The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Infections with viruses of the genus RUBULAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A histone chaperone protein that plays a role in the deposition of NUCLEOSOMES on newly synthesized DNA. It is comprised of three different subunits of 48, 60, and 150 kDa molecular size. The 48 kDa subunit, RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4, is also a component of several other protein complexes involved in chromatin remodeling.

Maturation-induced conformational changes of HIV-1 capsid protein and identification of two high affinity sites for cyclophilins in the C-terminal domain. (1/2943)

Viral incorporation of cyclophilin A (CyPA) during the assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is crucial for efficient viral replication. CyPA binds to the previously identified Gly-Pro90 site of the capsid protein p24, but its role remained unclear. Here we report two new interaction sites between cyclophilins and p24. Both are located in the C-terminal domain of p24 around Gly-Pro157 and Gly-Pro224. Peptides corresponding to these regions showed higher affinities (Kd approximately 0.3 microM) for both CyPA and cyclophilin B than the best peptide derived from the Gly-Pro90 site ( approximately 8 microM) and thus revealed new sequence motifs flanking Gly-Pro that are important for tight interaction of peptide ligands with cyclophilins. Between CyPA and an immature (unprocessed) form of p24, a Kd of approximately 8 microM was measured, which corresponded with the Kd of the best of the Gly-Pro90 peptides, indicating an association via this site. Processing of immature p24 by the viral protease, yielding mature p24, elicited a conformational change in its C-terminal domain that was signaled by the covalently attached fluorescence label acrylodan. Consequently, CyPA and cyclophilin B bound with much higher affinities ( approximately 0.6 and 0.25 microM) to the new, i.e. maturation-generated sites. Since this domain is essential for p24 oligomerization and capsid cone formation, CyPA bound to the new sites might impair the regularity of the capsid cone and thus facilitate in vivo core disassembly after host infection.  (+info)

The cleavable carboxyl-terminus of the small coat protein of cowpea mosaic virus is involved in RNA encapsidation. (2/2943)

The site of cleavage of the small coat protein of cowpea mosaic virus has been precisely mapped and the proteolysis has been shown to result in the loss of 24 amino acids from the carboxyl-terminus of the protein. A series of premature termination and deletion mutants was constructed to investigate the role or roles of these carboxyl-terminal amino acids in the viral replication cycle. Mutants containing premature termination codons at or downstream of the cleavage site were viable but reverted to wild-type after a single passage through cowpea plants, indicating that the carboxyl-terminal amino acids are important. Mutants with the equivalent deletions were genetically stable and shown to be debilitated with respect to virus accumulation. The specific infectivity of preparations of a deletion mutant (DM4) lacking all 24 amino acids was 6-fold less than that of a wild-type preparation. This was shown to be a result of DM4 preparations containing a much increased percentage (73%) of empty (RNA-free) particles, a finding that implicates the cleavable carboxyl-terminal residues in the packaging of the virion RNAs.  (+info)

Precise packaging of the three genomic segments of the double-stranded-RNA bacteriophage phi6. (3/2943)

Bacteriophage phi6 has a genome of three segments of double-stranded RNA. Each virus particle contains one each of the three segments. Packaging is effected by the acquisition, in a serially dependent manner, of the plus strands of the genomic segments into empty procapsids. The empty procapsids are compressed in shape and expand during packaging. The packaging program involves discrete steps that are determined by the amount of RNA inside the procapsid. The steps involve the exposure and concealment of binding sites on the outer surface of the procapsid for the plus strands of the three genomic segments. The plus strand of segment S can be packaged alone, while packaging of the plus strand of segment M depends upon prior packaging of S. Packaging of the plus strand of L depends upon the prior packaging of M. Minus-strand synthesis begins when the particle has a full complement of plus strands. Plus-strand synthesis commences upon the completion of minus-strand synthesis. All of the reactions of packaging, minus-strand synthesis, and plus-strand synthesis can be accomplished in vitro with isolated procapsids. Live-virus constructions that are in accord with the model have been prepared. Mutant virus with changes in the packaging program have been isolated and analyzed.  (+info)

Interactions of heterologous DNA with polyomavirus major structural protein, VP1. (4/2943)

'Empty' polyomavirus pseudocapsids, self-assembled from the major structural protein VP1, bind DNA non-specifically and can deliver it into the nuclei of mammalian cells for expression [Forstova et al. (1995) Hum. Gene Ther. 6, 297-3061. Formation of suitable VP1-DNA complexes appears to be the limiting step in this route of gene delivery. Here, the character of VP1-DNA interactions has been studied in detail. Electron microscopy revealed that VP1 pseudocapsids can create in vitro at least two types of interactions with double-stranded DNA: (i) highly stable complexes, requiring free DNA ends, where the DNA is partially encapsidated; and, (ii) weaker interactions of pseudocapsids with internal parts of the DNA chain.  (+info)

Noncytopathic flavivirus replicon RNA-based system for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. (5/2943)

Noncytopathic replicons of the flavivirus Kunjin (KUN) were employed for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. Replicon vector C20DX2Arep, containing a unique cloning site followed by the sequence of 2A autoprotease of foot-and-mouth disease virus, was constructed and used for expression of a number of heterologous genes including chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), green fluorescent protein (GFP), beta-galactosidase, glycoprotein G of vesicular stomatitis virus, and the Core and NS3 genes of hepatitis C virus. The expression and proper processing of these genes upon transfection of BHK21 cells with the recombinant replicon RNAs were demonstrated by immunofluorescence, radioimmunoprecipitation, and appropriate reporter gene assays. Most of these recombinant KUN replicon RNAs were also successfully packaged into secreted virus-like particles (VLPs) by subsequent transfection with Semliki Forest virus replicon RNA expressing KUN structural genes. Infection of BHK21 and Vero cells with these VLPs resulted in continuous replication of the recombinant replicon RNAs and prolonged expression of the cloned genes without any cytopathic effect. We also developed a replicon vector for generation of stable cell lines continuously expressing heterologous genes by inserting an encephalomyelocarditis virus internal ribosomal entry site-neomycin transferase gene cassette into the 3'-untranslated region of the C20DX2Arep vector. Using this vector (C20DX2ArepNeo), stable BHK cell lines persistently expressing GFP and CAT genes for up to 17 passages were established. Thus noncytopathic KUN replicon vectors with the ability to be packaged into VLPs should provide a useful tool for the development of noninfectious and noncytopathic vaccines as well as for gene therapy applications.  (+info)

Opposing effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix mutations support a myristyl switch model of gag membrane targeting. (6/2943)

Targeting of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag precursor Pr55(gag) to the plasma membrane, the site of virus assembly, is primarily mediated by the N-terminal matrix (MA) domain. N-myristylation of MA is essential for the stable association of Pr55(gag) with membranes and for virus assembly. We now show that single amino acid substitutions near the N terminus of MA can dramatically impair assembly without compromising myristylation. Subcellular fractionation demonstrated that Gag membrane binding was compromised to a similar extent as in the absence of the myristyl acceptor site, indicating that the myristyl group was not available for membrane insertion. Remarkably, the effects of the N-terminal modifications could be completely suppressed by second-site mutations in the globular core of MA. The compensatory mutations enhanced Gag membrane binding and increased viral particle yields above wild-type levels, consistent with an increase in the exposure of the myristyl group. Our results support a model in which the compact globular core of MA sequesters the myristyl group to prevent aberrant binding to intracellular membranes, while the N terminus is critical to allow the controlled exposure of the myristyl group for insertion into the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Foamy virus capsids require the cognate envelope protein for particle export. (7/2943)

Unlike other subclasses of the Retroviridae the Spumavirinae, its prototype member being the so-called human foamy virus (HFV), require the expression of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein for viral particle egress. Both the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) Env and the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, which efficiently pseudotype other retrovirus capsids, were not able to support export of HFV particles. Analysis of deletion and point mutants of the HFV Env protein revealed that the HFV Env cytoplasmic domain (CyD) is dispensable for HFV particle envelopment, release, and infectivity, whereas deletion of the membrane-spanning-domain (MSD) led to an accumulation of naked capsids in the cytoplasm. Neither alternative membrane association of HFV Env deletion mutants lacking the MSD and CyD via phosphoglycolipid anchor nor domain swapping mutants, with the MSD or CyD of MuLV Env and VSV-G exchanged against the corresponding HFV domains, could restore particle envelopment and the release defect of pseudotypes. However, replacement of the HFV MSD with that of MuLV led to budding of HFV capsids at the intracellular membranes. These virions were of apparently wild-type morphology but were not naturally released into the supernatant and they were noninfectious.  (+info)

Vif and the p55(Gag) polyprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are present in colocalizing membrane-free cytoplasmic complexes. (8/2943)

