeast China Imposes Travel Restrictions Amid Surge in Virus Cases". Radio ...
The tulip breaking virus spreads only through buds, not seeds, and propagation is greatly slowed down by the virus. Cultivating ... Their popularity and cultivation in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands) is generally thought to have started in earnest ... It is now known that this effect is due to the bulbs being infected with a type of tulip-specific mosaic virus, known as the " ... As the flowers grew in popularity, professional growers paid higher and higher prices for bulbs with the virus, and prices rose ...
Cultivation of herbicide-resistant corn in the EU provides substantial farm-level benefits. Bt corn is a variant of maize that ... In 2007, South African researchers announced the production of transgenic maize resistant to maize streak virus (MSV), although ... After 14 years of cultivation and a cumulative total of 2 billion acres planted, no adverse health or environmental effects ... A 2002 review of the scientific literature concluded that "the commercial large-scale cultivation of current Bt-maize hybrids ...
However, Haiti continued to export coffee, which required little cultivation and grew semi-wild. The 1842 Cap-Haïtien ... most notably the epidemic of African swine fever virus-which, at the insistence of USAID officials, led to the slaughter of the ...
The only crop authorised for cultivation before the moratorium was Monsanto's MON 810. The next approval for cultivation was ... Viruses. 7 (8): 4254-81. doi:10.3390/v7082819. PMC 4576180. PMID 26264020. Perrez FX (2000). "Taking consumers seriously: the ... By the year 2010, the only GMO food crop with approval for cultivation in Europe was MON 810, a Bt expressing maize conferring ... In July 2012 the EU gave approval for an Irish trial cultivation of potatoes resistant to the blight that caused the Great ...
1954 The Cultivation of the Poliomyelitis Viruses in Tissue Culture Frederick Chapman Robbins - Biographical Memoirs of the ... Weller in 1954 for discovery of the possibility of growing poliomyelitis virus on various tissue media]". Wiad. Lek. 21 (24): ... a simplified method for the multiplication of poliomyelitis virus. Dreams of eradicating a terrifying disease". Acta Paediatr. ...
Cases of orchid fleck virus or OF-like viruses have been reported in Australia, Brazil, China, Columbia, Costa Rica, Denmark, ... Ensure proper environment for cultivation Work towards developing OFV-resistant plants through genetic engineering Once a plant ... Orchid fleck virus is a rhabdovirus with an unusual bipartite genome. J Gen Virol 87:2413-2421. Doi Y, Arai K, Yora K 1969. ... Orchid fleck virus, despite its presence worldwide, only affects a small spectrum of human life. Orchids are not used for food ...
The virus is spread by insects and shows as pale yellow or yellow-white leaves, leading to stunted plants that cannot not ... In 1904 he published a book dealing with the cultivation of fruit trees in Natal. In the same year he went to Brazil to bring ... Maize streak virus (MSV) was first observed by Fuller and described in his 1901 report as "mealie variegation" ('mealie' being ...
While the cultivation of mulberry was moving first steps in Northern Italy, silk made in Calabria reached a peak of 50% of the ... The epidemic grew to a massive scale, and after having attacked the silkworms, other viruses began to infect the mulberry trees ... Silk cultivation spread to Japan around 300 AD, and, by 552 AD, the Byzantine Empire managed to obtain silkworm eggs and were ... As the cultivation of mulberry was difficult in Northern and Continental Europe, merchants and operators used to purchase in ...
... founder of cultivation theory Piara Singh Gill (B.S. 1935, M.S. 1936) - pioneer in cosmic ray nuclear physics Alfred Gottschalk ... inventor of computer virus defense techniques Daniel Diermeier (M.A.) - chancellor at Vanderbilt University Anita Elberse (M.A ...
Cultivation of a Novel Type of Common-cold Virus in Organ Cultures Br Med J 1965; 1 :1467 doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5448.1467 ... Cultivation of a Novel Type of Common-cold Virus in Organ Cultures ... Cultivation of a Novel Type of Common-cold Virus in Organ Cultures ... Cultivation of a Novel Type of Common-cold Virus in Organ Cultures. Br Med J 1965; 1 doi: ...
FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE CULTIVATION OF VACCINE VIRUS IN LIFELESS MEDIA. Thomas M. Rivers, S. M. Ward ... In no instance were we able to show that the virus multiplied in the extract media. Both of these strains of virus, however, ... We have made ten attempts to cultivate vaccine virus in tissue extracts prepared according to the method described by Eagles ... chick embryo extracts were employed with a dermal strain of vaccine virus and with the Levaditi strain of neuro-vaccine virus. ...
THE USE OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS MODIFIED BY IN VITRO CULTIVATION FOR HUMAN IMMUNIZATION. Max Theiler, Hugh H. Smith ... The response of rhesus monkeys to a subcutaneous inoculation with varying amounts of virus modified by prolonged cultivation in ... THE USE OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS MODIFIED BY IN VITRO CULTIVATION FOR HUMAN IMMUNIZATION ... The immunity produced in monkeys, as measured by the antibody titer developed, has no relation to the amount of virus ...
"Virus Cultivation" by people in this website by year, and whether "Virus Cultivation" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Virus Cultivation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Virus Cultivation" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Virus Cultivation". ...
The same animals were not immune to typhus passage virus. Attempts to cultivate the virus from blood cultures or infected ... Dextrose-cystine-brain-veal agar, a medium known to be suitable for the cultivation of Past. tularensis was used. Incubation ... Summary Separate attempts were made to cultivate the virus of typhus fever from the blood of 10 cases of endemic typhus. ... Typhus Fever: Some Notes on the Cultivation of the Virus and on Active Immunity 1 * Hardy A. Kemp ...
Cultivation of Hepatitis B virus producing cell line HepG2.2.15 on microcarrier and functional characterization of the ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes acute and chronic liver inflammation. Especially the early phase of the HBV life cycle ... Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infektionen verursachen entzündliche Erkrankungen der Leber. Insbesondere die frühen Phasen des HBV ... One aim was to enhance HBV production of the cell line HepG2.2.15 by cultivation on microcarrier substrate. Analysis of protein ...
Tobacco mosaic virus symptoms on tobacco. Tobacco mosaic virus symptoms on orchid. Like other plant pathogenic viruses, TMV has ... The virus can live in soil for long periods of time. It can be passed on thru clones, visits to others grow rooms/sitesm etc ... The tobacco mosaic virus has been known to cause a production loss for flue cured tobacco of up to two percent in North ... I honestly think its a mistake to stay focused on tobacco mosaic virus when there are others that are just as bad and ...
