The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Infections with viruses of the genus RUBULAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A histone chaperone protein that plays a role in the deposition of NUCLEOSOMES on newly synthesized DNA. It is comprised of three different subunits of 48, 60, and 150 kDa molecular size. The 48 kDa subunit, RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4, is also a component of several other protein complexes involved in chromatin remodeling.

Maturation-induced conformational changes of HIV-1 capsid protein and identification of two high affinity sites for cyclophilins in the C-terminal domain. (1/2943)

Viral incorporation of cyclophilin A (CyPA) during the assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is crucial for efficient viral replication. CyPA binds to the previously identified Gly-Pro90 site of the capsid protein p24, but its role remained unclear. Here we report two new interaction sites between cyclophilins and p24. Both are located in the C-terminal domain of p24 around Gly-Pro157 and Gly-Pro224. Peptides corresponding to these regions showed higher affinities (Kd approximately 0.3 microM) for both CyPA and cyclophilin B than the best peptide derived from the Gly-Pro90 site ( approximately 8 microM) and thus revealed new sequence motifs flanking Gly-Pro that are important for tight interaction of peptide ligands with cyclophilins. Between CyPA and an immature (unprocessed) form of p24, a Kd of approximately 8 microM was measured, which corresponded with the Kd of the best of the Gly-Pro90 peptides, indicating an association via this site. Processing of immature p24 by the viral protease, yielding mature p24, elicited a conformational change in its C-terminal domain that was signaled by the covalently attached fluorescence label acrylodan. Consequently, CyPA and cyclophilin B bound with much higher affinities ( approximately 0.6 and 0.25 microM) to the new, i.e. maturation-generated sites. Since this domain is essential for p24 oligomerization and capsid cone formation, CyPA bound to the new sites might impair the regularity of the capsid cone and thus facilitate in vivo core disassembly after host infection.  (+info)

The cleavable carboxyl-terminus of the small coat protein of cowpea mosaic virus is involved in RNA encapsidation. (2/2943)

The site of cleavage of the small coat protein of cowpea mosaic virus has been precisely mapped and the proteolysis has been shown to result in the loss of 24 amino acids from the carboxyl-terminus of the protein. A series of premature termination and deletion mutants was constructed to investigate the role or roles of these carboxyl-terminal amino acids in the viral replication cycle. Mutants containing premature termination codons at or downstream of the cleavage site were viable but reverted to wild-type after a single passage through cowpea plants, indicating that the carboxyl-terminal amino acids are important. Mutants with the equivalent deletions were genetically stable and shown to be debilitated with respect to virus accumulation. The specific infectivity of preparations of a deletion mutant (DM4) lacking all 24 amino acids was 6-fold less than that of a wild-type preparation. This was shown to be a result of DM4 preparations containing a much increased percentage (73%) of empty (RNA-free) particles, a finding that implicates the cleavable carboxyl-terminal residues in the packaging of the virion RNAs.  (+info)

Precise packaging of the three genomic segments of the double-stranded-RNA bacteriophage phi6. (3/2943)

Bacteriophage phi6 has a genome of three segments of double-stranded RNA. Each virus particle contains one each of the three segments. Packaging is effected by the acquisition, in a serially dependent manner, of the plus strands of the genomic segments into empty procapsids. The empty procapsids are compressed in shape and expand during packaging. The packaging program involves discrete steps that are determined by the amount of RNA inside the procapsid. The steps involve the exposure and concealment of binding sites on the outer surface of the procapsid for the plus strands of the three genomic segments. The plus strand of segment S can be packaged alone, while packaging of the plus strand of segment M depends upon prior packaging of S. Packaging of the plus strand of L depends upon the prior packaging of M. Minus-strand synthesis begins when the particle has a full complement of plus strands. Plus-strand synthesis commences upon the completion of minus-strand synthesis. All of the reactions of packaging, minus-strand synthesis, and plus-strand synthesis can be accomplished in vitro with isolated procapsids. Live-virus constructions that are in accord with the model have been prepared. Mutant virus with changes in the packaging program have been isolated and analyzed.  (+info)

Interactions of heterologous DNA with polyomavirus major structural protein, VP1. (4/2943)

'Empty' polyomavirus pseudocapsids, self-assembled from the major structural protein VP1, bind DNA non-specifically and can deliver it into the nuclei of mammalian cells for expression [Forstova et al. (1995) Hum. Gene Ther. 6, 297-3061. Formation of suitable VP1-DNA complexes appears to be the limiting step in this route of gene delivery. Here, the character of VP1-DNA interactions has been studied in detail. Electron microscopy revealed that VP1 pseudocapsids can create in vitro at least two types of interactions with double-stranded DNA: (i) highly stable complexes, requiring free DNA ends, where the DNA is partially encapsidated; and, (ii) weaker interactions of pseudocapsids with internal parts of the DNA chain.  (+info)

Noncytopathic flavivirus replicon RNA-based system for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. (5/2943)

Noncytopathic replicons of the flavivirus Kunjin (KUN) were employed for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. Replicon vector C20DX2Arep, containing a unique cloning site followed by the sequence of 2A autoprotease of foot-and-mouth disease virus, was constructed and used for expression of a number of heterologous genes including chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), green fluorescent protein (GFP), beta-galactosidase, glycoprotein G of vesicular stomatitis virus, and the Core and NS3 genes of hepatitis C virus. The expression and proper processing of these genes upon transfection of BHK21 cells with the recombinant replicon RNAs were demonstrated by immunofluorescence, radioimmunoprecipitation, and appropriate reporter gene assays. Most of these recombinant KUN replicon RNAs were also successfully packaged into secreted virus-like particles (VLPs) by subsequent transfection with Semliki Forest virus replicon RNA expressing KUN structural genes. Infection of BHK21 and Vero cells with these VLPs resulted in continuous replication of the recombinant replicon RNAs and prolonged expression of the cloned genes without any cytopathic effect. We also developed a replicon vector for generation of stable cell lines continuously expressing heterologous genes by inserting an encephalomyelocarditis virus internal ribosomal entry site-neomycin transferase gene cassette into the 3'-untranslated region of the C20DX2Arep vector. Using this vector (C20DX2ArepNeo), stable BHK cell lines persistently expressing GFP and CAT genes for up to 17 passages were established. Thus noncytopathic KUN replicon vectors with the ability to be packaged into VLPs should provide a useful tool for the development of noninfectious and noncytopathic vaccines as well as for gene therapy applications.  (+info)

Opposing effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix mutations support a myristyl switch model of gag membrane targeting. (6/2943)

Targeting of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag precursor Pr55(gag) to the plasma membrane, the site of virus assembly, is primarily mediated by the N-terminal matrix (MA) domain. N-myristylation of MA is essential for the stable association of Pr55(gag) with membranes and for virus assembly. We now show that single amino acid substitutions near the N terminus of MA can dramatically impair assembly without compromising myristylation. Subcellular fractionation demonstrated that Gag membrane binding was compromised to a similar extent as in the absence of the myristyl acceptor site, indicating that the myristyl group was not available for membrane insertion. Remarkably, the effects of the N-terminal modifications could be completely suppressed by second-site mutations in the globular core of MA. The compensatory mutations enhanced Gag membrane binding and increased viral particle yields above wild-type levels, consistent with an increase in the exposure of the myristyl group. Our results support a model in which the compact globular core of MA sequesters the myristyl group to prevent aberrant binding to intracellular membranes, while the N terminus is critical to allow the controlled exposure of the myristyl group for insertion into the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Foamy virus capsids require the cognate envelope protein for particle export. (7/2943)

Unlike other subclasses of the Retroviridae the Spumavirinae, its prototype member being the so-called human foamy virus (HFV), require the expression of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein for viral particle egress. Both the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) Env and the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, which efficiently pseudotype other retrovirus capsids, were not able to support export of HFV particles. Analysis of deletion and point mutants of the HFV Env protein revealed that the HFV Env cytoplasmic domain (CyD) is dispensable for HFV particle envelopment, release, and infectivity, whereas deletion of the membrane-spanning-domain (MSD) led to an accumulation of naked capsids in the cytoplasm. Neither alternative membrane association of HFV Env deletion mutants lacking the MSD and CyD via phosphoglycolipid anchor nor domain swapping mutants, with the MSD or CyD of MuLV Env and VSV-G exchanged against the corresponding HFV domains, could restore particle envelopment and the release defect of pseudotypes. However, replacement of the HFV MSD with that of MuLV led to budding of HFV capsids at the intracellular membranes. These virions were of apparently wild-type morphology but were not naturally released into the supernatant and they were noninfectious.  (+info)

Vif and the p55(Gag) polyprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are present in colocalizing membrane-free cytoplasmic complexes. (8/2943)