The Vif protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a potent regulator of viral infectivity. Current data posit that Vif functions late in replication to modulate assembly, budding, and/or maturation. Consistent with this model, earlier indirect immunofluorescence analyses of HIV-1-infected cells demonstrated that Vif and Gag colocalize to a substantial degree (J. H. M. Simon, R. A. M. Fouchier, T. E. Southerling, C. B. Guerra, C. K. Grant, and M. H. Malim, J. Virol. 71:5259-5267, 1997). Here, we describe a series of subcellular fractionation studies which indicate that Vif and the p55(Gag) polyprotein are present in membrane-free cytoplasmic complexes that copurify in sucrose density gradients and are stable in nonionic detergents. Both Vif and Gag are targeted to these complexes independent of each other, and their association with them appears to be mediated by protein-protein interactions. We propose that these complexes may represent viral assembly intermediates and that Vif is appropriately localized to influence the final stages of the viral life cycle and, therefore, the infectivity of progeny virions.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of the in vitro packaging efficiency of bacteriophage T7 DNA. T2 - effects of neutral polymers. AU - Son, Marjatta. AU - Hayes, Shirley J.. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 1989/10/30. Y1 - 1989/10/30. N2 - The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. When the polymer used was polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 0.2, 0.6 or 12.6 kDa, the efficiency of DNA packaging reached maximum at an intermediate concentration of polymer. The osmotic pressure (Pos) at maximum efficiency was either in, or close to, the range of colloid Pos measured for the intact host cell. The optimum Pos increased as the size of the polymer used decreased. PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of the in vitro packaging efficiency of bacteriophage T7 DNA. T2 - effects of neutral polymers. AU - Son, Marjatta. AU - Hayes, Shirley J.. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 1989/10/30. Y1 - 1989/10/30. N2 - The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. When the polymer used was polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 0.2, 0.6 or 12.6 kDa, the efficiency of DNA packaging reached maximum at an intermediate concentration of polymer. The osmotic pressure (Pos) at maximum efficiency was either in, or close to, the range of colloid Pos measured for the intact host cell. The optimum Pos increased as the size of the polymer used decreased. PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA ...
In this paper, we start from the study of packaging efficiency with phosphor-converted white LED. The PkE can be obtained through a new way to measure and calculate the blue light from the blue die to the encapsulation lens. Then we investigate the PkE in seven types of pcW-LED to figure out what the most efficient is among them. In order to know the details of the PkL, we analyze the PkL budget, which contains Stokes loss, phosphor quantum loss, and geometry loss. The Stokes loss depends on the blue spectrum and the spectrum of the down-conversion. The geometry loss is more complicated, and it relates to the phosphor, the reflective surface in the packaging volume and the absorption of the active layer of the blue die. The simulation shows that phosphor particle size could induce different backward scattering, and so does the geometry loss. The simulation and corresponding experiment shows that the phosphor with small particle size, Type I and Type VII are the best in PkE. As for larger ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NMR structure of stem-loop SL2 of the HIV-1 Ψ RNA packaging signal reveals a novel A-U-A base-triple platform. AU - Amarasinghe, Gaya K.. AU - De Guzman, Roberto N.. AU - Turner, Ryan B.. AU - Summers, Michael F.. PY - 2000/5/26. Y1 - 2000/5/26. N2 - The genome of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) contains a stretch of ~120 nucleotides known as the ψ-site that is essential for RNA packaging during virus assembly. These nucleotides have been proposed to form four stem-loops (SL1-SL4) that have both independent and overlapping functions. Stem-loop SL2 is important for efficient recognition and packaging of the full-length, unspliced viral genome, and also contains the major splice-donor site (SD) for mRNA splicing. We have determined the structure of the 19-residue SL2 oligoribonucleotide by heteronuclear NMR methods. The structure is generally consistent with the most recent of two earlier secondary structure predictions, with residues G1-G2-C3-G4 and C6-U7 forming ...
RNA enveloped viruses comprise several families belonging to plus and minus strand RNA viruses, such as retroviruses, flavoviruses and orthomyxoviruses. Viruses utilize cellular lipids during critical steps of replication like entry, assembly and egress. Growing evidence indicate important roles for lipids and lipid nanodomains in virus assembly. The proposed topic will cover key aspects of virus-membrane interactions during assembly and egress. A significant part of this special topic will address how enveloped viruses such as retroviruses, influenza, Ebola and Dengue viruses are able to recognize specific lipids in membrane during assembly and egress. Virus assembly and release involve specific and nonspecific interactions between viral proteins and membrane compartments. It is well established that assembly of retroviral Gag proteins occur predominantly on the PM. Membrane selection appears to be critical for productive virus production. Gaps in understanding of retroviral assembly still exist.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determinants of the HIV-1 core assembly pathway. AU - López, Claudia S.. AU - Eccles, Jacob D.. AU - Still, Amelia. AU - Sloan, Rachel E.. AU - Barklis, Robin Lid. AU - Tsagli, Seyram M.. AU - Barklis, Eric. PY - 2011/8/15. Y1 - 2011/8/15. N2 - Based on structural information, we have analyzed the mechanism of mature HIV-1 core assembly and the contributions of structural elements to the assembly process. Through the use of several in vitro assembly assay systems, we have examined details of how capsid (CA) protein helix 1, ß-hairpin and cyclophilin loop elements impact assembly-dependent protein interactions, and we present evidence for a contribution of CA helix 6 to the mature assembly-competent conformation of CA. Additional experiments with mixtures of proteins in assembly reactions provide novel analyses of the mature core assembly mechanism. Our results support a model in which initial assembly products serve as scaffolds for further assembly by converting incoming ...
Although UL11 has been suggested to play an important role in HSV secondary envelopment, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Dissection of its interaction network represents a useful and meaningful approach to better understand the function of this protein during the HSV life cycle. The experiments described here strongly support the suggestion that UL11 and gE are in some sort of a complex, as suggested previously (16), but go much further by showing that the interaction is direct and by mapping the sequences involved in both proteins. Interestingly, the previous study (16) mapped the UL11-binding region to the C terminus of the gE tail between the gE residues 495 to 550 in contrast to the residues 445 to 472 determined here. This discrepancy likely stems from different systems that were used for mapping the binding domain. The former was done under virus infection conditions, in which many other viral factors would compete with UL11 for binding to the gE tail, and could potentially ...
PI(4,5)P2 plays a much broader role during the HIV-1 particle assembly process than assumed; it is indispensable not only for recruitment of Gag to the plasma membrane but also for the maintenance of Gag assemblies.
Hi, When I was in Japan, I used ETHACHINMATE as a carrier to recover DNA (from WAKO JUNYAKU Co.). In their catelogy, they show some data glycogen has effect on transformation efficency, but ethachinmate does not. I dont know whether linar polyacrylamide effect transformation and in vitro Packaging efficiency. Huang ...
Applied Biological Materials Inc. ( abm ) is an unique supplier of premium quality genetic and cellular materials, virus packaging, CRISPR/Cas9 stable cell line services, immortalization service and various other custom services. Recognized as the 25th Fastest-Growing Companies in B.C. in 2015, abm is rapidly expanding and we are offering a Cell Culture Lab Intern position for a reliable, motivated and detail-oriented individual. The successful candidate(s) will be part of the Cell Biology team to provide our customers with a complete line of viral packaging and stable cell line generation services. The successful candidate(s) will have plenty of opportunities for fast track career development while being part of a highly diverse, innovative and interactive cohort of scientists.. Responsibilities will include, but are not limited to, the following:. ...
Services for construction of virus vectors, virus generation, virus packaging, virus amplification, virus production, virus purification, virus titering, and various viral applications.
Theres nothing quite like a multistation automated assembly system. Watching robots, actuators and indexers go about their carefully choreographed routines with little or no human intervention can seem nothing short of miraculous. The following systems exemplify the hard work and creative engineering that routinely go into todays automated assembly systems. System Assembles Medical Device With Multiple Variants High-speed assembly of medical devices poses multiple challenges. Beyond the sheer volume requirement, medical device assembly systems must also meet cleanliness, process validation and regulatory requirements. Based . . .
At BPA, we know it is our reputation that makes us successful. Starting from initial contact through project management and commissioning, including service and support, we aim to please. Our sales and engineering teams work closely with you to develop the optimal solution for your specific packaging needs, ensuring maximum line productivity.BPA focuses on:
Amplification Now, you need to do an amplification of the correct full-length chunks. Clean up the assembly reaction with a zymo column; dont bother running it on a gel - itll be a smeary mess and wont really help you. Save the purified product in case this step fails! For the amplification reaction, do a normal phusion program with 1 ul of the cleaned up assembly reaction as template, and using the outermost oligos for the chunk. That is: Recipe 1 ul each outer oligo (10 uM) -Dilute F/R oligos 1:10 from 100uM; in this case, oligo CCOMT1-12/CCOMT1-15 1 ul purified pca product .5 ul phusion 10 ul 5x phusion buffer 5 ul 2mM dNTPs 32.5 ul H2O Samples given to John to run the Program. 1:10 Oligo12/Oligo15 dilutions in small PCR tubes. Also stored purified PCA1 product in 4o box. Program 2 min initial denature at 94oC 30 sec denature at 94oC 30 sec anneal at 60oC [This should be high, as your outer oligos now have a huge overlap with the correct product] 30 sec extension at 68oC ...
A Framework for the Modelling and Optimisation of a Lean Assembly System Design with Multiple Objectives: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5836-3.ch005: The newest assembly system is lean assembly, which is specifically designed to respond quickly and economically to the fluctuating nature of the market
While weighing your package is not required for FedEx One Rate pricing, to qualify, FedEx Envelopes must weigh 10 lbs. or less and FedEx Paks and Boxes must weigh 50 lbs. or less. If your package exceeds these weight limits, it will be rated based on FedEx Standard List Rates or FedEx Retail Rates as applicable. Please refer to the specific packaging for recommended weight limits. Please refer to the FedEx Service Guide at for more information about FedEx One Rate ...
Virus assembly inside cells. The volume of a cell is large compared to the small portion used by most viruses for their assembly. Moreover, the cell is highly compartmentalized with regard to different functions that viruses may need. We are interested to define specific elements of cellular organization that viruses exploit to benefit their own replication. Particular focus is on the content and organization of the cytoplasmic factories in which viral replication and assembly occur ...
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Two copies of unspliced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) are preferentially selected for packaging by the group-specific antigen (Gag) polyprotein into progeny virions as a dimer during the late stages of the viral lifecycle. Elucidating the RNA features responsible for selective recognition of the full-length gRNA in the presence of an abundance of other cellular RNAs and spliced viral RNAs remains an area of intense research. The recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure by Keane et al. [1] expands upon previous efforts to determine the conformation of the HIV-1 RNA packaging signal. The data support a secondary structure wherein sequences that constitute the major splice donor site are sequestered through base pairing, and a tertiary structure that adopts a tandem 3-way junction motif that exposes the dimerization initiation site and unpaired guanosines for specific recognition by Gag. While it remains to be established whether this structure is conserved in the context
Viral packaging systems in lentiviral, baculoviral, and retroviral platforms as well as packaging services with high titer products
Genome packaging is a key step in retrovirus replication. Two copies of the virus RNA are specifically selected and packaged into an assembling virion. The nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the Gag polyprotein and the packaging signal (?-site) region of the genomic RNA are critical to this process. Different packaging mechanisms have been proposed for HIV-1 and HIV-2. In HIV-1, the ?-site is downstream of the major splice donor (SD), and any splicing removes both NC binding sites. The proposed HIV-2 ?-site is upstream of the SD. A co-translational packaging hypothesis was presented explaining this contradiction. In this mechanism, NC binds the full-length RNA from which it was translated. Other studies indicated the region between the SD and the Gag initiation codon is critical for NC binding and genome packaging. This finding supports the hypothesis that HIV-1 and HIV-2 package their genomes in a similar manner. However, the minimal NC binding domain(s) in HIV-2 had not been determined. The work ...
Examining the differences and similarities between HIV and SIV retroviral replication systems is important in light of the fact that SIV animal models are used in the development and testing of HIV eradicating drugs and vaccines. One such difference may be the efficiency of Gag directed viral assembly. Studies with HIV-1 Gag have shown that during the late phase retroviral replication, 1,500-5,000 copies of Gag are targeted to lipid raft sites on the plasma membrane for new virus production.,super,2; 3; 4,super, The role of MA as a domain of Gag/Gag-Pro-Pol is crucial for viral particle assembly and budding through the synergistic properties of the myristate group and positively charged basic residues of the N-terminus. Work done by Tang ,italic,et al,italic,.,super,5,super, demonstrated myristylated [myr(+)] HIV-1 MA exists in an equilibrium between a monomeric and trimeric state. Concentration dependent assays done with 2D ,super,1,super,H, ,super,15,super,N-HSQC NMR showed the chemical shift ...
A free-to-use tool for scientists to design and order custom DNA vectors. Select promoters/ORFs from our database or enter your own sequences.
A free-to-use tool for scientists to design and order custom DNA vectors. Select promoters/ORFs from our database or enter your own sequences.
Our laboratory has focused its efforts on two important aspects of the biology of herpesviruses; virus assembly and the pathogenesis of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. We have developed several in-vitro assay systems that permit the identification and characterization of critical protein interactions that take place during virus assembly. Using BAC derived infectious clones, we have utilized virus genetics to understand the role of different viral proteins in the assembly of an infectious particle. Our results indicate that interactions between viral tegument and envelope proteins are essential for infectious particle assembly and that inhibition of these interactions can limit envelopment and therefore, virus assembly. A second major focus of our laboratory is the development of a small animal model of CNS disease associated with cytomegalovirus infections. We have exploited a finding that newborn mice infected with murine CMV develop CNS infection that leads to maldevelopment of the ...
In article ,3j1dqu$3t1 at,, MS WF HONG [GEN]53872 ,GEN282E at, writes: , Dear netters, , I am working on genomic mapping of Pseudomonas by pulse field , gel electrophoresis. At this stage, I have a problem in separating a , 173kb doublet. Does any one have suggestions on how to solve this , problem. , , , Thanks in advance. , , , , W. F. Hong , Well, the best way probably is making a gene library and pulling out linking clones hybridizing the library with the 173kb doublet probe.Making the library shouldnt be problem considering the high and reliable packaging efficiency of commercial pack. mix (Stratagene) like Gigapack Good luck. Goran Biukovic , biukovic at ...
