Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Diseases of plants.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA found in most lakes and ponds. It has been used as a nutritional supplement particularly due to its high protein content.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)

Propagation of Semliki Forest virus in various human lymphoblastoid cell lines. (1/1664)

Semliki Forest virus (SFV) propagation was studied in one marmoset and eight human lymphoblastoid cell lines. In eight of these cell lines SFV propagated well. Only in the Daudi (human) cell line virus replication was suppressed. This suppression takes place after virus adsorption but before virus inhibitory effects on cell functions.  (+info)

The clinical utility of CMV surveillance cultures and antigenemia following bone marrow transplantation. (2/1664)

At our institution, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis protocol for allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients who are CMV-seropositive or receive marrow from a CMV-seropositive donor consists of a surveillance bronchoscopy approximately 35 days posttransplant. Patients with a positive surveillance bronchoscopy for CMV receive pre-emptive ganciclovir. In order to determine the utility of other screening methods for CMV, we prospectively performed weekly CMV antigenemia, and blood, urine and throat cultures from time of engraftment to day 120 post-BMT in 126 consecutive patients. Pre-emptive ganciclovir was given to 11/81 patients (13.6%) because of a positive surveillance bronchoscopy for CMV. Results of CMV blood, urine and throat cultures and the antigenemia assay done prior to or at the time of the surveillance bronchoscopy were analyzed for their ability to predict the bronchoscopy result. The antigenemia test had the highest positive and negative predictive values (72% and 96%, respectively). The ability of these tests to predict CMV disease was evaluated in the 70 patients with a negative surveillance bronchoscopy who did not receive pre-emptive ganciclovir. Of 19 cases of active CMV disease, CMV antigenemia was positive in 15 patients (79%) a mean of 34 days preceding symptoms. Blood cultures were positive in 14/19 patients (74%) a mean of 31 days before onset of disease. CMV antigenemia is useful for predicting the surveillance bronchoscopy result, and also predicts the development of CMV disease in the majority of patients missed by the surveillance bronchoscopy.  (+info)

Infection of apheresis cells by parvovirus B19. (3/1664)

Parvovirus B19 is the only member of the Parvoviridae family known to cause disease in humans. Owing to the high level of cell tropism the virus can only replicate in proliferating and differentiating erythroid precursor cells, which are present in human bone marrow and foetal liver. As human bone marrow is very difficult to obtain, an alternative in vitro system for the propagation of B19 virus has been developed, based on the application of mobilized haemapoietic progenitor (apheresis) cells. These cells are routinely harvested from cancer patients after treatment with recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Replication of parvovirus B19 in vitro is possible in these cells after stimulation with erythropoietin. Therefore, this system is an easily, accessible alternative to the use of human bone marrow in parvovirus B19 infection assays.  (+info)

Tracheal aspirate as a substrate for polymerase chain reaction detection of viral genome in childhood pneumonia and myocarditis. (4/1664)

BACKGROUND: Infectious respiratory disorders are important causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. Viral causes are common and may lead to rapid deterioration, requiring mechanical ventilation; myocardial dysfunction may accompany respiratory decompensation. The etiologic viral diagnosis may be difficult with classic methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic method for identification of causative agents. METHODS AND RESULTS: PCR was used to amplify sequences of viruses known to cause childhood viral pneumonia and myocarditis. Oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify specific sequences of DNA virus (adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and Epstein-Barr virus) and RNA virus (enterovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, and influenza B) genomes. Tracheal aspirate samples were obtained from 32 intubated patients and nucleic acid extracted before PCR. PCR results were compared with results of culture, serology, and antigen detection methods when available. In cases of myocarditis (n=7), endomyocardial biopsy samples were analyzed by PCR and compared with tracheal aspirate studies. PCR amplification of viral genome occurred in 18 of 32 samples (56%), with 3 samples PCR positive for 2 viral genomes. Amplified viral sequences included RSV (n=3), enterovirus (n=5), cytomegalovirus (n=4), adenovirus (n=3), herpes simplex virus (n=2), Epstein-Barr virus (n=1), influenza A (n=2), and influenza B (n=1). All 7 cases of myocarditis amplified the same viral genome from heart as found by tracheal aspirate. CONCLUSIONS: PCR is a rapid and sensitive diagnostic tool in cases of viral pneumonia with or without myocarditis, and tracheal aspirate appears to be excellent for analysis.  (+info)

Replication of subgenomic hepatitis C virus RNAs in a hepatoma cell line. (5/1664)

An estimated 170 million persons worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major cause of chronic liver disease. Despite increasing knowledge of genome structure and individual viral proteins, studies on virus replication and pathogenesis have been hampered by the lack of reliable and efficient cell culture systems. A full-length consensus genome was cloned from viral RNA isolated from an infected human liver and used to construct subgenomic selectable replicons. Upon transfection into a human hepatoma cell line, these RNAs were found to replicate to high levels, permitting metabolic radiolabeling of viral RNA and proteins. This work defines the structure of HCV replicons functional in cell culture and provides the basis for a long-sought cellular system that should allow detailed molecular studies of HCV and the development of antiviral drugs.  (+info)

Isolation and partial characterization of a lentivirus from talapoin monkeys (Myopithecus talapoin). (6/1664)

We have identified a novel lentivirus prevalent in talapoin monkeys (Myopithecus talapoin), extending previous observations of human immunodeficiency virus-1 cross-reactive antibodies in the serum of these monkeys. We obtained a virus isolate from one of three seropositive monkeys initially available to us. The virus was tentatively named simian immunodeficiency virus from talapoin monkeys (SIVtal). Despite the difficulty of isolating this virus, it was readily passed between monkeys in captivity through unknown routes of transmission. The virus could be propagated for short terms in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of talapoin monkeys but not in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells or human T cell lines. The propagated virus was used to infect a naive talapoin monkey, four rhesus macaques (M. mulatta), and two cynomolgus macaques (M. fascicularis). All animals seroconverted and virus could be reisolated during a short period after experimental infection. A survey of SIVtal-infected captive talapoin monkeys revealed a relative decrease in CD4(+) cell numbers in chronically (>2 years) infected animals. No other signs of immunodeficiency were observed in any of the infected animals. PCR amplification followed by DNA sequencing of two fragments of the polymerase gene revealed that SIVtal is different from the presently known lentiviruses and perhaps most related to the SIV from Sykes monkeys.  (+info)

Quantification of endogenous viral polymerase, 3D(pol), in preparations of Mengo and encephalomyocarditis viruses. (7/1664)

Measurement of an antigenic response to the aphthovirus infection-associated antigen (VIA), the viral RNA polymerase 3D(pol), is frequently used as a discriminating assay for the extent of viral replication in animals. In practice, animals seropositive for VIA are assumed to have been exposed to live virus, although in fact it is suspected that endogenous 3D(pol) in commercial inactivated vaccines may occasionally stimulate analogous responses and result in false-positive tests for virus exposure. Cardiovirus infections in mice produce similar anti-VIA antibodies, and in view of recently developed attenuated Mengo vaccines and live Mengo vectors, these VIA responses are also under investigation as potential correlates of vaccine efficacy. We have purified recombinant Mengo 3D(pol), developed monoclonal antibodies to the protein, and used these reagents in highly sensitive Western blot assays to quantify the levels of endogenous 3D(pol) in Mengo and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) preparations. The presence of 3D(pol) was detected at all stages of standard vaccine purification procedures, including materials purified by CsCl. Clarified suspensions of Mengo- or encephalomyocarditis virus-infected HeLa cells were found to contain very high quantities of 3D(pol), averaging approximately 1.2-1.5 micrograms of protein/micrograms of virus. Pelleting through 30% sucrose or purification by CsCl removed much of this material, but even these samples retained approximately 0.2-0.4 ng of 3D(pol)/micrograms virus. These ratios represent approximately 1 3D(pol) molecule/20 virus particles in the most highly purified materials and probably indicate that 3D(pol) is a contaminant on the particle surface rather than an intrinsically packaged molecule. In clarified cell lysates, which are commonly used as vaccine inocula, the protein to virus ratio was approximately 210:1, a level that could represent serious contamination problems for future VIA detection if such inocula are used without further purification.  (+info)

Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus in A549 and MRC-5 cell cultures. (8/1664)

Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) has been diagnosed either serologically or by virus isolation. Until now, the recovery of EEE virus has been delegated to reference laboratories with the expertise and resources needed to amplify the virus in a susceptible vertebrate host and/or to isolate and identify the virus in cell culture. We report a case in which EEE virus was recovered directly from a patient's cerebrospinal fluid in A549 and MRC-5 cell cultures. Many clinical virology laboratories routinely use these cells to recover adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, and enterovirus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of EEE virus in A549 cell culture. This report demonstrates the possibility of recovery of EEE virus in cell culture without the necessity of bioamplification or maintaining unusual cell lines.  (+info)