The Vif protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a potent regulator of viral infectivity. Current data posit that Vif functions late in replication to modulate assembly, budding, and/or maturation. Consistent with this model, earlier indirect immunofluorescence analyses of HIV-1-infected cells demonstrated that Vif and Gag colocalize to a substantial degree (J. H. M. Simon, R. A. M. Fouchier, T. E. Southerling, C. B. Guerra, C. K. Grant, and M. H. Malim, J. Virol. 71:5259-5267, 1997). Here, we describe a series of subcellular fractionation studies which indicate that Vif and the p55(Gag) polyprotein are present in membrane-free cytoplasmic complexes that copurify in sucrose density gradients and are stable in nonionic detergents. Both Vif and Gag are targeted to these complexes independent of each other, and their association with them appears to be mediated by protein-protein interactions. We propose that these complexes may represent viral assembly intermediates and that Vif is appropriately localized to influence the final stages of the viral life cycle and, therefore, the infectivity of progeny virions.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of the in vitro packaging efficiency of bacteriophage T7 DNA. T2 - effects of neutral polymers. AU - Son, Marjatta. AU - Hayes, Shirley J.. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 1989/10/30. Y1 - 1989/10/30. N2 - The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. When the polymer used was polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 0.2, 0.6 or 12.6 kDa, the efficiency of DNA packaging reached maximum at an intermediate concentration of polymer. The osmotic pressure (Pos) at maximum efficiency was either in, or close to, the range of colloid Pos measured for the intact host cell. The optimum Pos increased as the size of the polymer used decreased. PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of the in vitro packaging efficiency of bacteriophage T7 DNA. T2 - effects of neutral polymers. AU - Son, Marjatta. AU - Hayes, Shirley J.. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 1989/10/30. Y1 - 1989/10/30. N2 - The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. When the polymer used was polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 0.2, 0.6 or 12.6 kDa, the efficiency of DNA packaging reached maximum at an intermediate concentration of polymer. The osmotic pressure (Pos) at maximum efficiency was either in, or close to, the range of colloid Pos measured for the intact host cell. The optimum Pos increased as the size of the polymer used decreased. PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA ...
In this paper, we start from the study of packaging efficiency with phosphor-converted white LED. The PkE can be obtained through a new way to measure and calculate the blue light from the blue die to the encapsulation lens. Then we investigate the PkE in seven types of pcW-LED to figure out what the most efficient is among them. In order to know the details of the PkL, we analyze the PkL budget, which contains Stokes loss, phosphor quantum loss, and geometry loss. The Stokes loss depends on the blue spectrum and the spectrum of the down-conversion. The geometry loss is more complicated, and it relates to the phosphor, the reflective surface in the packaging volume and the absorption of the active layer of the blue die. The simulation shows that phosphor particle size could induce different backward scattering, and so does the geometry loss. The simulation and corresponding experiment shows that the phosphor with small particle size, Type I and Type VII are the best in PkE. As for larger ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NMR structure of stem-loop SL2 of the HIV-1 Ψ RNA packaging signal reveals a novel A-U-A base-triple platform. AU - Amarasinghe, Gaya K.. AU - De Guzman, Roberto N.. AU - Turner, Ryan B.. AU - Summers, Michael F.. PY - 2000/5/26. Y1 - 2000/5/26. N2 - The genome of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) contains a stretch of ~120 nucleotides known as the ψ-site that is essential for RNA packaging during virus assembly. These nucleotides have been proposed to form four stem-loops (SL1-SL4) that have both independent and overlapping functions. Stem-loop SL2 is important for efficient recognition and packaging of the full-length, unspliced viral genome, and also contains the major splice-donor site (SD) for mRNA splicing. We have determined the structure of the 19-residue SL2 oligoribonucleotide by heteronuclear NMR methods. The structure is generally consistent with the most recent of two earlier secondary structure predictions, with residues G1-G2-C3-G4 and C6-U7 forming ...
RNA enveloped viruses comprise several families belonging to plus and minus strand RNA viruses, such as retroviruses, flavoviruses and orthomyxoviruses. Viruses utilize cellular lipids during critical steps of replication like entry, assembly and egress. Growing evidence indicate important roles for lipids and lipid nanodomains in virus assembly. The proposed topic will cover key aspects of virus-membrane interactions during assembly and egress. A significant part of this special topic will address how enveloped viruses such as retroviruses, influenza, Ebola and Dengue viruses are able to recognize specific lipids in membrane during assembly and egress. Virus assembly and release involve specific and nonspecific interactions between viral proteins and membrane compartments. It is well established that assembly of retroviral Gag proteins occur predominantly on the PM. Membrane selection appears to be critical for productive virus production. Gaps in understanding of retroviral assembly still exist.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determinants of the HIV-1 core assembly pathway. AU - López, Claudia S.. AU - Eccles, Jacob D.. AU - Still, Amelia. AU - Sloan, Rachel E.. AU - Barklis, Robin Lid. AU - Tsagli, Seyram M.. AU - Barklis, Eric. PY - 2011/8/15. Y1 - 2011/8/15. N2 - Based on structural information, we have analyzed the mechanism of mature HIV-1 core assembly and the contributions of structural elements to the assembly process. Through the use of several in vitro assembly assay systems, we have examined details of how capsid (CA) protein helix 1, ß-hairpin and cyclophilin loop elements impact assembly-dependent protein interactions, and we present evidence for a contribution of CA helix 6 to the mature assembly-competent conformation of CA. Additional experiments with mixtures of proteins in assembly reactions provide novel analyses of the mature core assembly mechanism. Our results support a model in which initial assembly products serve as scaffolds for further assembly by converting incoming ...
Although UL11 has been suggested to play an important role in HSV secondary envelopment, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Dissection of its interaction network represents a useful and meaningful approach to better understand the function of this protein during the HSV life cycle. The experiments described here strongly support the suggestion that UL11 and gE are in some sort of a complex, as suggested previously (16), but go much further by showing that the interaction is direct and by mapping the sequences involved in both proteins. Interestingly, the previous study (16) mapped the UL11-binding region to the C terminus of the gE tail between the gE residues 495 to 550 in contrast to the residues 445 to 472 determined here. This discrepancy likely stems from different systems that were used for mapping the binding domain. The former was done under virus infection conditions, in which many other viral factors would compete with UL11 for binding to the gE tail, and could potentially ...
PI(4,5)P2 plays a much broader role during the HIV-1 particle assembly process than assumed; it is indispensable not only for recruitment of Gag to the plasma membrane but also for the maintenance of Gag assemblies.
Hi, When I was in Japan, I used ETHACHINMATE as a carrier to recover DNA (from WAKO JUNYAKU Co.). In their catelogy, they show some data glycogen has effect on transformation efficency, but ethachinmate does not. I dont know whether linar polyacrylamide effect transformation and in vitro Packaging efficiency. Huang ...
Applied Biological Materials Inc. ( abm ) is an unique supplier of premium quality genetic and cellular materials, virus packaging, CRISPR/Cas9 stable cell line services, immortalization service and various other custom services. Recognized as the 25th Fastest-Growing Companies in B.C. in 2015, abm is rapidly expanding and we are offering a Cell Culture Lab Intern position for a reliable, motivated and detail-oriented individual. The successful candidate(s) will be part of the Cell Biology team to provide our customers with a complete line of viral packaging and stable cell line generation services. The successful candidate(s) will have plenty of opportunities for fast track career development while being part of a highly diverse, innovative and interactive cohort of scientists.. Responsibilities will include, but are not limited to, the following:. ...
Services for construction of virus vectors, virus generation, virus packaging, virus amplification, virus production, virus purification, virus titering, and various viral applications.
Theres nothing quite like a multistation automated assembly system. Watching robots, actuators and indexers go about their carefully choreographed routines with little or no human intervention can seem nothing short of miraculous. The following systems exemplify the hard work and creative engineering that routinely go into todays automated assembly systems. System Assembles Medical Device With Multiple Variants High-speed assembly of medical devices poses multiple challenges. Beyond the sheer volume requirement, medical device assembly systems must also meet cleanliness, process validation and regulatory requirements. Based . . .
At BPA, we know it is our reputation that makes us successful. Starting from initial contact through project management and commissioning, including service and support, we aim to please. Our sales and engineering teams work closely with you to develop the optimal solution for your specific packaging needs, ensuring maximum line productivity.BPA focuses on:
Amplification Now, you need to do an amplification of the correct full-length chunks. Clean up the assembly reaction with a zymo column; dont bother running it on a gel - itll be a smeary mess and wont really help you. Save the purified product in case this step fails! For the amplification reaction, do a normal phusion program with 1 ul of the cleaned up assembly reaction as template, and using the outermost oligos for the chunk. That is: Recipe 1 ul each outer oligo (10 uM) -Dilute F/R oligos 1:10 from 100uM; in this case, oligo CCOMT1-12/CCOMT1-15 1 ul purified pca product .5 ul phusion 10 ul 5x phusion buffer 5 ul 2mM dNTPs 32.5 ul H2O Samples given to John to run the Program. 1:10 Oligo12/Oligo15 dilutions in small PCR tubes. Also stored purified PCA1 product in 4o box. Program 2 min initial denature at 94oC 30 sec denature at 94oC 30 sec anneal at 60oC [This should be high, as your outer oligos now have a huge overlap with the correct product] 30 sec extension at 68oC ...
A Framework for the Modelling and Optimisation of a Lean Assembly System Design with Multiple Objectives: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5836-3.ch005: The newest assembly system is lean assembly, which is specifically designed to respond quickly and economically to the fluctuating nature of the market
While weighing your package is not required for FedEx One Rate pricing, to qualify, FedEx Envelopes must weigh 10 lbs. or less and FedEx Paks and Boxes must weigh 50 lbs. or less. If your package exceeds these weight limits, it will be rated based on FedEx Standard List Rates or FedEx Retail Rates as applicable. Please refer to the specific packaging for recommended weight limits. Please refer to the FedEx Service Guide at fedex.com for more information about FedEx One Rate ...
Virus assembly inside cells. The volume of a cell is large compared to the small portion used by most viruses for their assembly. Moreover, the cell is highly compartmentalized with regard to different functions that viruses may need. We are interested to define specific elements of cellular organization that viruses exploit to benefit their own replication. Particular focus is on the content and organization of the cytoplasmic factories in which viral replication and assembly occur ...
Evacuation Assembly Area found in: Custom Evacuation Assembly Area Sign, Outdoor Evacuation Assembly Area Signs, Glow In The Dark Emergency Assembly..
Two copies of unspliced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) are preferentially selected for packaging by the group-specific antigen (Gag) polyprotein into progeny virions as a dimer during the late stages of the viral lifecycle. Elucidating the RNA features responsible for selective recognition of the full-length gRNA in the presence of an abundance of other cellular RNAs and spliced viral RNAs remains an area of intense research. The recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure by Keane et al. [1] expands upon previous efforts to determine the conformation of the HIV-1 RNA packaging signal. The data support a secondary structure wherein sequences that constitute the major splice donor site are sequestered through base pairing, and a tertiary structure that adopts a tandem 3-way junction motif that exposes the dimerization initiation site and unpaired guanosines for specific recognition by Gag. While it remains to be established whether this structure is conserved in the context
Viral packaging systems in lentiviral, baculoviral, and retroviral platforms as well as packaging services with high titer products
Genome packaging is a key step in retrovirus replication. Two copies of the virus RNA are specifically selected and packaged into an assembling virion. The nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the Gag polyprotein and the packaging signal (?-site) region of the genomic RNA are critical to this process. Different packaging mechanisms have been proposed for HIV-1 and HIV-2. In HIV-1, the ?-site is downstream of the major splice donor (SD), and any splicing removes both NC binding sites. The proposed HIV-2 ?-site is upstream of the SD. A co-translational packaging hypothesis was presented explaining this contradiction. In this mechanism, NC binds the full-length RNA from which it was translated. Other studies indicated the region between the SD and the Gag initiation codon is critical for NC binding and genome packaging. This finding supports the hypothesis that HIV-1 and HIV-2 package their genomes in a similar manner. However, the minimal NC binding domain(s) in HIV-2 had not been determined. The work ...
Examining the differences and similarities between HIV and SIV retroviral replication systems is important in light of the fact that SIV animal models are used in the development and testing of HIV eradicating drugs and vaccines. One such difference may be the efficiency of Gag directed viral assembly. Studies with HIV-1 Gag have shown that during the late phase retroviral replication, 1,500-5,000 copies of Gag are targeted to lipid raft sites on the plasma membrane for new virus production.,super,2; 3; 4,super, The role of MA as a domain of Gag/Gag-Pro-Pol is crucial for viral particle assembly and budding through the synergistic properties of the myristate group and positively charged basic residues of the N-terminus. Work done by Tang ,italic,et al,italic,.,super,5,super, demonstrated myristylated [myr(+)] HIV-1 MA exists in an equilibrium between a monomeric and trimeric state. Concentration dependent assays done with 2D ,super,1,super,H, ,super,15,super,N-HSQC NMR showed the chemical shift ...
A free-to-use tool for scientists to design and order custom DNA vectors. Select promoters/ORFs from our database or enter your own sequences.
A free-to-use tool for scientists to design and order custom DNA vectors. Select promoters/ORFs from our database or enter your own sequences.
Our laboratory has focused its efforts on two important aspects of the biology of herpesviruses; virus assembly and the pathogenesis of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. We have developed several in-vitro assay systems that permit the identification and characterization of critical protein interactions that take place during virus assembly. Using BAC derived infectious clones, we have utilized virus genetics to understand the role of different viral proteins in the assembly of an infectious particle. Our results indicate that interactions between viral tegument and envelope proteins are essential for infectious particle assembly and that inhibition of these interactions can limit envelopment and therefore, virus assembly. A second major focus of our laboratory is the development of a small animal model of CNS disease associated with cytomegalovirus infections. We have exploited a finding that newborn mice infected with murine CMV develop CNS infection that leads to maldevelopment of the ...
In article ,3j1dqu$3t1 at mserv1.dl.ac.uk,, MS WF HONG [GEN]53872 ,GEN282E at ccs1.cc.monash.edu.au, writes: , Dear netters, , I am working on genomic mapping of Pseudomonas by pulse field , gel electrophoresis. At this stage, I have a problem in separating a , 173kb doublet. Does any one have suggestions on how to solve this , problem. , , , Thanks in advance. , , , , W. F. Hong , Well, the best way probably is making a gene library and pulling out linking clones hybridizing the library with the 173kb doublet probe.Making the library shouldnt be problem considering the high and reliable packaging efficiency of commercial pack. mix (Stratagene) like Gigapack Good luck. Goran Biukovic , biukovic at olimp.irb.hr ...
The viral HIV-1 Gag protein is both necessary and sufficient for virus particle assembly. Using a novel microscopy approach I have examined the localization and movement of Gag in primary human macrophages. Virus particles accumulated at the plasma membrane and in apparent internal compartments. Interestingly, virus particles in these compartments were rapidly recruited to the site of contact between infected macrophages and naïve T-cells. These data led to the discovery of virion channels connecting these compartments to the cell surface allowing for the efficient targeted trafficking of HIV-1 in macrophages ...
Once we have pin-pointed suspicious regions in the genome, the Digard laboratory can explore them by engineering mutant viruses to see if the packaging process is broken by changes in those locations in the genome. The results we have are promising, and it seems that our methods are identifying regions of interest, but there is so much more we want to do.. There are ways we can improve our methods to make better use of the increasing numbers of full genomes of influenza available. (This is currently being researched by a PhD student in my group, Johann von Kirchbach). Also, if we can find any covariances between signals (e.g. when one site on the genome mutated, another site elsewhere usually also mutated), we might be able to begin uncovering clues as to how these signals work: this would be an important step. Then we hope to formulate new experiments to explore further.. Understanding the packaging process of influenza and uncovering the packaging signals that drive it would be a major step in ...
High quality plasmid DNA preparation service for both research and industrial applications, especially protein and antibody engineering, antigen production, and virus packaging. Industrial grade plasmid preparation guarantees > 90% supercoil and
Retroviruses are parasites that pose a major health threat to humans (for example in case of HIV) and other animals (for example in case of RSV, M-PMV, MLV, and many more viruses). After a retrovirus hijacks a cell, the infected cell produces multiple copies of the virus which are then released into the hosts bloodstream. These newly released viruses must mature before they can infect other cells. A strategy for preventing virus spread is therefore, to lock the viral particles in their immature, non-infectious state. However, to render the immature virus an attractive target for structure-based drug development one needs to know its chemical structure. Unfortunately, the complexity and size of the viral particle ― an incomplete hexagonal shell with a size close to 100 nm ― have prevented the experimental determination of the chemical, namely atomic level, structure of the virus. As reported recently, a team of computational and experimental researchers have provided an atomic structure of ...
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AMA - Airborne Meteorological Assembly. Looking for abbreviations of AMA? It is Airborne Meteorological Assembly. Airborne Meteorological Assembly listed as AMA