The viral HIV-1 Gag protein is both necessary and sufficient for virus particle assembly. Using a novel microscopy approach I have examined the localization and movement of Gag in primary human macrophages. Virus particles accumulated at the plasma membrane and in apparent internal compartments. Interestingly, virus particles in these compartments were rapidly recruited to the site of contact between infected macrophages and naïve T-cells. These data led to the discovery of virion channels connecting these compartments to the cell surface allowing for the efficient targeted trafficking of HIV-1 in macrophages ...
Once we have pin-pointed suspicious regions in the genome, the Digard laboratory can explore them by engineering mutant viruses to see if the packaging process is broken by changes in those locations in the genome. The results we have are promising, and it seems that our methods are identifying regions of interest, but there is so much more we want to do.. There are ways we can improve our methods to make better use of the increasing numbers of full genomes of influenza available. (This is currently being researched by a PhD student in my group, Johann von Kirchbach). Also, if we can find any covariances between signals (e.g. when one site on the genome mutated, another site elsewhere usually also mutated), we might be able to begin uncovering clues as to how these signals work: this would be an important step. Then we hope to formulate new experiments to explore further.. Understanding the packaging process of influenza and uncovering the packaging signals that drive it would be a major step in ...
Our 1.5 Mil Clear Pre-Opened Bags on Roll are designed for use with auto-baggers, or automated bagging machines, for easy and efficient packaging.. Bags for automatic machines come open on one side, for easy product inserting, and perforated on the back for easy tear-off. Ideal for high-volume packaging operations. Compatible with most automated bagging machines like Titan, Clamcom AUTOBAG, Sharp, and others. Rest assured, these are compatible with most industry standard packaging systems and are very competitively priced. All of our Pre-Opened Bags on Roll meet FDA and USDA requirements.. As with any of our bags, custom printing and sizes are always available.. ...
High quality plasmid DNA preparation service for both research and industrial applications, especially protein and antibody engineering, antigen production, and virus packaging. Industrial grade plasmid preparation guarantees > 90% supercoil and
Retroviruses are parasites that pose a major health threat to humans (for example in case of HIV) and other animals (for example in case of RSV, M-PMV, MLV, and many more viruses). After a retrovirus hijacks a cell, the infected cell produces multiple copies of the virus which are then released into the hosts bloodstream. These newly released viruses must mature before they can infect other cells. A strategy for preventing virus spread is therefore, to lock the viral particles in their immature, non-infectious state. However, to render the immature virus an attractive target for structure-based drug development one needs to know its chemical structure. Unfortunately, the complexity and size of the viral particle ― an incomplete hexagonal shell with a size close to 100 nm ― have prevented the experimental determination of the chemical, namely atomic level, structure of the virus. As reported recently, a team of computational and experimental researchers have provided an atomic structure of ...
机器人的装配策略受装配对象特性、装配工艺和装配控制方法的约束,针对装配过程接触阶段的位姿不确定性问题,本文提出了一种装配姿态调整技能自学习的方法。首先描述多约束条件下的机器人装配技能问题,建立基于力/力矩、位姿、关节角度等多模信息描述装配系统模型;然后构建融合竞争架构的机器人决策网络与策略优化网络,通过与环境的不断交互,进行装配姿态调整技能的学习;最后,在低压电器塑料外壳卡合装配实验平台上进行测试验证。结果表明,在工件特性、装配工艺、控制规律约束下,机器人采用技能学习的方法获得了末端姿态调整的策略,完成了卡合装配,比基于DQN的算法成功率提高了7.4%。;The assembly process of robot is constrained by the characteristics of assembly object, assembly process and assembly control law. In order to solve the problem of pose uncertainty in the
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AMA - Airborne Meteorological Assembly. Looking for abbreviations of AMA? It is Airborne Meteorological Assembly. Airborne Meteorological Assembly listed as AMA
1. An energy storage module (10) comprising a plurality of energy storage assemblies (100) positioned side by side, and a rigid shell (12) designed to surround the storage assemblies, each assembly including at least one side wall closed at each end by an end face, wherein the storage assemblies are electrically connected two by two by conducting bars (110) extending over at least one end face of each assembly, the bars being arranged so that one bar connects a first end face of at least one predetermined assembly to an end face of a first adjoining assembly and that a second bar connects a second face of the predetermined assembly to an end face of a second adjoining assembly, wherein the module also includes at least one electrical insulation member (120), made of an electrically insulating material and including a bottom (122) and a rim (124) extending essentially perpendicularly to the bottom and surrounding it, each electrical insulation member (120) being associated with one bar (110) and ...
A surgical sagittal saw capable of actuating an assembly that includes a static bar and at least one drive rod and a blade head, both of which are pivotally mounted to the bar. The saw includes a receiving surface on which the blade assembly bar is seated. A clamp removably holds bar in a static position against the receiving surface. The saw includes at least one drive pin. When the bar is mounted to the plate, the drive pin engages the assembly drive rod. A motor is connected to the drive pin to oscillate the pin.
private HttpSelfHostServer _server; private readonly HttpSelfHostConfiguration _config; public const string ServiceAddress = http://localhost:333; public WebApiService() { InitializeComponent(); _config = new HttpSelfHostConfiguration(ServiceAddress); // Set our own assembly resolver where we add the assemblies we need CustomAssembliesResolver assemblyResolver = new CustomAssembliesResolver(); _config.Services.Replace(typeof(IAssembliesResolver), assemblyResolver); _config.Routes.MapHttpRoute( Default, {controller}/{action}/{id}, new { controller = Home, action = Index, id = RouteParameter.Optional }); } public class CustomAssembliesResolver : DefaultAssembliesResolver { public override ICollection,Assembly, GetAssemblies() { ICollection,Assembly, baseAssemblies = base.GetAssemblies(); List,Assembly, assemblies = new List,Assembly,(baseAssemblies); var controllersAssembly = Assembly.LoadFrom(@D:\Regula\WebApiService\WebApiService\bin\WebApiService.dll); ...
A fluid delivery system includes a connector assembly and a container for holding fluids. The connector assembly includes a first fitting defining a first aperture and a second fitting that is couplable to the first fitting and defines a second aperture. The container for holding fluids including a fitment, wherein one of the first and second fittings is directly coupled to the fitment.
A nasal assembly for delivering breathable gas to a patient includes a frame having an integrally formed first connector portion. A nozzle assembly includes a gusset or base portion and a pair of nozz
We supply a range of budget assembly benches in a range of sizes to suit all applications. The photo shows one of our most popular benches, with two levels. Available in a range of sizes and supplied in flat-packed for easy assembly at your premises.
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Reflexil is an assembly editor and runs as a plug-in for Reflector or JustDecompile. Reflexil is able to manipulate IL code and save the modified assemblies to disk. Reflexil also supports on-the-fly C#/VB.NET code injection.
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Contains all the components required to properly rebuild the swingarm bearing assembly Needle bearing shafts are made with 52100 bearing... ID:714508
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Foamy viruses (FVs) differ from all other genera of retroviruses (orthoretroviruses) in many aspects of viral replication. In this review, we discuss FV assembly, with special emphasis on Pol incorporation. FV assembly takes place intracellularly, near the pericentriolar region, at a site similar to that used by betaretroviruses. The regions of Gag, Pol and genomic RNA required for viral assembly are described. In contrast to orthoretroviral Pol, which is synthesized as a Gag-Pol fusion protein and packaged through Gag-Gag interactions, FV Pol is synthesized from a spliced mRNA lacking all Gag sequences. Thus, encapsidation of FV Pol requires a different mechanism. We detail how WT Pol lacking Gag sequences is incorporated into virus particles. In addition, a mutant in which Pol is expressed as an orthoretroviral-like Gag-Pol fusion protein is discussed. We also discuss temporal regulation of the protease, reverse transcriptase and integrase activities of WT FV Pol.
Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest Pentecostal Assembly Northwest ...
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The Lingappa lab studies viral host interactions involved in assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other viruses. Previously, our group demonstrated that immature HIV-1 capsid assembly in cells occurs through a pathway of assembly intermediates, and is facilitated by the catalytic activity of the host enzymes ABCE1 and DDX6. Our recent studies show that ABCE1 binds directly to HIV Gag through an ancient binding site that is present even in the Ty3 retrotransposon Gag protein. One current project in the lab involves understanding the evolution of the ABCE1 binding site in different retroviral Gag proteins. A second project in the lab involves studying how HIV-1 genomic RNA is packaged into the assembling virus in cells. A third project address how polymorphisms that arise in Gag in vivo can enhance ABCE1-Gag binding, thereby accelerating the kinetics of assembly and increasing virus particle production. The latter studies have important implications for viral pathogenesis, ...
The Lingappa lab studies viral host interactions involved in assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other viruses. Previously, our group demonstrated that immature HIV-1 capsid assembly in cells occurs through a pathway of assembly intermediates, and is facilitated by the catalytic activity of the host enzymes ABCE1 and DDX6. Our recent studies show that ABCE1 binds directly to HIV Gag through an ancient binding site that is present even in the Ty3 retrotransposon Gag protein. One current project in the lab involves understanding the evolution of the ABCE1 binding site in different retroviral Gag proteins. A second project in the lab involves studying how HIV-1 genomic RNA is packaged into the assembling virus in cells. A third project address how polymorphisms that arise in Gag in vivo can enhance ABCE1-Gag binding, thereby accelerating the kinetics of assembly and increasing virus particle production. The latter studies have important implications for viral pathogenesis, ...
Reassortment of influenza viral RNA (vRNA) segments in co-infected cells can lead to the emergence of viruses with pandemic potential. Replication of influenza vRNA occurs in the nucleus of infected cells, while progeny virions bud from the plasma membrane. However, the intracellular mechanics of vRNA assembly into progeny virions is not well understood. Here we used recent advances in microscopy to explore vRNA assembly and transport during a productive infection. We visualized four distinct vRNA segments within a single cell using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and observed that foci containing more than one vRNA segment were found at the external nuclear periphery, suggesting that vRNA segments are not exported to the cytoplasm individually. Although many cytoplasmic foci contain multiple vRNA segments, not all vRNA species are present in every focus, indicating that assembly of all eight vRNA segments does not occur prior to export from the nucleus. To extend the observations made in fixed
Reassortment of influenza viral RNA (vRNA) segments in co-infected cells can lead to the emergence of viruses with pandemic potential. Replication of influenza vRNA occurs in the nucleus of infected cells, while progeny virions bud from the plasma membrane. However, the intracellular mechanics of vRNA assembly into progeny virions is not well understood. Here we used recent advances in microscopy to explore vRNA assembly and transport during a productive infection. We visualized four distinct vRNA segments within a single cell using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and observed that foci containing more than one vRNA segment were found at the external nuclear periphery, suggesting that vRNA segments are not exported to the cytoplasm individually. Although many cytoplasmic foci contain multiple vRNA segments, not all vRNA species are present in every focus, indicating that assembly of all eight vRNA segments does not occur prior to export from the nucleus. To extend the observations made in fixed
While X-ray crystallography is a powerful technique, artificial laboratory-grown crystals sometimes do not realistically reflect biology. The team sought to confirm their findings in living bacteria using an additional imaging technique called soft X-ray tomography, which bombards bacterial cells with X-rays to produce flat 2D images. The 2D images are then combined computationally to create a 3D picture of the whole, living bacteria. When packaging proteins lack the DNA-binding regions, the team found that the previously observed DNA networks are missing. In fact, the bacterial DNA seems to collapse into disarray, and the cell no longer grows properly. The team anticipates that these new findings may eventually lead to the development of next-generation antibiotic drugs that target this packaging system.. ...
Human cancer virology; AIDS research; human retroviruses; virus mutagenesis and evolution; virus particle assembly and transmission; antiviral drug target identification; virus-host interactions.. To the casual observer, Virology is typically viewed as a narrow sub-discipline in the field of Microbiology. In reality, Virology is an integrated and highly interdisciplinary discipline that has had a profound impact on our understanding of the biological and physical sciences, engineering, agriculture, and the health sciences. For example, some of the most transformative advancements in improving human health have come from basic science investigations of viruses for the development of intervention strategies - e.g., antiviral drugs and vaccines - to help treat, prevent and eradicate devastating diseases. Current understanding of the molecular genetic basis of diseases such as cancer is predicated on investigations of cancer-causing viruses. The foundations of modern molecular biology and genetics ...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is extraordinarily diverse and uses entry factors in a strain-specific manner. Virus particles associate with lipoproteins, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is critical for HCV assembly and infectivity. However, whether ApoE dependency is common to all HCV genotypes remains unknown. Therefore, we compared the roles of ApoE utilizing 10 virus strains from genotypes 1 through 7. ApoA and ApoC also support HCV assembly, so they may contribute to virus production in a strain-dependent fashion. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed abundant coexpression of ApoE, ApoB, ApoA1, ApoA2, ApoC1, ApoC2, and ApoC3 in primary hepatocytes and in Huh-7.5 cells. Virus production was examined in Huh-7.5 cells with and without ApoE expression and in 293T cells where individual apolipoproteins (ApoE1, -E2, -E3, -A1, -A2, -C1, and -C3) were provided in trans All strains were strictly ApoE dependent. However, ApoE involvement in virus production was strain and cell type specific, because some ...
We have extensively researched and tested many types of packaging and delivery systems to ensure all our exquisite, artisan produced foods arrive at your door in perfect condition. To achieve this, we now use several product specific packaging methods and, as standard, only despatch on a next day delivery service (even though our chilled packaging system keeps fridge temperature for at least 48 hours).. England, Wales and Scotland (excluding, Scottish Highlands & Islands). Next day delivery (from day of despatch);. ...
The plastic chewing gum blister -containing 2 parallel rows in which rectangular chewing gums are individually packed- is probably the most common packaging. This specific packaging evoked an…
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4K70: Crystal Structure of the Herpesvirus Inner Tegument Protein UL37 Supports Its Essential Role in Control of Viral Trafficking.
This collection of reviews focuses on the most exciting areas of DNA packaging at the current time. Many of the new discoveries are driven by the development of molecular or imaging techniques, and these are providing insights into the complex world of chromatin. As these new techniques continue to improve, we will be able to answer many of the questions we have now, while likely raising many new ones. ...