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Methods Eleven geographically diverse clinical centers participated in the study, with nine of the sites enrolling participants. The UVT was collected first followed by the QS specimen. A portion of each UVT specimen was transferred to a Qx Diluent Tube (diluted UVT) and a cryovial. The remainder of the UVT in the original tube was frozen at −70°C and sent to one of two sites for HSV viral culture using the ELVIS®HSV ID and D3 Typing Test System (Diagnostic Hybrids, Inc). The diluted UVT and QS specimens were shipped to one of three sites for HSV testing on the BD Viper. The UVT aliquot in the cryovial was stored at −70°C and shipped to the University of Washington for PCR testing for HSV.. ...
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Boston-based filmmaker Clennon King is bringing his film, Passage at St. Augustine, to the Reggie Lewis Track and Athletic Center at Roxbury Community College. The film features several Massachusetts connections to the story, including the arrest of a WGBH radio news reporter covering the St. Augustine movement. Watch the film on February 21st at 1:30 p.m. and join us for a question-and-answer session following the screening.. ...
I joke that, as a Peds ID doc, it is my duty to say this at least once a day... Ok, I may not literally be slapping people upside the head, but there are certainly times when Im doing it in my mind. The situation is common enough - a patient, parent or doctor, faced…
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Be inspired by these Elvis Presley quotes. Elvis was a famous singer and an actor. He was often referred to as the King of Rock and Roll. He was born in Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, USA, into a....
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Its been 40 years since Elvis Presley passed away. Weve pulled together 50 facts to celebrate The King and recall your favourite memories.
Elvis Dumervil has given money to help those in his parents native country of Haiti. Now hes personally going to make sure people are being helped and to witness it for himself. Dumervil is ac
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Elvis Juice is a IPA - American style beer brewed by BrewDog in Ellon, GB6, United Kingdom. Score: 89 with 542 ratings and reviews. Last update: 11-30-2020.
Hi. Ive just been hit with the [email protected] virus, which has infected Nortons (so that it wont run, although it does still pick up atempts to run infected programs), Stay Connected, Textpad and,...
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Specimens submitted for the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) were inoculated into conventional cell-culture tubes and fresh MRC-5 shell vials. The shell vial centrifugation cultures (SVCs) were examined at 16 hr postinoculation for HSV by using type-specific monoclonal antibodies (SVC-FA); th …
In: Proceedings of a symposium on continuous cell lines as substrates for biologicals, Arlington, Virginia USA, May 1988. Basel: Karger, 1989;113-24 (Developments in biological standardization; 70 ...
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Since Elvis Presleys death, impersonations of the star and sightings have become the ongoing subject of jokes. The Elvis Files may change that. At the time of his reported death, Elvis had sold more than 600 million singles and albums, had made 33 films, and was the heartthrob for more than one generation of young women. While his popularity fell off during the 1960s, the King of rock & roll made a strong comeback in the 1970s. A weight problem and an increasing dependency on stimulants and depressants became difficult for the King to hide from the public. On August 16, 1977, Elvis suffered what was an apparent heart attack and was pronounced dead. But is he dead or still alive? Did Elvis escape the prison of fame? This video examines the unusual circumstances surrounding the stars reported death. Based on the book by Gail Brewer-Giorgio, it features never-before-seen footage, and exclusive interviews supporting the theory that Presley lives. Viewers must decide for themselves whether the King ...
1) Faeces - a walnut sized portion should be submitted in a stool container. 2) Swabs - special viral swabs complete with transportation tube are available from the Pathology Department on request. 3) Vesicle Fluid - must be collected into a PLAIN universal container (white cap) and sent to the Microbiology Laboratory as soon as possible. 4) Urine (children only) - urine samples for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) must be collected into a PLAIN universal container (white cap) and sent to the Microbiology Laboratory as soon as possible. 5) Tissue - Samples must be sent directly to the Microbiology Laboratory and kept cool at all times. Do NOT add formalin to the tissue. ...
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lyrics of All Shook Up by Elvis Presley in Elvis In Person At The International Hotel album - A well I bless my soul|br|Whats wrong with me?|br|Im itching like a man on a fuzzy tree|br|My friends say Im actin wild as a bug|br|Im in love|br|Im all shook up|br|Mm mm oh, oh, yeah, yeah!|br||br||br|M...
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A month ago Nate was hospitalized due to something called a subarachnoid hemorrhage which is when you have bleeding in your brain. The thing...
Who was the real king of rock n roll? Elvis the Pelvis? Or The Killer - Jerry Lee Lewis?. This is your opportunity to decide as the two come head to head! Be excited once more by the sheer energy of Elvis hits such as Hound Dog, All Shook Up, Dont Be Cruel and Teddy Bear and Jerry Lee Lewis hits such as Great Balls of Fire, Whole Lotta Shakin, High School Confidential and Breathless.. ...
Full online text of Impersonating Elvis by Polly Nelson. Other short stories by Polly Nelson also available along with many others by classic and contemporary authors.
A quote from the king of Rock n Roll Elvis Presley from a new blog I discovered from going to the CNN web site. I discovered it in the humor section. Paulette L. Motzko
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This test checks to see whether an infection is caused by a bacterium or a virus. It can also tell which specific virus is causing your infection.
WHAT CAUSES SNORING? The noisy sounds of snoring occur when there is an obstruction to the free flow of air through the passages at the back of the mouth
Snoring is most annoying health situation, snoring, it is a noise reason when there is an obstacle to the free flow of air through the passages at the back of the mouth and nose. That area is the collapsible part of the airway. Snoring happens when these structures hit each other and vibrate during breathing.. ...
I have been thinking more and more that the industry is going about Malware detection the wrong way... Who wants to make sure they have the latest virus definitions and other security updates to help keep the peace? Its ugly and the programmer in me keeps thinking there has to be a better way, cos this model sucks... The end-user generally doesnt understand the nature of these definitions and will often forget to update. This would all be null if they just implemented some basic
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In this rather fascinating case, the Court is having to decide who rightfully owns an extremely valuable collection of Elvis memorabilia that [...] ...
Shit - I think Ive got this. First noticed it the night of Aylas Fundraiser (thanks Elvis!) - I thought the hotel room had some kind of air ... (Page 4)
4. Staining of shell vials. i) Prior to staining, examine the shell vial monolayer using the inverted microscope:. ii) If there is ,75% CPE, perform IFA or DFA staining on the shell vial monolayer using the required antibody conjugate. For CMV, see shell vial staining under Appendix IV (IFA) and for HSV 1&2, VZV and RS, see shell vial staining under Appendix V (DFA). iii) If ,75% of the monoloayer has lifted from the coverslip, check the colour of the maintenance media and proceed as follows:. iv) If the maintenance media is bright pink (suggesting alkaline pH), yellow or cloudy, check with charge/senior technologist before proceeding further.. iii) If the maintenance media is appropriately coloured (salmon pink), perform IFA or DFA staining using cytospin preparations of scraped shell vial cells. Follow the staining procedure for prepared cytospin slides as outlined in the tube culture section in Appendix IV (IFA) and Appendix V (DFA).. iv) Discard cap. Remove maintenance medium from the shell ...
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With a change in mental state and suffering chronic pain, Elvis Presley entered a ten year spiral towards death. He became hopelessly addicted to pain killers, practiced a terribly unhealthy diet and lethargic lifestyle, and resorted to the typical addicts habit of sneaking a fix wherever he could. This led to early coronary vascular disease and, combined with his escalating weight and pill consumption, Elvis was a heart attack ready to burst.. Recall that I used the term antecedent, like all coroners do when assessing a cause of death. Given Dr. Torrents observations-and all the facts compiled from forty years-if I were the coroner completing Elvis Presleys death certificate today, Id write it like this:. Identity of Deceased - Elvis Aaron Presley.. Time of Death - Approximately 2:00 p.m. on Tuesday, August 16th, 1977.. Place of Death - 3754 Elvis Presley Boulevard, Memphis, Tennessee.. Cause of Death - Cardiac arrhythmia antecedent to hypertensive cardiovascular disease with ...
The Elvis Information Network, home to the best news, reviews, interviews, Elvis photos & in-depth articles about the King of Rock & Roll, Elvis Aaron Presley... The Elvis Information Network has been running since 1986 and is an EPE officially recognised Elvis fan club.
Elvis Presley X-Rays, 1973. An avid karate student, Elvis began pursuing martial arts training in 1959 while stationed in - Available at 2007 April Signature...
Learning Objectives Describe the benefits of immunofluorescent antibody assays in comparison to nonfluorescent assays Compare direct and indirect flu
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46 years ago today, Led Zeppelin met the King of Rock and Roll, an encounter which has resulted in a myriad of different stories over the years. Picture it: Los Angeles, May 11, 1974. Led Zeppelin are in L.A. to promote the launch of their record label, Swan Song, and when they discover that Elvis Presley is playing a show at the Los Angeles Forum, they decide to go. As it happens, Elvis is arguably as interested in Led Zeppelin as they are in him, albeit for a different reason.
BrewDog founders Martin Dickie and James Watt have changed their names to Elvis over legal spat with the Elvis Presley estate over their beer Elvis Juice.
A hybrid virus is a type of computer virus that combines elements of other virus programs in a new combination that will often...
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Austrian based Emsisoft isnt one of the widely known names in the computer security business, but their products have topped multiple independent tests and reviews for many months. Emsisoft Anti-Malware, the flagship tool against virtual threats of all kinds, has now reached generation seven. Major enhancements include a new second scan engine and lower resource usage. Therefore Emsisoft Anti-Malware 7.0 improves its leading virus detection and ensures crucial real-time protection is possible even on old and slower computers ...
Viruses are the causative agents of an estimated 60% of human infections worldwide. The most common viral illnesses are produced by enteric and respiratory viruses. Transmission of these viruses from