1. An energy storage module (10) comprising a plurality of energy storage assemblies (100) positioned side by side, and a rigid shell (12) designed to surround the storage assemblies, each assembly including at least one side wall closed at each end by an end face, wherein the storage assemblies are electrically connected two by two by conducting bars (110) extending over at least one end face of each assembly, the bars being arranged so that one bar connects a first end face of at least one predetermined assembly to an end face of a first adjoining assembly and that a second bar connects a second face of the predetermined assembly to an end face of a second adjoining assembly, wherein the module also includes at least one electrical insulation member (120), made of an electrically insulating material and including a bottom (122) and a rim (124) extending essentially perpendicularly to the bottom and surrounding it, each electrical insulation member (120) being associated with one bar (110) and ...
A surgical sagittal saw capable of actuating an assembly that includes a static bar and at least one drive rod and a blade head, both of which are pivotally mounted to the bar. The saw includes a receiving surface on which the blade assembly bar is seated. A clamp removably holds bar in a static position against the receiving surface. The saw includes at least one drive pin. When the bar is mounted to the plate, the drive pin engages the assembly drive rod. A motor is connected to the drive pin to oscillate the pin.
A fluid delivery system includes a connector assembly and a container for holding fluids. The connector assembly includes a first fitting defining a first aperture and a second fitting that is couplable to the first fitting and defines a second aperture. The container for holding fluids including a fitment, wherein one of the first and second fittings is directly coupled to the fitment.
A nasal assembly for delivering breathable gas to a patient includes a frame having an integrally formed first connector portion. A nozzle assembly includes a gusset or base portion and a pair of nozz
Reflexil is an assembly editor and runs as a plug-in for Reflector or JustDecompile. Reflexil is able to manipulate IL code and save the modified assemblies to disk. Reflexil also supports on-the-fly C#/VB.NET code injection.
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The 2018 General Assembly of the VIVALDI project will take place from 6 to 8 March 2018, in Weymouth (UK), at the kind invitation of CEFAS.
Foamy viruses (FVs) differ from all other genera of retroviruses (orthoretroviruses) in many aspects of viral replication. In this review, we discuss FV assembly, with special emphasis on Pol incorporation. FV assembly takes place intracellularly, near the pericentriolar region, at a site similar to that used by betaretroviruses. The regions of Gag, Pol and genomic RNA required for viral assembly are described. In contrast to orthoretroviral Pol, which is synthesized as a Gag-Pol fusion protein and packaged through Gag-Gag interactions, FV Pol is synthesized from a spliced mRNA lacking all Gag sequences. Thus, encapsidation of FV Pol requires a different mechanism. We detail how WT Pol lacking Gag sequences is incorporated into virus particles. In addition, a mutant in which Pol is expressed as an orthoretroviral-like Gag-Pol fusion protein is discussed. We also discuss temporal regulation of the protease, reverse transcriptase and integrase activities of WT FV Pol.
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Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, ...
The Lingappa lab studies viral host interactions involved in assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other viruses. Previously, our group demonstrated that immature HIV-1 capsid assembly in cells occurs through a pathway of assembly intermediates, and is facilitated by the catalytic activity of the host enzymes ABCE1 and DDX6. Our recent studies show that ABCE1 binds directly to HIV Gag through an ancient binding site that is present even in the Ty3 retrotransposon Gag protein. One current project in the lab involves understanding the evolution of the ABCE1 binding site in different retroviral Gag proteins. A second project in the lab involves studying how HIV-1 genomic RNA is packaged into the assembling virus in cells. A third project address how polymorphisms that arise in Gag in vivo can enhance ABCE1-Gag binding, thereby accelerating the kinetics of assembly and increasing virus particle production. The latter studies have important implications for viral pathogenesis, ...
The Lingappa lab studies viral host interactions involved in assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other viruses. Previously, our group demonstrated that immature HIV-1 capsid assembly in cells occurs through a pathway of assembly intermediates, and is facilitated by the catalytic activity of the host enzymes ABCE1 and DDX6. Our recent studies show that ABCE1 binds directly to HIV Gag through an ancient binding site that is present even in the Ty3 retrotransposon Gag protein. One current project in the lab involves understanding the evolution of the ABCE1 binding site in different retroviral Gag proteins. A second project in the lab involves studying how HIV-1 genomic RNA is packaged into the assembling virus in cells. A third project address how polymorphisms that arise in Gag in vivo can enhance ABCE1-Gag binding, thereby accelerating the kinetics of assembly and increasing virus particle production. The latter studies have important implications for viral pathogenesis, ...
Reassortment of influenza viral RNA (vRNA) segments in co-infected cells can lead to the emergence of viruses with pandemic potential. Replication of influenza vRNA occurs in the nucleus of infected cells, while progeny virions bud from the plasma membrane. However, the intracellular mechanics of vRNA assembly into progeny virions is not well understood. Here we used recent advances in microscopy to explore vRNA assembly and transport during a productive infection. We visualized four distinct vRNA segments within a single cell using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and observed that foci containing more than one vRNA segment were found at the external nuclear periphery, suggesting that vRNA segments are not exported to the cytoplasm individually. Although many cytoplasmic foci contain multiple vRNA segments, not all vRNA species are present in every focus, indicating that assembly of all eight vRNA segments does not occur prior to export from the nucleus. To extend the observations made in fixed
Reassortment of influenza viral RNA (vRNA) segments in co-infected cells can lead to the emergence of viruses with pandemic potential. Replication of influenza vRNA occurs in the nucleus of infected cells, while progeny virions bud from the plasma membrane. However, the intracellular mechanics of vRNA assembly into progeny virions is not well understood. Here we used recent advances in microscopy to explore vRNA assembly and transport during a productive infection. We visualized four distinct vRNA segments within a single cell using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and observed that foci containing more than one vRNA segment were found at the external nuclear periphery, suggesting that vRNA segments are not exported to the cytoplasm individually. Although many cytoplasmic foci contain multiple vRNA segments, not all vRNA species are present in every focus, indicating that assembly of all eight vRNA segments does not occur prior to export from the nucleus. To extend the observations made in fixed
While X-ray crystallography is a powerful technique, artificial laboratory-grown crystals sometimes do not realistically reflect biology. The team sought to confirm their findings in living bacteria using an additional imaging technique called soft X-ray tomography, which bombards bacterial cells with X-rays to produce flat 2D images. The 2D images are then combined computationally to create a 3D picture of the whole, living bacteria. When packaging proteins lack the DNA-binding regions, the team found that the previously observed DNA networks are missing. In fact, the bacterial DNA seems to collapse into disarray, and the cell no longer grows properly. The team anticipates that these new findings may eventually lead to the development of next-generation antibiotic drugs that target this packaging system.. ...
Human cancer virology; AIDS research; human retroviruses; virus mutagenesis and evolution; virus particle assembly and transmission; antiviral drug target identification; virus-host interactions.. To the casual observer, Virology is typically viewed as a narrow sub-discipline in the field of Microbiology. In reality, Virology is an integrated and highly interdisciplinary discipline that has had a profound impact on our understanding of the biological and physical sciences, engineering, agriculture, and the health sciences. For example, some of the most transformative advancements in improving human health have come from basic science investigations of viruses for the development of intervention strategies - e.g., antiviral drugs and vaccines - to help treat, prevent and eradicate devastating diseases. Current understanding of the molecular genetic basis of diseases such as cancer is predicated on investigations of cancer-causing viruses. The foundations of modern molecular biology and genetics ...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is extraordinarily diverse and uses entry factors in a strain-specific manner. Virus particles associate with lipoproteins, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is critical for HCV assembly and infectivity. However, whether ApoE dependency is common to all HCV genotypes remains unknown. Therefore, we compared the roles of ApoE utilizing 10 virus strains from genotypes 1 through 7. ApoA and ApoC also support HCV assembly, so they may contribute to virus production in a strain-dependent fashion. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed abundant coexpression of ApoE, ApoB, ApoA1, ApoA2, ApoC1, ApoC2, and ApoC3 in primary hepatocytes and in Huh-7.5 cells. Virus production was examined in Huh-7.5 cells with and without ApoE expression and in 293T cells where individual apolipoproteins (ApoE1, -E2, -E3, -A1, -A2, -C1, and -C3) were provided in trans All strains were strictly ApoE dependent. However, ApoE involvement in virus production was strain and cell type specific, because some ...
The plastic chewing gum blister -containing 2 parallel rows in which rectangular chewing gums are individually packed- is probably the most common packaging. This specific packaging evoked an abstract or even naive representation of a set of human teeth.
[main]Download our fact sheet on LentiStableTMGo Oxford Biomedica has developed highly efficient packaging and producer cell lines, which enable scalable and cost-effective manufacturing.
4K70: Crystal Structure of the Herpesvirus Inner Tegument Protein UL37 Supports Its Essential Role in Control of Viral Trafficking.
This collection of reviews focuses on the most exciting areas of DNA packaging at the current time. Many of the new discoveries are driven by the development of molecular or imaging techniques, and these are providing insights into the complex world of chromatin. As these new techniques continue to improve, we will be able to answer many of the questions we have now, while likely raising many new ones. ...
An endoscopic device having a handle assembly and a catheter assembly is disclosed. The catheter assembly carries a viewing conduit which cooperates with an eyepiece on the handle assembly for viewing in a patients body cavity. The catheter assembly is preferably rotatably and removably mounted on the handle assembly. Also disclosed is a coupling unit which, together with the catheter assembly, forms an endoscopic camera device.
The invention relates to a printhead assembly. The assembly includes a printhead module having a plurality of modular printhead tiles each tile having a plurality of micro-electromechanical nozzle assemblies for operatively printing on a printing medium. Also included are printhead controller integrated circuits for controlling operation of the printhead tiles. The printhead assembly further includes a number of electrical connector assemblies for operatively connecting the printhead tiles. Each tile is mounted to a modular support defining a raised portion and a recessed portion at an end thereof, the tile having electrical connecting strips which overlie the respective recessed portions. Each connector assembly includes a connecting member having a series of parallel spaced conducting strips, said member shaped and configured for fitment into a cavity defined by the raised and recessed portions of two abutting supports to connect the connecting strips of two tiles via said conducting strips.
Despite great advances in AIDS diagnosis and treatment, the continuing devastation of the AIDS epidemic demands continuing efforts to understand all aspects of...
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A pill assembly configured to receive the correct selection of medications in the correct dosages for a particular patient. The pill assembly comprises containers wherein at least one of the containers is configured to receive a plurality of different pills. The containers are adjacent to one another. The pill assembly also comprises a plurality of lids. Each of the lids is configured to seal a corresponding container. The containers have a top surface with a flange that is configured to receive the corresponding lid. Each lid has a surface that is configured to receive a printable indicia with patient specific information. The pill assembly may also comprise a sleeve that is configured to slidably interface with the containers.
2KSJ: Structure and Dynamics of the Membrane-bound form of Pf1 Coat Protein: Implications for Structural Rearrangement During Virus Assembly
Some of these individuals may be completely asymptomatic and if the R number was to be based on this type of individual it would be small. Then there are the super spreaders (again some of which may be asymptomatic, again this is something that research is currently trying to establish) who it seems shed large numbers of viral particles and therefore deliver a much bigger dose capable of infecting many individuals. If the R number was based on this type of individual alone it would be high.. In reality there is probably a spectrum of different types of infected individuals some very low, some with very high infectious viral loads and some filling the gap in between these extremes that overall gives us an average R number. Evidence is emerging to suggest that there are some infected individuals who dont shed infectious viral particles at all. More research is needed to understand the reason behind this wide variation in virus shedding and load but in all probability it comes down to the way in ...
Not clearly understood. Prevent the release of infectious viral nucleic acid into the host cell by interfering with the function of the transmembrane domain of the viral M2 protein. In certain cases, prevent virus assembly during virus replication ...
The products and the claims made about specific products on or through this site have not been evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and are not approved to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent disease.. Additionally, we are acting as a re-seller for products that have been produced, verified and packaged by the brand manufacturer. They are not products produced by our company and or any of its affiliates. As such, we are held harmless from any claims and do not warranty their internal manufacturing systems or packaging processes beyond their commitment to the betterment of society and the health and wellness of people and pets. All written content provided about these products are supplied by the brand in question, and not the opinion of our company directly, nor do we represent as such.. ...
so it must be an identical match for it to be included or excluded. At present there is no support for regular expressions.. This example excludes the log4j and commons-lang jar files from the assembly. This would be useful when you are building a super distribution assembly which contained sub distributions (i.e. other already assembled zips or tars) where in your pom you are depenedent upon those distributions. But because the distributions transitively depend upon the projects dependencies the assembly also includes the jar files (which are already in the assemblies and dont need to be duplicated). Your pom might include something like: ...
Überblick Eukaryonten haben im Vergleich zu Prokaryonten größere Genome. Um ihr Genom in einer Zelle zu speichern, müssen Eukaryonten ihre DNA...
Viruses are small infectious particles that cannot replicate on their own, but need to infect a cell in order to copy. Viral particles (called virions) consist of a protein envelope and a genetic material inside.
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Normal business at Nyandarua Land Registrars office in Nyahururu town was on Thursday paralyzed for some hours after irate residents stormed the office protesting poor service delivery. The residents who were. former Rurii Ward Member of County Assembly Wahome Kamoche Read on ...
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The winter session of the Odisha Legislative Assembly which begins from December 1 continuing till month end might experience uproarious scenes.
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Berkhout B, Mouland AJ, Musier-Forsyth K. Retroviral nucleocapsid protein and assembly. Foreword. Virus Res. 2014;193:1. ... Virus Res. 2014;193:24‐38. Dewan V, Reader J, Forsyth KM. Role of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in infectious diseases and targets ... Qualley DF, Cooper SE, Ross JL, Olson ED, Cantara WA, Musier-Forsyth K. Solution Conformation of Bovine Leukemia Virus Gag ... Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Gag domains have distinct RNA-binding specificities with implications for RNA packaging and ...
The virus is unusually hardy, and is immune to most common disinfectants. It is the first virus ever shown to be resistant to ... This assembly/maturation event stabilizes virions, and increases their specific infectivity. Virions can then be sloughed off ... an individual with plantar warts can spread the virus by walking barefoot. HPV is a small double-stranded circular DNA virus ... "Evidence of human papilloma virus infection but lack of Epstein-Barr virus in lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of uterine ...
Virus attachment and entry • Viral DNA injection through nuclear pore complex (NPC) into nucleus • Assembly of nucleocapsids ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". talk.ictvonline.org. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 9 May 2020. ... Gammaherpesvirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the order Herpesvirales and in the family Herpesviridae. Viruses in ... Viruses that establish lifelong latent infections must ensure that the viral genome is maintained within the latently infected ...
The virus exits the host cell by viral extrusion. Viral assembly occurs at the inner membrane (in case of Gram-negative ... species Escherichia virus If1 If1 phage genus Lineavirus species Salmonella virus IKe IKe phage genus Primolicivirus) species ... of ICTV's species Pseudomonas virus Pf1 of genus Primolicivirus), and perhaps also Pf3 (of ICTV's species Pseudomonas virus Pf3 ... During fd phage assembly, the phage DNA is first packaged into a linear intracellular nucleoprotein complex with many copies of ...
Saad, Jamil S.; Muriaux, Delphine M. (July 28, 2015). Role of Lipids in Virus Assembly. Frontiers Media SA. ISBN 9782889195824 ... The HIV virus can remain dormant in the human body for up to ten years after primary infection; during this period the virus ... Once integrated, the virus may become latent, allowing the virus and its host cell to avoid detection by the immune system, for ... Gag proteins bind to copies of the virus RNA genome to package them into new virus particles. HIV-1 and HIV-2 appear to package ...
Humans are the only natural host of the mumps virus, an RNA virus in the family Paramyxoviridae. The virus is primarily ... Najjar FE, Schmitt AP, Dutch RE (7 August 2014). "Paramyxovirus glycoprotein incorporation, assembly and budding: a three way ... Infection of the lymph nodes leads to presence of the virus in blood, which spreads the virus throughout the body. Mumps ... Asymptomatic carriers of the mump virus can also transmit the virus. These factors are thought to be reasons why controlling ...