An endoscopic device having a handle assembly and a catheter assembly is disclosed. The catheter assembly carries a viewing conduit which cooperates with an eyepiece on the handle assembly for viewing in a patients body cavity. The catheter assembly is preferably rotatably and removably mounted on the handle assembly. Also disclosed is a coupling unit which, together with the catheter assembly, forms an endoscopic camera device.
The invention relates to a printhead assembly. The assembly includes a printhead module having a plurality of modular printhead tiles each tile having a plurality of micro-electromechanical nozzle assemblies for operatively printing on a printing medium. Also included are printhead controller integrated circuits for controlling operation of the printhead tiles. The printhead assembly further includes a number of electrical connector assemblies for operatively connecting the printhead tiles. Each tile is mounted to a modular support defining a raised portion and a recessed portion at an end thereof, the tile having electrical connecting strips which overlie the respective recessed portions. Each connector assembly includes a connecting member having a series of parallel spaced conducting strips, said member shaped and configured for fitment into a cavity defined by the raised and recessed portions of two abutting supports to connect the connecting strips of two tiles via said conducting strips.
Sundvik cot Baby & Toddler Cots & Beds for Sale Gumtree. IKEA Crib Assembly Instructions. IKEA Sundvik Crib flat with a multitude of parts, but assembly isnt terribly arduous, even for a nervous parent-to-be., Cot. We use cookies to improve your experience of using the Website. When using this website you accept use of cookies. More information X. How to shop online;. Ikea Sundvik Crib, White Ikea Sundvik Crib, Black-brown As with all IKEA product assembly instructions were hard to follow. ikea sundvik bed ikea sundvik wardrobe instructions. ikea sundvik crib skirt desk bedroom study cot assembly changing table chest,ikea sundvik crib assembly. Assembly & Process Work; Courier, Driver, Hi Donald, Id like to know more about finance options for your Ikea SUNDVIK Baby Cot - Grey-Brown... on Gumtree. #bed #cot #crib #greybrown #ikea #infant #sundvik stroke: inherit; stroke-width: 2; fill: none IKEA SUNDVIK Cot, grey-brown the89katt. 39 Likes. ikea sundvik crib assembly pdf - ikea sundvik crib ...
Despite great advances in AIDS diagnosis and treatment, the continuing devastation of the AIDS epidemic demands continuing efforts to understand all aspects of...
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A pill assembly configured to receive the correct selection of medications in the correct dosages for a particular patient. The pill assembly comprises containers wherein at least one of the containers is configured to receive a plurality of different pills. The containers are adjacent to one another. The pill assembly also comprises a plurality of lids. Each of the lids is configured to seal a corresponding container. The containers have a top surface with a flange that is configured to receive the corresponding lid. Each lid has a surface that is configured to receive a printable indicia with patient specific information. The pill assembly may also comprise a sleeve that is configured to slidably interface with the containers.
2KSJ: Structure and Dynamics of the Membrane-bound form of Pf1 Coat Protein: Implications for Structural Rearrangement During Virus Assembly
Some of these individuals may be completely asymptomatic and if the R number was to be based on this type of individual it would be small. Then there are the super spreaders (again some of which may be asymptomatic, again this is something that research is currently trying to establish) who it seems shed large numbers of viral particles and therefore deliver a much bigger dose capable of infecting many individuals. If the R number was based on this type of individual alone it would be high.. In reality there is probably a spectrum of different types of infected individuals some very low, some with very high infectious viral loads and some filling the gap in between these extremes that overall gives us an average R number. Evidence is emerging to suggest that there are some infected individuals who dont shed infectious viral particles at all. More research is needed to understand the reason behind this wide variation in virus shedding and load but in all probability it comes down to the way in ...
Not clearly understood. Prevent the release of infectious viral nucleic acid into the host cell by interfering with the function of the transmembrane domain of the viral M2 protein. In certain cases, prevent virus assembly during virus replication ...
The products and the claims made about specific products on or through this site have not been evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and are not approved to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent disease.. Additionally, we are acting as a re-seller for products that have been produced, verified and packaged by the brand manufacturer. They are not products produced by our company and or any of its affiliates. As such, we are held harmless from any claims and do not warranty their internal manufacturing systems or packaging processes beyond their commitment to the betterment of society and the health and wellness of people and pets. All written content provided about these products are supplied by the brand in question, and not the opinion of our company directly, nor do we represent as such.. ...
Definition of enclosed assembly (of switchgear and controlgear) by Electropedia. Meaning of enclosed assembly (of switchgear and controlgear). Translations of enclosed assembly (of switchgear and controlgear). Equivalent terms for enclosed assembly (of switchgear and controlgear).
so it must be an identical match for it to be included or excluded. At present there is no support for regular expressions.. This example excludes the log4j and commons-lang jar files from the assembly. This would be useful when you are building a super distribution assembly which contained sub distributions (i.e. other already assembled zips or tars) where in your pom you are depenedent upon those distributions. But because the distributions transitively depend upon the projects dependencies the assembly also includes the jar files (which are already in the assemblies and dont need to be duplicated). Your pom might include something like: ...
The Oforikrom Municipal Assembly is carved out of the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly as one of the 38 newly created and upgraded District Assemblies in 2018.. Created with LI 2291, the Oforikrom Municipal Assembly has its capital as Oforikrom.. It was inaugurated on March 15, 2018 alongside other 37 newly created districts. ...
Überblick Eukaryonten haben im Vergleich zu Prokaryonten größere Genome. Um ihr Genom in einer Zelle zu speichern, müssen Eukaryonten ihre DNA...
Viruses are small infectious particles that cannot replicate on their own, but need to infect a cell in order to copy. Viral particles (called virions) consist of a protein envelope and a genetic material inside.
Email: [email protected] California Assembly Telegram: California de jure Assembly. California Assembly: Los Angeles County de jure Assembly Telegram: LA County Assembly. Prepare For Change. Telegram: Vaccine Medical Freedom ...
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Normal business at Nyandarua Land Registrars office in Nyahururu town was on Thursday paralyzed for some hours after irate residents stormed the office protesting poor service delivery. The residents who were. former Rurii Ward Member of County Assembly Wahome Kamoche Read on ...
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The centrality of the United Nations to solving the worlds multiple crises was the keynote theme as the General Assemblys annual high-level debate moved into its third day. |
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Roy P (1996). ""Orbivirus" Structure and Assembly". Virology. 216 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1006/viro.1996.0028. PMID 8614976. Maan S, ... Equine encephalosis virus (EEV) is a species of virus the Orbivirus genus, and a member of the Reoviridae family, related to ... Equine encephalosis virus is an Orbivirus, and as such encodes 4 non-structural and 7 structural proteins derived from 10 ... As of 2008 however, evidence seems to suggest the virus has circulated beyond southern Africa, and outbreaks have been reported ...
April 2001). "The Fusion glycoprotein shell of Semliki Forest virus: an icosahedral assembly primed for fusogenic activation at ... Closely related viruses include Mucambo virus and Everglades virus. Rio Negro virus is a spherical, enveloped virus. The ... The virus was first called Ag80-663 but was renamed to Rio Negro virus in 2005. It is a former member of the Venezuelan equine ... Mendes A, Kuhn RJ (March 2018). "Alphavirus Nucleocapsid Packaging and Assembly". Viruses. 10 (3): 138. doi:10.3390/v10030138. ...
Assembly - Following the structure-mediated self-assembly of the virus particles, some modification of the proteins often ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Other viruses, such as rabies virus, can infect different species of mammals and are said to have a broad range. The viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...
Shu, Yi; Wang, Hongzhi; Seremi, Bahar; Guo, Peixuan (2022), "Fabrication Methods for RNA Nanoparticle Assembly Based on ... Bacillus virus Φ29 (bacteriophage Φ29) is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophage with a prolate icosahedral head and a ... Rao, Venigalla B.; Feiss, Michael (2015-11-09). "Mechanisms of DNA Packaging by Large Double-Stranded DNA Viruses". Annual ... Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J.; Anderson, Dwight (2002-01-01), Bacteriophage φ29 DNA packaging, Advances in Virus Research, ...
The understanding of self-assembly of VLPs was once based on viral assembly. This is rational as long as the VLP assembly takes ... Combinations of structural capsid proteins from different viruses can be used to create recombinant VLPs. Both in-vivo assembly ... Adolph KW, Butler PJ (November 1976). "Assembly of a spherical plant virus". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of ... Virus-like particles (VLPs) are molecules that closely resemble viruses, but are non-infectious because they contain no viral ...
The HK97 assembly pathway begins with self-assembly of gp5 into pentamers and hexamers. A protease, called gp4, cleaves gp5 at ... Escherichia virus HK97, often shortened to HK97, is a species of virus that infects Escherichia coli and related bacteria. It ... Oh B, Moyer CL, Hendrix RW, Duda RL (2014). "The delta domain of the HK97 major capsid protein is essential for assembly". ... A scaffolding protein is not required for capsid assembly. However, studies on the effects of deleting the delta domain of the ...
Assembly of viral particles takes place spontaneously. Over 50% of known plant viruses are rod-shaped (flexuous or rigid). The ... Plant Viruses Online, a full list of plant viruses DPVweb, on-line plant virus database Plant virus symptoms Danish Institute ... Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that ... Generally TMV, potato viruses and cucumber mosaic viruses are transmitted via sap. Plant viruses need to be transmitted by a ...
Mettenleiter TC, Klupp BG, Granzow H (2006). "Herpesvirus assembly: a tale of two membranes". Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 9 (4): 423 ... adenovirus simian virus 40, vaccinia virus, reovirus, poliovirus and herpes simplex virus. When HSV particles are exposed to ... Animal herpes viruses all share some common properties. The structure of herpes viruses consists of a relatively large, double- ... All virus genes are transcribed by host RNA polymerase II. Although host proteins are sufficient for virus transcription, viral ...
... for assembly and exit. ESCRT is used by some eukaryotic viruses, including Ebola, HIV, and Hepatitis B virus to facilitate ... archael virus, archeal virus, archae virus, archaeon virus, and archaeon virus. It is common for "archaeal virus" to be ... Overall, archaeal viruses follow the general trend observed in dsDNA viruses in which viruses with larger genomes approach self ... Two archaeal viruses first described in 2017 are Metallosphaera turreted icosahedral virus and Methanosarcina spherical virus. ...
NS2A interacts with NS3 and NS5, helps in viral assembly and recruits the viral RNA genome to membrane-bound replication ... The genus Flavivirus includes over 50 known viruses, including Yellow Fever, West Nile Virus, Zika Virus, and Japanese ... Yokose virus has been found to be genetically close to Yellow Fever virus with amino acid sequences showing close identify to ... Yokose virus is a positive sense single-stranded RNA virus. It is enveloped and has icosohedral symmetry with a triangulation ...
Hogle JM, Maeda A, Harrison SC (1986). "Structure and assembly of turnip crinkle virus. I. X-ray crystallographic structure ... Wikispecies has information related to Turnip crinkle virus. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Turnip crinkle virus Family ... Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Tombusviridae. It was first isolated from turnip (Brassica ... Hacker DL, Petty IT, Wei N, Morris TJ (1992). "Turnip crinkle virus genes required for RNA replication and virus movement". ...
During assembly of the bacteriophage (phage) T4 virion, the morphogenetic proteins encoded by the phage genes interact with ... Escherichia virus T4 is a species of bacteriophages that infect Escherichia coli bacteria. It is a double-stranded DNA virus in ... Surviving T4 virus released from multicomplexes show no increase in mutation, indicating that MR of UV irradiated virus is an ... The time it takes for DNA replication in a living cell was measured as the rate of virus T4 DNA elongation in virus-infected E ...
Caspar DL (January 1964). Anfinsen CB, Anson ML, Edsall JT (eds.). "Assembly and Stability of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus Particle ... Viruses portal Creager AN (2002). The life of a virus: tobacco mosaic virus as an experimental model, 1930-1965. Chicago: ... PDB: 1VTM​; Namba K, Stubbs G (March 1986). "Structure of tobacco mosaic virus at 3.6 A resolution: implications for assembly ... Butler PJ (March 1999). "Self-assembly of tobacco mosaic virus: the role of an intermediate aggregate in generating both ...
The assembly of a virus is key to its efficacy as it needs to be both stable enough to protect its genome before entry into the ... Broad bean mottle virus Brome mosaic virus Cassia yellow blotch virus Melandrium yellow fletch virus Spring beauty latent virus ... Typical virus infection involves an exponential increase in virus concentration followed by a rapid decline of virus ... Garmann RF (2014). The Self-assembly of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus. UCLA Electronic Theses and Dissertations (Thesis). UCLA ...
Assembly occurs within the cytoplasm of the host cell. Release occurs via budding of a membranous vesicle and ultimately ... Red deerpox virus (RDPV) is a species of virus in the genus Parapoxvirus. It has been reported in deer in New Zealand, and in ... Parapoxviruses belongs to the family of viruses named Poxviridae, family of double-stranded DNA viruses. Parapoxvirus is ... the intracellular mature virus (IMV) the extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) RDPV has a linear, double-stranded DNA genome. The ...
Assembly and Release: Viral assembly occurs in the cytoplasm. The release of the mature virus particle always results in lysing ... Raccoonpox virus (RCN) is a double-stranded DNA virus and a member of the orthopoxviruses in the family Poxviridae and ... Unlike the HA of other vaccinia-like viruses, the HA of RCN did not cross-react with monkeypox virus HA. Though RPV is a close ... The sera partially cross-reacted with a vaccinia virus HA preparation, suggesting a close relation between the viruses. ...
However, minor capsid protein is not essential for assembly nor genome protection. A virus with a mutated minor capsid protein ... This virus is non-enveloped, being a member of the closteroviridae virus family. Carrot yellow-leaf virus is a variant of beet ... The major capsid protein is essential for virus assembly; mutations in the gene responsible for encoding it result in ... The virus genome is 1250-2200 nm in length and 10-13 nm in diameter. In order to replicate, the carrot yellow leaf virus ...
Najjar FE, Schmitt AP, Dutch RE (7 August 2014). "Paramyxovirus glycoprotein incorporation, assembly and budding: a three way ... The mumps virus (MuV) is the virus that causes mumps. MuV contains a single-stranded, negative-sense genome made of ribonucleic ... Mumps virus was recognized as a species in 1971 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), which oversees ... The mumps virus was first identified as the cause of mumps in 1934 and was first isolated in 1945. Within a few years after ...
... as no viruses belonging to the genus have been seen using cryo-electron microscopy. Therefore, assembly of the virion likely ... Sepik virus causes a fever in humans, much like other viruses in the genus Flavivirus like dengue virus and Yellow fever virus ... including tick and mosquito borne viruses like Yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. Sepik virus is much less well known and ... like neurotropic viruses and hemorrhagic disease viruses. Neurotropic viruses like Japanese encephalitis virus cause ...