Arjan Deelen: I think everybody is real pleased with what has been achieved so far. I mean, bringing a band together as diverse as ours and then getting everybody on the same page and putting a show together in a matter of two days is no mean feat. One thing that has definitely worked to our advantage is that the vibes have been great. We have really enjoyed ourselves so far. The new additions to the band are working out just great. The Holladays are wonderful women, very lively and fun to be with and so very talented. They are adding so much to our show. We all all blown away by them. And our new guitarist, Carl Bradychok, who is only 21 years old by the way, is a tremendous player and everybody seems very taken with him. He is adding a lot of youthful energy to the band, and I think everybody is inspired by his playing and by his serious no-nonsense approach to the music. Believe me, the band sounds great!. Elvis Today: What kind of show can we expect?. Arjan Deelen: As I wrote earlier, its a ...
Countless great performances were left on the cutting room floor after the initial release of Woodstock. Now, you can see even more from The Who and Santana. Also, to celebrate Elvis Week, a little Viva Las Vegas and The King in concert is in order.
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New season at Barebones Black Box Theater in Braddock opens with Drag-Queen Elvis. Produced by Barebones founder Patrick Jordan with his long-time friend, actor David Conrad.
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Did anybody else see Elvis Costellos recent comments in NME? I particularly agree with this quote, British music fans dont have the same
174 Elvis authenticated artifacts are up for auction Thursday evening at Graceland, Presleys longtime Memphis, Tennessee, home.
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Elvis is the only one that gave him trouble :-) He said somewhere (RSs Lennon Remembers?) that Elvis is why he wanted to be a musician. Said he saw an Elvis movie with a bunch of screaming girls and said to himself, That looks like a good job. ...
A virus is a non-cellular genetic element that hijacks a cell for its own replication. In its extracellular state the virus particle ,also known as a vi...
Is there any type of file that can not have a virus at all? Or betther asking, What types of file that can have virus. The ones I now of. EXE. COM, BAT, PIF, PL. If you had to accept upload , what kind of extension would you accept?
Plaque assay;a) Sf9 cells negative control (Mock)b) one day after virus dilution added to Sf9 cellsc) two days after virus dilution added to Sf9 cellsd) four da
There were reportedly problems with both his health and his finances and, also, it has been claimed that Presleys life was in danger because he was allegedly going to give testimony in a federal case that could have implicated a Mafia group.
WAR - One of the only places on Earth where you meet heroes daily. Be nice to everyone you talk to; You might not get to say Thank-You or Good-Bye later on. demotivational ...
Apple is continuing its advertising push by sharing a new ad, this time based around Group FaceTime and featuring Elvis, or rather, several Elvis impersonators.
I was browsing pages here one day and SpySweeper stopped a malicious program from installing itself. I didnt even click for an outside page. I was
Hes young, hes broke, his landlords knocking at the door, and hes just found out his wife is going to have a baby. To make matters even more desperate, Casey is fired from his gig as an Elvis impersonator in a run-down, small-town Florida bar. When the bar owner brings in a B-level drag show to replace his act, Casey finds that he has a whole lot to learn about show business-and himself. Hysterical, moving and flat - out entertaining,…. Find out more » ...
Its a cliché to say that music gets worse with every generation, from people whining about Elvis and the Beatles in their time to rap today. Im pretty sure at some...
It does suffer virus problems that Iris tectorum. It is not rarely found in cultivation. It can also be propagated by division ... The Latin specific epithet milesii refers to Mr Frank Miles, who introduced it into cultivation in about 1880. These plants ... British Iris Society (1997) A Guide to Species Irises: Their Identification and Cultivation, p. 116, at Google Books Dykes, ...
Culturing of viruses like Herpes Simplex Virus, etc. Drug screening studies. Radiotherapy related studies. Allergenicity and ... Helminth cultivation. Oncological investigations. The advantages of using CAM are: It is easy to use as compared to other ... Ribatti D (August 2018). "The use of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane as experimental model to study virus growth and ... Schomann T, Qunneis F, Widera D, Kaltschmidt C, Kaltschmidt B (2013-03-11). "Improved method for ex ovo-cultivation of ...
Steinhardt, Edna; Israeli, C.; Lambert, R. A. (1913). "Studies on the Cultivation of the Virus of Vaccinia". The Journal of ... In 1913, E. Steinhardt, C. Israeli, and R. A. Lambert grew vaccinia virus in fragments of guinea pig corneal tissue. In 1996, ... Cell culture Organ culture Microphysiometry Plant tissue culture Carrel, Alexis and Montrose T. Burrows (1911). "Cultivation of ...
Steinhardt E, Israeli C, Lambert RA (1913). "Studies on the Cultivation of the Virus of Vaccinia". The Journal of Infectious ... fungal or bacterial origin as hosts for the growth and replication of the virus. Whole wild type viruses, recombinant viruses ... Growing viruses in cell cultures allowed preparation of purified viruses for the manufacture of vaccines. The injectable polio ... DNA can also be inserted into cells using viruses, in methods referred to as transduction, infection or transformation. Viruses ...
Watering is one of the most critical aspects of iris cultivation. It can suffer from aphids, viruses and rots. Israel's ... British Iris Society (1997) A Guide to Species Irises: Their Identification and Cultivation, p. 76, at Google Books Archibald, ... hermona is thought to be an easier plant to grow in cultivation, as it can tolerate a Mediterranean climate. In general ' ...
Watering is one of the most critical aspects of iris cultivation. It can suffer from aphids, viruses and rots. I. iberica is ... Their Identification and Cultivation, p. 77, at Google Books Dykes, William (2009). "Handbook of Garden Irises" (PDF). ... containing the best instruction relative to its cultivation) Fourth Edition, p. 319, at Google Books David Gledhill The Names ...
Watering is one of the most critical aspects of iris cultivation. It can suffer from aphids, viruses and rots. A herbarium ... British Iris Society (1997) A Guide to Species Irises: Their Identification and Cultivation, p. 76-77, at Google Books Richard ...
It is susceptible to viruses, and slug damage. It is extremely rare in cultivation. It is thought that plants found in the US ...
Watering is one of the most critical aspects of iris cultivation. It can suffer from aphids, viruses and rots. Irises can ... British Iris Society (1997) A Guide to Species Irises: Their Identification and Cultivation, p. 75-76, at Google Books "Chapter ...
They have been grown successfully in large-scale cultivation systems. Hepatitis B virus surface antigens have not been detected ...
He did important research on the bacteriological cultivation of tobacco mosaic virus. In the 1920s, he, in collaboration with ... ISBN 978-0-19-517548-6. Sabin, A. B.; Olitsky, P. K. (1936). "Cultivation of Poliomyelitis Virus in vitro in Human Embryonic ... Creager, Angela N. H. (2002). The Life of a Virus: Tobacco Mosaic Virus as an Experimental Model, 1930-1965. University of ... Effect of Age on the Invasion of the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems by Virus Injected into the Leg Muscles or the Eye ...
Padgett BL, Walker DL, ZuRhein GM, Eckroade RJ, Dessel BH (June 1971). "Cultivation of papova-like virus from human brain with ... most notably BK virus, JC virus, and SV40. It is essential for proliferation in the viruses that express it and is thought to ... Two viruses-HPyV6 and HPyV7-are most closely related to KI and WU viruses, while HPyV9 is most closely related to the African ... Most of these viruses are very common and typically asymptomatic in most human populations studied. BK virus is associated with ...
The Cultivation of the Poliomyelitis Viruses in Tissue Culture". Evans, C. A.; Green RG (1947). "Extraneural Growth of ... doi:10.1111/j.0954-6820.1947.tb19041.x. Hotta, Susumu; Evans, Charles A. (1956). "Cultivation of Mouse-Adapted Dengue Virus ( ... Poliomyelitis Virus in Human Testicular Tissue in vitro". Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 76 (4): 696-700. doi:10.3181/00379727-76 ... Sample, Donald W.; Evans, C. A. (1957). "Estimates of the infection rates for poliomyelitis virus in the years preceding the ...
Diseases caused by viruses are one of the main limiting factors of potato cultivation worldwide, not only because of the ... However, potato virus X (PVX), potato virus Y (PVY), and potato leafroll virus (PLRV) are the most important viruses worldwide ... Main virus diseases of potato". Control of virus and virus-like diseases of potato and sweet potato. Report of the III Planning ... Some of them are potato virus X (PVX), potato virus S (PVS) and potato virus M (PVM), as well as PVY and PVA. Depending on the ...
In Vitro Cultivation of M. Leprae: An Improved Medium. Voluntary Health Services Medical Centre. N Veeraraghavan; D S ... N Veeraraghavan; D S Chandrasekhar (1963). "Fluorescent antibody staining of rabies virus antigens using lissamine rhodamine ... Some of his notable publications are: Studies on Leprosy Studies on Leprosy: Supplement 3 In Vitro Cultivation of M. Leprae: An ... N Veeraraghavan (2000). "A rapid method for cultivation of M. tuberculosis : an improved medium". V.H.S. Medical Centre. OCLC ...
May 1957). "Cultivation of Measles Virus in Human Amnion Cells and in Developing Chick Embryo". Experimental Biology and ... Milan V. Milovanovic and John Enders, Anna Mitus published their research "Cultivation of Measles Virus in Human Amnion Cells ... The main conclusion from this paper was that in a proportion of giant-cell pneumonia cases, the measles virus was found to be ... After the 28th passage in human amnion cells, the measles virus was then inoculated into chick embryos. This procedure was key ...
1971). "Cultivation of papova-like virus from human brain with progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy". Lancet. 1 (7712): ... Human polyomavirus 2, commonly referred to as the JC virus or John Cunningham virus, is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly ... shedding virus particles in the urine. In addition, recent studies suggest that this virus may latently infect the human semen ... The virus then remains latent in the gastrointestinal tract and can also infect the tubular epithelial cells in the kidneys, ...
"Effect of in vitro cultivation on the pathogenicity of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus". The Journal of Experimental ... "Field Evaluation of a Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine and a Trivalent Parainfluenza Virus Vaccine in a Pediatric ... From 1941 to 1944 he was stationed in Brazil and did research on yellow fever and encephalitis viruses. From 1944 to 1946 he ... infections and on the effects of in vitro cultivation on the pathogencity in mice for the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus ...
Rafferty, KA (1965). "The cultivation of inclusion-associated viruses from Lucke tumor frogs". Annals of the New York Academy ... tigrinum virus Common midwife toad virus Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus European North Atlantic ranavirus Frog virus 3 ... Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV), Bohle iridovirus (BIV), and frog virus 3). Ranaviruses are large icosahedral DNA viruses ... There are six other genera of viruses within the family Iridoviridae, but Ranavirus is the only one that includes viruses that ...