"LaMalfa backs WN virus grant". Nl.newsbank.com. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved November 12, 2016. "CA ... "CA State Assembly 02- R Primary Race". Our Campaigns. March 5, 2002. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. Retrieved ... "CA State Assembly 02 Race". Our Campaigns. November 5, 2002. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. Retrieved April 13 ... "CA State Assembly 02 Race". Our Campaigns. November 2, 2004. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. Retrieved April 13 ...
"A Selection for Assembly Reveals That a Single Amino Acid Mutant of the Bacteriophage MS2 Coat Protein Forms a Smaller Virus- ... The most understood helical virus is the tobacco mosaic virus. The virus is a single molecule of (+) strand RNA. Each coat ... In other viruses, especially more complex viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes, the capsid proteins assemble into empty ... The size is also different; the tobacco mosaic virus has a 16.33 protein subunits per helical turn, while the influenza A virus ...
Key Structural Units for Virus Cell Entry and Virus Assembly". Viruses. 6 (4): 1801-1822. doi:10.3390/v6041801. ISSN 1999-4915 ... As the infection was first found in an apartment in Seoul, the virus was named "Seoul Virus".[citation needed] SEOV, along with ... tri-segmented RNA virus. Seoul virus is found in Rattus species rats, most commonly Rattus norvegicus, but occasionally Rattus ... As of 2015 the virus has been found in wild rats in the Netherlands, and in both rodents and humans in England, Wales, France, ...
Chazal, Nathalie; Gerlier, Denis (2003). "Virus Entry, Assembly, Budding, and Membrane Rafts". Microbiology and Molecular ... Human T-lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-1) enter cells via glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1). Ebola virus and Marburg virus use ... Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) require cholesterol and sphingolipids in target membrane lipid rafts for ... Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as a sexually-transmitted animal virus, must first penetrate a barrier of epithelial cells ...
Virus Receptors part 1 Bacterial Viruses. Chapman and Hall, London and New York. OCLC 8409813 The following have not yet been ... Bacteriophage Assembly: Proceedings of the Seventh Biennial Conference on Bacteriophage Assembly, Asilomar, California, ... The Viruses: Biochemical, Biological and Biophysical Properties: Plant and Bacterial Viruses. Academic Press, New York. OCLC ... German; Healthy through Viruses - A Way Out of the Antibiotic-Resistance Crisis] OCLC 53098607 O'Brien, P. M., and R. Aitken. ...
Her son Philip is treasurer of the CDU parliamentary group of the district assembly of Berlin's Pankow district. Virus der ... She was put on trial by the city district of Lichtenberg on the grounds of "attempted riotous assembly" and although given a ...
Morphogenesis Protein gp1 of Filamentous Phages Contains Walker A and Walker B Motifs Essential for Phage Assembly". Viruses. 9 ... Intermediate assemblies of p8 can be generated by treating the phage with chloroform. The helical content of p8 in these ... This retraction may involve depolymerization of the pilus subunit assembly into the cell membrane at the base of the pilus by a ... Longer (or shorter) DNA molecules can be packaged, since more (or fewer) p8 subunits can be added during assembly as required ...
Virion assembly and Release (Liberation Stage). It is the first step of viral replication. The virus attaches to the cell ... This class of viruses is also one of the most-studied types of viruses, alongside the double-stranded DNA viruses. The positive ... Most DNA viruses assemble in the nucleus while most RNA viruses develop solely in cytoplasm. Viruses multiply only in living ... proteins which make up the virus particle Nonstructural: proteins not found in the virus particle, mainly enzymes for virus ...
Kovur in Kovur mandal is represented by Kovur assembly constituency of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. The present MLA ... "Farmers incur losses as virus affecting shrimp production". The Hans India. Retrieved 30 June 2017. "Monthky Progress Report - ... The town is the headquarters of the Kovur Mandal and Assembly Constituency. It is located in Kovur mandal of Nellore revenue ... "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 23. Retrieved 11 ...
Arsalan Taj is currently a member of Provincial Assembly of Sindh. He is elected from the provincial constituency of PS 102 ( ... During Corona Virus Pandemic - Appeal and relief work • Relief work during Karachi rain disaster 1. MPA Arsalan Taj Ghumman ... He also contested in Elections 2013 for Provincial Assembly of Sindh seat PS-118 Karachi and secured approx 32,000 votes. He ... GE 2018 victory and in Assembly Arsalan Taj was the favourite candidate in General Elections 2018. Arsalan won the General ...
He died from the virus on 17 January. "Mr Marius Swart". People's Assembly. Retrieved 26 January 2021. Rabinowitz, Myron (16 ... Swart served as mayor until his election to the National Assembly at the 2004 general election. In November 2006, Swart called ... when he was elected to the National Assembly. After serving two terms in parliament, Swart retired from politics in 2014. Swart ...
These proteins play a major role in assembly and budding of VSIV virions. Their main role is to aid virus assembly. They starts ... Enveloped viruses acquire their membrane by budding at a membrane of their host cell. The structure of these matrix proteins ... The matrix (M) protein of the virus causes many of the cytopathic effects of VSV, including an inhibition of host gene ... Kopecky SA, Lyles DS (May 2003). "The cell-rounding activity of the vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein is due to the ...
... proteins to the apical membranes and interaction of matrix protein with glycoproteins in the assembly of influenza viruses". ... Release of viruses could be done by two different mechanisms depending on the type of virus. Lytic viruses burst the cell's ... First, the virus has to enter the body and implant itself into a tissue ( e.g. respiratory tissue). Second, the virus has to ... Viruses rely on their host to replicate and multiply. This is because viruses are unable to go through cell division, as they ...
VP1 is capable of self-assembly into virus-like particles even in the absence of other viral components. This process requires ... Almendral, JM (2013). "Assembly of simple icosahedral viruses". Subcellular Biochemistry. 68: 307-28. doi:10.1007/978-94-007- ... Although viruses in circulation among feral mice can be tumorigenic, under natural conditions the virus does not cause tumors; ... and in older literature as SE polyoma or parotid tumor virus; abbreviated MPyV) is an unenveloped double-stranded DNA virus of ...
"Assembly of Simple Icosahedral Viruses". In Mateu, Mauricio G. (ed.). Structure and physics of viruses an integrated textbook. ... VP1 is capable of self-assembly into virus-like particles even in the absence of other viral components. This process requires ... The exact mechanism of endocytosis varies depending on the virus, and some viruses use multiple mechanisms; caveolae-dependent ... In some cases additional factors are necessary conditions for viral entry; for example, JC virus requires the 5HT2A serotonin ...
"Assembly of viroplasm and virus-like particles of rotavirus by a Semliki Forest virus replicon". Virology. 242 (2): 255-65. doi ... Viroplasms have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ... May 1993). "Assembly of vaccinia virus: role of the intermediate compartment between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi ... The number and the size of viroplasms depend on the virus, the virus isolate, hosts species, and the stage of the infection. ...
A late protein is a viral protein that is formed after replication of the virus. One example is VP4 from simian virus 40 (SV40 ... L1 forms a pentameric assembly unit of the viral shell in a manner that closely resembles VP1 from polyomaviruses. ... Early protein "DNA Virus Replication". Daniels R, Sadowicz D, Hebert DN (July 2007). "A very late viral protein triggers the ... "Organization of the major and minor capsid proteins in human papillomavirus type 33 virus-like particles". J. Gen. Virol. 76 (9 ...
... virus templated assemblies and DNA origami have also been employed for light harvesting applications. Reversible molecular ... "Virus-Templated Assembly of Porphyrins into Light-Harvesting Nanoantennae". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 132 (5): ... "Wide-Range Light-Harvesting Donor-Acceptor Assemblies through Specific Intergelator Interactions via Self-Assembly". Chemistry ... Peptide self-assemblies and polypeptides modified with porphyrins have also been designed to have the dual function of charge ...
Production and assembly of stable proheads is an essential precursor to bacteriophage genome packaging; this packaging activity ... Catalano, C. E.; Cue, D.; Feiss, M. (1995). "Virus DNA packaging: the strategy used by phage λ". Molecular Microbiology. 16 (6 ... A prohead or procapsid is an immature viral capsid structure formed in the early stages of self-assembly of some bacteriophages ... doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.1995.tb02333.x. Murialdo, H.; Becker, A. (1977). "Assembly of Biologically Active Proheads of ...
"Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". talk.ictvonline.org. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 3 May 2020. ... Xu J, Hendrix RW, Duda RL (2004). "Conserved translational frameshift in dsDNA bacteriophage tail assembly genes". Mol. Cell. ... Maniloff, J.; Ackermann, H.W. (1998). "Taxonomy of bacterial viruses: establishment of tailed virus genera and the other ... This makes Caudovirales the most populous order among viruses, accounting for approximately 30% of all recognized virus species ...
... such as in mumps virus and human parainfluenza virus. The enzyme helps viruses to be released after budding from the plasma ... Virion Assembly and Movement". Frontiers in Immunology. 9: 1581. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.01581. ISSN 1664-3224. PMC 6062596. ... Viral neuraminidase is a type of neuraminidase found on the surface of influenza viruses that enables the virus to be released ... This promotes the release of progeny viruses and the spread of the virus from the host cell to uninfected surrounding cells. ...
The alliance is the opposition in the Assembly. Key INC IUML KC(J) Out of the 20 Lok Sabha (House of the People) constituencies ... "A virus, social democracy, and dividends for Kerala". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 February 2021. "India's election results were more ... In the last elections conducted to the state legislature in 2016, UDF managed to win 47 out of 140 seats to the assembly, and ... In 2019 Indian general election, UDF won 19 out of 20 seats in the state.In 2021 Kerala Legislative Assembly election, UDF won ...
1990). "Myristoylation of gag proteins of HIV-1 plays an important role in virus assembly". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 6 (6 ... Bryant M, Ratner L (1990). "Myristoylation-dependent replication and assembly of human immunodeficiency virus 1". Proc. Natl. ... Lee PP, Linial ML (1994). "Efficient particle formation can occur if the matrix domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... Tashiro A, Shoji S, Kubota Y (1990). "Antimyristoylation of the gag proteins in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells ...
1990). "Myristoylation of gag proteins of HIV-1 plays an important role in virus assembly". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 6 (6 ... Bryant M, Ratner L (1990). "Myristoylation-dependent replication and assembly of human immunodeficiency virus 1". Proc. Natl. ... Lee PP, Linial ML (1994). "Efficient particle formation can occur if the matrix domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... Tashiro A, Shoji S, Kubota Y (1990). "Antimyristoylation of the gag proteins in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells ...
... but empirical evidence shows that many published webs have nested subwebs in their assembly.[80] ... and from viruses and bdellovibrio to blue whales. ...
Howlett, G.J., Minton, A.P., Rivas, G. Analytical Ultracentrifugation for the Study of Protein Association and Assembly. ... He discovered this when working with potato yellow-dwarf virus.[7]. This method was also used in Meselson and Stahl's famous ... and viruses. Ultracentrifuges can also be used in the study of membrane fractionation. This occurs because ultracentrifuges can ...
The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... "Membrane binding and bending in Ebola VP40 assembly and egress". Front Microbiol. 5: 300. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00300. PMC ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
They are labelled "Type I" if the defective gene is for an enzyme involved in the assembly or transfer of the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2- ... Duvet S, Op De Beeck A, Cocquerel L, Wychowski C, Cacan R, Dubuisson J (February 2002). "Glycosylation of the hepatitis C virus ...
very-low-density lipoprotein particle assembly. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle clearance. ... "Large-scale candidate gene analysis of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus". J. Infect. Dis. 201 (9): 1371-80. doi ...
Chan declared at the assembly that intellectual property, or patents on strains of new virus, should not impede nations from ... The Assembly is governed by Rules of Procedure of the World Health Assembly;[4] agenda items are set by the General Committee ... The World Health Assembly meets in the assembly hall of the Palace of Nations, in Geneva (Switzerland). ... Annual AssembliesEdit. 2008: Sixty-first WHAEdit. The focus of the 61st WHA was public health. Participants from 190 countries ...
"Shotgun Sequence Assembly" (PDF). Advances in Computers 60. ISSN 0065-2458, Págs.193-248. Arquivado dende o orixinal (PDF) o ... "Biochemical Method for Inserting New Genetic Information into DNA of Simian Virus 40: Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing ... "Whole-genome random sequencing and assembly of Haemophilus influenzae Rd.". Science 269 (5223).. ...
"Virus slowing pace of companies' move to Vietnam - Taipei Times". www.taipeitimes.com. 6 May 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2021.. ... Inside of Đình Minh Hương Gia Thạnh (明鄕嘉盛會館, "Ming Ancestry Assembly Hall"), a temple established in 1789 by Hoa people ... For non-business purposes, the bang also serve as assembly halls for the Hoa community where they hold cultural activities ... Wealthy Hoa families are often philanthropic patrons of these assembly halls who donate charitable financial contributions to ...
1999). "Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States". Science. ... and community assembly". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101 (30): 10854-10861. Bibcode:2004PNAS..10110854T. ... A recent example of an introduced disease is the spread of the West Nile virus, which killed humans, birds, mammals, and ...
The study used a common cold virus to deliver a normal version of the gene called RPE65 directly into the eyes of affected ... "IBSA General Assembly Elects New Leadership". The Paralympian. International Paralympic Committee. April 2001. Archived from ...
Huc venite iuvenes ut exeatis viri. Γνώσεσθε τὴν αλήθειαν. Gnôsesthe tên Alêtheian. ... the college survived with sufficient viability to be granted a charter by the Virginia General Assembly in 1783-the oldest ...
... deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, Drosophila C virus, Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and Himetobi P virus. Several ... Assembly and organization of the picornavirus VPg ribonucleoprotein complex. Step 1: Two 3CD (VPg complex) molecules bind to ... This family includes Infectious flacherie virus and SeIV-1 virus. Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. ... Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Equine rhinitis A virus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Genus: Aquamavirus ...
Assembly Speaker pro Tem Sally Lieber (Mountain View); and Assembly members Mike Davis (Los Angeles), Merv Dymally (Los Angeles ... Bird Flu: A Virus of Our Own Hatching - health implications of factory farming ... "Assembly Bill No. 732; An act to add Section 599h to the Penal Code, relating to crime". California Office of Legislative ... Assembly, Regular Session).[4]. *On May 14, 2008, Colorado Governor Bill Ritter signed into law a bill, SB 201, that phases out ...
It is likely that the refugees and ships carried the yellow fever virus and mosquitoes. The virus is transmitted by mosquito ... In 1793, the Federal Congress was not scheduled to resume session until November, but the Pennsylvania Assembly met in the ... After an extensive debate in the newspapers, the State Assembly denied the petition.[78] ...
... can be infected by double-stranded DNA viruses that are unrelated to any other form of virus and have a variety of ... with similar protein assemblies (the general transcription factors) directing the binding of the RNA polymerase to a gene's ... the latter virus has the largest currently reported ssDNA genome. Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA interference ... One group is exemplified by the Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 ("Pleolipoviridae") infecting halophilic archaea[137] and the ...
MicroRNAs also play a role in replicating viruses such as HIV-1.[44] Novel HIV-1-encoded microRNA have been found to enhance ... This completes the assembly of the preinitiation complex for eukaryotic transcription.[3] Generally, the TATA box is found at ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription.[6] ... "Structure of promoter-bound TFIID and model of human pre-initiation complex assembly". Nature. 531 (7596): 604-9. doi:10.1038/ ...
These viruses infect fish and other aquatic animals. The reconstruction has high enough resolution to have amino acid side ... EM Data Bank (EM Data Bank) Frank, Joachim (2006). Three-dimensional electron microscopy of macromolecular assemblies: ... Methods are also available for making 3D reconstructions of helical samples (such as tobacco mosaic virus), taking advantage of ... "3.3 A cryo-EM structure of a nonenveloped virus reveals a priming mechanism for cell entry". Cell. 141 (3): 472-82. doi:10.1016 ...
Genome assembly and validation; mathematical modeling and algorithm development; population genetics; applied statistical and ... Upon taking charge in 1968, he focused the Laboratory on cancer research, creating a tumor virus group and successfully ... Louis, sought to discover the nature of genes through study of viruses called bacteriophages that infect bacteria. ... "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses."[31] ...
... herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly ... assembly and budding - asymptomatic - ataxia - attenuated - autoantibody - autoimmunization - autoinoculation - autologous - ... human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV- ... human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - ...
ribosome assembly. • intracellular protein transport. • reparo de ADN. • transdução de sinal. • negative regulation of cell ... 1991). «Specific complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 rev and nucleolar B23 proteins: dissociation by the Rev ... nucleosome assembly. • viral process. • DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle ... CENP-A containing nucleosome assembly. • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell aging. • positive ...
A typical application of GISAS is the characterisation of self-assembly and self-organization on the nanoscale in thin films. ... Future challenges of GISAS may lie in biological applications, such as proteins, peptides, or viruses attached to surfaces or ... Aaron E. Saunders, Ali Ghezelbash, Detlef-M. Smilgies, Michael B. Sigman Jr., and Brian A. Korgel: "Columnar Self-Assembly of ... "Evaporation-Controlled Self-Assembly of Silica Surfactant Mesophases", J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 6114-6118 (2003). ...
In segmented RNA viruses, "mating" can occur when a host cell is infected by at least two virus particles. If these viruses ... Carole Anastasi, Michael A. Crowe, Matthew W. Powner, John D. Sutherland "Direct Assembly of Nucleoside Precursors from Two- ... Some of the viruses evolved into DNA viruses to protect their genes from attack. Through the process of viral infection into ... Patrick Forterre has been working on a novel hypothesis, called "three viruses, three domains":[83] that viruses were ...
micrographs of clathrin assembly. *^ McMahon HT. "Epsin 1 EM gallery". MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology,. Archived from the ... The endocytic pathway can be hijacked by viruses and other pathogens in order to gain entry to the cell during infection.[2] ... Model of Clathrin assembly). *. Pérez-Gómez J, Moore I (March 2007). "Plant endocytosis: it is clathrin after all". Current ... Another common assembly is a truncated icosahedron. To enclose a vesicle, exactly 12 pentagons must be present in the lattice. ...