Once RNA2 is synthesized, the virus then prepares for assembly. When the ratio of ribosomes to N proteins becomes favorable to ... To release, the virus causes lysis of the host cell from which copies of newly made virus are released. BBV is a (+)ssRNA virus ... Viruses such as Nodamura Virus and Flock house virus have been shown to infect mammals and fishes. BBV comes from the family of ... The two other viruses within the Nodaviridae are Noramura virus and Flock House virus. Each member of the Nodaviridae is then ...
This allows for assembly of new viruses in the viroplasms. The new viruses are encapsulated in newly synthesized proteins which ... distantly related to Tomato black ring virus and very distantly related to Grapevine chrome mosaic virus. Cacao necrosis virus ... Cocoa necrosis virus (CoNV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the genus nepovirus that infects Theobroma cacao en natura causing ... The exact mechanism of pathogenesis for cacao necrosis virus is not yet understood. The virus is not infective in sap after ...
The sgRNA codes for the structural proteins that will form the new virus. The assembly of the new viral capsid occurs in the ... MIDV is classified as an Old World Alphavirus which also includes Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Ndumu virus, Barmah Forest virus ... These include: Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These viruses are more ... Sindbis virus, an extremely similar virus to MIDV has spread outside of Africa and effects humans. The horses themselves cannot ...
"The assembly-activating protein promotes capsid assembly of different adeno-associated virus serotypes". Journal of Virology. ... Adeno-associated virus spreads by co-infecting a cell with a helper virus. The first helper virus that was described as ... When the helper virus kills the host cell, the new AAV virions are released. If there is not a helper virus present, AAV ... Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are small viruses that infect humans and some other primate species. They belong to the genus ...
has been synthesized through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assembly of short oligonucleotides. The synthetic phage G4 genomes ... Escherichia virus G4 is a bacteriophage that infects E. coli. First isolated in 1973, the phage was originally isolated from ...
Both replication and assembly occur in the cytoplasm of the host cell. Host ribosomes are used to translate the viral RNA into ... Along with other viruses in the Reoviridae family, Umatilla virus replication occurs in the cytoplasm. This virus comes with ... This virus is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes and is found in Passer domesticus birds. "ArboCat Virus: Umatilla (UMAV)". wwwn. ... Umatilla virus (UMAV) is a dsRNA virus in the family Reoviridae, subfamily Sedoreovirinae, and the genus Orbivirus. This ...
viruses are essentially naturally occurring nanomaterials capable of self-assembly with a high degree of precision. Viral ... the plant virus Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) measures 300x18 nm in size; it forms a hollow rod. The plant virus Potato virus X ( ... some examples of plant viruses include Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, Red clover necrotic mottle virus, Physalis mosaic virus, ... Viruses are made up of a genome and a capsid; and some viruses are enveloped. Most virus capsids measure between 20-500 nm in ...
"Triatoma virus structural polyprotein expression, processing and assembly into virus-like particles". Journal of General ... Triatoma virus (TrV) is a virus belonging to the insect virus family Dicistroviridae. Within this family, there are currently 3 ... TrV is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus. It belongs to virus Group IV. Virus groups are based on the Baltimore ... Muscio, O. A.; La Torre, J. L.; Scodeller, E. A. (1988). "Characterization of Triatoma Virus, a Picorna-like Virus Isolated ...
Virus assembly in the cytoplasm around genomic RNA1 and RNA2. Assembled capsid protein alpha is cleaved into capsid protein ... Other viruses in this genus are Flock House virus and Black beetle virus. The structure of nodamura virus is consistent with ... Nodamura virus is a +ssRNA virus. It is a member of the virus family Nodaviridae. Nodaviridae is made up of two genera, ... ssRNA virus, occurs in the cytoplasm of cells. Once the virus has entered the host cell, the virus is uncoated and the viral ...
Jo Y, Choi H, Cho WK (21 May 2015). "De novo genome assembly of ryegrass mosaic virus from a ryegrass transcriptome". Genome ... Ryegrass mosaic virus (RMV) is a virus in the genus Rymovirus. As the name suggests its hosts include ryegrass, but also other ...
... which are assembled to form new viruses. After assembly, the host cell lyses (bursts) and releases the new viruses. ... Animal viruses Carrillo C, Tulman ER, Delhon G, et al. (May 2005). "Comparative Genomics of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus". J. ... Martinez-Salas E, Saiz M, Sobrino F (2008). "Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus". Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology. Caister Academic ... Within-Host Recombination in the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Genome. Viruses. 2018 Apr 25;10(5):221. doi: 10.3390/v10050221. ...
When all of the structural proteins have been produced, viral assembly takes place. The newly formed virus particles can be ... The orthopox virus that causes camelpox behaves very similarly to the virus that causes smallpox. After the virus attaches to a ... The camelpox virus that causes camelpox is an orthopoxvirus that is very closely related to the variola virus that causes ... "Orthopoxvirus". Virus Zone. Pfeffer, M (January 1998). "Fatal Form of Camelpox Virus Infection". The Veterinary Journal. 155 (1 ...
With synthetic live viruses, it is not whole viruses that are synthesized but rather their genome at first, both in the case of ... "Generating a synthetic genome by whole genome assembly: φX174 bacteriophage from synthetic oligonucleotides". Proceedings of ... Both RNA and DNA viruses can be made using existing methods. RNA viruses have historically been utilized due to the typically ... The ability to synthesize viruses has far-reaching consequences, since viruses can no longer be regarded as extinct, as long as ...
... thin viruses that infect bacteria) by fusing the virus's capsid protein to one peptide out of a collection of peptide sequences ... Barbas CF, Kang AS, Lerner RA, Benkovic SJ (September 1991). "Assembly of combinatorial antibody libraries on phage surfaces: ... viruses that infect bacteria) to connect proteins with the genetic information that encodes them. In this technique, a gene ... which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their ...
The president of the Doctors Association noted that the awareness drives that were carried out elsewhere about the virus were ... their right to assembly and play. The Code also extends the protection of the personal data of children with a set of key ...
When CIN3 lesions lead to cancer, most of them have the assistance of the HPV virus, but that is not always the case, which is ... In November 2020, the World Health Organization, under backing from the World Health Assembly, set out a strategy to eliminate ... HPV vaccines protect against two to seven high-risk strains of this family of viruses and may prevent up to 90% of cervical ... 1958). During the 1960s and 1970s it was suspected that infection with herpes simplex virus was the cause of the disease. In ...
Because of these fears and because of political attacks on his character, Franklin lost his seat in the October 1764 Assembly ... "Benjamin Franklin's Fight Against A Deadly Virus". Retrieved September 27, 2021 - via The Conversation. One article posited ... Upon learning of his death, the Constitutional Assembly in Revolutionary France entered into a state of mourning for a period ... The New England militia had forced the main British army to remain inside Boston.[citation needed] The Pennsylvania Assembly ...
An OIE strategy document which stemmed from this conference was to be presented for adoption at the OIE World Assembly in May ... 2018), "Rinderpest and the Origins of International Cooperation for Disease Control", The Rinderpest Campaigns: A Virus, Its ...
They made available the virus to the wider scientific community shortly thereafter "by depositing it into two virus reagent ... Encapsidation of the genome occurs through interactions between N and M. N is essential for viral assembly. N also serves as a ... A group of scientists based at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia isolated the virus from ... The RNP particles formed are roughly spherical and are organized in flexible helical structures inside the virus. Formation of ...
"Daxx is an H3.3-specific histone chaperone and cooperates with ATRX in replication-independent chromatin assembly at telomeres ... and transcription factor erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (ETS1). In the nucleus, the encoded protein functions as ...
Wolbachia infections have significantly decreased virus-induced mortality in D. simulans. While the mechanism for the decreased ... Center Drosophila simulans at FlyBase Drosophila simulans at Ensembl Genomes Metazoa View the droSim1 genome assembly in the ... Drosophila C virus) while other strains cannot. Drosophila simulans has also played an important role in sequencing the genomes ... potentially perpetuated by outcompeting the virus. Furthermore, different strains of Wolbachia have varying levels of antiviral ...
Many viruses have an RNA genome, such as HIV, which uses reverse transcription to create a DNA template from its viral RNA ... These compounds are made by the assembly and modification of isoprene units donated from the reactive precursors isopentenyl ... the assembly of these precursors into complex molecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, lipids and nucleic acids. Anabolism ... the duplication and then divergence of entire pathways as well as the recruitment of pre-existing enzymes and their assembly ...
Many women worked on the assembly lines of factories, assembling munitions. Some department stores employed African American ... Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. 8 (5): 538-46. doi:10.1111/irv.12267. PMC 4181817. PMID 24975798. Woodward, David R. ...
... and from viruses and bdellovibrio to blue whales. Charles Elton pioneered the concept of food cycles, food chains, and food ... but empirical evidence shows that many published webs have nested subwebs in their assembly. Food webs are complex networks. As ...
These viruses appear to have acquired a 3′-to-5′ exoribonuclease (ExoN) which has allowed for an increase in genome size. In ... "Assembly of RecA-like recombinases: Distinct roles for mediator proteins in mitosis and meiosis". Proceedings of the National ... This has also been described as the "Eigen paradox". An exception to the rule of small genome sizes in RNA viruses is found in ... It has been proposed that the small size of RNA viruses is locked into a three-part relation between replication fidelity, ...
The assembly of 19S lid is independent to the assembly process of 19S base. Two assembly modules, Rpn5-Rpn6-Rpn8-Rpn9-Rpn11 ... Madani N, Kabat D (Dec 1998). "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the ... Fukunaga K, Kudo T, Toh-e A, Tanaka K, Saeki Y (Jun 2010). "Dissection of the assembly pathway of the proteasome lid in ... The proteasome and its subunits are of clinical significance for at least two reasons: (1) a compromised complex assembly or a ...
"A single serine residue at position 375 of VP16 is critical for complex assembly with Oct-1 and HCF and is a target of ... Liu Y, Gong W, Huang CC, Herr W, Cheng X (July 1999). "Crystal structure of the conserved core of the herpes simplex virus ... Wysocka J, Herr W (June 2003). "The herpes simplex virus VP16-induced complex: the makings of a regulatory switch". Trends ... v t e (Simplexviruses, Viral nonstructural proteins, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ...
It was the fifth address by a Pope to the U.N. General Assembly, following appearances by Pope Paul VI in October 1965, Pope ... Finally, in the Government Palace in Lima, the pope criticized the "social virus" that affects Peru, corruption, during his ... On Friday, 25 September, Pope Francis addressed the United Nations General Assembly. ...
Viruses that inhibit IFN signaling include Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), dengue type 2 virus (DEN-2), and viruses of the ... "Rig-G negatively regulates SCF-E3 ligase activities by disrupting the assembly of COP9 signalosome complex". Biochemical and ... Some viruses escape the anti-viral activities of interferons by gene (and thus protein) mutation. The H5N1 influenza virus, ... Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ...
... a protein necessary for hepatitis C virus replication and assembly. Velpatasvir reaches highest blood plasma levels three hours ...
Abelson HT, Rabstein LS (August 1970). "Lymphosarcoma: virus-induced thymic-independent disease in mice". Cancer Research. 30 ( ... "Radiation-induced assembly of Rad51 and Rad52 recombination complex requires ATM and c-Abl". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (18): 12748-52 ... Virus at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Abl tyrosine kinase - The Interactive ... which was initially isolated from the Abelson murine leukemia virus. The ABL1 proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic and nuclear ...
Markovtsov V, Nikolic JM, Goldman JA, Turck CW, Chou MY, Black DL (October 2000). "Cooperative assembly of an hnRNP complex ... Virus Genes. 12 (3): 275-285. doi:10.1007/bf00284648. PMID 8883365. S2CID 11678179. Huang S, Deerinck TJ, Ellisman MH, Spector ... "Role of polypyrimidine tract binding protein in the function of the hepatitis B virus posttranscriptional regulatory element". ... of a group of cellular cofactors that stimulate the binding of RNA polymerase II and TRP-185 to human immunodeficiency virus 1 ...
... assemblies, and other large gatherings such as physical education or choir classes or meals in a cafeteria, increasing the ... suggests that the small number of fully vaccinated people who do become infected can be infectious and can spread the virus to ... as they often work close to one another on assembly lines during prolonged work shifts. For engineering controls, CDC and OSHA ...
They are labelled "Type I" if the defective gene is for an enzyme involved in the assembly or transfer of the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2- ... "Glycosylation of the hepatitis C virus envelope protein E1 occurs posttranslationally in a mannosylphosphoryldolichol-deficient ...
The SARS-CoV-2 virus, a cause of the COVID-19 pandemic, was confirmed to have reached San Marino in February 2020. As of June ... The original government structure was composed of a self-governed assembly known as the Arengo, which consisted of the heads of ...
Denominational work is administered through a board elected by the delegates to the annual assembly. The MCC participates in ... agencies cited a lack of cooperation with public health requirements that were intended to minimize the spread of the virus. In ... In 1983 the General Assembly of the Mennonite Church met jointly with the General Conference Mennonite Church in Bethlehem, ... Assembly/Council of Mennonite Churches in Germany), which claims 40,000 overall members from various groups. Other AMG member ...
... and export assembly operations. Haiti's primary assembly sector inputs include textiles, electronics components, and packaging ... during the 1980s as part of an effort to combat an outbreak of the African swine fever virus. Haiti has been plagued for ... The precipitous decline in urban assembly sector jobs, from a high of over 100,000 in 1986 to fewer than 20,000 in 2006, ...
... pioneer of oncolytic virus therapies for cancer Norman Bethune (1890-1939) - surgeon, inventor, socialist, battlefield doctor ... General Superintendent of the Pentecostal Assemblies of Canada Bishop Michael Power (1804-1847) - Roman Catholic Bishop of ...
Assembly of progeny virions begins in cytoplasmic viral factories, producing a spherical immature particle. This virus particle ... macacapox virus Akhmeta virus Alaskapox virus Camelpox virus Cowpox virus Ectromelia virus Monkeypox virus Raccoonpox virus ... Skunkpox virus Taterapox virus Vaccinia virus †Variola virus Volepox virus Among the path of evolution of the Orthopoxvirus ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021. ...
The provincial assembly of North West Frontier Province has passed the act for upgradation of Khyber Medical College and Khyber ... "Khyber Teaching Hospital closes ward after virus infects 16 health workers". Dawn (newspaper). Retrieved 10 September 2022. ...
The process of AAV capsid assembly remains poorly understood. The viral cofactor assembly-activating protein (AAP) is required ... The adeno-associated virus (AAV) serves as a broadly used vector system for ,i,in vivo,/i, gene delivery. ... Keywords: AAP; AAV; adeno-associated virus; ancestral sequence reconstruction; assembly-activating protein; capsid assembly; ... Residues on Adeno-associated Virus Capsid Lumen Dictate Interactions and Compatibility with the Assembly-Activating Protein J ...