Cocoa cultivation on Taiwan began during the Japanese period but support ended after WWII. The next wave of cultivation ... Hui-ju, Chien; Chung, Jake (7 February 2020). "Virus Outbreak: COA sets aside NT$5bn for farmer loans amid outbreak". www. ... Cultivation of sweet potato reached its height during the Japanese colonial period with Taiwan ranking fourth in output from ... Cultivation grew from 506 hectares in 2011 to 1,149 hectares in 2020 due to rising popularity. Bananas are Taiwan's most ...
ISBN 978-1-920942-63-2. Downie, A. W., & Dumbell, K. R. (1947). "The isolation and cultivation of variola virus on the chorio‐ ... describing the cultivation of the smallpox virus on the chorioallantoic membrane of hen's eggs. Dumbell was head of the ... 1988). "2. Variola Virus and Other Orthopoxviruses". Smallpox and its Eradication. World Health Organization. p. 97. Jonathan B ... Following the Declaration, World Health Organization ordered consolidation of virus strain collections worldwide into two high- ...
It is susceptible to virus infections when in cultivation, including from Iris mosaic virus. Which produces some necrotic ... This strain of virus also attacks Belamcanda chinensis, Iris pumila and Iris ricardi. Irises can generally be propagated by ... Due to its range being much farther north than most Oncocyclus irises, it is more hardy in cultivation, than others. It is ... Brunt, A. A.; Derks, A. F. L. M.; Barnett, O. W. "Iris severe mosaic virus". Retrieved 14 September 2016. "How to ...
Enders JF, Weller TH, Robbins FC (1949). "Cultivation of the Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus in cultures of various human ... John F. Enders on including the Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1954 The Cultivation of the Poliomyelitis Viruses in ... for his work on the growing of virus of poliomyelitis and other studies in viruses. "Robert Koch Stiftung - Robert Koch Award ... This paper is an attempt to review in the light of earlier research certain recent work on measles virus with emphasis on the ...
Essential oils in chia leaves have repellent properties against insects, making it suitable for organic cultivation. Virus ... "Detection and Identification of the First Viruses in Chia (Salvia hispanica)". Viruses. 6 (9): 3450-3457. doi:10.3390/v6093450 ... New patented varieties of chia have been bred in Kentucky for cultivation in northern latitudes of the United States. Chia is ... Traditional cultivation techniques of S. hispanica include soil preparation by disruption and loosening followed by seed ...
Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Broad Bean Wilt Viruses (BBWV) Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato black ring virus (TBRV), Tomato ... Cultivation is also documented in Britain at this time, although contemporary accounts show it was well known as a favourite ... Narcissus mosaic virus, Narcissus yellow stripe virus (NYSV, Narcissus yellow streak virus), Narcissus tip necrosis virus (NTNV ... Less host specific viruses include Raspberry ringspot virus, Nerine latent virus (NeLV) =Narcissus symptomless virus, ...
Traub E, Cultivation of Pseudorabies Virus, J Exp Med, 30 November 1933, 58(6), 663-81. Barthold SW, Introduction: microbes and ... performing research on vaccines and viruses, including pseudorabies virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCM). During ... Also in 1953, he published another paper for the Navy with Worth I. Capps on the foot-and-mouth disease virus and methods for ... In 1944, Blome sent Traub to pick up a strain of Rinderpest virus in Turkey; upon his return, this strain proved inactive ( ...
Virus particles can range between 70 and 80 nm. Morphologically, the virus is a double stranded RNA virus that is composed of ... Cultivation and observation of the effects of avian reovirus is most often performed in chicken embryos. If infected into the ... infectious bursal disease virus, and chicken anemia virus. Avian reoviruses are also typically resistant to certain ... Virus neutralization identifies type-specific antibodies, which allows for differentiation between strains of viruses through ...
For cultivation, environmental approval determines whether a crop can be legally grown. Separate approval is generally required ... Other common traits include virus resistance, delayed ripening, modified flower colour or altered composition. In 2014, 28 ... In the US, separate regulatory agencies handle approval for cultivation (USDA, EPA) and for human consumption (FDA). Two ... Less than one million hectares contained other traits, which include providing virus resistance, delaying senescence, modifying ...
Steinhardt, E; Israeli, C; and Lambert, R.A. (1913) "Studies on the cultivation of the virus of vaccinia" J. Inf Dis. 13, 294- ... In 1913, E. Steinhardt, C. Israeli, and R. A. Lambert grew vaccinia virus in fragments of tissue culture from guinea pig cornea ...
Goodpasture, E. W.; Woodruff, Alice M.; Buddingh, G. J. (9 October 1931). "The Cultivation of Vaccine and Other Viruses in the ... Richard Shope publishes three papers identifying influenza A virus as the cause of swine influenza. December 3 - The drug Alka- ... "The Susceptibility of the Chorio-Allantoic Membrane of Chick Embryos to Infection with the Fowl-Pox Virus". The American ... "Discovery and characterization of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus in historical context". Antiviral Therapy. 12 (4B): 581-591 ...
... trees can be attacked by an array of damaging microbes, fungal pathogens, plant viruses, and bacteria.[37] ... Due to high acreage and water demand for almond cultivation, and need for pesticides, California almond production may be ... An article on almond tree cultivation in Spain is brought down in Ibn al-'Awwam's 12th-century agricultural work, Book on ... and six different almond varieties were under cultivation in 2017, with a yield of 2.25 billion pounds (1.02 billion kilograms ...
Triticeae cultivation may apply negative selection on DQ8. While there were numerous members of Triticeae species similar to ... Studies on Epstein Barr Virus[21] and other proteins suggest both proteins are acidic (meaning peptides with increased negative ...
In Western Europe, the cultivation of hemp was not legally banned by the 1930s, but the commercial cultivation stopped by then ... Hemp plants can be vulnerable to various pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses and other miscellaneous ... The cultivation of hemp in Portuguese lands began around the fourteenth century.[citation needed] The raw material was used for ... Historical cultivationEdit. Hemp has been grown for millennia in Asia and the Middle East for its fibre. Commercial production ...
Cultivation. The study of plant uses by people is called economic botany or ethnobotany.[101] Human cultivation of plants is ... viruses, and nematodes.[69] ... A Comprehensive Guide to Their Biology and Cultivation. Timber ... or in specialized buildings such as greenhouses that are designed for the care and cultivation of living plants. Venus Flytrap ... and sometimes becoming serious weeds of cultivation.[citation needed] ...
Mosaic virus is spread by greenfly, causing yellowing of leaves, distortion of new shoots, and inhibited flowering. ... Cultivation[edit]. Sweet peas have been cultivated since the 17th century and a vast number of cultivars are commercially ...
Mustafayev E., Kumari S., Attar N., Akparov Z. Viruses infecting chickpea and lentil crops in Azerbaijan / Australian Plant ... Musayev M.K. Centuries-old results of cultivation and diversity of genetic resources of grapes in Azerbaijan // "The ... Cultivation and Culture, Folklore and History, Traditions and Uses", edited by Mohamed El-Kholy, Damiano Avanzato etc. AARINENA ...
... positive status for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), post-traumatic stress ...
... that has-like a malign virus created by a "mad scientist"-thus far proven impossible to control. Most troubling, Latour notes ... "cultivation of a stubbornly realist attitude - to speak like William James". (p. 233) ...
... apple stem grooving virus, sowbane mosaic virus and tobacco necrosis virus.[citation needed] ... The cultivation is easy: sow the seed in April (October) in a well-manured bed, for the plant is greedy; water it. The leaves ... Goosefoot pathogens include the positive-sense ssRNA viruses - ...
The small hive beetle is considered a secondary pest in South Africa, and as such, has not been the subject of major control efforts. The beetle is most often found in weak or failing hives and rarely affects strong hives. However, differences in the housecleaning traits of the bees found in South Africa and the U.S. may mean very different responses to the beetles. Some early reports from Florida and South Carolina suggest the beetles may be more damaging there than in Africa. Para-dichlorobenzene (PDB) has been used for protecting empty stored combs. Coumaphos bee strips (Bayer Corporation) have been approved for use in hives for the control of small hive beetles in some states under an emergency registration.[citation needed] Biological control through beneficial soil nematodes specific to the SHB is also effective.[citation needed] Beneficial nematodes are used by applying them to the soil while suspended in water. They may be applied as a pressurized spray or simply poured from a watering ...
Broad beans have a long tradition of cultivation in Old World agriculture, being among the most ancient plants in cultivation ... Faba bean necrotic yellows virus which it shares with other Vicia.[15] Timchenko et al 2006 find Clink is not obviously ... "The lost ancestor of the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and the origin of plant cultivation in the Near East". Vavilov Journal of ...
"Virus-like infectious agent (VLIA) is a novel pathogenic mycoplasma: Mycoplasma incognitus". The American Journal of Tropical ... incognitus because it is more fastidious in cultivation requirements than other mycoplasmas. It is known that the most ...
Over time, his commentary, and his adroit cultivation of a positive image as an industrious and intellectual young man, earned ... "Benjamin Franklin's Fight Against A Deadly Virus". Retrieved September 27, 2021 - via The Conversation. One article posited ...
Viruses that inhibit IFN signaling include Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), dengue type 2 virus (DEN-2), and viruses of the ... allowing mass cultivation and purification from bacterial cultures or derived from yeasts. Interferon can also be produced by ... Some viruses escape the anti-viral activities of interferons by gene (and thus protein) mutation. The H5N1 influenza virus, ... Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ...
In 2004, Mendocino County, California became the first county to impose a ban on the "Propagation, Cultivation, Raising, and ... The Virus-Serum-Toxin Act (VSTA) (USDA); The Public Health Service Act (PHSA)(FDA); The Dietary Supplement Health and Education ... ". "Mexico: controlled cultivation of genetically modified maize". Archived from the original on 2013-10-05. Retrieved 2017-08- ...
... he began to recruit researchers to work on isolation and cultivation of human and animal viruses. He was the director of the ... Nicolau and Galloway were also the first to identify the sensitivity of the Borna disease virus to lipid solvents, an ... In his studies, Nicolau underscored the macromolecular nature of viruses and the significance of their genomic nucleic acid. ... Cancer and viruses - remarks on the cancer viral etiology]. București: Editura Academiei Republicii Populare Romîne. OCLC ...