... and L-glutamine uptake rates were indicative of cell growth prior to virus inoculation as well as environmental and/or nutrient ... was investigated for the production of attenuated hepatitis A virus antigen from anchorage-dependent MRC-5 cells. This reactor ... Cultivation of attenuated hepatitis A virus antigen in a titanium static mixer reactor.. @article{Junker1994CultivationOA, ... title={Cultivation of attenuated hepatitis A virus antigen in a titanium static mixer reactor.}, author={Beth Helene Junker and ...
a) Virus diseases. Mosaic, the brown streak and leaf curl of tobacco may attack leaves, stems and branches. Many parts of ... 1. Cassava cultivation. The plant. The cassava plant is a perennial that grows under cultivation to a height of about 2 4 m. ... Cassava cultivation increased after 1850 in the east African territories as a result of the efforts of Europeans and Arabs who ... CULTIVATION. Cassava is frequently cultivated as a temporary shade plant in young plantations of cocoa, coffee, rubber or oil ...
Suppression subtractive hybridization of Penaeus monodon hemocytes challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has ... Animal cultivation. Specific pathogen free black tiger shrimps, P. monodon, of about 20- and 3-g body weight, were obtained ... such as influenza virus [37] and herpes virus [38]-[39]. However, such protein functions remain unknown in invertebrates. ... Roles for herpes simplex virus type 1 UL34 and US3 proteins in disrupting the nuclear lamina during herpes simplex virus type 1 ...
Virus Cultivation- Purposes and Methods. Animal inoculation, Embryonated Eggs, Tissue Culture, Organ Culture, Explant Culture, ... Virus Cultivation, Virus Cultivation Methods, Virus Cultivation Purposes, Virus Cultivation Specimens Leave a comment Post ... The primary purposes of virus cultivation is: *To isolate and identify viruses in clinical samples. Demonstration of virus in ... Viruses, such as influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, mumps virus, and togavirus, when infect cell lines code for the ...
Pox viruses are the largest and the most complex of all viruses, belongs to the family poxviridae and causes a number of ... cultivation of pox viruses, cultivation of vaccinia virus, cultivation of variola virus, introduction to pox virus, morphology ... of pox viruses, morphology of vaccinia virus, morphology of variola virus, pox virus, poxviruses, vaccinia virus, variola virus ... INTRODUCTION TO POX VIRUSES. Pox viruses are the largest and the most complex of all viruses, belongs to the family poxviridae ...
However, the cultivation of viruses can be discussed under following heads: (i) cultivation of animal viruses, (ii) cultivation ... Cultivation of Plant Viruses There are several methods of cultivation of viruses such as plant tissue cultures, cultures of ... CULTIVATION OF VIRUSES As the viruses do not reproduce independent of living host cells, they cannot be cultured in the same as ... Cultivation of Bacteriophages. Bacterial viruses of bacteriophages (phages for short) are cultivated in either broth or agar ...
Virus morphology. Epidemiology. Patch Diseases. BACTERIAL DISEASES. Introduction and Various Mushroom Diseases Caused by ... Cultivation on Cottonseed Hulls in Gutian County, Fujian Province, China. Mixed Culture Cultivation of the "Golden Ear" ... Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact, 2nd Edition. By Philip G. Miles, Shu-Ting Chang. ... Technique of Cultivation of Straw Mushrooms in Green Poplar Village, Ping-shang County, Hebei Province, China ...
A Neurotropic Virus Isolated from the Blood of a Native of Uganda 1 K. C. Smithburn, T. P. Hughes, A. W. Burke and J. H. Paul ... Techniques for Hemagglutination and Hemagglutination-Inhibition with Arthropod-Borne Viruses D. H. Clarke and J. Casals ... The Use of Streptomycin in the Cultivation of Endameba Histolytica from Stools * Clifford L. Spingarn and Morton H. Edelman ...
Cultivation and Characterization of Viruses In: Concise Review of Veterinary Virology Author(s): ... The virus is said to be endemic in standard-breds.. Transmission. The virus is shed in excretions/secretions and transmission ... Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus of mice. *Simian hemorrhagic fever virus: Causes hemorrhagic fever in several species of ... Wild and laboratory mice infected with this virus remain persistently infected for life. The virus infects macrophages and ...
Cultivation and Characterization of Viruses In: Concise Review of Veterinary Virology Author(s): ... Families with Viruses of Minor Veterinary Significance. In: Concise Review of Veterinary Virology ... General Characteristics, Structure and Taxonomy of Viruses. In: Concise Review of Veterinary Virology ...
Why does Russia Plan to Stop GMO Cultivation and Imports?. by Guest Expert. 6 June 2014. 7 Comments ... Banning GMO imports, restricting GMO cultivation to research endeavors only, and allowing farmers to only plant GMO-free crops ... In September 2013, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev signed Decree 839, mentioned earlier, that would have allowed the cultivation ... Biofortified Blog Why does Russia Plan to Stop GMO Cultivation and Imports? ...
Full text: Available Index: IMSEAR (South-East Asia) Main subject: Virus Cultivation / Cell Line / Chlorocebus aethiops / ... Full text: Available Index: IMSEAR (South-East Asia) Main subject: Virus Cultivation / Cell Line / Chlorocebus aethiops / ... Cultivation of buffalo green monkey kidney cells persistently infected with hepatitis A virus. ... Different concentrations of FCS did not show any effect on the amount of virus produced. The cell line was maintained up to 46 ...
3Research Unit on AIDS, Medical Research Council (MRC)/Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI), P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda. 4 ... Xenic Cultivation and Genotyping of Pathogenic Free-Living Amoeba from Public Water Supply Sources in Uganda. Celsus Sente,1 ... 2.4.1. Xenic Cultivation of FLA from Water Samples. We used nonnutritive medium (Page Amoeba Saline solution of 2.5 mM NaCl, 1 ... "Parasitic sinusitis and otitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: report of five cases and review," ...
Cultivation of Oncogenic Viruses in Mosquito Cells in Vitro. Pages 161-164 ... Arthropod Cell Cultures and Their Application to the Study of Viruses. Editors. * Emilio Weiss ... Attenuation of Semliki Forest (SF) Virus in Continuously Cultured Aedes aegypti Mosquito Cells (Peleg) as a Step in Production ... Arthropod Cell Cultures and Their Application to the Study of Viruses. Editors: Weiss, Emilio (Ed.) ...
Floods wash away acres of cultivation in Keralas Alappuzha, water enters residential areas. Ani ... New Zealand records 100 days without domestic virus case but warns against complacency. Reuters ...
CULTIVATION OF TURNIPS AND RUTABAGAS Characteristics of turnip Drawing of turnip Photo of turnips - Turnips and rutabagas are ... Aphids and viruses. - Cabbage fly (Delia (Hylemnyia) brassicae). - Gall weevil. - Alticinae (flea beetles) ... CULTIVATION OF EARLY VARIETIES OF TURNIPS. Maintenance labours. - Labor soil deep and add compost at least 3 weeks before ... Plants flower in spring of the second year of cultivation. The inflorescence is a terminal raceme of yellow flowers ...