The content of this site contains information pertaining to The Ohio State University. Respective University constituents are responsible for reviewing and maintaining up to date information. Links and all references to outside content do not constitute (i) incorporation by reference of information contained on or in such outside content and such information should not be considered part of U.OSU.EDU or (ii) endorsement of such content by The Ohio State University.. ...
Amino acids encoded downstream of gag are not required by rous sarcoma virus protease during gag-mediated assembly. Journal of ... Amino acids encoded downstream of gag are not required by rous sarcoma virus protease during gag-mediated assembly. In: Journal ... Amino acids encoded downstream of gag are not required by rous sarcoma virus protease during gag-mediated assembly. / Bennett, ... title = "Amino acids encoded downstream of gag are not required by rous sarcoma virus protease during gag-mediated assembly", ...
The long-read assembly also identifies 94 antimicrobial resistance genes, compared to only seven alleles in the short-read ... Long-read alignments and Hi-C linkage between contigs support the identification of 188 novel virus-host associations and the ... assembly. We demonstrate novel techniques that work synergistically to improve characterization of biological features in a ... Additionally, the short-read assembly served as the basis of fewer virus-host contig associations in both Hi-C and PacBio read ...
Dokland, T. (2000-08-15). Freedom and restraint: Themes in virus capsid assembly. Structure 8 (8) : R157-R162. [email protected] ... Viruses assemble protective capsids from several copies of one or a few structural proteins. This is accomplished through a ...
... permit high-titer culture by affecting HCV genesis through increasing virus assembly and HCV fitness by enhancing the virus ... viruses as well as viruses with only p7 and nonstructural protein mutations. Interestingly, the E2 hypervariable region 1 (HVR1 ... displayed fitness comparable to that of the polyclonal high-titer adapted virus. Single-cycle virus production assays in CD81- ... such as studies of HCV particle composition and development of whole-virus vaccine antigens. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus (HCV ...
... Academic Article ... for assembly, formation of immature particles, and virus release. Gag binding to the PM is mediated by interactions of the N- ... Formation of a myrMA lattice on the PM is an obligatory step for the assembly of immature HIV-1 particles and envelope (Env) ... Altogether, these findings advance our understanding of a key mechanism in HIV-1 particle assembly. ...
Virus Isolation, Sequencing, and Assembly Ocean Viruses Remaining Challenges Speed of Operation Sensitivity Dynamic Range ... Virus Isolation, Sequencing, and Assembly. Methods are required for the routine isolation of all classes of viruses from a ... The mass of virus ultimately recovered from pooled human plasma is difficult to estimate in advance. If the average virus has a ... Rapid virus production and removal as measured with fluorescently labeled viruses as tracers. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66: ...
Analysis of the first sequences from the 2022 multi-country outbreak of monkeypox virus shows relatedness and substantial ... The largest monkeypox virus (MPXV) outbreak described so far in non-endemic countries was identified in May 2022 (refs. 1-6). ... may provide resolution to track the spread and transmission of this presumably slow-evolving double-stranded DNA virus. ... divergence from a 2018-2019 outbreak, suggesting rapid virus evolution with possible implications for human-to-human ...
A block in virus-like particle maturation following assembly of murine leukaemia virus in insect cells ... A block in virus-like particle maturation following assembly of murine leukaemia virus in insect cells. Virology, 314 (2). pp. ... using the baculovirus expression system leads to efficient assembly and release of virus-like particles (VLP) representative of ... HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS, RECOMBINANT BACULOVIRUS, GAG POLYPROTEIN, ESCHERICHIA-COLI, POL PROTEINS, LATE DOMAIN, TYPE-1 GAG ...
... and the health ministry was forced to admit a resurgence of a previously eliminated strain of the crippling virus. Even as all ... so that families can better protect themselves from the infection and prevent the virus from spreading within their communities ... National Assembly rues plan to resettle militants. 07. Boys will be boys ...
Assembly of enveloped RNA viruses / Monique Dubois-Dalcq, Kathryn V. Holmes, Bernard Rentier ; editorial assistance, David W. ... TextPublication details: Wien : Springer-Verlag, 1984. Description: 235 pISBN: 3211818022Subject(s): RNA virusesNLM ...
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alpha- herpesvirus that causes severe upper respiratory infections in chickens ... Characterization of the assembly and processing of infectious laryngotracheitis virus glycoprotein B. * David J Poulsen1, ... Montalvo E. A., Grose C. 1987; Assembly and processing of the disulfide-linked varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein gpII(140). ... Interferons and viruses: an interplay between induction, signalling, antiviral responses and virus countermeasures Richard E. ...
... and Genomoviridae families of single-stranded DNA virus families, and six double-stranded DNA virus species from the ... Bulk RNA sequencing has resulted in the discovery of a myriad of novel RNA viruses, and herein we used this methodology to ... In sum, this work expands our knowledge of the diversity and evolution of DNA viruses and illustrates the utility of meta- ... To date, most studies of DNA viruses have focused on those with the strongest disease associations. Accordingly, there has been ...
Site of Virion Assembly. Site of Virion Accumulation. Inclusion Bodies. Other. Hemagglutination. ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Section IV - Virus Properties. Physicochemical. Pieces (number of genome segments). Infectivity. Sedimentation Coefficients(s) ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
Site of Virion Assembly. Budding through plasma membranes (25) Site of Virion Accumulation. ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Section IV - Virus Properties. Physicochemical. RNA, Single Strand Pieces (number of genome segments). Infectivity. No ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
Site of Virion Assembly. Site of Virion Accumulation. Inclusion Bodies. Other. Hemagglutination. ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Section IV - Virus Properties. Physicochemical. Pieces (number of genome segments). Infectivity. Sedimentation Coefficients(s) ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
Site of Virion Assembly. Site of Virion Accumulation. Inclusion Bodies. Other. Hemagglutination. ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Section IV - Virus Properties. Physicochemical. Pieces (number of genome segments). Infectivity. Sedimentation Coefficients(s) ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
Sheldon Silver has agreed to relinquish his enormous powers as Assembly speaker to a five-person committee. Under a deal... ... Scientists warn about revived zombie virus in Russia * This story has been shared 45,716 times. 45,716 ... Sheldon Silver to give up Assembly speaker power By Michael Gartland and Social Links for Michael Gartland * View Author ... As Assembly speaker for more than two decades, Silver is one of the infamous "three men in a room" who control state government ...
National Assembly of State Animal Health Officials; National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians. Measures to ... viruses (3). The viruses in the remaining two specimens had HA genes similar to those of swine-origin H3N2 influenza viruses ... All fully sequenced viruses from human infections had the matrix (M) gene from the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, which has been ... Novel influenza viruses are different from currently circulating human influenza H1 and H3 viruses and have the potential to ...
Evolution of Late-Stage Intermediates during Capsid Assembly of Hepatitis B Virus with Phenylpropenamide-based Antivirals. P. ...
Primary structure of sesbania mosaic virus coat protein: its implications to the assembly and architecture of the virus. Indian ... Primary structure of sesbania mosaic virus coat protein: its implications to the assembly and architecture of the virus. ... Sesbania mosaic virus (SMV) is a plant virus that infects Sesbania grandiflora plants in Andhra Pradesh, India. The amino acid ... The 230 residues so far determined were compared to the corresponding residues of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), the type ...
Parents Bill of Rights revived in NC General Assembly 8 hours ago. ... As the virus continues to rip through China, global organizations and governments have called on the country start sharing data ... As the virus continues to rip through China, global organizations and governments have called on the country start sharing data ... The versions of the virus fueling infections in China "closely resemble" those that have been seen in different parts of the ...
We tested IVA on datasets from 140 sequenced samples from human immunodeficiency virus-1 or influenza-virus-infected people and ... However, assembling sequencing data from virus samples, especially RNA viruses, into a genome sequence is challenging due to ... RESULTS: We developed a new de novo assembler called IVA (Iterative Virus Assembler) designed specifically for read pairs ... demonstrated that IVA outperforms all other virus de novo assemblers. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The software runs under ...
Soft matter studies address a large variety of questions concerning the microstructure, dynamics, self-assembly, structural ... structural dynamics of molecular assemblies, structure and dynamics in thin films and membranes, diffraction from fibres, small ...
Self-assembly of spider silk fiber via genetically engineered viruses Scientists achieve self-assembly of spider silk fiber in ... After injecting the genes for making dragline silk proteins into an insect virus, researchers from the Hebrew University of ... Jerusalem and from Germany infected cultures of cells from a caterpillar with the virus. The cells began to produce "spider ...
Assembly Inside Host Cell for Microbiology. This is one of many videos provided by Clutch Prep to prepare you to succeed in ... Animal Viruses: 4. Assembly Inside Host Cell. Concept #1: Animal Viruses: 4. Assembly Inside Host Cell ... Animal Viruses: 4. Assembly Inside Host Cell. 9 mins. 0 completed. Learn ... Animal Viruses: Reverse-Transcribing Virus Synthesis & Replication. 10 mins. 0 completed. Learn ...
"Keep Our People from this Deadly Virus," Assembly Staffer Fired Over Racist Coronavirus Remarks. * ... there are just four people who have tested positive for the virus - just 4. Not one of them is Asian. That said, the virus does ... The post also insisted, "keep our people from this deadly virus.". We could not access the original Facebook post, as Marilyn ... Mathylde Frontus represents the 46th Assembly District, covering all of Coney Island and Seagate, as well as parts of Bath ...
  • ABSTRACT Recombinant hepatitis C virus (HCV) clones propagated in human hepatoma cell cultures yield relatively low infectivity titers. (
  • IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major global health care burden, affecting more than 150 million people worldwide. (
  • BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein, in addition to its structural role to form the nucleocapsid assembly, plays a critical role in HCV pathogenesis by interfering in several cellular processes, including microRNA and mRNA homeostasis. (
  • Hepatitis C is an infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that attacks the liver and leads to inflammation. (
  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of both acute and chronic hepatitis. (
  • During the late phase of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infection cycle, the virally encoded Gag polyproteins are targeted to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane (PM) for assembly, formation of immature particles, and virus release. (
  • Formation of a myrMA lattice on the PM is an obligatory step for the assembly of immature HIV-1 particles and envelope (Env) incorporation. (
  • These samples would be pooled and processed by using available technology to isolate virus particles en masse, recover viral nucleic acids, produce amplified shotgun libraries, carry out shotgun sequencing of the mixture of viral genomes, and reconstruct these genomes in silico with the techniques originally developed to sequence the entire human genome from random fragments. (
  • Expression of the murine leukaemia virus (MLV) major Gag antigen p65(Gag) using the baculovirus expression system leads to efficient assembly and release of virus-like particles (VLP) representative of immature MLV. (
  • DISCUSSION: Together, our data showed that the charge neutralization is the major factor for the nucleocapsid-like particles assembly from C-terminal truncated HCV core protein. (
  • Multiple round bumps on the cell surface represent sites of assembly and budding of HIV-1 virus particles. (
  • OP(3) to further request the Director-General to report on progress to implement the foregoing to the Seventy-third World Health Assembly in 2020 through the 146th session of the Executive Board. (
  • ANNEX: World Health Assembly resolution WHA55.15. (
  • The WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research was established pursuant to resolution WHA52.10 (1999) which authorized temporary retention of existing stocks of variola virus at the two current locations1 up to, but not later than, 2002 and subject to annual review by the World Health Assembly. (
  • In resolution WHA55.15 (2002, attached herewith), the World Health Assembly authorized the further temporary retention of the existing stocks of live virus for the purpose of enabling further international research on the understanding that all approved research would remain outcome-oriented and time-limited, and its accomplishments and outcomes would be periodically reviewed. (
  • During the Fifty-ninth Session of the World Health Assembly in May 2006, a working group tried to reach a consensus on the draft resolution by the intergovernmental meeting called for that purpose on 5 April 2006. (
  • The 63rd (2010) and 67th (2014) Sessions of the World Health Assembly recognized the serious burden of viral hepatitis on global health, and called for Member States of the World Health Organization to develop and implement national strategies for preventing, diagnosing, and treating viral hepatitis. (
  • Furthermore, in 2016, the World Health Assembly adopted the first global hepatitis strategy, which introduced the first-ever global targets for viral hepatitis. (
  • The World Health Assembly produced a resolution to try to address the crisis at its May 2007 meeting. (
  • On May 23, 2007, the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted a resolution on sharing influenza viruses and promoting access to vaccines in connection with pandemic influenza preparedness ( 1 ). (
  • That year, the World Health Assembly announced a commitment to eradicate polio-which every day paralyzed 1,000 children. (
  • Furthermore, in 2016, the World Health Assembly adopted in the Region participate in a national external quality the first global hepatitis strategy, which introduced the assessment scheme for transfusion-transmitted first-ever global targets for viral hepatitis. (
  • The Plan, endorsed by the 194 Member States of the World Health Assembly in May 2012, is the framework to prevent millions of deaths by 2020 through universal access to vaccines for people in all communities. (
  • Reflecting the global concern for poliovirus importations into previously polio-free countries, the World Health Assembly (WHO) has added circulating poliovirus to the notifiable events in the International Health Regulations (IHR). (
  • The viral cofactor assembly-activating protein (AAP) is required for maximum AAV production and has multiple roles in capsid assembly, namely, trafficking of the structural proteins (VP) to the nuclear site of assembly, promoting the stability of VP against multiple degradation pathways, and facilitating stable interactions between VP monomers. (
  • Viruses assemble protective capsids from several copies of one or a few structural proteins. (
  • Folding and assembly of membrane proteins. (
  • Characterization of the envelope proteins of pseudorabies virus. (
  • Soft matter studies address a large variety of questions concerning the microstructure, dynamics, self-assembly, structural kinetics and rheology of complex and nanostructured materials (polymers, colloids, surfactants, liquid crystals, proteins, etc.) in bulk, at interfaces as well as in confined geometry. (
  • After injecting the genes for making dragline silk proteins into an insect virus, researchers from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and from Germany infected cultures of cells from a caterpillar with the virus. (