Efforts to eradicate opium cultivation have pushed many ethnic rebel groups, including the United Wa State Army and the Kokang ... On April 30, 2021, the United Nations Development Programme published a report indicating that the COVID-19 virus and the 2021 ...
Virus or phage cultures require that a population of bacteria be grown in the dish first, which then becomes the culture medium ... Petri dishes are also used for cell cultivation of isolated cells from eukaryotic organisms, such as in immunodiffusion studies ...
The cultivation is similar to carrots and parsnips. An adequate site for cultivation is characterized by light and fertile ... Furthermore, it can be host for other aphids, erysiphe heracley or celery mosaic virus. The Plant List: A Working List of All ... The crop cultivation starts therefore in the autumn. The dormancy ends with at least 8 weeks of continuous humidity and ... Cultivation period is from 9 up to 10 months. The seeds require exposure to cold temperatures (vernalization) to break dormancy ...
"Maize cultivation in Moneragala ruined by 'Sena' caterpillar". Sri Lanka Sunday Times. Wijeya Newspapers. Retrieved 28 January ... Nichols, Jennifer (25 July 2021). "Invasive insect fall armyworm on the march, but scientists fight back with an oozing virus ... In December 2018, heavy infestations in corn cultivation were identified. The spread of the moth leads to attack corn all ... On 29 December 2018, armyworms were recorded from paddy cultivations in the Sinhapura area of Polonnaruwa. In January 2019, ...
They can feed on the roots or the aerial parts of plants and transmit viruses. Some examples are the big bud mite that ... the disturbance caused by ploughing and cultivation favouring them over other species. Any plant is a weed if it appears in a ... Especially in the case of viruses and nematodes which show the opposite trend, toward the equator. This may be due to their ... Microorganisms, whether bacteria, microscopic fungi, protists, or viruses that cause trouble, on the other hand, are generally ...
It is believed to be caused by mismatch between the rootstock and scion rather than an infection by a fungus or a virus. In ... Syrah is a variety that during the last few decades has been imported for cultivation in several countries. It is primarily ... in 2007 making up a total area under cultivation of 9,856 hectares (24,350 acres). In South Africa, the variety is ...
There is ongoing research into the cultivation of new types of human hepatocytes capable of improved longevity and efficacy in ... "Effect of molecular adsorbent recirculating system in hepatitis C virus-related intractable pruritus". Liver Transplantation. 9 ... "Cultivation of immortalized human hepatocytes HepZ on macroporous CultiSpher G microcarriers". Biotechnology and Bioengineering ...
"Virus slowing pace of companies' move to Vietnam". Taipei Times. 6 May 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2021. Pinder, Jeanne B. (8 ... as the Chinese believed that the underlying source for entrepreneurial and investment success relied on the cultivation of ...
... the Fay student from whom Peebles had taken the culture that led to the virus's cultivation. In the mid-20th century, measles ... Peebles was able to isolate the virus from blood samples and throat swabs, and was later able to cultivate the virus and show ... In that year, the Edmonston-B strain of measles virus was turned into a vaccine by John Enders and colleagues and licensed in ... While the vaccine is made with a live virus which can cause side effects, these are far fewer and less serious than the ...
The virus is believed to have been a mutation of a virus that existed in bats which came from a wet market in Wuhan, although ... Cultivation of the fruit began during the Song dynasty. Some traditional new year customs revolve around the planting of plums ... The plum blossom is the city's emblem, chosen partly because of the long history of local plum cultivation and use, and partly ... "China's unprecedented reaction to the Wuhan virus probably couldn't be pulled off in any other country". CNN. Archived from the ...
Evidence of its cultivation by man is found since around 2000 BC. Alexander the Great and the Romans planted chestnut trees ... Chestnut mosaic virus is probably transmitted by the oak aphid Myzocallis castanicola. Root rot is caused by the honey fungus ... The cultivation of Castanea sativa (Mill.) in Europe, from its origin to its diffusion on a continental scale Archived ... Chestnut mosaic virus : Transmission by the aphid Myzocallis castanicola on Chestnut tree. By J.-C. Desvignes and D. Cornaggia ...
Ohadike, D. C. (July 1981). "The influenza pandemic of 1918-19 and the spread of cassava cultivation on the lower Niger: a ... Due to the failure of the sanitation officers in Lagos, the virus would continue to spread throughout the southern provinces ...
Editorial (2019-01-20). "Yam cultivation". Botanical online. Retrieved 2021-08-31. "It's New Yam Festival in Oba, Anambra". ... some northern states decided to put off the durbar celebrations to curtail the spread of the virus since the celebrations ...
Prior to human cultivation, it consisted of just a few species, though the status of some as distinct species has yet to be ... the viral infections to which some of these ectoparasites serve as vectors such as the aphid-transmitted Citrus tristeza virus ... From there its cultivation spread into Micronesia and Polynesia by the Austronesian expansion (c. 3000-1500 BCE); and to the ... The agronomists of classical Rome made many references to the cultivation of citrus fruits within the limits of their empire. ...
Les Centres OMS de référence pour les virus : activités et services assurés  ... The Work of WHO virus reference centres and the services they provide  ...
Increasing Productivity in Influenza Virus Production : Virus Yields in High Cell Density Cultivations ... Virus Yields in High Cell Density Cultivations Reichl, U. (2008). Increasing Productivity in Influenza Virus Production: Virus ... Yields in High Cell Density Cultivations. Talk presented at 2008 AIChE Annual Meeting. Philadelphia, USA. 2008-11-16 - 2008-11- ...
Start the new season with the best cultivation water without algae, fungi, bacteria and viruses ... Start the new season with the best cultivation water without algae, fungi, bacteria and viruses. The crop changeover is a good ... Biofilm and algae are often a source of irritation, while fungi, bacteria and viruses pose a risk to a good harvest. All things ... Currently, a lot of attention is paid to company hygiene, but often not enough to the quality of the cultivation water. And ...
... and infectious MODV was recovered by co-cultivation of kidney tissue up to eight months after infection. There were no ... The long-term persistence of Modoc virus (MODV) infection was investigated in a hamster model. Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus ... tick-borne encephalitis virus, Kyasanur forest disease virus, and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus are some examples of viruses ... Chronic disease and virus persistence in mice inoculated with Kyasanur forest disease virus. Virology 29: 679-681. ...
Wooded savannah with cultivation; over 3000 ft. ASL Microhabitat. Method of Storage until Inoculated. Vacutainer on water ice ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
Virus Cultivation. We visually inspected the inoculated monolayers of A-72, MDCK, and WRCC cells after 5 serial passages and ... the equine-derived H3N8 virus, the human-derived H1N1 virus, and the avian-like H3N2, H3N1, and H5N2 viruses (34,35). ... Virus Cultivation. We homogenized PCR-positive respiratory and fecal samples in 10% Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium and then ... This low level of virus shedding in NOP secretions was difficult to interpret, and intrinsic properties of the virus, or the ...
Virus Cultivation [‎1]‎. Virus Diseases [‎4]‎. Viruses [‎1]‎. Visual Acuity [‎1]‎. Vital Statistics [‎2]‎. ...
Plant virus nanoparticles have been utilized for epitope presentation in vaccines, for drug delivery, as nanospheres and ... Plant virus nanoparticles have been utilized for epitope presentation in vaccines, for drug delivery, as nanospheres and ... Fluorescent protein fusions have been instrumental for the tagging of plant virus particles. The monomeric non-oxygen-dependent ... Fluorescent protein fusions have been instrumental for the tagging of plant virus particles. The monomeric non-oxygen-dependent ...
Comparative studies on cultivation of buffalo pox virus in pup kidney and chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture. Indian ... Comparative studies on cultivation of buffalo pox virus in pup kidney and chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture. ...
Reduces virus-related blotchiness in potatoes. Cultivation recommendation:. *Sowing time: up to 25th August at the latest ... The plant cultivation app IQ-Plant provides you with the latest, region-specific plant cultivation recommendations and warnings ... Overview of Grassland cultivation << * Derby horse pastures * Fertilisation * Crop protection * Plantinum * PremiumSaat * ... Agricultural catch crop cultivation * Variety selection criteria * Wildflower meadow * Fertilisation links page * Crop ...
Virus Cultivation* * Virus Diseases* ...
Flu viruses change constantly. They are among the fastest mutating viruses known. These changes can impact how well the flu ... Question 2: Why are chicken embryos typically the go-to for flu vaccine cultivation?. Dr. Barnes: Thanks for this question - ... Barnes: As you know, influenza is a virus and can only replicate in living cells. Influenza viruses survive by infecting host ... Thank you John Barnes and its Team for posting such important thing about the flu virus causes , about the influenza viruses ...
Bacterial strains, plasmids, and routine cultivation. Bacterial strains and plasmids used in these studies are listed in ... Mushegian, A. R. Are There 1031 Virus Particles on Earth, or More, or Fewer? J. Bacteriol. 202, (2020).. ... The gut bacterial natural product colibactin triggers induction of latent viruses in diverse bacteria. View ORCID ProfileJustin ... We show that exposure to colibactin affects bacteria harboring prophages (latent viruses residing within the bacteriums ...
Virus isolation or cultivation must be done at biosafety level 4 (10). The CDC mobile isolation laboratory is no longer ... All suspected cases of infection with Ebola virus and other hemorrhagic fever viruses should be reported immediately to local ... Guidelines for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to health-care and public ... titer of hemorrhagic fever viruses in serum, although 100% efficacy in inactivating these viruses should not be assumed. Blood ...
Categories: Virus Cultivation Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
VIRUS CULTIVATION. LYME DISEASE. TICKS. Benoît JAULHAC*. Déclaration Publique dintérêts : Siemens, Virbac, Bayer. ...
The release of a new variety restored cultivation of the crop.. But current low budgetary allocations for agricultural research ... Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), sweet potato virus disease, maize streak virus and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), are just ... African Smallholder Farmers Need to Become Virus Detectors. By Wambi Michael Reprint , , Print , ... Luyiga said he lost more than 70 percent of the crop to the virus. "It was a total loss because I bought what was considered ...
Influenza virus isolation rates in MDCK33016PF cells were twice that of eggs and mutations in the HA protein were common in egg ... The key to influenza vaccination currently is the availability of candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs). Ideally, CVVs reflect the ... antigenic characteristics of the circulating virus, which may vary depending upon the isolation method. For traditional ... Comparison of antigenic mutation during egg and cell passage cultivation of H3N2 influenza virus. Clin. Exp. Vaccin. Res. 9, 56 ...