Wooded savannah with cultivation; over 3000 ft. ASL Microhabitat. Method of Storage until Inoculated. Vacutainer on water ice ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
Aphids and potato virus transmission. What are the most important aphids? Does it vary between England and Scotland? Where does ... Cultivation and planting: Potatoes. Our guidelines for the first stages in potato growing, including advice on late planting, ... Cultivation and planting: Potatoes. Our guidelines for the first stages in potato growing, including advice on late planting, ... What we know about potato virus and how to monitor and manage aphids ...
3. FISH data; Cultivation work; Associated virus-like particles*. 17:37. 4. KLPN1 study; Microbiota and metabolic health; ... Characterization of virus-like particles associated with the human faecal and caecal microbiota. Res Microbiol. 2014;165(10): ...
Biological, serological, and molecular characterization of Citrus tristeza virus isolates from different citrus cultivation ... Field surveys were carried out in 5 different citrus cultivation regions of Turkey in 2005 and 2006, and 201 samples were ... Samples were tested for the presence of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) by double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent ... The results revealed that potentially severe isolates of CTV are present in different citrus cultivation regions of Turkey. ...
Orbital shaken bioreactor for influenza A virus production in high cell density cultivations ... 2018). Orbital shaken bioreactor for influenza A virus production in high cell density cultivations. Poster presented at ... Orbital shaken bioreactor for influenza A virus production in high cell density cultivations Coronel, J., Behrendt, I., Bürgin ...
Virus snuffs out 5 lives in Jalandhar, 123 test +ve 21 hours ago ... Learning paddy cultivation techniques straight from their ...
Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus, and Pteropus spp. bats are the natural reservoir. From December 2010 through March 2014, ... Date palm cultivation. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations; 2002. ... Drinking tari might also be a route of exposure for other batborne viruses. A total of 55 newly described viruses from 7 virus ... Leroy EM, Kumulungui B, Pourrut X, Rouquet P, Hassanin A, Yaba P, Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus. Nature. 2005;438:575 ...
  • As the viruses do not reproduce independent of living host cells, they cannot be cultured in the same as bacteria and eukaryotic microorganisms. (
  • Embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) are sometimes used for the primary isolation or passage of influenza viruses, other viruses, and certain bacteria. (
  • Embryonated (embryonating) chicken eggs (ECE) have long been used for isolating or propagating influenza and other viruses and certain bacteria such as Rickettsia [ 1 - 5 ]. (
  • as for my agar spread it was devoid of all growth and what caused my emotion was that in a flash I understood: what causes my spots was in fact an invisible microbe, a filterable virus, but a virus parasitic on bacteria. (
  • The principles of cultivation of bacteria were laid down in the late 1870's by Robert Koch . (
  • Unlike bacteria and other microorganisms, virus is incapable of multiplying in artificial life less culture media. (
  • Comparative characterization of transfection- and infection-derived simian immunodeficiency virus challenge stocks for in vivo nonhuman primate studies. (
  • Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: Cultivation and Characterization of the Etiologic Agent (D. Walker). (
  • It describes the individual steps of the complex mushroom cultivation process, along with comprehensive coverage of mushroom breeding, efficient cultivation practices, nutritional value, medicinal utility, and environmental impact. (
  • It features new chapters on medicinal mushrooms and the effects of pests and diseases on mushroom cultivation. (
  • This book illustrates that mushroom cultivation has and will continue to have a positive global impact on long-term food nutrition, health care, environmental conservation and regeneration, and economic and social change. (
  • The name 'S.-T. Chang' is almost synonymous with the cultivation and use of mushrooms…the personal practical experience, depth of knowledge, and enthusiasms of the authors shine in these chapters, which are to me the heart of the book…this new edition of the essential reference work mycologists involved in mushroom cultivation turn to will surely also play a role in helping promote mushroom cultivation and use. (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes acute and chronic liver inflammation. (
  • White spot syndrome, caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), is the most serious viral disease in penaeid shrimps causing 100% mortality post infection [1] . (
  • The mechanism of WSSV infection and propagation in the host cell remains unknown in spite of its severe impact on the shrimp farming and that understanding of the virus-host interaction is likely to be the key point in developing strategies to prevention of this disease outbreak. (
  • The infection may produce a local tissue lesion known as pock, whose appearance often is characteristic of the virus. (
  • Following infection by the respiratory route the virus replicates in pulmonary macrophages and then in bronchial lymph nodes. (
  • Under a microscope, infected affected bud leaflets may have longer trichomes (hairs), but this may be caused by co-infection with mites and not the virus itself. (
  • Nipah virus (NiV) is a bat-borne emerging infection, and Pteropus spp. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases and is a global public health problem. (
  • An increase in potato plant infection with viruses over the past few years has led to considerable losses to the South African potato industry. (
  • The level of damage to crop is determined by the strain of PVY infecting the plants, the viral load, the time at which infection occurs as well as the tolerance the host possesses toward the virus. (
  • Once the "good" genetic changes are identified, CDC will then synthesize H3N2 viruses with those properties that can be used to make vaccine that offers better protection against H3N2 flu infection. (
  • Such a survey in Trinidad would reveal the identity of viruses associated with these outbreaks, and aid in determining the importance and contribution of begomovirus infection to the overall viral disease situation in tomato. (
  • General information regarding Ebola virus infection is available through the CDC Ebola Hotline (telephone {800} 900-0681). (
  • The green fruits have circles of a light green speck, while the infection is evident in mature tomatoes that have patches with a characteristic reddish yellowish discoloration .The best way to avoid the disease is prevention that focuses on both adequate measures to control the direct infection of the virus and stop the access of the transmission vector that propagates it. (
  • H9N2 Avian influenza virus (AVI) infection is a major cause of economic losses in poultry industry. (
  • Polymerase chain reaction, (PCR) based detection of a 500 bp amplicon from BBTV infected tissues and or a 600 bp amplicon from infection Brome mosaic virus (BMV) infected tissues confirmed the presence of the viruses in these plants. (
  • Infection of new host species requires the virus to bind to cell surface receptors, utilise foreign host cellular proteins whilst evading host restriction factors in order to replicate its genome, and finally transmit between individuals of the new host. (
  • Classification system for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children under 13 years of age. (
  • Spectrum of human T-cell lymphotropic virus Type III infection in children: recognition of symptomatic, asymptomatic, and seronegative patients. (
  • The symptoms were described as a mixture of dark green and light green areas, reflecting typical symptoms of a Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection on tobacco (Fig. 1A). (
  • Among numerous established human hepatoma cell lines, none has been shown susceptible to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. (
  • Instead of studying the virus itself he must be content to observe the animal's reaction to infection and try to deduce therefrom some information on the properties and the nature of viruses. (