AssemblyEdit. The assembly of the proteasome is a complex process due to the number of subunits that must associate to form an ... certain Epstein-Barr virus gene products bearing this sequence can stall the proteasome, helping the virus propagate by ... The assembly of α subunits has not been characterized.[44]. Only recently, the assembly process of the 19S regulatory particle ... Assembly of the base complex is facilitated by four assembly chaperones, Hsm3/S5b, Nas2/p27, Rpn14/PAAF1, and Nas6/gankyrin ( ...
10-fold increase in tuberculosis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, 20-fold increase in chlamydia, 40-fold increase in ... Of these, 22 have been in the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly. The Northern Territory has an exceptionally high ... Carol Martin was the first Aboriginal woman elected to an Australian parliament (the Western Australian Legislative Assembly) ... Party achieved in remote Territory electorates and a total of five Aboriginal CLP candidates won election to the Assembly ( ...
response to virus. • positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation. • negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in ... positive regulation of protein complex assembly. • protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cytokine production. • ... death-inducing signaling complex assembly. • regulation of osteoclast differentiation. • defense response to bacterium. • ... positive regulation of podosome assembly. • regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process. • positive regulation of ...
Assembly of viral particles takes place spontaneously. Over 50% of known plant viruses are rod-shaped (flexuous or rigid). The ... Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that ... The first virus to be discovered (see below) was Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). This and other viruses cause an estimated US$60 ... Generally TMV, potato viruses and cucumber mosaic viruses are transmitted via sap. Plant viruses need to be transmitted by a ...
Early in 2010, scientists solved the crystal structure of IN from prototype foamy virus (PFV) assembled on viral DNA ends. In ... Hare S, Gupta SS, Valkov E, Engelman A, Cherepanov P (March 2010). "Retroviral intasome assembly and inhibition of DNA strand ... The crystal structure of human foamy virus integrase has been examined successfully. This protein may use the morpheein model ... and Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV) have been reported, with the first structures determined in 1994. Biochemical data and structural ...
... has become a classical object for studies on the structure and assembly of viruses. Shortly after the first purification of ... Assembly of rod-shaped virus in vitro: Reconstitution with cucumber green mottle mosaic virus protein and tobacco mosaic virus ... Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has become a classical object for studies on the structure and assembly of viruses. Shortly after ... Butler, P. J. G., Finch, J. T., and Zimmern, D., 1977, Configuration of tobacco mosaic virus RNA during virus assembly, Nature ...
There are now three examples of viruses using RNA PS-mediated virus assembly where we have structural information that ... Rewriting the assembly manual for a ssRNA virus. Nikesh Patel, Emma Wroblewski, German Leonov, Simon E. V. Phillips, Roman Tuma ... Rewriting the assembly manual for a ssRNA virus. Nikesh Patel, Emma Wroblewski, German Leonov, Simon E. V. Phillips, Roman Tuma ... Rewriting natures assembly manual for a ssRNA virus. View ORCID ProfileNikesh Patel, Emma Wroblewski, German Leonov, Simon E. ...
A coronavirus outbreak in the California Legislature has indefinitely delayed the state Assemblys return to work from a ... California Assembly delays session after virus outbreak. By Adam Beam and Don Thompson. ... They include Assemblywoman Autumn Burke, who is believed to have contracted the virus while on the Assembly floor last month. ... Rendon said Monday the Assembly will stay in recess until further notice. He said the decision is to protect lawmakers, staff ...
... Navodit Misra,1 Daniel Lees,2 Tiequan Zhang,3 and Russell Schwartz3 ... Here, we examine that question with respect to viral capsid assembly by studying the pathway complexity of model capsid ... models to adequately explain capsid assembly kinetics varies considerably across the space of biologically meaningful assembly ... assembly systems, which we informally define as the number of reaction pathways and intermediates one must consider to ...
The new images will help with a greater understanding of measles and related viruses, and could give hints on antiviral drug ... Researchers have been able to capture images of measles viruses as they emerge from infected cells, using state of the art cryo ... strategies likely to work across multiple viruses of this type. ... Brick by brick: Assembly of the measles virus. Emory Health ... But this is tricky for measles virus and other enveloped viruses such as RSV. Ke likens purified virus to a bucket of water ...
... including the source of the virus and how it was transmitted to humans. ... The World Health Assembly (WHA) has passed a motion to conduct an independent review of the global coronavirus response, ... Coronavirus: World Health Assembly passes motion for independent virus inquiry. The World Health Assembly has voted to conduct ... "There is also a clear mandate to identify the source of the COVID-19 virus and how it was transmitted to humans, which will be ...
Properties and functions of the nucleocapsid protein in virus assembly.. Muriaux D1, Darlix JL. ... notably RNA dimerization in the course of virus assembly and viral nucleic acid annealing required for genomic RNA replication ... The NC domain is a key factor for the early assembly complex formation by Gag multimerization on the gRNA. NC and p6 interact ... basic protein generated by the cleavage of the Gag structural polyprotein precusor by the viral protease during virus assembly ...
Importantly, we demonstrated that the interaction between VP24 and NP was required for both nucleocapsid assembly and genome ... Ebola virus causes devastating hemorrhagic fever outbreaks for which no approved therapeutic exists. The viral nucleocapsid, ... Knockdown of Ebola virus VP24 impairs viral nucleocapsid assembly and prevents virus replication. J Infect Dis 204(Suppl 3), ... Ebola virus VP24 interacts with NP to facilitate nucleocapsid assembly and genome packaging. *Logan Banadyga1. , ...
"It is likely that the virus template assembly has enabled the researchers to establish a better contact between the TiO2 ... But the MIT team has managed to rope in viruses to do some of the dirty work. Theyve found that a genetically engineered ... This dramatic improvement takes place even though the viruses and the nanotubes make up only 0.1 percent by weight of the ... If the addition of carbon nanotubes via the virus process can improve their efficiency, the industry is likely to adopt such ...
Ebola and Dengue viruses are able to recognize specific lipids in membrane during assembly and egress. Virus assembly and ... assembly and egress. Growing evidence indicate important roles for lipids and lipid nanodomains in virus assembly. The proposed ... Membrane selection appears to be critical for productive virus production. Gaps in understanding of retroviral assembly still ... topic will cover key aspects of virus-membrane interactions during assembly and egress. A significant part of this special ...
A coronavirus outbreak in the California Legislature has indefinitely delayed the state Assemblys return to work from a ... The Assembly was scheduled to return to work on July 13. "The Assembly will remain in recess until further notice," Rendon said ... 202.1 billion budget.The Assembly was scheduled to return to work on July 13. "The Assembly will remain in recess until further ... Burke said both she and the person who exposed her to the virus were wearing masks."Currently, my daughter and I have no ...
Rubella virus capsid protein structure and its role in virus assembly and infection. Vidya Mangala Prasad, Steven D. Willows, ... Rubella virus capsid protein structure and its role in virus assembly and infection ... The capsid protein structure has also helped to identify amino acid residues that are required for virus assembly. This ... The RV capsid protein is an essential component of the virus and a key factor for successful replication of the virus in host ...
In this review, we discuss FV assembly, with special emphasis on Pol incorporation. FV assembly takes place intracellularly, ... We detail how WT Pol lacking Gag sequences is incorporated into virus particles. In addition, a mutant in which Pol is ... The regions of Gag, Pol and genomic RNA required for viral assembly are described. In contrast to orthoretroviral Pol, which is ... Foamy viruses (FVs) differ from all other genera of retroviruses (orthoretroviruses) in many aspects of viral replication. ...
The new images will help with a greater understanding of measles and related viruses, and could give hints on antiviral drug ... Emory Health Sciences) Researchers have been able to capture images of measles viruses as they emerge from infected cells, ... strategies likely to work across multiple viruses of this type.... ... The new images will help with a greater understanding of measles and related viruses, and could give hints on antiviral drug ...
Self-Assembly of Measles Virus Nucleocapsid-like Particles: Kinetics and RNA Sequence Dependence.. Milles S1, Jensen MR1, ... Assembly of NCLPs is observed for a) 5′‐RNA6, b) polyA‐RNA6, while no assembly is observed for c) polyU‐RNA6 (See Figure S11 ... Self‐Assembly of Measles Virus Nucleocapsid‐like Particles: Kinetics and RNA Sequence Dependence ... Self‐Assembly of Measles Virus Nucleocapsid‐like Particles: Kinetics and RNA Sequence Dependence ...
Articles on viral structure, function, and genetics will be considered, as well as articles focusing on virus-host interactions ... and clinical studies on viruses and viral diseases. ... The ΔF virus utilizes the baculovirus GP64 protein for viral ... Requirements for Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Glycoproteins in Assembly and Egress from Infected Cells. Melissa Batonick ... All cell types tested were infected with the ΔSH virus. HEp2 cells were only minimally infected by the ΔF virus, while A549 ...
Recent studies have indicated that the E protein has functions during infection beyond assembly, including in virus egress and ... The coronavirus E protein is a small membrane protein that has an important role in the assembly of virions. ... Viruses 2012, 4, 363-382. AMA Style. Ruch TR, Machamer CE. The Coronavirus E Protein: Assembly and Beyond. Viruses. 2012; 4(3): ... Recent studies have indicated that the E protein has functions during infection beyond assembly, including in virus egress and ...
Sydney Brenner talks about analysing and assembling viruses ... of virus assembly. And the whole idea that this is made by a ... So you could work what was an early… early step... what was a late step in assembly; did assembly branch into two parts which ... I mean, thats self-assembly with a vengeance. And you could go and order all these extracts by just mixing them in the right ... You could see that with the… with the mutants that affected the assembly of a phage, and amber mutants were studied extensively ...
World Health Assembly Topic: Pandemic Flu Financing, Virus Sharing, Extension. 17/05/2017. by Catherine Saez, Intellectual ... "World Health Assembly Topic: Pandemic Flu Financing, Virus Sharing, Extension" by Intellectual Property Watch is licensed under ... Flu viruses are shared through the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS), which is a network of national ... One of the questions that is expected to be discussed at the World Health Assembly next week is how to deal with the sharing of ...
... virion assembly at the membrane and the recruitment of cellular proteins involved in HIV-1 release to the nascent budding site. ... quantitative live-cell imaging has increasingly been used to study the dynamic interactions of viruses with cells and is ... been used to label HIV-1 for live cell imaging and the fluorescence based methods used to visualize individual aspects of virus ... Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert ...
We examined in vitro assembly of purified E. coli expressed HBV capsid protein. After equilibrati … ... is an enveloped DNA virus with a spherical capsid (or core). The capsid is constructed from 120 copies of the homodimeric ... Weak Protein-Protein Interactions Are Sufficient to Drive Assembly of Hepatitis B Virus Capsids Biochemistry. 2002 Oct 1;41(39 ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped DNA virus with a spherical capsid (or core). The capsid is constructed from 120 copies ...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces formation of stress granules whose proteins regulate HCV RNA replication and virus assembly and ... resulting in impairment of SG assembly [30] and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) blocks Ars-mediated SG assembly [42]. TIA1 ... African swine fever virus [49], Newcastle disease virus [50], papillomavirus [51] and herpes simplex virus [52]. ICP34.5 is a ... In this process, viruses trigger the host cell stress response, which can lead to the assembly of SGs [17]. Since viral ...
How are the virus genomes, which carry information for making the next generation of viruses, organized inside viruses? Guided ... VIRUS ASSEMBLY AND GENOME TRANSLOCATION: ORGANIZING PRINCIPLES FROM POLYMER PHYSICS. Add to your list(s) Download to your ... University of Cambridge , Talks.cam , BSS Formal Seminars , VIRUS ASSEMBLY AND GENOME TRANSLOCATION: ORGANIZING PRINCIPLES FROM ... we show that fundamental principles from polyelectrolyte physics underlie virus assembly. Electrical charge balance between the ...
Subcellular compartmentalization of adeno-associated virus type 2 assembly.. A Wistuba, A Kern, S Weger, D Grimm, J A ... Subcellular compartmentalization of adeno-associated virus type 2 assembly.. A Wistuba, A Kern, S Weger, D Grimm, J A ... Subcellular compartmentalization of adeno-associated virus type 2 assembly.. A Wistuba, A Kern, S Weger, D Grimm, J A ... Subcellular compartmentalization of adeno-associated virus type 2 assembly. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an enveloped virus that assembles into filamentous virus particles on the surface of ... Our data indicate that RSV exploits caveolae for its assembly, and we propose that the incorporation of caveolae into the virus ... Caveolae provide a specialized membrane environment for respiratory syncytial virus assembly Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Caveolae provide a specialized membrane environment for respiratory syncytial virus assembly. Alexander Ludwig, Tra Huong ...
... dc.contributor.author. Zheng, Wenj. Tao, Yizhi Jane ... "Structure and assembly of the influenza A virus ribonucleoprotein complex." FEBS Letters, 587, no. 8 (2013) Elsevier: 1206-1214 ... Influenza A virus RNPs play important roles during virus infection by directing viral RNA replication and transcription, ... The genome of influenza A viruses consists of eight segments of single-stranded, negative-sense RNA that are encapsidated as ...
... as the virus replicates and takes its first step toward virus formation and budding. ... Researchers used NMR to detail how the matrix domain of the Avian Sarcoma Virus Gag protein binds to certain phospholipids. ... Uncovering a key mechanism in assembly of Avian Sarcoma Virus, a 100-year-old oncogenic virus often used to study HIV-1. ... "Structural basis for targeting avian sarcoma virus Gag polyprotein to the plasma membrane for virus assembly," are Jiri Vlach, ...
Genome-wide engineering of an infectious clone of herpes simplex virus type 1 using synthetic genomics assembly methods. ... Genome-wide Engineering of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Using Synthetic Genomics Assembly Methods. ... Genome-wide Engineering of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Using Synthetic Genomics Assembly Methods. ... We used synthetic biology methods to first build an infectious clone of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome using ...
... has solved the assembly dynamics of a plant virus which has a 20-faced or icosahedral shell. ... For a complete virus, however, the genome acts as an assembly medium and captures in less than a second a large number of sub- ... The virus was reconstituted from purified protein and genomic RNA sub-units, and its self-assembly was monitored by an X-ray ... Homepage , News , 2018 News , A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of assembly of some viruses ...
Normally, assembly resolutions are adopted by majority votes or by consensus.. General Assembly spokeswoman Reem Abaza ... The General Assembly previously approved two resolutions on COVID-19, but the more powerful Security Council has not taken any ... The civil protection agency reported 437 people had died with the virus in the last 25 hours, a 1.7% increase in the death toll ... Anastasiades says the death rate among those infected with the virus stands at almost 2% thanks to a health system that met the ...
  • In contrast, when a synthetic 127-nt fragment encompassing improved PSs is swapped onto the RNA otherwise lacking CP recognition motifs, assembly is partially restored, although the virus-like particles created are incomplete, implying that PSs outside this region are required for correct assembly. (pnas.org)
  • These data confirm details of the PS-mediated assembly mechanism for STNV and identify an efficient approach for production of stable virus-like particles encapsidating nonnative RNAs or other cargoes. (pnas.org)
  • We would never see this level of detail with purified virus, because the process of purification disrupts and damages the delicate virus particles," she says. (eurekalert.org)
  • The arrays had not been seen in measles virus-infected cells or individual measles virus particles before, Wright says. (eurekalert.org)
  • We detail how WT Pol lacking Gag sequences is incorporated into virus particles. (mdpi.com)
  • Self-Assembly of Measles Virus Nucleocapsid-like Particles: Kinetics and RNA Sequence Dependence. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we demonstrate self-organization of N into NC-like particles in vitro upon addition of RNA, providing a simple and versatile tool for investigating assembly. (nih.gov)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an enveloped virus that assembles into filamentous virus particles on the surface of infected cells. (biologists.org)
  • Influenza A virus RNPs play important roles during virus infection by directing viral RNA replication and transcription, intracellular transport of the viral RNA, gene reassortment as well as viral genome packaging into progeny particles. (rice.edu)
  • The antigenicity of these particles was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of paired serum samples from volunteers who developed illness following Norwalk virus challenge. (asm.org)
  • These particles also induced high levels of Norwalk virus-specific serum antibody in laboratory animals following parenteral inoculation. (asm.org)
  • The availability of large amounts of recombinant Norwalk virus particles will allow the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable tests for the diagnosis of Norwalk virus infection as well as the implementation of structural studies. (asm.org)
  • Retroviral genomic RNAs contain a 'packaging signal' ('Ψ') and are packaged in virus particles with very high selectivity. (elifesciences.org)
  • Pseudovirus particles can be assembled mono- or bi-directionally in vitro using virus-derived CP and chimeric ssRNAs containing the cognate TMV OAS, but otherwise of unlimited length and sequence. (springer.com)
  • Studies on plant virus assembly in vivo would be facilitated by a model system amenable to site-directed mutagenesis and rapid recovery of progeny particles. (springer.com)
  • Sleat DE, Turner PC, Finch JT, Butler PJG, Wilson TMA (1986) Packaging of recombinant RNA molecules into pseudovirus particles directed by the origin-of- assembly sequence from tobacco mosaic virus RNA. (springer.com)
  • Tandem fusion of hepatitis B core antigen allows assembly of virus-like particles in bacteria and plants with enhanced capacity to accommodate foreign proteins. (jic.ac.uk)
  • The core protein of the hepatitis B virus, HBcAg, assembles into highly immunogenic virus-like particles (HBc VLPs) when expressed in a variety of heterologous systems. (jic.ac.uk)