  • Practice: The assembly of the viral proteins and viral genome into a ___________ occurs within the _________ of the host cell. (
  • Once its DNA has been inserted to the host cell's genome, the virus uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as viral RNA and viral proteins. (
  • We suggest that these factors could be universal and relevant to a large class of virus coat proteins. (
  • The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid ( VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA ) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE . (
  • The term 'peplomer' is typically used to refer to a grouping of heterologous proteins on the virus surface that function together. (
  • The envelope of virus is inlaid with two virally encoded proteins: envelope (E) protein and membrane (M) protein. (
  • The Ministry of Health has instructed the Binh Duong provincial Health Department to keep a close watch on suspected Zika virus inspections after a Zika case was detected in the southern province. (
  • Tu Tan Thu, an official of the provincial Health Department, said private obstetric clinics in the locality have coordinated with relevant departments and agencies to report on cases displaying symptoms relating to the Zika virus. (
  • Earlier, a 27-year-old woman in Thuan An town, Binh Duong province, and another 28-year-old woman in Ho Chi Minh City were tested positive with Zika virus. (
  • The Zika virus is transmitted to humans primarily through Aedes aegypty mosquito bites and sexual intercourse. (
  • A vaccine for the Zika virus has yet to be discovered. (
  • The New York State Department of Health is offering a series of Zika virus webinars during the month of September. (
  • Watching the Zika virus spread in Latin America, I can't help imagine how frightening that earlier epidemic of virus-induced birth defects must have been for families in America.I came to the CDC in 1988. (
  • Background: Knowledge regarding the risks associated with Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in pregnancy has relied on individual studies with relatively small sample sizes and variable risk estimates of adverse outcomes, or on surveillance or routinely collected data. (
  • Over 100 species comprise the genus Flavivirus, which includes other notable human pathogens, such as dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), Kyasanur Forest disease virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. (
  • The recent, sudden epidemics of Ebola virus and Zika virus have highlighted the need to understand dangerous tropical viral diseases which could quickly spread to far away places. (
  • abstract = "Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and its relatives are unique in that they appear to encode their viral protease in the gag reading frame. (
  • IMPORTANCE Efforts to engineer the AAV capsid to gain desirable properties for gene therapy (e.g., tropism, reduced immunogenicity, and higher potency) require that capsid modifications do not affect particle assembly. (
  • To examine this issue, mutations that disrupt the addition of amino acids by ribosome frameshifting were analyzed for their effects on particle assembly and Gag processing in a mammalian expression system (J. W. Wills, R. C. Craven, and J. A. Achacoso, J. Virol. (
  • A 2-base substitution which created a nonsense mutation in the pol reading frame and was predicted to disrupt the hairpin structure of the ribosome frameshift signal had no effect on particle assembly or Gag processing, definitively showing that downstream amino acids are unnecessary. (
  • Mutations that fused the gag and pol reading frames to place 85 amino acids at the carboxy terminus of Gag hindered particle assembly and totally abolished the activity of the protease. (
  • Altogether, these findings advance our understanding of a key mechanism in HIV-1 particle assembly. (
  • Note: Accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment, where it participates in virus particle assembly. (
  • Additionally, higher depths of coverage of long reads from current generation sequencing technologies are necessary to overcome high, relative error rates that can impact assembly quality and influence functional genomic annotation [ 12 ]. (
  • 2015 ). They are efficient and flexible as they only require limited information of the virus sequence (e.g. a ~ 30-nt sequence of genomic termini). (
  • Sequence and genomic organization of Norwalk virus. (
  • Despite the novelty of the virus, global sequencing efforts have already identified genomic variation across isolates. (
  • For a totally new agent, the estimated interval between initial infection and detailed characterization is variable and depends on the presence of unusual symptoms, the failure to identify a virus after using all available specific tests, the recognition of a unique problem, and, in the past, the ability to grow the agent in culture. (
  • The polio eradication programme is now set to resume on July 20, and in certain districts, door-to-door campaigns will incorporate awareness about the Covid-19 pandemic, so that families can better protect themselves from the infection and prevent the virus from spreading within their communities. (
  • Expression of herpes simplex virus 1 glycoprotein B by a recombinant vaccinia virus and protection of mice against lethal herpes simplex virus 1 infection. (
  • The hepatitis D virus can cause liver disease, although infection is rare and requires co-infection with a related virus called hepatitis B. (
  • In this study we report a convenient streamlined approach for one-step assembly and verification of infectious clones suitable for Agrobacterium -mediated delivery (agro-infection) to plants. (
  • Yet, the burden of disease as a consequence of infection with hepatitis B and C viruses is preventable. (
  • An estimated 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus, and between 130 and 150 million people globally have chronic hepatitis C infection (1,2). (
  • I was working on the development of a system of quantification of co-infection events for influenza A viruses. (
  • Immunoglobulin M antibody test to detect genogroup II Norwalk-like virus infection. (
  • The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses is known to be essential in the binding of the virus to the host cell at the advent of the infection process. (
  • The with hepatitis B virus, and between 130 and 150 million prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen is reported to be people globally have chronic hepatitis C infection (1 , 2) . (
  • Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease caused by yellow fever virus infection and is identical to other viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) in characteristics, such as Dengue hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. (
  • Still, there is a substantial interest in generating assemblies derived from longer reads to enable better characterization of environmental and complex metagenomic communities [ 10 ]. (
  • Characterization of the assembly and processing of infectious laryngotracheitis virus glycoprotein B. (
  • We anticipate that the convenient home-made materials, one-step cloning and Illumina verification strategies described herein will accelerate characterization of viruses and their role in disease development. (
  • 2020 ). Infectious clones have been proven powerful tools in the validation of metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing findings, extending our knowledge of virus genetics, establishing systems for biological characterization of viruses, and having myriad biotechnological applications (Grigoras et al. (
  • Characterization of Egyptian field strains of infectious bursal disease virus. (
  • The characterization and molecular cloning of the double-stranded RNA genome of an Australian strain of infectious bursal disease virus. (
  • Here, we query how structurally related AAVs functionally engage AAP from AAV serotype 2 (AAP2) toward virion assembly. (
  • However, rigorous proof has never been obtained for the activity of this 124-amino-acid Gag domain during virion assembly in vivo. (
  • On the other hand, for the first time, we show that C124, in the absence of nucleic acids, multimerizes into empty NLPs when subjected to a pH close to its isoelectric point (pH ≈ 12), indicating that assembly is mainly driven by charge neutralization. (
  • Isothermal calorimetry data showed that the assembly of NLPs promoted by nucleic acids is enthalpy driven. (
  • The process of AAV capsid assembly remains poorly understood. (
  • Our results suggest a model for capsid assembly where surface charge/neutrality dictates an interaction between AAPN and the lumenal VP surface to nucleate capsid assembly. (
  • Studying interactions between the structural and nonstructural components of AAV enhances our fundamental knowledge of capsid assembly mechanisms and the protein-protein interactions required for productive assembly of the icosahedral capsid. (
  • Viruses are a part of a system that helps to produce the variety that is critical for life and, importantly, they carry resistance to disease from one organism to another. (
  • Repetitive content contributes to difficulty in multicellular Eukaryotic genome assembly as well [ 4 ], but the problem becomes more complicated in metagenome assembly [ 5 ] due to the wide range of abundance among bacterial species and strains, and the presence of other environmental DNA (e.g., plants, protists). (
  • MOTIVATION: An accurate genome assembly from short read sequencing data is critical for downstream analysis, for example allowing investigation of variants within a sequenced population. (
  • Soft matter activities involve in situ investigations of material processing, site-selective chemistry and tailoring of supermolecular complexes, structural dynamics of molecular assemblies, structure and dynamics in thin films and membranes, diffraction from fibres, small unit cell systems and biological entities with hierarchical structures. (
  • A distinguishing feature of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) packaging signal RNA secondary structure is a single-stranded purine-rich sequence (ssPurines) in close vicinity to a palindromic stem loop (Pal SL) that functions as MPMV dimerization initiation site (DIS). (
  • [2] [3] These enveloped , positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses enter host cells by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. (
  • The SARS-related coronavirus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus . (
  • Minjumbi says that they were able to rapidly develop this cure because the COVID 19 virus is Taxonomically related to HIV in that they are both enveloped and Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that use the host cytoplasm as the site of assembly. (
  • The virus can be transmitted from human to human by close contact with lesions, body fluids, respiratory droplets and contaminated materials 1 , 3 , but the current epidemiological context poses some degree of uncertainty about the viral transmission dynamics and outbreak magnitude. (
  • The rapid integration of the first sequence into the global MPXV genetic diversity (Fig. 1 ) confirmed that the 2022 outbreak virus belongs to the MPXV clade 3 (within the formerly designated 'West African' clade, which also includes clade 2) 9 . (
  • The largest known outbreak of H3N2v virus infections occurred in 2012. (
  • The lockdown applied under the state of emergency, which has limited the right to free movement and assembly, has successfully reined in the outbreak. (
  • Two strains of the virus have caused outbreaks of severe respiratory diseases in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1), which caused the 2002-2004 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is causing the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 . (
  • Currently, the nation is posting an average of 500 deaths a day from the deadly virus, roughly twice the number of daily deaths expected during a severe flu outbreak. (
  • There are no vaccines or treatments available for use in humans so if there is a serious outbreak of the virus it could become an epidemic and cause great economic loss and severe human disease. (
  • Single-cycle virus production assays in CD81-deficient Huh7-derived cells demonstrated that these changes did not affect replication but increased HCV assembly and specific infectivity as early as 24 h posttransfection. (
  • Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. (
  • In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. (
  • Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. (
  • number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. (
  • Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alpha- herpesvirus that causes severe upper respiratory infections in chickens. (
  • Sporadic human infections and outbreaks with influenza viruses that normally circulate in swine have occurred in the past. (
  • In August 2016, 18 laboratory-confirmed infections with H3N2v virus were reported among persons who had attended agricultural fairs in Michigan and Ohio. (
  • In early July 2016, before the identification of H3N2v virus infections described in this report, CDC reminded public health and laboratory partners nationwide to collect and test respiratory specimens from patients with influenza-like illness and swine exposure. (
  • After the initial identification of the H3N2v virus infections, the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services and the Ohio Department of Health encouraged enhanced surveillance and increased collection and rRT-PCR testing of respiratory specimens from patients with illness and swine exposure or agricultural fair attendance. (
  • In Hepatitis B infections, more liver damage may be caused by the immune system's attack on the infested liver cells than by the actual virus. (
  • Ebola virus (EBOV) infections continue to pose a global public health threat, with high mortality rates and sporadic outbreaks in Central and Western Africa. (
  • Yet, disease causality is difficult to confirm in the presence of mixed virus infections. (
  • For example, the overall risks of becoming infected with hepatitis B and C viruses from a blood transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa were estimated to be 4.3 and 2.5 infections per 1 000 units respectively (12). (
  • The government says that all the information it makes public on virus deaths and infections are provided by the regions, some of which are governed by opposition parties. (
  • AVG Anti virus software stipulates a healthy quantity of functions for everyone hoping to secure their house devices via malicious program and infections. (
  • Most disease-causing bacteria and viruses, which exist in encyclopedic profusion, serve no useful "purpose" whatever except to infect other creatures and to make their lives more difficult or shorter. (
  • A myriad of agents can potentially be transmitted through blood transfusions, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. (
  • While the figure had been reduced to eight in 2017, then going up to 12 in 2018, 147 new cases were tallied at the end of 2019, and the health ministry was forced to admit a resurgence of a previously eliminated strain of the crippling virus. (
  • The United Nations General Assembly has adopted a significant resolution that "Proclaims the period 2022-2032 as the International Decade of Indigenous Languages, to draw attention to the critical loss of indigenous languages and the urgent need to preserve, revitalize and promote indigenous languages and to take urgent steps at the national and international levels. (
  • In 2022, we celebrated the second world Assembly in Asia and the 17th since the inception of MWC in 1925. (
  • Consequently, the Assembly in 2022 deepened the intercultural relationship of many members of our churches and facilitated unity amid diversity. (
  • Assembly is complicated by sequences that may occur repeatedly within strains ("repeats") or shared among similar strains of bacterial and archaeal species, creating "branches" in the assembly graph that precludes accurate representation of individual component genomes, particularly when multiple closely related strains of a species are present in the environment [ 3 ]. (
  • We base this system on the physical isolation of viruses from large pooled samples of human serum and plasma ( e.g., discarded specimens from diagnostic laboratories), followed by shotgun sequencing of the resulting genomes. (
  • Facilitated by the relative ease with which viruses can be isolated from seawater (using commercial filters), investigators in this area have examined a broad and essentially unbiased population of viral agents at the genome sequence level (including phage) and estimated the number of different genomes present (~5,000) ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • IVA: accurate de novo assembly of RNA virus genomes. (
  • and in sequencing of entire genomes of viruses from numerous different strains. (
  • DNA sequence and transcriptional analysis of the UL1 to UL5 gene cluster of infectious laryngotracheitis virus. (
  • Nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein B gene of infectious laryngotracheitis virus : analysis and evolutionary relationship to the homologous gene from other herpesviruses. (