  • In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, FDCs not only handle the viral antigens but also interact with infectious virions. (
  • The cellular cytoskeleton and endomembrane system are exploited by viruses to promote multiple steps of the infection cycle, including viral entry, genome replication, intracellular trafficking of viral components, viral assembly, and egress. (
  • The infection by both plant and human viruses can develop and be expressed in the population in various ways. (
  • Molecular Biology of BK Virus and Clinical and Basic Aspects of BK Virus Renal Infection (U. Moens & O. Rekvig). (
  • The Epidemiology of SV40 Infection Due to Contaminated Polio Vaccines: Relation of the Virus to Human Cancer (D. Rollison & K. Shah). (
  • They maintained the vaccinia virus by culture in tissues of rabbit cornea. (
  • Origin of Vaccinia virus is unknown. (
  • In addition, a method is provided for the administration of a therapeutically effective amount of the virus, or its recombinants, in a vaccinia virus prime/vaccinia virus boost innoculation regimen. (
  • 1. A vaccinia virus which is that virus deposited at the European Collection of Cell Cultures (ECACC), Salisbury (UK) under number V00083008 and derivatives thereof. (
  • 2. The vaccinia virus of the claim 1 , comprising at least one heterologous nucleic acid sequence. (
  • 3. The vaccinia virus of claim 2 , wherein the heterologous nucleic acid sequence codes for at least one antigen, antigenic epitope, or a therapeutic compound. (
  • 4. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the vaccinia virus of claim 1 and pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent and/or additive. (
  • 5. A vaccine comprising the vaccinia virus of claim 1 . (
  • 6. A method for affecting a specific immune response in a living animal body, comprising administering an amount of a vaccinia preparation which includes an effective amount of a vaccinia virus of claim 1 . (
  • 18. A vaccinia virus of claim 3 , wherein the heterologous nucleic acid codes for an HIV epitope. (
  • 19. A method for affecting an immune response against HIV in a living animal body, comprising administering an amount of a vaccinia preparation which includes an effective amount of a vaccinia virus of claim 18 . (
  • Maitland, M. C. Cultivation of vaccinia virus without tissue culture. (
  • In the studies conducted, arginine deficiency suppressed herpes simplex virus replication in tissue culture. (
  • Ranaviral replication is well-studied using the type species for the genus, frog virus 3 (FV3). (
  • Compatibility of lyotropic liquid crystals with viruses and mammalian cells that support the replication of viruses. (
  • We report a study that investigates the biocompatibility of materials that form lyotropic liquid crystals (LCs) with viruses and mammalian cells that support the replication of viruses. (
  • HuNoV replication studies have been hampered by the inability to grow the virus in cultured cells. (
  • Exploring closely related versions of the genes that produce ANP32A and its relative ANP32B in different species revealed the region of the protein that the virus relies on to support its replication. (
  • Demonstration of virus in appropriate clinical specimens by culture establishes diagnosis of viral diseases. (
  • Since then, most of the virus had been grown in tissue culture for diagnosis of viral diseases. (
  • Pox viruses are the largest and the most complex of all viruses, belongs to the family poxviridae and causes a number of diseases, are large enough to be seen under the light microscope. (
  • False-blossom virus and various types of fruit rot are the main diseases affecting cranberry plants. (
  • In order to develop strategies for controlling viral diseases in tomato, the relative distribution and incidence of seven viruses that commonly infect tomato were determined. (
  • In studies involving three monkeys experimentally infected with Ebola virus (Reston strain), fever and other systemic signs of illness preceded detection of infectious virus in the pharynx by 2-4 days, in the nares by 5-10 days, in the conjunctivae by 5-6 days, and on anal swabs by 5-6 days (P. Jahrling, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, unpublished data, 1995). (
  • KAMPALA, Feb 13 2013 (IPS) - Unless African smallholder farmers, who comprise the majority of food growers on the continent, are given the tools and knowledge to cope with the increased occurrences of plant virus diseases, the livelihoods of millions will be at stake, according to Nteranya Sanginga, the director general of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. (
  • Poor smallholder farmers, who are the majority of food growers and the bulk of the population, are bearing the brunt of these virus diseases with their limited resources," Sanginga told IPS. (
  • Omongo said that if given the knowledge, smallholder farmers can prevent plant virus diseases from spreading. (
  • Hepatitis B, one of the major infectious diseases worldwide, is caused by a small enveloped DNA virus, the hepatitis B virus (HBV). (
  • Turning to the virus diseases we meet an entirely different picture. (
  • Worst of all, many virus diseases are on the increase, a tendency particularly evident in poliomyelitis. (
  • With the pathogen SARS-CoV-2, a novel virus that can cause respiratory diseases and pneumonia has been spreading worldwide since the end of 2019. (
  • Inhibition of CKII kinase in infected primary hepatocytes and destruction of the identified CKII recognition site in the viral polymerase impaired virus production. (
  • Suppression subtractive hybridization of Penaeus monodon hemocytes challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has identified the viral responsive gene, Pm VRP15, as the highest up-regulated gene ever reported in shrimps. (
  • Isolation of virus is always considered as a gold standard for establishing viral etiology of a disease. (
  • For example, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the specimen of choice for diagnosis of viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by arboviruses, picornavirus, or rabies virus. (
  • Experimental animals are rarely used for cultivation of viruses but play an essential role in study of pathogenesis of viral infections and that of viral oncogenesis. (
  • The genus Ranavirus is composed of 6 recognized viral species, 3 of which are known to infect amphibians (Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV), Bohle iridovirus (BIV), and frog virus 3). (
  • viral cultivation and biopsy samples may also be used. (
  • Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a viral disease caused by Ebola virus that results in nonspecific symptoms (see symptom section of this article) early in the disease and often causes internal and external hemorrhage (bleeding) as the disease progresses. (
  • The disclosure relates to a method of inhibiting synthesis of viral DNA in a mammal infected with a hepatitis B virus. (
  • 36. A method according to claim 31, wherein the hepatitis B virus comprises a hepatitis B virus having one or more mutations in a viral reverse transcriptase gene. (
  • is susceptible to many viruses, and considerable yield losses and diminished fruit quality can occur due to single or multiple viral infections (3). (
  • PYMTV was considered to be the causal agent of viral epidemics in tomato in Trinidad since the late 1980s (24), but no empirical studies have been carried out to determine the relative importance of begomoviruses versus other tomato-infecting viruses such as cucumoviruses, potyviruses, and tobamoviruses. (
  • The negative sense RNA genome of influenza A virus (IAV) is replicated in the cell nucleus using a virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a heterotrimer composed of the polymerase basic 1 (PB1), polymerase basic 2 (PB2) and polymerase acidic (PA) proteins together with nucleoprotein (NP) that surrounds the viral RNA, forming the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) ( Te Velthuis and Fodor, 2016 ). (
  • Transport of neo-synthesized influenza A virus (IAV) viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) from the nucleus to the plasma membrane involves Rab 11 but the precise mechanism remains poorly understood. (
  • However, the cultivation of viruses can be discussed under following heads: (i) cultivation of animal viruses, (ii) cultivation of plant viruses, and (iii) cultivation of bacteriophages. (