Virus isolation or cultivation must be done at biosafety level 4 (10). The CDC mobile isolation laboratory is no longer ... All suspected cases of infection with Ebola virus and other hemorrhagic fever viruses should be reported immediately to local ... Guidelines for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to health-care and public ... Ebola virus disease in southern Sudan: hospital dissemination and intrafamilial spread. Bull WHO 1983;61:997-1003. *Carey DE, ...
Keywords: Crop Pathogens, Agricultural Biotechnology, Molecular Biology, Virus genomics, Plant Virology * Host: Dr. Stephan ... Area of ​​expertise: Plant Cultivation, Plant Pathology * ...
Virus diseases of plants. When spring arrives, or at the end of summer, numerous diseases caused by viruses can appear. Among ... Main diseases of strawberry cultivation. Strawberries in the orchard. The main diseases that affect them when growing ... To prevent the appearance of viruses it is important to buy guaranteed virus-free copies. It is determining to plant ... 1 Main diseases of strawberry cultivation*1.1 Botrytis bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea) ...
The development process often takes 15 to 20 years or more and requires virus cultivation, animal model testing, product ... Historically, vaccines against viral diseases have used live-attenuated (weakened) viruses or inactivated whole viruses to ... A healthy volunteer receives the NIAID Zika virus investigational DNA vaccine as part of an early-stage trial to test the ... Because this research does not require replicating "live" viruses, it does not need to be done in high-level containment ...
Some viruses can infect cells of many species (e.g., Polyoma and LCMV). Others can contaminate nonrodent cell lines when rodent ... cells are used in co-cultivation. This is also true if rodent serum is used to feed cells or if rodent-derived basement ... And as much as an animal facility wants negative laboratory results for all agents on an exclusion list, bacteria, viruses, and ... Myth #4: Human cell lines dont contain mouse viruses.. Nonrodent biological material can carry infectious agents from rodents ...
Infections caused at near viruses, such as colds, flu, most coughs, and acute throats cannot be treated with antibiotics. ... Antibiotics, also known as antibacterials, are medications that cancel out or laggard down the cultivation of bacteria. They ...
... virus interactions and also test the efficacy of ballast water (BW) UV-C treatment on virus infectivity. This study examined ... were overcome without impacting virus proliferation. To obtain the BW desired log−4 reduction in virus infectivity, a UV- ... and consequently the virus production rates and burst sizes were reduced by more than half (compared with PAR-only controls). ... C dose of at least 400 mJ cm−2 was needed for MpoV-45T and the temperate algal viruses. This is higher than the commonly ...
... virus cultivation can also be carried out in cell culture. This would have the advantage for animal owners that the virus can ... The preferred sample material for the examination is dry throat swabs or swabs in a virus transport medium that can be provided ... The institute offers pathogen detection as part of its virus diagnostics. Those interested are requested to call ahead by phone ... "There is increasing evidence that the virus can infect cats in particular," says Professor Osterrieder. This was reported in ...
Cultivation is the newsletter that specifically highlights the activities and projects produced by the SW Ag Center. This is a ... Agricultural Workers At Risk for West Nile Virus; Meet the Principal Investigators: Featured PI: Eva Shipp, Ph.D.; SW Ag Center ... Cultivation: the newsletter for the Southwest Center for Agricultural Health, Injury Prevention and Education, fall 2012. ... Cultivation: the newsletter for the Southwest Center for Agricultural Health, Injury Prevention and Education, fall 2012 ...
Kwekerij Bakker takes care of the virus-free propagation up to the flower cultivation in-house. Flower cultivation takes place ... The company specializes in bulbs and flower cultivation. 3.5 Hectares of the flowers are grown in a greenhouse for a global ... Cultivation under LED-lighting is currently done on an area of 1.6 hectares. ... Nursery Bakkers switch shows Signify the possibilities of LED grow lights in lily cultivation. We are delighted to see that ...
Apply now for Cultivation Technician I job at Connected Careers Page in Merced, CA. View job description, responsibilities and ... Scout all equipment, ensuring all tools are free of pests, viruses or disease. ... Cultivation staff is responsible for clean-up of all processing areas and equipment at the end of every shift. ... Cultivation Technician I. Connected Careers Page.  Merced, CA. Job posting is no longer available ...
A non-taxonomic group of animal viruses associated with or causing papillomas or polyomas. ... Cultivation of papova-like virus from human brain with progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. ... Viruses belonging to 9 families have been detected in cetaceans. We critically review the clinical features, pathology and… ... A review of virus infections of cataceans and the potential impact of morbilliviruses, poxviruses and papillomaviruses on host ...
  • Biofilm and algae are often a source of irritation, while fungi, bacteria and viruses pose a risk to a good harvest. (
  • And as much as an animal facility wants negative laboratory results for all agents on an exclusion list, bacteria, viruses, and parasites can sidestep even the best control methodologies, infecting laboratory animal colonies. (
  • In contrast to soil, bacteria or viruses have no chance to harm the plants. (
  • Diseases that attack vegetable plants are caused mostly by fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes. (
  • Most cell culture contaminations caused by bacteria, yeasts and fungi are usually rapidly detected during routine cell cultivation. (
  • Nephew of a renowned brewer, Delbruck converted lifelong learning into a collaboration-enriched Nobel about bacteria and their viruses. (
  • At Caltech he began researching bacteriophages - viruses that infect bacteria - and In 1939 he and Emory Ellis coauthored the paper "The growth of bacteriophage", in which they reported that: "Certain large protein molecules (viruses) possess the property of multiplying within living organisms. (
  • Multiplex tests to identify gastrointestinal bacteria, viruses and parasites in people with suspected infectious gastroenteritis: a systematic review and economic analysis. (
  • Despite what advertisers claim, colds and flu's are not caused by viruses or bacteria. (
  • Increased activity of the mucus membranes of the sinuses, nose, throat, eyes and ears, result in secretion of a sticky, thin to thick, gelatinous mucus which acts to eliminate excess toxins while removing microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria. (
  • This states that disease is caused by a germ (virus, bacteria, etc. (
  • Oral microbiota are formed by a complex ecosystem composed of bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoans, the Streptococcus being the most prevalent microorganism 2 . (
  • Historically, vaccines against viral diseases have used live-attenuated (weakened) viruses or inactivated whole viruses to induce protective immune responses. (
  • High-cell-density cultivations by hollow fiber-based perfusion for intensified viral vaccine production. (
  • VLP is composed of one or more structure proteins of a virus, has not viral nucleic acid, and has a similar morphology with the authentic virus. (
  • Through expertise in the field of viral cultures, viruses are cultured using mini-organs in OrganoVIR Labs. (
  • HIV infection can be diagnosed based on detection of antibodies that are directed against the proteins encoded by the 3 major genes, the detection of the p24 antigen, the viral nucleic acid, and, finally, by means of culturing the virus. (
  • Ideally, CVVs reflect the antigenic characteristics of the circulating virus, which may vary depending upon the isolation method. (
  • Influenza virus isolation rates in MDCK33016PF cells were twice that of eggs and mutations in the HA protein were common in egg CVVs but rare in cell CVVs. (
  • For the majority of influenza vaccines that are currently produced, the supply of suitable influenza seed viruses for vaccine production depends on the isolation and propagation of influenza viruses from original clinical respiratory samples (OCS). (
  • Concurrent to virus isolation for vaccine candidate production, influenza viruses are typically propagated in cell lines in surveillance laboratories to isolate viruses for antigenic analysis. (
  • Virus isolation attempts were then terminated because the cultivation of C-CHFV (the presumptive cause) requires biosafety level 4 facilities. (
  • No isolation of the virus could be made from the serum sample, possibly because it was received by the Johannesburg laboratory 8 days after initial collection and following freeze-thaw conditions. (
  • The isolation of viruses is no isolation at all. (
  • After isolating the virus, the researchers used Vero cells - considered the most suitable system for primary isolation and cultivation of viruses - to culture the strain and grow virus stocks for sequence analysis. (
  • Salmonella enterica serovar ples processed for virus isolation drome (DSS) in Delhi in 1996 and Schwarzengrund isolates from humans in (Table). (
  • Gey developed new techniques for in vitro, or laboratory-based, maintenance of organs and hormonal tissue, created new methods for cell cultivation, and researched nutritional media, or cell food. (
  • A three days training workshop on Smart Potato Cultivation & Strategies for value chain development commenced at Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi (PMAS-AAUR), here on Monday, with an aim to address the challenges and strategies to enhance its cultivation by precision agriculture. (
  • Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction has high sensitivity and specificity to detect the Ebola virus genome. (
  • In studies involving three monkeys experimentally infected with Ebola virus (Reston strain), fever and other systemic signs of illness preceded detection of infectious virus in the pharynx by 2-4 days, in the nares by 5-10 days, in the conjunctivae by 5-6 days, and on anal swabs by 5-6 days (P. Jahrling, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, unpublished data, 1995). (
  • KAMPALA, Feb 13 2013 (IPS) - Unless African smallholder farmers, who comprise the majority of food growers on the continent, are given the tools and knowledge to cope with the increased occurrences of plant virus diseases, the livelihoods of millions will be at stake, according to Nteranya Sanginga, the director general of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. (
  • Poor smallholder farmers, who are the majority of food growers and the bulk of the population, are bearing the brunt of these virus diseases with their limited resources," Sanginga told IPS. (
  • Omongo said that if given the knowledge, smallholder farmers can prevent plant virus diseases from spreading. (
  • When spring arrives, or at the end of summer, numerous diseases caused by viruses can appear. (
  • Strawberry aphid ( Chaetosiphon fragafolii ) They weaken the plant by sucking the sap, which can transmit many diseases such as viruses. (
  • Viruses are spread from weeds and diseases plants to healthy plants by the feeding of insects (mainly aphids, leaf hoppers, thrips, and a few beetles). (
  • Infectious diseases: Predictions of virus spillover across species. (