  • The idea is to modify virus capsids, so call virus like particles (VLP), in such way that they stimulate the immune response against the targeted disease. (ccl.net)
  • To be able to multiply, the influenza virus needs to enter the cells of its host and trick them into copying the virus' genetic information and assembling new virus particles. (elifesciences.org)
  • The genetic information of the virus is stored in molecules of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and encodes several viral proteins that are involved in making the new virus particles. (elifesciences.org)
  • The viral polymerase copies the RNA and then the nucleoprotein binds to the new RNA to protect it until it is packaged into new virus particles. (elifesciences.org)
  • studied the role of the protein kinase C family in making new virus particles. (elifesciences.org)
  • This regulates the assembly of the nucleoproteins into long chains on the RNA, and ultimately promotes the production of new virus particles. (elifesciences.org)
  • Influenza virus infections initiate with a burst of gene expression from pre-formed RNPs deposited by the incoming viral particles. (elifesciences.org)
  • The recombinant Cap protein has the ability to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro , it is particularly opportunity to develop the PV2 VLPs vaccine in Escherichia coli ,( E.coli ), because where the cost of the vaccine must be weighed against the value of the vaccinated pig, when it was to extend use the VLPs vaccine of PCV2. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A bottleneck exists in the production process which is hypothesized to be the result of virus particles being directed towards both cell-cell and cell-substrate (adherent surface) junctions. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The overarching goal of this work was to determine if some mature virus particles localize and egress at substrate surface junctions, becoming inaccessible to traditional extraction methods. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Mature virus particles were of particular interest and the co-localization of two essential proteins was used to determine their location. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Recently, it has been shown that HCV core proteins (HCcAg) with C-terminal deletions assemble in vitro into virus-like particles (VLPs) in the presence of structured RNA molecules. (thescipub.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein, expressed with a Semliki Forest virus replicon, self-assembles into HCV-like particles (HCV-LP) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, providing an opportunity to study HCV assembly and morphogenesis by electron microscopy. (inserm.fr)
  • Whole-cell tomography of virus-infected cells is possible and provides a much more native environment to study virus assembly as well as the authentic architecture of viral particles. (gatech.edu)
  • The three-dimensional (3D) arrangement of the MeV structural proteins including the surface glycoproteins (F and H), matrix protein (M), and the ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) were characterized at stages of virus assembly and budding, and in released virus particles. (gatech.edu)
  • Our results indicate that genome-resolved metagenomics is a valid approach for the recovery of near-complete giant virus genomes given that sufficient clonal particles are present. (asm.org)
  • Current models of retroviral particle assembly describe the recruitment of the host vacuolar protein sorting machinery to the cell surface to induce the budding of new particles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The polyprotein Gag is sufficient for driving virus particle production by promoting assembly of immature capsid to the cellular membrane, budding, and release of the virus particles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These observations support the hypothesis that the virus hijacks the MVB production system to direct the budding and the release of virus particles [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this latter, the fusion of the endosomes with the plasma membrane leads to virus particles release in the extracellular space [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The absence of VLPs in lysosomal degradative compartments and the detection of intracellular infectious activity suggested that these intracellular virus particles could participate in the MLV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Assembly of recombinant capsid proteins into virus-like particles (VLPs) still represents an interesting challenge in virus-based nanotechnologies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These structures, also called virus-like particles (VLPs), apart from bearing self-assembly properties, feature highly ordered structure and surface repetitiveness, making them good candidates for the development of vaccines and epitope presenting platforms [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We previously attempted to explore the potential of Tobacco etch virus (TEV) particles as an adjuvant and our findings suggested that TEV induce both humoral and cellular response without the need of any other stimulus [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together, our data showed that the charge neutralization is the major factor for the nucleocapsid-like particles assembly from C-terminal truncated HCV core protein. (peerj.com)
  • The objective of the proposed research is to elucidate the role of RNA in the formation of virus particles. (ucr.edu)
  • The PI proposes to explore the impact of RNA on the assembly of virus particles focusing on its branching structure and configurations inside capsids. (ucr.edu)
  • In particular, this research could contribute to alternative antiviral strategies based on direct interference with the assembly of infectious viral particles. (ucr.edu)
  • In particular, this research could result in alternative antiviral strategies based on direct interference with the assembly of infectious viral particles. (ucr.edu)
  • 1989 "The gag precursor of simian immunodeficiency virus assembles into virus-like particles. (lens.org)
  • 1992 "Association of ebola-related reston virus particles and antigen with tissue lesions of monkeys imported to the United States. (lens.org)
  • 1989 "Assembly and release of HIV-1 precursor Pr55 gag virus-like particles from recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. (lens.org)
  • The mechanism of the flavonoid 2 block to virus entry was demonstrated to be by both the direct action on virus particles and the interference on the host cells. (nature.com)
  • Small viruses that produce uniform particles can be crystallized. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Here, we review current knowledge and recent advances with regard to the HEV life cycle, with a particular focus on the assembly and release of viral particles. (uab.edu)
  • Translation of correctly processed structural proteins leads to assembly of subviral structures resembling 'empty' particles. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We show that the proteolytic processing of the P1 polyprotein is strictly dependent upon the coexpression of the NS polyprotein, and that NS/P1 coexpression leads to the assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) exhibiting a morphology and a protein composition akin to natural TrV empty capsids. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Capsid protein identification and analysis of mature Triatoma virus (TrV) virions and naturally occurring empty particles. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of triatoma virus particles: a clue to unravel genome delivery and capsid disassembly. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Assembly of virus particles requires the concerted action of viral and host cell proteins as well as distinct lipids. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • We have earlier shown that HCV assembly is tightly linked to lipid droplets and proposed several mechanisms how infectious virus particles might form (reviewed in Bartenschlager et al. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Building on these results we now want to determine how the different steps of the assembly process are coordinated, which cellular proteins are required for that and how virus particles are released from the cell. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • These samples would be pooled and processed by using available technology to isolate virus particles en masse, recover viral nucleic acids, produce amplified shotgun libraries, carry out shotgun sequencing of the mixture of viral genomes, and reconstruct these genomes in silico with the techniques originally developed to sequence the entire human genome from random fragments. (cdc.gov)
  • Recombinant SeMV CP (rCP) as well as the N-terminal rCP deletion mutant Delta N22 were found to assemble in E. coli into virus-like particles (VLPs). (iisc.ac.in)
  • Butler, P. J. G., 1972, Structures and roles of the polymorphic forms of tobacco mosaic virus protein. (springer.com)
  • Butler, P. J. G., 1974a, Structures and roles of the polymorphic forms of tobacco mosaic virus protein. (springer.com)
  • Butler, P. J. G., and Klug, A., 1971, Assembly of the particle of tobacco mosaic virus from RNA and disks of protein, Nature New Biol . (springer.com)
  • Viruses have a protein shell called a 'capsid' that protects the genetic material that viruses use to reproduce, and to infect host cells. (learner.org)
  • Its genome encodes only its coat protein (CP) subunit, relying on the polymerase of its helper virus TNV for replication. (pnas.org)
  • Properties and functions of the nucleocapsid protein in virus assembly. (nih.gov)
  • HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a small basic protein generated by the cleavage of the Gag structural polyprotein precusor by the viral protease during virus assembly in the infected cell. (nih.gov)
  • As such NC protein drives critical structural rearrangements of the genomic RNA, notably RNA dimerization in the course of virus assembly and viral nucleic acid annealing required for genomic RNA replication by the viral reverse transcriptase (RT). (nih.gov)
  • The RV capsid protein is an essential component of the virus and a key factor for successful replication of the virus in host cells. (pnas.org)
  • The capsid protein structure has also helped to identify amino acid residues that are required for virus assembly. (pnas.org)
  • The RV capsid protein is an essential structural component of virions as well as a key factor in virus-host interactions. (pnas.org)
  • SG assembly was determined by IF/LSCM staining for the SG markers TIAR and eIF4G (Vero cells) or G3BP-1 and TIAR (U2OS cells) and infected cells were identified by the presence of the viral protein NS1. (plos.org)
  • The ΔF virus utilizes the baculovirus GP64 protein for viral entry. (hindawi.com)
  • The coronavirus E protein is a small membrane protein that has an important role in the assembly of virions. (mdpi.com)
  • Recent studies have indicated that the E protein has functions during infection beyond assembly, including in virus egress and in the host stress response. (mdpi.com)
  • Machamer, C.E. The Coronavirus E Protein: Assembly and Beyond. (mdpi.com)
  • We examined in vitro assembly of purified E. coli expressed HBV capsid protein. (nih.gov)
  • The recruitment of caveolae occurred just prior to the initiation of RSV filament assembly, and was dependent upon an intact actin network as well as a direct physical interaction between caveolin-1 and the viral G protein. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, cavin-1 protein levels were significantly increased in RSV-infected cells, leading to a virus-induced change in the stoichiometry and biophysical properties of the caveolar coat complex. (biologists.org)
  • These phospholipids are vital for Gag protein binding to the plasma membrane of a cell, as the virus replicates and takes its first step toward virus formation and budding. (newswise.com)
  • The work led by Saad, associate professor of microbiology at UAB, and a companion paper , led by Carol Carter, Ph.D., professor of molecular genetics and microbiology at Stony Brook University, examined how the ASV Gag protein is targeted to the plasma membrane of the host cell to initiate virus assembly. (newswise.com)
  • The companion paper in the Journal of Biological Chemistry is titled "The matrix domain of the Gag protein from avian sarcoma virus contains a PI(4,5)P2-binding site that targets Gag to the cell periphery. (newswise.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes a protein, called BcRF1, which has structural homology with the TATA-binding protein and interacts specifically with the TATT box. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This complex is formed around a viral TBP-like protein and interacts with cellular RNA polymerase II, suggesting that it is directly involved in the assembly of a virus-specific PIC (vPIC). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The virus was reconstituted from purified protein and genomic RNA sub-units, and its self-assembly was monitored by an X-ray scattering method with a synchrotron source. (u-psud.fr)
  • Expression, self-assembly, and antigenicity of the Norwalk virus capsid protein. (asm.org)
  • Norwalk virus capsid protein was produced by expression of the second and third open reading frames of the Norwalk virus genome, using a cell-free translation system and baculovirus recombinants. (asm.org)
  • A significant number of RNA viruses assemble their protein containers and genomic material simultaneously. (bl.uk)
  • Here the implications of this protein-RNA co-assembly are investigated using an extended version of a model first proposed by Adam Zlotnick in 1994 (Zlotnick, 1994). (bl.uk)
  • Fraenkel-Conrat H, Williams RC (1955) Reconstitution of active tobacco mosaic virus from its inactive protein and nucleic acid components. (springer.com)
  • Durham ACH, Finch JT, Klug A (1971) States of aggregation of tobacco mosaic virus protein. (springer.com)
  • Sacher R, French R, Ahlquist P (1988) Hybrid brome mosaic virus RNAs express and are packaged in tobacco mosaic virus coat protein in vivo. (springer.com)
  • You will develop and apply computational models and simulation for protein structure prediction, folding and assembly to help optimize the processing of the vaccine and optimize its function. (ccl.net)
  • Background: The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of two late assembly (L-) domains. (uib.no)
  • Here we demonstrate that human protein kinase C (PKC) family members regulate RNP assembly. (elifesciences.org)
  • The assembly of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) into capsids represents a critical step of viral replication. (asm.org)
  • In Vivo Efficacy of Measles Virus Fusion Protein-Derived Peptides Is Modulated by the Properties of Self-Assembly and Membrane Residence. (osu.edu)
  • We have studied the oligomerization of the membrane glycoproteins of Punta Toro virus (PTV), a member of the Phlebovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae, and the effect of glycosylation on protein stability and transport. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Core protein cleavage by signal peptide peptidase is required for hepatitis C virus-like particle assembly. (inserm.fr)
  • This model was used to investigate whether the processing of the HCV core protein by the signal peptide peptidase (SPP) is required for the HCV-LP assembly. (inserm.fr)
  • Production of the only core mutant protein that escaped SPP processing led to the formation of multiple layers of electron-dense ER membrane, with no evidence of HCV-LP assembly. (inserm.fr)
  • Consistent with a role for conventional kinesin during ASFV egress, over-expression of the cargo-binding domain of the kinesin light chain, which acts as a dominant negative protein, severely inhibits movement of viruses to the plasma membrane. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Human monoclonal antibodies that inhibit binding of hepatitis C virus E2 protein to CD81 and recognize conserved conformational epitopes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A complementary survey of the major capsid protein indicated the presence of other giant viruses in the sample matrix but did not detect the two isolated from this sample. (asm.org)
  • The potential of Tobacco etch virus capsid protein (TEV CP) as adjuvant has not been evaluated to date. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These TEV VLPs elicited broader IgG2-specific antibody response against a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) protein when compared to the potent IgG1 response induced by the protein alone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also evaluated the potential use of TEV CP VLPs as an adjuvant for a novel porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) chimeric protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein, in addition to its structural role to form the nucleocapsid assembly, plays a critical role in HCV pathogenesis by interfering in several cellular processes, including microRNA and mRNA homeostasis. (peerj.com)
  • The goal of the following studies was to isolate a functional terminase complex from HSV-1-infected cells by affinity chromatography using a virus expressing a UL28-TAP fusion protein. (pitt.edu)
  • In its simplest form, a virus is composed of a protein shell called the capsid that encloses the viral genome. (ucr.edu)
  • Virus-associated pyramids (VAPs) assemble in the host cell membrane from the virus-encoded protein PVAP and open at the end of the infection cycle. (pasteur.fr)
  • Self-assembly of PVAP into pyramids requires at least two different, in-plane and out-of-plane, protein interactions. (pasteur.fr)
  • The role of the nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1 Gag in virus assembly was investigated using Gag truncation mutants, a nucleocapsid deletion mutant, and point mutations in the nucleocapsid region of Gag, in transfected COS cells, and in stable T-cell lines. (elsevier.com)
  • Influenza virus matrix protein (M1), a critical protein required for virus assembly and budding, is presumed to interact with viral glycoproteins on the outer side and viral ribonucleoprotein on the inner side. (mysciencework.com)
  • However, because of the inherent membrane-binding ability of M1 protein, it has been difficult to demonstrate the specific interaction of M1 protein with hemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA), the influenza virus envelope glycoproteins. (mysciencework.com)
  • Using Triton X-100 (TX-100) detergent treatment of membrane fractions and floatation in sucrose gradients, we observed that the membrane-bound M1 protein expressed alone or coexpressed with heterologous Sendai virus F was totally TX-100 soluble but the membrane-bound M1 protein expressed in the presence of HA and NA was predominantly detergent resistant and floated to the top of the density gradient. (mysciencework.com)
  • Immunofluorescence analysis by confocal microscopy also demonstrated that, in influenza virus-infected cells, a fraction of M1 protein colocalized with HA and associated with the HA in transit to the plasma membrane via the exocytic pathway. (mysciencework.com)
  • Although several systems have been developed to study HBV capsid assembly, including heterologous overexpression systems like bacteria and insect cells, in vitro assembly using purified protein, and mammalian cell culture systems, the requirement for non-physiological concentrations of HBc and salts and the difficulty in manipulating host regulators of assembly presents major limitations for detailed studies on capsid assembly under physiologically relevant conditions. (bio-protocol.org)
  • 2000 "Crystal structure of the matrix protein VP40 from ebola virus. (lens.org)
  • 1991 "Measles virus phosphoprotein retains the nucleocapsid protein in the cytoplasm. (lens.org)
  • Many RNA viruses have the RNA capping machinery functionally and physically linked to the replication machinery as multi-domain and larger multi-protein complexes. (utmb.edu)
  • The core of the virus assembles as a protein shell around a viral mRNA and reverse transcriptase. (grantome.com)
  • In order to understand the mechanism of assembly of SeMV, a large number of deletion and substitution mutants of the coat protein (CP) were constructed. (iisc.ac.in)
  • When the E2 protein binds to host receptors, the virus is engulfed into the host via endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we review the relationships between the 3D structure of HIV-1 NC, notably the central globular domain encompassing the two zinc fingers and the basic linker and NC functions in the early and late phases of virus replication. (nih.gov)
  • Viruses utilize cellular lipids during critical steps of replication like entry, assembly and egress. (frontiersin.org)