  • Potato virus Y (PVY) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae, and one of the most important plant viruses affecting potato production. (
  • Potyvirus is the largest genus of plant viruses, and possibly the most destructive one in potato crops. (
  • Plant viruses are spreading rapidly to new places, frustrating efforts to boost the food security and livelihoods of millions of people. (
  • Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), sweet potato virus disease, maize streak virus and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), are just a few of the plant viruses that have been prevalent in Africa in the recent past. (
  • Luyiga and farmers like him rarely have access to agricultural advisory and extension services that could provide them with the knowledge on how to identify and deal with the plant viruses. (
  • Otim-Nape added that the number of trained plant virologists in Africa was far too low to provide an adequate response to deal with the many plant viruses. (
  • In the case of plant viruses, there is no cure for the infected plant, since plants lack a real immune system of the type animals and humans have. (
  • The strategy used in the case of plant viruses is very similar. (
  • Avoidance or prevention are the best strategy for plant viruses and are efficient for specific human populations (high risk groups) in the case of human viruses. (
  • It is better and more cost effective to make every effort to prevent the virus from entering our fields or greenhouses, in the case of plant viruses, or into countries or communities in the case of human viruses. (
  • These newly produced virus particles (virions) infect the adjacent cells. (
  • these viruses infect humans and nonhuman primates. (
  • The influence of these materials on the ability of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to infect human epitheloid cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells was examined by two approaches. (
  • Influenza A viruses (IAV) infect a wide range of host species but originate from wild birds. (
  • a disease caused by a virus agent is based on a pathogen (virus), a host to infect and the environment providing the conditions to propagate in the host. (
  • These viruses usually infect mammals, rodents, and birds, but only few coronaviruses adapted to humans. (
  • Mouse is most frequently used for isolation of viruses by animal inoculation. (
  • Furthermore, infant (suckling) mice are used for isolation of coxsackie virus and rabies virus. (
  • Inoculation in the amniotic cavity is used mainly for primary isolation of influenza virus. (
  • Nowadays, in a virology laboratory, chick embryo inoculation has been replaced by cell cultures for routine isolation of viruses. (
  • This was used earlier for the isolation of some viruses, which appear to show affinity for certain tissue organs. (
  • Isolation and cultivation of FDCs. (
  • The response of rhesus monkeys to a subcutaneous inoculation with varying amounts of virus modified by prolonged cultivation in vitro has been studied. (
  • More recently developed in vitro cultivation of animal viruses has eliminated the need to kill the animals. (
  • The participation of alloantigen stimulation in co-cultivation procedures is discussed, and it is stressed that factors other than alloantigen stimulation might be required for the efficient immortalization of human T-lymphocytes in vitro by HTLV. (
  • Chimeric Virus-like Particles (VLPs) decorated with VSPs and expressing model surface antigens, such as influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), are protected from degradation and activate antigen presenting cells in vitro. (
  • We have made ten attempts to cultivate vaccine virus in tissue extracts prepared according to the method described by Eagles and Kordi (4). (
  • Both of these strains of virus, however, multiplied in media containing bits of minced viable tissue. (
  • Monkeys inoculated subcutaneously with the tissue culture virus are rendered immune to a subsequent injection of a highly virulent yellow fever virus. (
  • The sera taken from the eight vaccinated persons 2 to 4 weeks after inoculation with the tissue culture virus showed the presence of yellow fever antibodies. (
  • Attempts to cultivate the virus from blood cultures or infected tissue (guinea pig tunica vaginalis) on Kendall's "K" medium, both liquid and solid, were completely unsuccessful. (
  • Additional evidence obtained from tissue culture seems to show that the virus is an obligatory parasite. (
  • Different types of tissue cultures are used to grow viruses. (
  • Tissue cultures of monkey kidney, HeLa & chick embryo cell can be used to grow these viruses. (
  • There are several methods of cultivation of viruses such as plant tissue cultures, cultures of separated cells, or cultures of protoplasts, etc. (
  • Comparisons of virus titers calculated as 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID 50 ) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and 50% egg infectious dose (EID 50 ) in ECE of two influenza viruses strains grown in the chorioallantoic sac (CAS) of ECE (incubated prone, with air sac atop) are given in Table 1 . (
  • The virus is cultured in the laboratory from samples of infected tissue. (
  • In this study tissue tropism and dissemination of A/chicken/Iran/11T/99(H9N2) virus in various organs of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were investigated. (
  • The skin is one target tissue of the human pathogen herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). (
  • We established a reverse genetics system driven by a mammalian elongation factor-1α promoter without helper virus. (
  • We established a reverse genetics system driven by a mammalian promoter that functions without helper virus. (
  • The EF-1α mammalian promoter expression system provides the first reverse genetics system, to our knowledge, generalizable for human and animal NoVs that does not require a helper virus. (
  • Comparison of multivariate data analysis techniques to improve glucose concentration prediction in mammalian cell cultivations by Raman spectroscopy. (
  • monoclonal antibody producing mammalian cell cultivations. (
  • In this study, four mammalian cell cultivation runs were followed with Raman spectroscopy and the spectra were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively as well. (
  • We show here that the gene currently designated as avian ANP32B is evolutionarily distinct from mammalian ANP32B, and that chicken ANP32B does not support IAV polymerase activity even of human-adapted viruses. (
  • Inoculation in the allantoic cavity is used for serial passages and for obtaining large quantities of virus, such as influenza virus, yellow fever (17D strain), and rabies (Flury strain) viruses for preparation of vaccines. (
  • Virus production techniques were originally developed for the manufacture of vaccines, but they are now becoming more important in other areas of the biopharmaceutical industry [ 1 ]. (
  • CDC is using this Next Generation-Sequencing (NGS) technology to monitor genetic changes in influenza viruses in order to better understand and improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccines. (
  • With your donation you can support them in developing drugs and vaccines against the virus or in deciphering the mechanisms of disease development and progression. (
  • For example with chickenpox there is one virus and one vaccine, why then with the flu are there countless strains and a new vaccine every year? (
  • Moorhead, P. S. The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains. (
  • Similar to Rose yellow mosaic virus, the genome of LWBaV does not include conserved aphid transmission motifs, and thus is not thought to be transmitted by aphids. (
  • Ranaviruses are large icosahedral DNA viruses measuring approximately 150 nm in diameter with a large single linear dsDNA genome of roughly 105 kbp which codes for around 100 gene products. (
  • Understanding ANP32 function will help develop antiviral strategies and aid the design of influenza virus resilient genome edited chickens. (
  • HPyV are small (40-50 nm in diameter) double-stranded DNA viruses with a circular genome that encodes several proteins, among them the large tumor (T) antigen ( 6 ). (
  • For production of rabies virus, duck eggs were used due to their bigger size than that of hen's egg. (