  • However, assembling sequencing data from virus samples, especially RNA viruses, into a genome sequence is challenging due to the combination of viral population diversity and extremely uneven read depth caused by amplification bias in the inevitable reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification process of current methods. (
  • This study has implications for investigations requiring high virus concentrations, such as studies of HCV particle composition and development of whole-virus vaccine antigens. (
  • A task force is being established to improve hospital efficiency and the province is reviving a nation-wide "Sentinel Practitioner Surveillance Network," through which lab tests can identify which virus is making people very sick and "provide real-time respiratory virus surveillance and monitor vaccine effectiveness (VE) across participating provinces and Canada. (
  • This controversy began toward the end of 2006, when Indonesia decided not to share influenza A virus (H5N1) samples with WHO for risk assessment (e.g., surveillance) or risk management (e.g., vaccine development) purposes. (
  • Indonesia's decision reportedly stemmed from its reaction to an Australian company's development of an avian influenza vaccine derived from a virus strain that Indonesia provided to WHO ( 3 ). (
  • Evaluation of on-line high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, differential refractometry, and multi-angle laser light scattering analysis for the monitoring of the oligomeric state of human immunodeficiency virus vaccine protein antigen. (
  • Going forward, these structures may also be used to identify how antibodies from patients with other diseases recognize the BKV virus particle and thus aid in the development of a vaccine. (
  • Dr Michal Barski and Dr Uli Schwarz-Linek of the School of Biology at the University of St Andrews, with colleagues at the University of Glasgow, have published a paper in online journal eLife revealing new information about a key molecule used by the virus to cause disease, which could help to eventually find a cure or a vaccine. (
  • Because measles is vaccine-preventable and the measles virus survives only in human hosts, the world's health officials are aiming for measles elimination. (
  • It was declared a member of the Caliciviridae family of viruses in 1993. (
  • The young man who seems to be working from a laboratory in Bweyogere released a video on April 8th, 2020 claiming to have a working cure for Corona Virus. (
  • Although the natural reservoir of MPXV remains unknown, animals such as rodents and non-human primates may harbor the virus, leading to occasional spill-over events to humans 1 , 2 , 3 . (
  • The HA gene was likely introduced from humans into swine in 2010 or 2011, and viruses with this gene have circulated and evolved in swine to be genetically and antigenically different from both previous and currently circulating human seasonal influenza A(H3N2) viruses. (
  • To minimize transmission of influenza viruses from swine to humans and from humans to swine, agricultural fair organizers should consider measures such as shortening the time swine are on the fairgrounds to ≤72 hours, immediately isolating ill swine, maintaining a veterinarian on call for the duration of the swine exhibition, providing prominent handwashing stations, and prohibiting food and beverages in animal barns. (
  • Since its introduction in the Americas, the virus spread across the continent with worrisome consequences in bird mortality and a considerable number of outbreaks among humans and horses, which have resulted in the largest epidemics of neuroinvasive WNV disease ever documented. (
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus ( SARSr-CoV or SARS-CoV ) [note 1] is a species of virus consisting of many known strains phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) that have been shown to possess the capability to infect humans , bats , and certain other mammals . (
  • Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is a virus affecting humans and livestock which is transmitted by mosquitos and contact with infected animals. (
  • It will pave the way for research on Rift Valley fever phlebovirus and many other related viruses that have the ability to infect animals and humans. (
  • coronavirus is part of a group of RNA viruses belonging to the Coronaviridae family, widely distributed in humans and other mammals. (
  • Immunogenicity and antigenicity of very virulent strains of infectious bursal disease viruses. (
  • Such a system could monitor the levels of known viruses in human populations, rapidly detect outbreaks, and systematically discover novel or variant human viruses. (
  • We tested IVA on datasets from 140 sequenced samples from human immunodeficiency virus-1 or influenza-virus-infected people and demonstrated that IVA outperforms all other virus de novo assemblers. (
  • Upregulation of miRNA-4776 in influenza virus infected bronchial epithelial cells is associated with downregulation of NFKBIB and increased viral survival. (
  • Monkeypox is a rare zoonotic disease that is caused by the MPXV from the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes the variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox 1 , 2 , 3 . (
  • The resolution also requested the Director-General to appoint a group of experts to establish what research, if any, must be carried out in order to reach consensus on the timing of destruction of variola virus stocks. (
  • This document provides a summary of the progress in research with live variola virus which was considered at the Advisory Committee's seventh meeting (Geneva, 10-11 November 2005), following the previous meeting in 2004. (
  • Based on this, the WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research concluded that no further research requiring access to live variola virus was necessary for these purposes. (
  • 6. The WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research is currently reviewing all proposals for research using live variola virus through a specified format, continues to ensure that research is conducted in an open and transparent manner, and promises that research outcomes and benefits are made available to all Member States. (
  • 8. The Secretariat acknowledges that there is no consensus among Member States on a proposed new date for the destruction of variola virus stocks. (
  • Infectious coculture assays in Huh7.5 cells showed a significant increase in cell-to-cell transmission for SA13/JFH1 Core-NS5B viruses as well as viruses with only p7 and nonstructural protein mutations. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Primary structure of sesbania mosaic virus coat protein: its implications to the assembly and architecture of the virus. (
  • Viruses can cause auto-immune diseases by leaving parts of their DNA in their host which may cause their protein-immune fingerprint to become embedded in the hosts' cell membranes. (
  • We present a statistical mechanical model based on the principle of mass action that explains the main features of the in vitro aggregation behavior of the coat protein of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). (
  • Kegel, WK & Schoot, van der, PPAM 2006, ' Physical regulation of the self-assembly of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein ', Biophysical Journal , vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 1501-1512. (
  • This protein interacts with a region called the nuclear export signal (NES) of a protein that forms a piece of the hepatitis D virus. (
  • Our model focuses on the assembly kinetics of VP40, the matrix protein in EBOV, and its interaction with phosphatidylserine (PS) in the host cell membrane. (
  • Firstly, we will focus on the role of the viral matrix protein M1 in orchestrating the spatial assembly of IV components into a new virion budding from the host PM. Furthermore, we will investigate the relationship between the raft domains in the PM and IV infectious cycle. (
  • The SARS-CoV-2 D614G S protein variant supplanted the ancestral virus in people. (
  • The NSs protein of RVFV forms characteristic filaments (green) in the nuclei of infected cells (red): a three-dimensional structure of a fibrillar assembly of NSs, determined by Barski et al using X-ray crystallography (green) is shown on top of an image of three infected cells. (
  • The SARS-related coronavirus was one of several viruses identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2016 as a likely cause of a future epidemic in a new plan developed after the Ebola epidemic for urgent research and development before and during an epidemic towards diagnostic tests , vaccines and medicines . (
  • It works like a giant microscope, harnessing the power of electrons to produce bright light that scientists can use to study anything from fossils to jet engines to viruses and vaccines. (
  • The browser is an adaptation of our popular genome-browser visualization tool for this virus, containing many annotation tracks and new features, including conservation with similar viruses, immune epitopes, RT-PCR and sequencing primers and CRISPR guides. (
  • The specificity and propensity of C124 to the assembly and its implications on HCV pathogenesis are not well understood. (
  • Even closer to home was the scare when her younger brother developed encephalitis from the measles virus. (
  • Assembly in 1980 that smallpox had been eradicated from the earth. (
  • Conversely, mutating positively charged residues within the hydrophobic region of AAP2 and conserved core domains within AAPN creates a gain-of-function AAP2 mutant that rescues assembly of the incompatible variant. (
  • Sixteen of the 18 cases occurred in persons who were infected with a reassortant H3N2v virus that contained a hemagglutinin (HA) gene previously not detected in variant viruses. (
  • IRMA was designed for the robust assembly, variant calling, and phasing of highly variable RNA viruses. (
  • Norwalk virus was officially renamed norovirus by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses in 2002. (
  • Sesbania mosaic virus (SMV) is a plant virus that infects Sesbania grandiflora plants in Andhra Pradesh, India. (
  • The mechanism by which the Influenza virus (IV) infects a cell and, eventually, spreads to other cells is paradigmatic in this context. (
  • West Nile virus (WNV), a flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family, is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and ornithophilic mosquito vectors, although the virus occasionally infects other vertebrates. (
  • Expression in Escherichia coli of cDNA fragments encoding the gene for the host-protective antigen of infectious bursal disease virus. (
  • A recombinant fowlpox virus that expresses the VP2 antigen of infectious bursal disease virus induces protection against mortality caused by the virus. (
  • The traditional process of discovering previously unknown human viruses, or variants of known viruses, is neither rapid nor thoroughly systematic. (
  • One would expect that a comprehensive survey of human viruses, defining what we might term the human "virome" would be, at least conceptually, even more straightforward. (
  • Schematic representation of a process for systematic discovery of human viruses. (
  • Our proposed approach ( Figure ), in which large populations are continually monitored for new human-infective viruses, has not been considered technically feasible or medically necessary in the past. (
  • The next day, CDC was notified of a child aged 9 years who was a swine exhibitor at an agricultural fair in Michigan who became ill on July 29, 2016, and tested positive for H3N2v virus at the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services Laboratory. (
  • Novel influenza viruses are different from currently circulating human influenza H1 and H3 viruses and have the potential to cause a pandemic if the virus is efficiently transmitted from person to person. (
  • In the 1970s and 1980s, typing of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) relied solely on immunologic methods involving human clinical samples as the source of antigens and antibodies. (
  • As the main causes of emerging infectious diseases, viruses are major threats to human health and global food security (Anderson et al. (
  • Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image of numerous human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) virions budding from a cultured lymphocyte. (
  • Current scientific knowledge has resulted in existing laws being outdated, Human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, was first officially reported in the United States in the early 1980s. (
  • Admittedly, Assembly 17 may not have been the most successful in human parameters that measure the quality of events. (
  • Viral RNA was extracted using either QIAcube with QIAamp 96 Virus QIAcube HT kit (QIAGEN, for human nasal swabs or MagMax Express magnetic particle processor with MagMax-96 viral RNA isolation kit (Thermo Fisher, for swine samples according to the manufacturer's instructions. (
  • Binding to human ACE2 receptor and internalization of the virus into the endosomes of the host cell induces conformational changes in the Spike glycoprotein (PubMed:32142651, PubMed:32075877, PubMed:32155444). (
  • Homology-based cloning methods have been recently developed and used to generate infectious clones of plant viruses (Pasin et al. (
  • The second year was a specialisation in fundamental virology, with general and specific lectures on viruses, practical courses and seminars. (
  • RESULTS: We developed a new de novo assembler called IVA (Iterative Virus Assembler) designed specifically for read pairs sequenced at highly variable depth from RNA virus samples. (
  • The clone was verified by a single Illumina reaction and a de novo read assembly approach that required no primer walking, custom primers or reference sequences. (
  • Vectors based on the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) offer several advantages. (
  • Dr. Bonnie Henry and Health Minister Adrian Dix spoke live Wednesday afternoon about fall respiratory viruses, particularly COVID-19 and influenza, and their serious concerns the province could be hit with a flood of cases from both at the same time. (
  • Like the majority of the United States, Missouri has been experiencing increased respiratory disease activity caused by multiple viruses, including flu and RSV, which. (
  • Here, we adapted the JFH1-based Core-NS2 recombinant SA13/JFH1 C3405G,A3696G (termed SA13/JFH1 orig ), of the poorly characterized genotype 5a, to Huh7.5 cells, yielding a virus with greatly improved spread kinetics and an infectivity titer of 6.7 log 10 focus-forming units (FFU)/ml. (
  • DNA viruses comprise a wide array of genome structures and infect diverse host species. (
  • Viruses are tiny microbes that can infect cells. (
  • Our study offers important functional data on how cell culture-adaptive mutations identified in genotype 5a JFH1-based HCVcc permit high-titer culture by affecting HCV genesis through increasing virus assembly and HCV fitness by enhancing the virus specific infectivity and cell-to-cell transmission ability, without influencing the biophysical particle properties. (
  • The post also insisted, "keep our people from this deadly virus. (
  • The National Assembly Standing Committee's 17th meeting completed all set agenda after one day of sitting on November 28 under the chair of NA Chairman Vuong Dinh Hue. (
  • Despite winning 12.92 per cent of the vote, no candidates will represent his party in the National Assembly . (
  • Nadeau-Dubois called on Quebec's re-elected premier to address the issue of vote counts and how they are (or aren't) reflected in the National Assembly. (
  • [4] The SARSr-CoV species is a member of the genus Betacoronavirus and of the subgenus Sarbecovirus ( SAR S Be ta co rona virus ). (
  • 32% of the world's computers are infected with viruses at any given time. (
  • About 80% of the world's adult population is infected with BKV, but the virus rarely causes illness in people with a healthy immune system. (
  • Genome data will also inform about the virus evolutionary trajectory, genetic diversity and phenotypic characteristics with relevance for guiding diagnostics, prophylaxis and research. (
  • Without viruses, the genetic revolution we are now experiencing would be impossible. (
  • Genetic classification of "Norwalk-like viruses. (
  • Viruses can also produce health problems by influencing the immune system to attack the body, resulting in auto-immune diseases such as diabetes, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • RVFV is increasingly likely to cause widespread epidemics, and could potentially follow the pattern of Dengue virus or West Nile virus and spread to temperate regions, such as Europe or the USA, as global warming allows the mosquitos which carry the virus to extend their geographic range. (
  • Norovirus, formerly referred to as Norwalk virus, is the most common cause of epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis in the world. (
  • Norwalk virus assembly and stability monitored by mass spectrometry. (
  • The E glycoprotein is the major component of the virion surface and is responsible for the receptor-mediated endocytic fusion and subsequent cell entry, as well as direct viral assembly & budding, and immunogenicity. (
  • Gallid herpesvirus 1 (infectious laryngotracheitis virus): cloning and physical maps of the SA-2 strain. (