  • Foamy viruses (FVs) differ from all other genera of retroviruses (orthoretroviruses) in many aspects of viral replication. (mdpi.com)
  • By studying similarities and differences in replication of the two viruses, researchers learn basic knowledge that can inform efforts aimed to halt replication and spread of HIV. (newswise.com)
  • This study contributes to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of assembly of a large class of viruses, namely, icosahedral RNA viruses, in order to develop therapeutic strategies to block their replication. (u-psud.fr)
  • We propose that this complex represents a replication platform for the viral RNA genome, in which one of the FluPol molecules acts as a replicase while the other initiates the assembly of the nascent replication product into a viral ribonucleoprotein complex. (flu.org.cn)
  • However, the only feasible S40F mutation that preserves the overlapping pol open reading frame (ORF) reduces virus replication in T-cell lines and in human lymphocyte tissue cultivated ex vivo. (uib.no)
  • Influenza virus expresses transcripts early in infection and transitions towards genome replication at later time points. (elifesciences.org)
  • This process requires de novo assembly of the viral replication machinery, large ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) composed of the viral polymerase, genomic RNA and oligomeric nucleoprotein (NP). (elifesciences.org)
  • Consistent with its role in regulating RNP assembly, knockout of PKCδ impairs virus infection by selectively disrupting genome replication. (elifesciences.org)
  • Thus, influenza virus exploits host PKCs to regulate RNP assembly, a step required for the transition from primary transcription to genome replication during the infectious cycle. (elifesciences.org)
  • This transition from transcription to replication requires the de novo assembly of RNPs and is absolutely required for successful infection and the production of infectious progeny. (elifesciences.org)
  • One of the biopharmaceutical companies involved in HSV-2 vaccine development, Sanofi Pasteur, has developed a candidate vaccine based on a live, replication-deficient HSV-2 virus. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Replication and transcription by negative-sense RNA viruses occurs in large macromolecular complexes. (prolekare.cz)
  • Here we show that phosphorylation of NP negatively regulates assembly of the influenza virus replication machinery. (prolekare.cz)
  • We identified two phosphorylation sites on opposite sides of the NP:NP interface and showed that phosphorylation at either site blocks homotypic interactions, distorting the monomer:oligomer balance of NP in cells and severely impairing virus replication. (prolekare.cz)
  • This uncommon RNA virus trait provides influenza with the advantage of access to the nuclear machinery during replication. (diva-portal.org)
  • The aim of this review is to present the current mechanistic understanding for how IAVs facilitate cell entry, replication, virion assembly, and intercellular movement, in an effort to highlight some of the unanswered questions regarding the coordination of the IAV infection process. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, we investigated virus assembly in NIH3T3 cells chronically infected with the replication-competent MLV using electron microscopy (EM). (biomedcentral.com)
  • During productive lytic infection, over 80 viral proteins are expressed in a highly regulated manner, resulting in the replication of viral genomes and assembly of progeny virions. (pitt.edu)
  • 1992 "Marburg virus, a filovirus: messenger RNAs, gene order, and regulatory elements of the replication cycle. (lens.org)
  • 1992 "Complexes of sendai virus NP-P and P-L proteins are required for defective interfering particle genome replication in vitro. (lens.org)
  • The genomic and subgenomic RNAs of some plant viruses have a 3'-terminal tRNA-like structure (TLS) that can accept a specific amino acid and serve as a site for initiation of replication and as a simple telomere. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Replication of the viral genome is the primary goal of any viral infection, and thus obtaining structural information on the flavivirus replicase complex is an important step in understanding the virus replication mechanism and in developing antiviral therapeutics. (utmb.edu)
  • Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses occurs in close association with intracellular membranes. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Also, metabolic and host cell immune response differences seen in different cell types based on differential gene expression are a likely factor in which cells a virus may target for replication. (oercommons.org)
  • After membrane fusion, the genome of Rio Negro virus enters the host's cytoplasm, and this is where replication and transcription occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses composed of a shell of coat proteins enclosing ssRNA genomes are among the simplest biological entities. (pnas.org)
  • Until recently, these were not linked, but we have shown that many viruses in this class encode multiple, degenerate RNA sequence/structure motifs that bind cognate coat proteins collectively. (pnas.org)
  • Virus assembly and release involve specific and nonspecific interactions between viral proteins and membrane compartments. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is well established that assembly of retroviral Gag proteins occur predominantly on the PM. Membrane selection appears to be critical for productive virus production. (frontiersin.org)
  • Influenza viruses also possess a lipid membrane derived from the host cell, harboring the envelope glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA), the neuraminidase (NA), M1 and some of the M2 proteins, which act as budding proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Likewise, compartmentalization of viral proteins within lipid rafts has been observed during assembly and budding of Ebola and Marburg viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Foamy Virus Gag Proteins: What Makes Them Different? (mdpi.com)
  • Measles virus RNA genomes are packaged into helical nucleocapsids (NCs), comprising thousands of nucleo-proteins (N) that bind the entire genome. (nih.gov)
  • We evaluated how ZIKV infection counteracts the assembly of dynamic aggregates of RNA and proteins called stress granules (SGs). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Electrical charge balance between the genomes and the proteins enclosing them dictates the genome assembly and the kinetics follows the same nucleation and growth mechanism as seen in first order phase transitions. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization techniques, we studied the intracellular localization of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) Rep proteins, VP proteins, and DNA during the course of an AAV-2/adenovirus type 2 coinfection. (asm.org)
  • Despite great similarities in their Gag proteins that initiate virus assembly, retroviruses have distinct mechanisms for assembly that are incompletely understood. (newswise.com)
  • They also show that, although the HIV matrix domain uses more structural tools to bind to the membrane, both ASV and HIV matrix proteins share almost identical interacting motifs that drive assembly. (newswise.com)
  • They monitored the spontaneous reconstitution of the virus from purified proteins and genomic RNA by a sophisticated method of X-ray scattering. (u-psud.fr)
  • This work will also demonstrate how kinetic traps may be avoided when proteins are able to bind RNA during assembly. (bl.uk)
  • RNA polymerases of avian influenza A viruses (FluPolA) replicate viral RNA inefficiently in human cells because of species-specific differences in acidic nuclear phosphoprotein 32 (ANP32), a family of essential host proteins for FluPol activity4. (flu.org.cn)
  • The project involves working as part of an interdisciplinary team with the final aim of computationally predict the folding and assembly properties of the virus like particle after its constituent proteins have been genetically modified to accomplish its purpose. (ccl.net)
  • Viruses, entities composed of nucleic acids, proteins, and in some cases lipids lack the ability to replicate outside their target cells. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • The virus was less able to multiply in human lung cells that were missing PKCδ - specifcially because the formation of nucleoprotein chains was no longer regulated - and these cells produced lower quantities of virus proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • This manuscript details a straightforward dot blot assay for quantitation of adeno-associated virus (AAV) titers and its application to study the role of assembly-activating proteins (AAPs), a novel class of non-structural viral proteins found in all AAV serotypes, in promoting the assembly of capsids derived from cognate and heterologous AAV serotypes. (jove.com)
  • Immunofluorescent staining of two virus proteins to determine their co-localization was not successful. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • To accomplish this goal, influenza A viruses (IAVs) utilize a combination of viral and cellular mechanisms to coordinate the transport of their proteins and the eight vRNA gene segments in and out of the cell. (diva-portal.org)
  • A two-layered F-M lattice was revealed and the F-M lattice suggests that interactions between these proteins are present and may coordinate processes essential for MeV assembly. (gatech.edu)
  • The structural proteins of some viruses occasionally mimic the three-dimensional nature of an actual virus while lacking the virus genome packaged inside its capsid [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, in most cases the self-assembly of viral capsid proteins (CPs) into VLPs still remains a challenge [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1998 "Interactions of marburg virus nucleocapsid proteins. (lens.org)
  • 1985 "Descriptive analysis of ebola virus proteins. (lens.org)
  • 2002 "The assembly of Ebola virus nucleocapsid requires virion-associated proteins 35 and 24 and posttranslational modification of nucleoprotein. (lens.org)
  • The length of helical viruses can depend on the length of the genome, the DNA or RNA within, since there are often regular structural interactions between the nucleic acids of the genome and the proteins that cover it. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Embedded in the envelope are surface proteins, usually glycoproteins that help the virus interact with the surface of the cell it is infecting. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In these viruses, cell-surface interactions are mediated by the capsid proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Based on theory, we suggest that the most effective approach will be to enhance assembly to tie up many core proteins in unproductive complexes. (grantome.com)
  • By using a very fast scanning probe microscope, they were able to film how HIV proteins begin to form a virus. (rug.nl)
  • A virus must attach to a living cell, be taken inside, manufacture its proteins and copy its genome, and find a way to escape the cell so that the virus can infect other cells. (oercommons.org)
  • A virus attaches to a specific receptor site on the host cell membrane through attachment proteins in the capsid or via glycoproteins embedded in the viral envelope. (oercommons.org)
  • Equine encephalosis virus is an Orbivirus, and as such encodes 4 non-structural and 7 structural proteins derived from 10 linear dsRNA genome segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • By analogy with Bluetongue virus, both these proteins may then be used to determine the serotype of EEV, of which seven have been identified to date. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the virus is in a cellular endosome, with low pH, the E1 and E2 proteins disassociate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rio Negro virus, as a type of alphavirus, encodes four nonstructural proteins (nsP1-4) in its genome that are used in RNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped DNA virus with a spherical capsid (or core). (nih.gov)
  • Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infections caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), a member of the Hepadnaviridae family ( 1 ), remain a major public health problem worldwide. (asm.org)
  • From Indiana University, Vincent and Kathy speak with Tuli Mukhopadhyay, John Patton, and Adam Zlotnick about their careers and their work on alphaviruses, hepatitis B virus, and rotaviruses. (microbe.tv)
  • The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important global human pathogen and represents a major cause of hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is an enveloped DNA virus with an RNA intermediate. (grantome.com)
  • Chronic hepatitis B virus infection remains a huge public health problem. (grantome.com)
  • HEp2 cells were only minimally infected by the ΔF virus, while A549 cells and Vbac cells, allowed for a robust infection with the ΔF virus. (hindawi.com)
  • During infection, viruses trigger the host cell stress response, leading to changes in RNA translation and the assembly of large aggregates of stalled translation preinitiation complexes, termed stress granules (SGs). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Interestingly, ZIKV infection markedly impaired the phosphorylation of eIF2α triggered in Ars-treated infected cells, and the abrogation of SG assembly in ZIKV-infected cells is, at least in part, dependent on eIF2α dephosphorylation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • I will present our recent studies on HIV -1 capsid and its interaction with host factor cyclophilin A, cellular assembly of human reovirus and infection of SARS -Cov-2, to illustrate the power of integrated multiscale imaging from atoms to cells by cryo-electron microscopy. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Transcription of a full-length cDNA clone of TMV RNA also resulted in high levels of CP expression and assembly of sufficient intact genomic RNA to initiate virus infection of susceptible tobacco plants. (springer.com)
  • Activated PKCδ interacts with the polymerase subunit PB2 and phospho-regulates NP oligomerization and RNP assembly during infection. (elifesciences.org)
  • Measles virus (MV) infection is undergoing resurgence and remains one of the leading causes of death among young children worldwide despite the availability of an effective measles vaccine. (osu.edu)
  • Measles virus (MV) infection causes an acute illness that may be associated with infection of the central nervous system (CNS) and severe neurological disease. (osu.edu)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 is the cause of one of the most wide-spread human infections in the world, affecting millions of people and circumventing all past attempts to cure or prevent infection. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The regulated oligomerization of NP and assembly of the RNP is absolutely essential for successful infection, yet how influenza virus controls the formation of these multi-subunit complexes is largely unknown. (prolekare.cz)
  • Broad Anti-Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Antibody Responses Are Associated with Improved Clinical Disease Parameters in Chronic HCV Infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is the causative agent of several pathologies ranging in severity from the common cold sore to life-threatening encephalitic infection. (pitt.edu)
  • For a totally new agent, the estimated interval between initial infection and detailed characterization is variable and depends on the presence of unusual symptoms, the failure to identify a virus after using all available specific tests, the recognition of a unique problem, and, in the past, the ability to grow the agent in culture. (cdc.gov)
  • A team from the Laboratoire de Physique des Solides [Laboratory of Solid-State Physics] (Univ Paris-Sud/CNRS), also involving researchers from Institut de Biologie Intégrative de la Cellule [Institute of Integrative Biology of the Cell] (Univ Paris-Sud/CNRS/CEA), Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (CNRS/CEA) and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, has solved the assembly dynamics of a plant virus which has a 20-faced or icosahedral shell. (u-psud.fr)
  • Porcine circoviruses (PCVs), classified as a member of the family Circoviridae, are small icosahedral non-enveloped viruses (size ~17 nm) containing a circular single-stranded DNA molecule of about 1.7 kb. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • tRNA elements mediate the assembly of an icosahedral RNA virus. (scienceexchange.com)
  • We report a previously undescribed role for the TLS of brome mosaic virus (BMV), and potentially for cellular tRNA, in mediating the assembly of its icosahedral virions. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Deletion of residues forming a characteristic beta-annulus at the icosahedral 3-folds did not affect the assembly of VLPs. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Mutation of a single tryptophan, which occurs near the icosahedral fivefold axis to glutamate or lysine, resulted in the disruption of the capsid leading to soluble dimers that resembled the quasi-dimer structure of the native virus. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Control of late gene transcription in DNA viruses is a major unsolved question in virology. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It is of fundamental importance in virology, with a broad spectrum of applications ranging from the image analysis and classification of experimental data to the construction of assembly models. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • IMPORTANCE The discovery of large and giant nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) with genomes in the megabase range and equipped with a wide variety of features typically associated with cellular organisms was one of the most unexpected, intriguing, and spectacular breakthroughs in virology. (asm.org)
  • Native tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) CP expressed in E. coli remains soluble but has a non-acetylated N-terminal Ser residue and, following extraction, is unable to package TMV RNA in vitro under standard assembly conditions. (springer.com)
  • Changing the Ser to Ala or Pro by PCR-mutagenesis did not confer assembly competence in vitro, despite these being non-acetylated N-termini present in two natural strains of TMV. (springer.com)
  • TMV self-assembly has been studied extensively in vitro, and an origin of assembly sequence (OAS) mapped internally on the 6.4kb ssRNA genome. (springer.com)
  • Mutational studies based on this structure confirmed the role of amino acid residues in the capsid that function in the assembly of infectious virions. (pnas.org)
  • Recent advances in structure determination and the development of biophysical tools such as single-molecule spectroscopy and noncovalent mass spectrometry allow unprecedented access to the detailed assembly mechanisms of simple virions. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Conclusions: Overall, these data support a so far unrecognized function of p6 mediated by Ser-40 that occurs independently of the L-domain function, but selectively affects CA maturation and virus core formation, and consequently the infectivity of released virions. (uib.no)
  • This plus-end motor is recruited to virus factories and to individual cytoplasmic virions. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Some infected cells, such as those infected by the common cold virus known as rhinovirus, die through lysis (bursting) or apoptosis (programmed cell death or "cell suicide"), releasing all progeny virions at once. (oercommons.org)
  • Many animal viruses, such as HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), leave the infected cells of the immune system by a process known as budding , where virions leave the cell individually. (oercommons.org)
  • These produce +ssRNA copies of the viral genome, using the -ssRNA strand as a template, that will later be distributed to the virions which will be released after assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the salient feature of the NC central globular domain is an hydrophobic plateau which appears to orchestrate the NC functions, such as chaperoning the conversion of the genomic RNA into viral DNA by RT during the early phase, and driving the selection and dimerization of the genomic RNA at the initial stage of viral particle assembly. (nih.gov)
  • The regions of Gag, Pol and genomic RNA required for viral assembly are described. (mdpi.com)