  • This helped in production of large quantities of rabies virus, which are used for preparation of the inactivated non-neural rabies vaccine. (
  • If the virus is virulent, they cause lysis of cells and virus particles are released in the surrounding medium. (
  • The industrial-scale manufacturing of viruses or virus-like particles in cell culture is necessary for gene therapy and the treatment of cancer with oncolytic viruses. (
  • Complex multistep processes are required in both cases, but the low virus titers in batch cultures and the temperature sensitivity of the virus particles limit the production scale. (
  • Viruses for in vivo applications show a limited affinity for their target cells, they are generally unstable and large doses of infective virus particles (up to 10 12 active virus particles per dose) are needed to achieve a therapeutic effect. (
  • Progeny virus produced from the transfected cells contained the complete NoV genomic RNA (VP1, VP2, and VPg) and exhibited the same density in isopycnic cesium chloride gradients as native infectious NoV particles from a patient's stool. (
  • Here, it turns the more active and incites a process which may, sometimes within a few minutes, lead to cell destruction and the production of hundreds of new virus particles. (
  • An important component of microbiology concerns the knowledge of cultivation techniques, gene expression, microbial biotechnology, microbe-host interactions and host defense. (
  • Various type A and B influenza viruses were grown to levels acceptable for our applications in ECE in ethylene breather bags. (
  • Flu ( influenza ) is a serious disease caused by influenza viruses. (
  • These changes can impact how well the flu vaccine works, or can also result in the emergence of new influenza viruses against which people have no preexisting immunity, triggering a pandemic. (
  • Year round, scientists from CDC, World Health Organization (WHO), and other partners monitor the influenza viruses that are infecting people. (
  • The technology allows CDC to study more influenza viruses faster and in more detail than ever before. (
  • For example, in some years certain influenza viruses may not appear and spread until later in the influenza season, making it difficult to prepare a candidate vaccine virus in time for vaccine production. (
  • In fact, avian influenza viruses continually threaten to spark new outbreaks in humans, but pandemics do not occur often. (
  • In 2016, researchers discovered that species differences in a cell protein called ANP32A pose a key barrier that avian influenza viruses have to overcome. (
  • Moreover, if avian influenza viruses mutate further in an infected person, a new pandemic could begin. (
  • Stopping influenza viruses from replicating in chickens would prevent people from being exposed to these dangerous viruses, whilst also improving the welfare of the chickens. (
  • The risk for person-to-person transmission of hemorrhagic fever viruses is highest during the latter stages of illness, which are characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, shock, and often hemorrhage. (
  • or 3) worked in a laboratory or animal facility that handles hemorrhagic fever viruses. (
  • CDC is using next-generation gene sequencing tools to analyze flu viruses as part of CDC's Advanced Molecular Detection (AMD) initiative. (
  • Cultivation is a common source of pesticide residues, and unfavourable harvest conditions may give rise to mycotoxins by pathogenic fungi. (
  • We have acquired knowledge and practices in fighting pests and viruses that may threaten the yields and the quality of our varieties - our products. (
  • PVYC, originally known as Potato Virus C, was the first to be recognized and was identified in the 1930s. (
  • Some notes on suspected variant of Solanum virus 2 (Potato virus Y). This strain was described in tobacco plants growing close to potato plants. (
  • The importance in effective and stringent monitoring of aphid populations is stressed in a review by Radcliffe and Ragsdale (2002) as PVY virions are introduced to potato fields almost solely by winged aphids from a virus source outside these fields. (
  • Of the 362 samples tested, Potato yellow mosaic Trinidad virus (PYMTV) was found in every farm except two and was present at relatively high incidence throughout the country. (
  • In Trinidad, the only tomato-infecting begomovirus reported to date is Potato yellow mosaic Trinidad virus (PYMTV) (24), although many other tomato-infecting begomoviruses have been reported in the wider Caribbean region (14). (
  • PYMTV is a double recombinant begomovirus and has since been classified as a species distinct from Potato yellow mosaic virus (PYMV), which was first identified in Venezuela (18). (
  • The last survey of tomato-infecting viruses in the Caribbean region prior to the emergence of begomoviruses in tomato was carried out by Haque (1974) who identified Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and two other viruses, Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). (
  • The present book covers complete details of potato cultivation and processing in proper manner. (
  • The viruses are isolated in different sites of the egg, such as yolk sac, amniotic cavity, and allantoic cavity, and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). (
  • For convenience, the myxoma virus grows well on the chorioallantoic membrane, whereas the mumps virus prefers the allantoic cavity. (
  • These include a marked decrease in the effectiveness and administration of chemicals used in vector control, the use of infected seed potatoes in cultivation, incorrect irrigation and farming methods as well as a lack of a sensitive, rapid and reliable method of detection. (
  • Cassava cultivation increased after 1850 in the east African territories as a result of the efforts of Europeans and Arabs who were pushing into the interior and who recognized its value as a safeguard against the frequent periods of famine. (
  • the areas under cassava cultivation are increasing rapidly. (
  • Chris Omongo, a cassava breeder at Uganda's National Agricultural Crop Resources Research Institute , told IPS that some farming practices have aided the spread of the viruses. (
  • Subsequently, Maitland (1928) used cut tissues in nutrient media for cultivation of vaccine viruses. (
  • Each infectious virus particle produces one pock. (
  • Bioprocess design for virus or virus vector production therefore depends strongly on the virus/host cell interactions and the kinetics of virus particle synthesis and virus release. (
  • Virus-like particle (4108). (
  • Virus-like particle (4109). (
  • One aim was to enhance HBV production of the cell line HepG2.2.15 by cultivation on microcarrier substrate. (
  • Cell culture is most widely used in diagnostic virology for cultivation and assays of viruses. (
  • The clonal cell lines suspended in suitable media are infected with any desired virus which replicates inside the multiplying cells. (
  • Animal viruses, in particular, can cause microscopic or macroscopic degenerative changes or abnormalities in host cells and in tissues called cytopathic effects, cytopathic effects may be lethal, but plaque formation from cell lysis does not always occur. (
  • Studies were carried out to determine the effect of prolongation of incubation periods, cocultivation with normal buffalo green monkey kidney (BGMK) cells and different concentrations of foetal calf serum (FCS) on the production of hepatitis A virus (HAV) by BGMK cell line persistently infected with HAV strain HM175. (
  • The cell line was maintained up to 46 passages during which there was continuous production of HAV in the cells and release of small amounts of virus in the culture supernatants. (
  • Supernatant derived virus was a highly suitable inoculum for infecting other susceptible cell lines . (
  • Human adult peripheral blood lymphocytes were successfully immortalized by co-cultivation with irradiated autologous and homologous T-cell lines harbouring human T-cell leukaemia virus-I (HTLV-I). The efficiency of transformation was the same in both cases. (
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Immortalization of human lymphocytes by co-cultivation with lethally irradiated autologous T-cell lines harbouring human T-cell leukaemia virus-I'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (
  • Immortalization of human lymphocytes by co-cultivation with lethally irradiated autologous T-cell lines harbouring human T-cell leukaemia virus-I . Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology , 110 (1), 82-84. (
  • Comparative studies on cultivation of buffalo pox virus in pup kidney and chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture. (
  • These requirements are met by establishing a cell culture process that matches the properties of the virus/host-cell system and by using serum-free cell culture medium. (
  • This chapter focuses on two case studies to consider the different aspects of process design, such as the reactor configuration and operational mode: the continuous production of retroviral pseudotype vectors in a retroviral packaging cell line and the production of oncolytic measles virus vectors for cancer therapy. (
  • Second, VSV was incubated in LC phases of either C(14)AO + D or DSCG for 4 h, and the concentration (titer) of infectious virus in the LC was determined by dilution into cell culture medium and subsequent inoculation of HeLa cells. (
  • Using these approaches, we found that the LC containing C(14)AO + D caused inactivation of virus as well as cell death. (
  • Control experiments using cell lysates with equivalent protein concentrations but no virus did not perturb the uniform alignment of the LC. (
  • The present invention provides an attenuated virus, which is derived from Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus and characterized by the loss of its capability to reproductively replicate in human cell lines. (
  • cell cultivations by Raman spectroscopy. (
  • The proteins that make up this machinery are often slightly different in different species, and so a virus that can replicate in cells of one species might not be able to do so when it invades a cell from another species. (
  • Natural history of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in-fections in hemophiliacs: Effects of T-cell sub-sets, Platelet Counts, and Age. (
  • hu-man T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) embryopathie. (
  • Some of the earliest studies on interferon focused on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-carrying Burkitt's lymphoma (BL)-derived cell lines. (
  • Cell lines that spontaneously produced IFN-α were refractory to superinfection with EBV, suggesting that this protein blocked cellular susceptibility to the virus ( 1 ). (
  • The large T antigen regulates the life cycle of the virus as well as stimulates the cell cycle of the host cell. (
  • Hsp90 inhibitor 17-DMAG decreases expression of conserved herpesvirus protein kinases and reduces virus production in Epstein-Barr virus-infected cells. (
  • Artificial virus' that doesn't occur in nature and may have evolved from smallpox or cowpox virus. (
  • Researchers are trying to understand the Ebola virus and pinpoint its ecological reservoirs to better understand how Ebola outbreaks occur. (
  • One example of how AMD technology is used in vaccine development is to address mutations that may occur in vaccine viruses during growth in eggs used in the production of vaccine viruses. (
  • Many of the infections occur through the wounds made with infected tools or by transmission of the virus from the hands or clothes of the horticulturist to the plant. (
  • Samples were tested for the presence of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) by double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (
  • These viruses were detected by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) using specific polyclonal antibodies for Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) and Cauliflower mosaic virus (CMV). (
  • Two μL of purified DNA were analyzed for the human PyVs BKV, JCV, KIV, WUV, MCV, HPyV6, HPyV7, and TSV, as well as the monkey PyVs SV40 and LPV by a novel polyoma virus genotyping assay. (
  • Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infektionen verursachen entzündliche Erkrankungen der Leber. (
  • Cultivation of attenuated hepatitis A virus antigen in a titanium static mixer reactor. (
  • The titanium static mixer reactor, demonstrated for a variety of vaccine processes during the late 197s, was investigated for the production of attenuated hepatitis A virus antigen from anchorage-dependent MRC-5 cells. (
  • Cultivation of buffalo green monkey kidney cells persistently infected with hepatitis A virus. (
  • This method includes administering at least one Phyllanthus component or substance to a mammal infected with the hepatitis B virus. (
  • 31. A method according to claim 30, wherein the hepatitis B virus comprises a hepatitis B virus resistant to at least one nucleoside analogue. (
  • 34. A method according to claim 30, wherein administering comprises contacting the hepatitis B virus with the Phyllanthus component or substance. (
  • 35. A method according to claim 31, wherein the hepatitis B virus comprises a hepatitis B virus resistant to the nucleoside analogue Lamivudine or the nucleoside analogue Famciclovir. (
  • 37. A method according to claim 30, further comprising inhibiting amplification of the hepatitis B virus in the mammal using the Phyllanthus component or substance. (
  • In addition, we analyzed these NETs for the presence of DNA from 12 adeno-associated virus (AAV) genotypes, adeno virus-5, 27 mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, hepatitis B (HBV), 8 human herpes viruses (HHV), and xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV). (
  • Secreted virus is infectious for Huh7 cells and infectivity can be neutralized by CD81-specific antibodies and by immunoglobulins from chronically infected individuals. (
  • To enter its human host, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) must overcome the barrier of mucosal surfaces, skin, or cornea. (
  • Mushrooms: Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact, Second Edition presents the latest cultivation and biotechnological advances that contribute to the modernization of mushroom farming and the mushroom industry. (
  • This book] forms a comprehensive and up-to-date source of information for all interested in edible and medicinal mushrooms and their cultivation. (
  • The virus has a wide host range, where more than 93 species of arthropods have been reported as hosts or carriers of WSSV [11] . (
  • It has only one genus, Arterivirus , whose virus species are antigenically distinct from each other. (
  • Simian hemorrhagic fever virus: Causes hemorrhagic fever in several species of African monkeys. (
  • Field surveys were carried out in 5 different citrus cultivation regions of Turkey in 2005 and 2006, and 201 samples were collected from different citrus species. (
  • Longan witches broom-associated virus (LWBD or LWBaV) is a species of positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that has not been assigned to a genus within the family Potyviridae. (
  • The official name for the species of virus is Longan witches broom-associated virus, properly written in italics, capitalized, and with no apostrophe. (
  • Within the species, there is one noted member virus, longan witches' broom-associated virus, which is not italicized or capitalized, but does include the apostrophe. (
  • Because of the insect vectors, it is possible the virus is related to one afflicting lychee, and can be spread to that species via grafting. (
  • Influenza A viruses (IAV) are subject to species barriers that prevent frequent zoonotic transmission and pandemics. (
  • Infected plants have however, tested positive for Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). (
  • Plants flower in spring of the second year of cultivation. (
  • The virus was found in symptomatic plants and absent in healthy plants, but not all of Koch's postulates have been fulfilled. (
  • Recent field inspections have revealed that symptoms observed in virus-infected tomato plants in Trinidad are, for the most part, caused by mosaic-inducing viruses. (
  • Antiviral Research publishes full-length original articles, short definitive papers and review articles pertaining to the effective control of virus infections in animals and man as well as in plants or lower organisms. (
  • It is a virus that has spread throughout the world, often through infected ornamental plants (geraniums, hydrangeas, dahlias, springs, petunias, coleos, etc)It produces dark bronze stains on the leaves, black bands on the petioles of the leaves or on the stems, leaf necrosis or dryness of the ends. (