  • We focus solely on swine vaccines and the prevention of two major diseases - Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) and influenza. (
  • Plant virus nanoparticles have been utilized for epitope presentation in vaccines, for drug delivery, as nanospheres and nanowires, and for biomedical imaging applications. (
  • CDC is using this Next Generation-Sequencing (NGS) technology to monitor genetic changes in influenza viruses in order to better understand and improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccines. (
  • Traditionally, influenza vaccines have been produced by propagating the viruses required in embryonated chicken eggs. (
  • Because this research does not require replicating "live" viruses, it does not need to be done in high-level containment facilities when developing vaccines for highly pathogenic viruses. (
  • The perspective notes that once a vaccine platform is established, such as that for DNA or mRNA vaccines, potentially it can be applied to multiple pathogens, especially within virus classes or families. (
  • GSK's Engerix ® (hepatitis B virus, HBV) and Cervarix ® (human papillomavirus, HPV) and Merck's Recombivax HB ® (HBV) and Co., Inc.'s Gardasil ® (HPV) are widely used VLP vaccines in the market (Kushnir et al. (
  • Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), sweet potato virus disease, maize streak virus and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), are just a few of the plant viruses that have been prevalent in Africa in the recent past. (
  • View Maize Cultivation PPTs online, safely and virus-free! (
  • Because of a degree of variability within the populations, and a long history of cultivation, classification has been complex and controversial. (
  • Question 30: Name an area of wheat cultivation in India and state why it is suitable for the cultivation of wheat. (
  • Medicinal Plants in India: Importance and Cultivation (4 Volumes) / Gosh, S.N. (
  • A healthy volunteer receives the NIAID Zika virus investigational DNA vaccine as part of an early-stage trial to test the vaccine's safety and immunogenicity. (
  • For example, NIAID's Vaccine Research Center quickly developed a candidate DNA vaccine for Zika virus with the same platform used previously for a related flavivirus, West Nile virus. (
  • Full-genome amplification and sequencing of Zika viruses using a targeted amplification approach. (
  • As members of Congress return from their summer recess, the nation's governors have a top agenda item for them: Act on Zika virus funding…" (Pattison, 9/12). (
  • Leaders in the U.S. Congress on Monday were making progress toward temporarily funding the government in the fiscal year starting Oct. 1 and providing money to battle an outbreak of the Zika virus, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell said…" (Cowan, 9/12). (
  • probable cases of fever by Zika virus (BRASIL, 2018). (
  • These include clubroot in rapeseed crop rotations, Rhizoctonia solani or tobacco rattle virus in potato crop rotations and behaviour with respect to various nematode varieties in beet and potato crop rotations. (
  • Chris Omongo, a cassava breeder at Uganda's National Agricultural Crop Resources Research Institute , told IPS that some farming practices have aided the spread of the viruses. (
  • Luyiga said he lost more than 70 percent of the crop to the virus. (
  • Future Farm Technologies Inc. is pleased to announce that it has harvested the first cannabis crop from the previously announced Riverside County, CA cultivation facility and is currently drying, curing, trimming and packaging the flower in preparation for sale and distribution to medical patients in California later this month. (
  • However, this figure can vary between 30 and 180 tonnes per hectare depending on the knowledge and crop management approach used in sugarcane cultivation. (
  • It is well recognised that the propagation of influenza viruses in eggs can result in the selection of egg-adapted viruses with mutations in the influenza virus surface protein, haemagglutinin (HA) 19 , 20 , 21 . (
  • Kwekerij Bakker takes care of the virus-free propagation up to the flower cultivation in-house. (
  • Additionally, all primate cell lines are screened for certain human pathogenic viruses, and most of the positive cell lines are tested for virus production. (
  • Contamination of cultured cells with human pathogenic viruses may pose health risks. (
  • The DSMZ tests all primate cell lines for the presence of various human pathogenic viruses by PCR/RT-PCR and other methods. (
  • Histologic changes and immunohistochemical detection of Modoc virus antigen in spinal cord and brain of experimentally infected hamsters. (
  • Immunohistochemical detection of Modoc virus antigen in tissues of chronically infected hamsters. (
  • CDC is using next-generation gene sequencing tools to analyze flu viruses as part of CDC's Advanced Molecular Detection (AMD) initiative. (
  • The institute offers pathogen detection as part of its virus diagnostics. (
  • Reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) can be used for the rapid detection of Marburg virus. (
  • Detection of yellow fever virus genomes from four imported cases in China. (
  • Supervisors learned from Conservation & Development Department Director John Kopchik that of the 11 proposals granted permission to apply for limited commercial cannabis land use permits by the March 9 deadline, two commercial cultivation applicants - Element 7 (0 Chestnut, Brentwood) and Element 7 (3645 Willow Way, Byron) had missed the filing deadline. (
  • In reference to cannabis, bulk cultivation may refer to the commercial growing of cannabis for either legal or illegal markets. (
  • In the non-peer-reviewed, pre-clinical study "In Search of Preventative Strategies: Novel Anti-Inflammatory High-CBD Cannabis Sativa Extracts Modulate ACE2 Expression in Covid-19 Gateway Tissues" Canadian scientists at the University of Lethbridge have discovered cannabis may be able to block droplets of the virus from infecting human cells. (
  • From complex gut communities to minimal microbiomes via cultivation. (
  • We are living inside of a horrifying, abstract economic structure that itself is a living symbol and re-presentation of the out-of-control insanity of the wetiko virus . (
  • GOALPARA, June 1 - Restrictions on the movement of people during the lockdown period has severely hit the agriculture sector in Goalpara district and the farmers engaged in the cultivation of vegetables and horticultural crops are the worst affected as they saw a sharp decline in the demand of their farm produce during this period. (
  • He said that adding to their distress is the recent high intensity rainfall which destroyed all the standing crops including his boro paddy cultivation. (
  • New and improved cultivation will produce more than 600,000 tons of rice and other crops annually and therefore meet the current import demand for rice as well as satisfy a major portion of future demands. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Comparative studies on cultivation of buffalo pox virus in pup kidney and chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture. (
  • Modeling Indian Wheat and Rice Sector Policies Comparative analysis of transplanted and dibbled method of redgram cultivation in Bidar district of Karnataka Raising agricultural productivity with reduced use of energy and groundwater Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry The hot weather and hardships in the cultivation of wheat can be felt in the template design. (
  • Once the "good" genetic changes are identified, CDC will then synthesize H3N2 viruses with those properties that can be used to make vaccine that offers better protection against H3N2 flu infection. (
  • General information regarding Ebola virus infection is available through the CDC Ebola Hotline (telephone {800} 900-0681). (
  • Nipah virus (NiV) is a bat-borne emerging infection, and Pteropus spp. (
  • They also found that in the later stages of infection , the virus is more likely to be detected in the patients' stools than in their saliva, as evidenced by the greater number of anal swab positives versus oral swab positives. (
  • The Medical Microbiology & Infection Prevention (MMI department) of the Amsterdam University Medical Centres (AUMC) location Amsterdam Medical Centre (AMC) has a laboratory specially geared for the cultivation of viruses. (
  • [ 1 ] Approximately 35.4 million deaths worldwide have been attributed to infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) since the beginning of the HIV epidemic in the early 1980s. (
  • If the variegation is caused by something other than a virus infection or other malady, variegated plants are valued in the landscape for their unique appearance and eye-catching colors. (
  • In the seventeenth century Netherlands, during the time of the Tulip mania, an infection of tulip bulbs by the tulip breaking virus created variegated patterns in the tulip flowers that were much admired and valued. (
  • Immunocompromised cases (e.g. human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive cases) are susceptible to NTM infection, particularly disseminated M. avium disease. (
  • Flu ( influenza ) is a serious disease caused by influenza viruses. (
  • These changes can impact how well the flu vaccine works, or can also result in the emergence of new influenza viruses against which people have no preexisting immunity, triggering a pandemic. (
  • Year round, scientists from CDC, World Health Organization (WHO), and other partners monitor the influenza viruses that are infecting people. (
  • The technology allows CDC to study more influenza viruses faster and in more detail than ever before. (
  • For example, in some years certain influenza viruses may not appear and spread until later in the influenza season, making it difficult to prepare a candidate vaccine virus in time for vaccine production. (
  • Most healthy humans are infected with unique lineages of anelloviruses, small single-stranded-DNA viruses that neither help nor harm their hosts. (
  • While the earliest reports suggested that the virus' mode of transmission was from animals to humans, human-to-human transmission has now been confirmed by official reports. (
  • This helps our researchers study how viruses enter and spread into the human body in order to better understand virus infections in humans and to help develop new antiviral therapies. (
  • Plant viruses are suitable as building blocks for nanomaterials and nanoparticles because they are easy to modify and can be expressed and purified using plants or heterologous expression systems. (
  • Plant virus capsids are highly suitable for nanotechnological applications because they can be modified by genetic engineering or chemical conjugation to exposed amino acid residues. (
  • Therefore, plant viruses are suitable as building blocks for applications in areas as diverse as electronics and vaccination. (
  • A review of virus infections of cataceans and the potential impact of morbilliviruses, poxviruses and papillomaviruses on host population dynamics. (
  • HLA Class I Supertype Associations With Clinical Outcome of Secondary Dengue Virus Infections in Ethnic Thais. (
  • Virus infections may also cause patterns on a plant's foliage that looks like variegation. (
  • When you move infected materials from one location to another, you automatically help to spread the viruses," said Omongo, adding that most farmers unwittingly share infected seed and seedlings. (
  • Luyiga and farmers like him rarely have access to agricultural advisory and extension services that could provide them with the knowledge on how to identify and deal with the plant viruses. (
  • He urged the government to understand the true nature of distress of the farmers because of disruption of farm activities due to the corona virus lockdown and take necessary initiatives to ameliorate their sufferings. (