  • It affects even more plants than the previous virus (about 190 plants). (
  • The rouged plants were destroyed by burning at the end of growing season, (4) Spraying the plants and weeds with malathion and cilecron every two weeks alternatively to kill the aphid vectors from the first April to end of growing season is December, (5) Eradication of woods and grasses from plantations (secondary virus hosts) by digging up and inherbicide. (
  • As a result of intensive cultivation, tobacco depletes the soil of essential nutrients and the plants become more susceptible to disease. (
  • This is because these viruses must undergo several adaptations before they can replicate in and spread between people. (
  • including some of the researchers involved in the 2016 study - show that the avian influenza virus cannot replicate in chicken cells that lack ANP32A. (
  • Unlike most RNA viruses, influenza A viruses (IAV) replicate in the nucleus of infected cells. (
  • Viruses can only replicate by controlling the bio-synthetic machinery of the host cells. (
  • Specimens for virus-specific diagnostic tests should be sent to CDC as rapidly as possible according to instructions provided when contact is made. (
  • First off, we are not pathologists, we are independent researchers and farmers, but we feel confident that this pathogen is a virus. (
  • We evaluated the impact of the domestication of maize from teosinte and the widespread cultivation of maize on the historical demography of Ustilago maydis , a fungal pathogen of maize. (
  • We examined the impacts of maize domestication and subsequent cultivation throughout the Americas on the evolution of the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis , an obligate fungal pathogen of maize. (
  • What follows is a brief review of the origins of our understanding of "the nature of the virus," deciphering the basis of host-pathogen interaction, and vignettes of the early TMV workers who developed many of the tools and techniques that have become part of the definition of what it is "to be" a virologist or "to do" virology. (
  • In this fight against viruses, it is key to understand that every pathogen has a disease cycle, which is the way the virus infects, reproduces and spreads. (
  • This family of enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses, established in 1996, was classified formerly in the Togaviridae family. (
  • Dextrose-cystine-brain-veal agar, a medium known to be suitable for the cultivation of Past. (
  • Suitable living mammals (such as sheep or calves or rabbits) are selected for cultivation of viruses. (
  • Suitable for spring, summer, and fall cultivation. (
  • It is a virus that infects Solanaceae such as potatoes, peppers and tomatoes or other wild herbs of the same family. (
  • Virus growth occurred regardless of the inoculation route/site and storage orientation (prone or horizontal) of the egg (data not shown). (
  • CDC will test all of the viruses to find out what genetic changes cause a good immune response and good growth in eggs. (
  • To prepare viruses for vaccine production. (
  • The embryonated egg is also used for growing higher titre stocks of some viruses in research laboratories and for vaccine production. (
  • Different production stages within cultivation and production are subject to different contamination types. (
  • The production of viruses with clinical applications also raises important product safety requirements [ 4 ]. (
  • There is no overall optimal process for virus production, and each system must be optimized on a case-by-case basis. (
  • In this chapter, we introduce two virus production processes as case studies, emphasizing the differences in process design. (
  • The Ranaviruses, like the Megalocytiviruses, are an emerging group of closely related dsDNA viruses which cause systemic infections in a wide variety of wild and cultured fresh and saltwater fishes. (
  • Single infections of either virus were more common than double infections and multiple infections were rare but present. (
  • however, begomovirus disease management strategies will also have to accommodate control measures that target virus complexes in those areas affected by such multiple infections. (
  • A farmer survey conducted between July and August 2002 indicated that at least 40% of yield losses was due to virus infections. (
  • Hu-man-immunodeficiency-virus infections in infants negative for anti-HIV by enzyme-linked immunoassay. (
  • Now, in 2020, most people comprehend this logic as the world faces a critical and challenging period due to the COVID-19 human virus pandemic. (
  • Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites so they depend on host for their survival. (
  • Viruses are Obligate intracellular parasites. (
  • However, maintenance of cultures beyond this period was found to yield substantially higher quantities of virus . (
  • Apr s un moratoire de trois mois, le gouvernement a d cid de geler les cultures de ma s MON 810 en 2008. (
  • John Enders, director of the Children's Hospital's Research Laboratory and his associates Thomas Weller and Frederick Robbins reported the successful cultivation of the poliomyelitis virus in test-tube cultures of human tissues. (
  • Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Tobacco etch virus (TEV) were found in fewer farms and at lower incidences while the other viruses were absent. (
  • Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The Beginning of Plant Pathology. (
  • Interestingly, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and its economic hosts in the Solanaceae , such as tobacco and tomato, also find their origins in the Americas. (
  • Renal, testicular, and chick embryo extracts were employed with a dermal strain of vaccine virus and with the Levaditi strain of neuro-vaccine virus. (
  • Nevertheless, one cannot examine the results of our work recorded in the six tables without recognizing the fact that in the types of media used the presence of viable cells appears to be essential for the multiplication of vaccine virus. (
  • These mutations can change the vaccine virus so much that the immune response to vaccination may not protect as well against circulating viruses. (
  • This can make vaccine virus selection very challenging. (
  • A method is provided for inducing an immune response in individuals who may be immune-compromised, receiving antiviral therapy, or have a pre-existing immunity to the vaccine virus. (
  • One of the main reasons that the virus is challenging, is due to its' RNA polymerase. (
  • The polymerase of influenza is very mistake prone and causes the virus to mutate rapidly. (
  • The infected animals are then sacrificed and infected tissues are examined for the presence of viruses by various tests, and also for inclusion bodies in infected tissues. (
  • Instead of comparing sequences of RNA nucleotides directly, transcribing the RNA nucleotide sequence into an amino acid sequence yields Rose yellow mosaic virus (RoYMV), the sole member of the monotypic genus Roymovirus, as the closest relative of LWBaV. (
  • Therefore, the objectives of this study were (i) to determine the etiology of the mosaic disease affecting tomato, and (ii) to investigate the incidence and distribution of seven tomato-infecting viruses in tomato crops and selected nurseries throughout Trinidad. (
  • Among the most characteristic symptoms is the loss of color between the veins of the young leaves that then increases to form the typical mottle of the mosaic viruses.In times of great heat and dryness, it can produce large dry patches on the leaves. (
  • and intermediate resistance to lettuce mosaic virus. (
  • Banning GMO imports, restricting GMO cultivation to research endeavors only, and allowing farmers to only plant GMO-free crops may be Russia's new strategy to increase agricultural profits. (
  • However tobacco, as all other successful crops, is often subject to continuous cultivation as monocultures (planting large tracts of a single crop, often times year-after-year in the same plot of land). (
  • The virus causing classical smallpox was called Variola major that causing alastrim called Variola minor, are antigenically identical but differs in certain biological characteristics. (
  • He has discovered several new insect viruses isolated from aphids, leafhoppers, psyllids, and fire ants. (
  • In the last two decades outbreaks of this virus in commercial shrimp aquaculture farms have been reported in Asia and America [1] - [7] . (