  • Talking to the, the top official said that it was an unplanned visit to the agriculture field to know about the farmers' problems and their methods of cultivation. (
  • Cultivation under LED-lighting is currently done on an area of 1.6 hectares. (
  • The programme includes the construction of storage and irrigation facilities sufficient to supply water for the cultivation of 128,000 hectares of new lands and for the upgrading of 32,000 hectares of existing agricultural lands in the irrigation systems designated as A, B, C, and D. (
  • Some viruses can infect cells of many species (e.g. (
  • There is increasing evidence that the virus can infect cats in particular," says Professor Osterrieder. (
  • One example of how AMD technology is used in vaccine development is to address mutations that may occur in vaccine viruses during growth in eggs used in the production of vaccine viruses. (
  • These mutations can change the vaccine virus so much that the immune response to vaccination may not protect as well against circulating viruses. (
  • The key to influenza vaccination currently is the availability of candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs). (
  • Thus, the challenge to isolate A(H3N2) candidate vaccine viruses (CVV's) in eggs that are antigenically well matched to circulating strains and do not contain undesirable egg adaptations in the HA protein is still ongoing. (
  • Hollow Fiber-Based High-Cell-Density and Two-stage Bioreactor Continuous Cultivation: Options and limits Towards Process Intensification for Virus Production. (
  • Process intensification for the production of MVA and influenza A virus in high density suspension cultures of AGE1.CR.pIX cells. (
  • Microsoft PowerPoint - Spawn Production for the Mushroom Industry.ppt [Compatibility Mode] Author: Kiflemariam Y Wheat Cultivation through System of Wheat Intensification (SWI). (
  • The polymerase of influenza is very mistake prone and causes the virus to mutate rapidly. (
  • Specimens for virus-specific diagnostic tests should be sent to CDC as rapidly as possible according to instructions provided when contact is made. (
  • Plant viruses are spreading rapidly to new places, frustrating efforts to boost the food security and livelihoods of millions of people. (
  • In the past eleven years, A(H3N2) viruses have antigenically drifted rapidly resulting in more frequent updates to the recommendation for the A(H3N2) component of the vaccine compared to A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B (Victoria or Yamagata) 28 . (
  • Scientists are looking at the genetic sequences of 10 generations of H3N2 flu viruses as they grow and evolve in eggs. (
  • The liquid extracts they produce are just more effective than most powdered extracts and they put a huge amount of time and effort into both their cultivation, extraction and science. (
  • The global financial system is one of the most rapid vectors and pathways through which the virus of wetiko is going pandemic in our world. (
  • 5.1 Shall keep the allotment garden clean and in a good state of cultivation and fertility and in good condition. (
  • The company specializes in bulbs and flower cultivation. (
  • Flower cultivation takes place in four phases, because cultivation takes place on rolling tables. (
  • Proprietary genetics cultivated with cutting-edge technology and over 100 years of combined plant cultivation experience has earned our flower the highest wholesale price in any major legal market. (
  • 2009. Investigations into the Ecology, Morphology, and the Genetic Diversity of Viruses in Saline Environments. (
  • Scout all equipment, ensuring all tools are free of pests, viruses or disease. (
  • Kumar A. Ebola virus altered innate and adaptive immune response signalling pathways: Implications for novel therapeutic approaches. (
  • Immunogenicity remains a primary concern for developers of gene therapies based on adenoassociated virus (AAV) vectors. (
  • Demand for adenoassociated virus (AAV) vectors continues to exceed the biopharmaceutical industry's ability to manufacture them. (
  • In IV International Symposium on Rose Research and Cultivation. (
  • Due to high acreage and water demand for almond cultivation, and need for pesticides , California almond production may be unsustainable, especially during the persistent drought and heat from climate change in the 21st century. (
  • S.W. The purpose of this study was to investigate farmersâ cultivation practices, knowledge and management of Russian wheat aphid as possible factors for the low yields of wheat, and the capacity of Template 10884 Learn more about wheat in this article. (
  • The development process often takes 15 to 20 years or more and requires virus cultivation, animal model testing, product formulation, immunogenicity testing and years of costly clinical trials. (
  • The increasing prices in recent years have led to further expansion of pepper cultivation to other regions in Vietnam. (
  • Although the beginning of their evolution is largely unknown, researchers assumed that they developed in tandem with cultivation since the appearance of agricultural habitats some 12,000 years ago. (
  • Dr M Zaffar Iqbal said that due to the increase in potato usage in domestic and industrial sectors, its cultivation has become very popular in Pakistan in recent years. (
  • Annual paddy rice is now available as a long-lived perennial after more than 9,000 years in cultivation. (
  • Otim-Nape added that the number of trained plant virologists in Africa was far too low to provide an adequate response to deal with the many plant viruses. (
  • CDC will test all of the viruses to find out what genetic changes cause a good immune response and good growth in eggs. (
  • Many schools of true cultivation appeared, each offering a principled path to spiritual growth. (
  • High titer MVA and influenza A virus production using a hybrid fed-batch/perfusion strategy with an ATF system. (
  • High-cell-density cultivations to increase MVA virus production. (
  • High cell density cultivations by alternating tangential flow (ATF) perfusion for influenza A virus production using suspension cells. (
  • Process optimization for semi-continuous virus production at high cell densities. (
  • On-line monitoring tools in batch and (semi-)perfusion cultivations for vaccine production. (
  • Disposable hollow fiber bioreactors for high cell density virus production in continuous mode. (
  • Assessment of cultivation strategies for the production of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) at high cell-densities. (
  • Towards effective media composition & process control optimization for high cell density cellbased virus production. (
  • There are challenges still exist in term of its production and value addition but government is working hard to address them as they have started to produce high-quality, virus-free and third-generation potato seed with the help of South Korea by using aeroponic technology which will enable Pakistan a self-sufficient in seed potatoes by mid-2022, he said. (
  • Primary production: the production, breeding or cultivation of primary products, including the rearing, processing and production of farm animals before slaughter. (
  • Virus cultivation and identification techniques require 3-10 days or longer for definitive identification. (
  • At the OrganoVIR Labs, state-of-the art virus culture techniques are available for assignments by third parties. (
  • The virus was common in the stool samples of dogs with or without enteric disease and in the nasal and oropharyngeal swab samples of dogs with respiratory signs. (
  • Screening of enteric and respiratory samples from dogs with either gastroenteric or respiratory disease and from animals without clinical signs suggested a possible association between the novel virus and respiratory disease in young dogs. (
  • Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a disease caused by a virus in the Papovaviridae family. (
  • These results suggest that COVID-19 patients may harbor the virus in their intestines and can potentially shed the virus through respiratory droplets, body fluids or fecal matter. (
  • These scientists study the viruses in the laboratory to see how they are changing. (
  • or 3) worked in a laboratory or animal facility that handles hemorrhagic fever viruses. (
  • Consider this research report: "Human embryos of two and one-half to five months gestation were obtained from the gynaecological department of the Toronto General Hospital…No macerated specimens were used and in many of the embryos the heart was still beating at the time of receipt in the virus laboratory. (
  • In addition to the diagnostic tasks, the virus culture laboratory is also focused on the education, research, development and validation of new tests. (
  • Scientists investigate virus-host interactions at sub-freezing temperatures in Arctic peat soil. (
  • A seemingly convincing utilitarian argument supports mutual surveillance and the cultivation of the panopticon: we are currently in times of unprecedented crisis, and the urgent need to curb the spread of the virus appears to outweigh concerns of privacy. (
  • Tokyo-based Mebiol is working on an membrane-based plant cultivation technology called Imec that makes it possible to let plants grow on thin film instead of soil. (
  • Historical precipitation influences soil viruses and their functional potential in grassland soils. (
  • Soil moisture influences the activity of soil DNA viruses and the composition and abundance of RNA viruses. (
  • In this study, the iLOV sequence was genetically fused either directly or via a glycine-serine linker to the C-terminus of the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) coat protein (CP) and also carried an N-terminal Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A sequence. (
  • Why are chicken embryos typically the go-to for flu vaccine cultivation? (
  • Nursery Bakker's switch shows Signify the possibilities of LED grow lights in lily cultivation. (
  • In addition, wild wheat species can also be involved in hybrid swarms in regions where they naturally grow in and around the areas of wheat cultivation. (
  • On account of acute food shortage after the great famine of 1943, a â grow-more-foodâ campaign was launched which emphasised wheat cultivation. (
  • Again, the infant's tissue was used, in the lab, to "grow virus in cell culture. (
  • For instance, we can now grow viruses that were previously uncultivable, such as rotavirus. (
  • The tests were conducted in April, when scientists looked to see how a sample of sativa extracts containing high amounts of the cannabinoid CBD interacted with the ACE2 pathways the virus uses to enter the body. (
  • Considering the ecological importance of marine viruses, it is timely to study the impact of UV-AB on Arctic phytoplankton host-virus interactions and also test the efficacy of ballast water (BW) UV-C treatment on virus infectivity. (
  • Fluorescent protein fusions have been instrumental for the tagging of plant virus particles. (
  • Virus Particle Purification Using Magnetic Sulfated Cellulose Particles. (
  • Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) virus-like particles (VLPs) are an effective vaccine against post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. (
  • The average fruit yield is extremely low (i.e., 6.6 t ha-1) and is most likely the result of plant disease (e.g., papaya ringspot virus), flooding, lack of varieties, and poor nutrient management. (
  • This study aimed to systematize information about the consequences of social distance along the different stages of the life cycle for people who were not infected by the virus, but who experience the indirect consequences of the pandemic. (