  • Remarkably, assembly depends strongly on the RNA-sequence, with the genomic 5' end and poly-Adenine sequences assembling efficiently, while sequences such as poly-Uracil are incompetent for NC formation. (nih.gov)
  • As a unique genomic entity, the influenza A virus RNP has been extensively studied since the 1960s. (rice.edu)
  • The mechanism by which genomic RNA is normally selected during virus assembly is not understood. (elifesciences.org)
  • that at physiological ionic strength, recombinant HIV-1 Gag binds with similar affinities to RNAs with or without Ψ, and proposed that genomic RNA is selectively packaged because binding to Ψ initiates particle assembly more efficiently than other RNAs. (elifesciences.org)
  • At high spike-in levels, metagenome assembly and binning led to the successful genomic recovery of Fadolivirus from the sample. (asm.org)
  • We showed that intracellular virus budding could arise and that numerous VLPs containing MLV genomic RNA accumulated in the Lamp-1 positive vacuoles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consistent with a critical role for the BMV TLS in virion assembly, mutations in the BMV genomic RNAs that were designed to disrupt the folding of the TLS also abolished virion assembly. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Advanced cryo-electron microscopy technology allows researchers to visualize measles viruses at high resolution in their native state. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers have been able to capture images of measles viruses as they emerge from infected cells, using state of the art cryo-electron tomography techniques. (eurekalert.org)
  • The new images will help with a greater understanding of measles and related viruses, and could give hints on antiviral drug strategies likely to work across multiple viruses of this type. (eurekalert.org)
  • An effective vaccine is available against measles virus, a highly infectious viral pathogen. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, understanding the internal organization of measles virus could guide the study of related viruses, such as parainfluenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), common causes of respiratory illnesses, and Nipah virus, an inspiration for the film Contagion. (eurekalert.org)
  • The team collaborated with Richard Plemper, PhD, who specializes in measles virus and is now at Georgia State University. (eurekalert.org)
  • The family of viruses that includes measles, paramyxoviruses, are difficult to work with, because of their low titers, instability and heterogeneity, Wright says. (eurekalert.org)
  • But this is tricky for measles virus and other enveloped viruses such as RSV. (eurekalert.org)
  • b) Structure of the folded domain of measles virus N in complex with RNA obtained from cryo‐electron microscopy on helical NCs (PDB: 4UFT). (nih.gov)
  • In this dissertation, I will be mainly focusing on investigating measles virus (MeV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET). (gatech.edu)
  • In particular, I will present data on our cryo-EM structural investigations of pleomorphic enveloped viruses, namely respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and measles virus. (researchschool.nl)
  • In: Van Regenmortel MHV, Fraenkel-Conrat H (eds) The plant viruses, vol 2. (springer.com)
  • TLSs from two other plant viruses as well as tRNAs from wheat germ and yeast were similarly active in the BMV virion assembly reaction, but ribosomal RNA and polyadenylate did not facilitate assembly. (scienceexchange.com)
  • A lipid -containing envelope is a common feature of animal viruses, but uncommon in plant viruses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has become a classical object for studies on the structure and assembly of viruses. (springer.com)
  • Butler, P. J. G, 1984, The current picture of the structure and assembly of tobacco mosaic virus, J. Gen. Virol . (springer.com)
  • Caspar DLD (1963) Assembly and stability of the tobacco mosaic virus particle. (springer.com)
  • Fraenkel-Conrat H (1957) Degradation of tobacco mosaic virus with acetic acid. (springer.com)
  • Bloomer AC, Butler PJG (1986) Tobacco mosaic virus: structure and self-assembly. (springer.com)
  • Zimmern D, Wilson TMA (1976) Location of the origin for viral reassembly on tobacco mosaic virus RNA and its relation to stable fragment. (springer.com)
  • Zimmern D (1977) The nucleotide sequence at the origin for assembly on tobacco mosaic virus RNA. (springer.com)
  • Controlled Surface Assembly of Tobacco Mosaic Virus via Evaporation. (tufts.edu)
  • In this thesis, I examined two routes in controlling the surface assembly of genetically modified tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) towards the creation of uniform and well-ordered 2-D arrays with high density and alignment. (tufts.edu)
  • Self-Assembly of Functional Nanosurfaces and Complex Nanostructures with Genetically Modified Tobacco Mosaic Virus. (tufts.edu)
  • During the assembly of alphaviruses, a preassembled nucleocapsid buds through the cell plasma membrane to acquire an envelope containing two virally encoded glycoproteins, E2 and E1. (caltech.edu)
  • However, only about 10% as much chimeric virus as wild-type virus was assembled, demonstrating that there is a sequence-specific interaction between 6K and the glycoproteins required for efficient virus assembly. (caltech.edu)
  • In this model, the M lattice facilitates the well-ordered incorporation and concentration of the surface glycoproteins and the RNP at sites of virus assembly. (gatech.edu)
  • Analysis of the membrane association of M1 in the early and late phases of the influenza virus infectious cycle revealed that the interaction of M1 with mature glycoproteins which associated with the detergent-resistant lipid rafts was responsible for the detergent resistance of membrane-bound M1. (mysciencework.com)
  • How are the virus genomes, which carry information for making the next generation of viruses, organized inside viruses? (cam.ac.uk)
  • This makes the assembly of HHV-1 whole genomes from short-read sequencing data technically challenging. (nanoporetech.com)
  • To improve the assembly of HHV-1 genomes we have employed a hybrid genome assembly protocol using data from two sequencing technologies: the short-read Roche 454 and the long-read Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencers. (nanoporetech.com)
  • The assembly of accurate, full-length HHV-1 genomes will be useful in determining genetic determinants of drug resistance, virulence, pathogenesis and viral evolution. (nanoporetech.com)
  • In this paper, we present Arapan-S, a whole-genome assembly program dedicated to handling small genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although genomes consist of a number of segments, the implemented algorithm can detect all the segments, as we demonstrate for Influenza Virus A . The Arapan-S program is based on the de Bruijn graph. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Concerning very small genomes, we believe that we can improve the accuracy of assembly of such genomes by creating an assembler that is devoted to solving small genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Giant viruses have large genomes, often within the size range of cellular organisms. (asm.org)
  • This distinguishes them from most other viruses and demands additional effort for the successful recovery of their genomes from environmental sequence data. (asm.org)
  • However, this is in stark contrast to genomes of large and giant viruses of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV), which can be up to several megabases ( 8 , 9 ). (asm.org)
  • We base this system on the physical isolation of viruses from large pooled samples of human serum and plasma ( e.g., discarded specimens from diagnostic laboratories), followed by shotgun sequencing of the resulting genomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Facilitated by the relative ease with which viruses can be isolated from seawater (using commercial filters), investigators in this area have examined a broad and essentially unbiased population of viral agents at the genome sequence level (including phage) and estimated the number of different genomes present (~5,000) ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We collected HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 samples and isolates from Argentina, Australia, France, Mexico, South Africa, Switzerland, and USA from the years 2003-2011 and sequenced the genomes of 40 HPIV-1 and 75 HPIV-3 viruses with Sanger and next-generation sequencing with the Ion Torrent, Illumina, and 454 platforms. (plos.org)
  • IVA: accurate de novo assembly of RNA virus genomes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, which also includes yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis viruses (JEV) [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The genome of influenza A viruses consists of eight segments of single-stranded, negative-sense RNA that are encapsidated as individual rod-shaped ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs). (rice.edu)
  • MeV and RSV are single-stranded negative-sense RNA viruses. (gatech.edu)
  • HCV is an enveloped, single stranded positive-sense RNA virus, which belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Hepacivirus 3 . (nature.com)
  • The virus has a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) genome that is 11.5 kilobases in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scheme of Gag-gRNA complexes trafficking within the cell and viral particle assembly and release. (nih.gov)
  • The study of these complexes and assemblies in cells using cryoET STA , coupled with cryoFIB and correlative imaging, opens a new frontier in structural cell biology. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Like all other negative-sense RNA viruses, the influenza virus genome associates with the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and multiple copies of the viral nucleoproteins (NP) to form ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNP) [ 2 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Characterization of these viruses followed by the isolation of terminase complexes revealed that the domain mutations did not preclude complex formation but each virus was deficient in viral DNA cleavage, further demonstrating the importance of these domains during DNA encapsidation. (pitt.edu)
  • Interestingly, the buoyant density of VLPs containing HCcAg.120 in CsCl gradients changed from 1.15-1,17 g mLˉ 1 to 1.30-1.34 g mLˉ 1 after addition of plasmid DNA to assembly reactions. (thescipub.com)
  • Remarkably, addition of either plasmid DNA or tRNA to assembly reactions leaded to heterogeneous and larger VLPs formation than those observed in HCcAg.120 assembly reactions. (thescipub.com)
  • Beside the virus budding events seen at the cell surface of infected cells, we observed that intracellular budding events could also occur inside the intracellular vacuoles in which many VLPs accumulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The proposed topic will cover key aspects of virus-membrane interactions during assembly and egress. (frontiersin.org)
  • There is an urgent global scientific effort underway to better understand ZIKV biology and define interactions that occur between the virus and the host cell. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Using two chimeric viruses, we have studied interactions between E1, E2, and a viral peptide called 6K, which are required for budding. (caltech.edu)
  • Hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1 modulates receptor interactions, conceals the CD81 binding site, and protects conserved neutralizing epitopes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Swapping this improved region into the wild-type STNV1 sequence results in a better assembly substrate than the viral RNA, producing complete capsids and outcompeting the wild-type genome in head-to-head competition. (pnas.org)
  • Given the known geometry for HBV capsids and dimers, the per capsid assembly energy was partitioned into energy per subunit-subunit contact. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report bottom-up assembly of hierarchical plasmonic nanostructures using DNA origami tiles and MS2 virus capsids. (pnnl.gov)
  • Cleavage and packaging of replicated, concatemeric viral DNA into newly assembled capsids is critical to virus proliferation and requires seven viral genes: UL6, UL15, UL17, UL25, UL28, UL32, and UL33. (pitt.edu)
  • Although particlem assembly was not affected due to the substitution of aspartates (D14 and D149) that coordinate calcium ions by asparagines, the stability of the resulting capsids was drastically reduced. (iisc.ac.in)
  • A significant part of this special topic will address how enveloped viruses such as retroviruses, influenza, Ebola and Dengue viruses are able to recognize specific lipids in membrane during assembly and egress. (frontiersin.org)
  • For egress some archaeal viruses use a pyramidal structure with sevenfold rotational symmetry. (pasteur.fr)
  • In this work, we explored the application of dimensionality reduction methods to numerically represent high-throughput sequence data for three important biological applications of virus sequence data: reference-based mapping, short sequence classification and de novo assembly. (gla.ac.uk)
  • This allows us to capture the full spectrum of structures along the virus assembly pathway. (eurekalert.org)
  • In tests, adding the virus-built structures enhanced the power conversion efficiency to 10.6 percent from 8 percent - almost a one-third improvement. (tgdaily.com)
  • really I think opened up the whole of the concept of how you make elaborate cell structures, and by this hierarchical self-assembly mode. (webofstories.com)
  • Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of influenza C virus polymerase (FluPolC) in complex with human and chicken ANP32A. (flu.org.cn)
  • However, experimental results have provided evidence for the fact that it is incomplete and, in particular, cannot account for the structures of Papovaviridae , which are of particular interest because they contain cancer-causing viruses. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The resulting virus composite films had chiral smectic C structures due to the helical surface of the M13 virus. (utexas.edu)
  • Structures of capsid assembly modulators and entecavir. (asm.org)
  • In this project I explored two different methods for utilizing genetically modified tobacco mosaic viruses (TMVs) to robustly create tunable and functional nano-scale surfaces and structures. (tufts.edu)
  • For the first time, Jagadish and others [ 8 ] successfully expressed in a recombinant system ( E. coli ) the JGMV CP that assembled into virus-like particle structures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The circular genome and antigenome RNAs of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) form characteristic unbranched, quasi-double-stranded RNA secondary structures in which internal loops and bulges are interspersed between short helical segments. (georgetown.edu)
  • Unlike cells, which contain all the structures needed for growth and reproduction, viruses are composed of only an outer coat (capsid), the genome, and, in some cases, a few enzymes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Viruses are distinguished from free-living microbes, such as bacteria and fungi, by their small size and relatively simple structures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some viruses have compound structures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Large viruses, such as the herpesviruses and poxviruses, can have higher-ordered and more complex structures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We use cryo-electron microscopy to study the structures of viruses and viral vaccine candidates to help develop vaccines and antiviral agents. (utmb.edu)
  • Influenza viruses are major human respiratory pathogens that cause isolated seasonal outbreaks as well as the sporadic emergence of severe pandemics [ 1 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Human Parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) type 1 and 3 are important causes of respiratory tract infections in young children globally. (plos.org)
  • Further surveillance and whole-genome sequencing are greatly needed to better understand the spatial dynamics of these important respiratory viruses in humans. (plos.org)
  • Human Parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) belong to the Paramyxovirus family and are important causes of respiratory tract infections in young children, elderly individuals, and the immunocompromised globally. (plos.org)
  • HPIV-1 is the most common pathogen associated with croup while HPIV-3 ranks only behind respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) as a cause of bronchiolitis and viral pneumonia among infants and young children [ 2 - 4 ]. (plos.org)
  • Assembly and budding of influenza viruses appear to proceed in the viral budozone, a domain in the plasma membrane with characteristics of cholesterol/sphingolipid-rich membrane rafts. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Pandemic Influenza Preparedness ( PIP ) Framework was adopted in 2011 and seeks to increase access to vaccines and other pandemic-related supplies for developing countries, and improve and strengthen the sharing of influenza viruses with human pandemic potential, according to a WHO question and answer document . (ip-watch.org)
  • One of the questions that is expected to be discussed at the World Health Assembly next week is how to deal with the sharing of the genetic information of influenza viruses (genetic sequence data - GSD) with human pandemic potential (IVPP) rather than their biological material. (ip-watch.org)
  • Influenza viruses contain a negative-sense segmented RNA genome that is transcribed and replicated by the viral heterotrimeric RNA polymerase (FluPol) in the context of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes2,3. (flu.org.cn)
  • Influenza viruses replicate within the nucleus of the host cell. (diva-portal.org)
  • On May 23, 2007, the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted a resolution on sharing influenza viruses and promoting access to vaccines in connection with pandemic influenza preparedness ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In the future, it may be possible to develop new drugs that target PKCδ and other cellular factors the virus needs to help treat influenza infections. (elifesciences.org)
  • The segmentation of the influenza genome makes these additional trafficking requirements especially challenging, as each viral RNA (vRNA) gene segment must navigate the network of cellular membrane barriers during the processes of entry and assembly. (diva-portal.org)
  • Marine microbes are the most abundant cellular life forms on Earth yet we know viruses to be even more numerous than microbes. (gatech.edu)
  • This conformational change exposes the viruses' fusion peptides, which then fuse the membrane of the virus and the cellular endosome, which transports the nucleocapsid of the virus into the cytoplasm of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It appears that several retroviruses like Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), and human T-lymphotropic virus type (HTLV-1) may have evolved different or similar mechanisms for membrane targeting and assembly. (frontiersin.org)
  • Rubella virus (RV) is a leading cause of birth defects due to infectious agents. (pnas.org)
  • We used synthetic biology methods to first build an infectious clone of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome using yeast homologous recombination. (jcvi.org)
  • Genome-wide engineering of an infectious clone of herpes simplex virus type 1 using synthetic genomics assembly methods. (jcvi.org)
  • Altogether, our results showed that assembly of MLV could occur in part in intracellular compartments of infected murine cells and participate in the production of infectious viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These compounds were investigated for their anti-HCV activities using genotype 2a JFH-1 subgenomic replicons and infectious virus systems. (nature.com)
  • Altogether, these findings shed light on a potential new role for major PM phospholipids and may provide new insight into a possible alternative mechanism for Gag assembly in retroviruses lacking the myr group or PI(4,5)P2 requirement. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mechanism was reviewed last year and the World Health Assembly is expected to discuss issues such as how to deal with the sharing of the genetic information of viruses instead of their biological samples, the possible revision of the industry financial contribution to the framework, and whether the mechanism should be extended to other influenza virus, not only those with pandemic potential. (ip-watch.org)
  • This mechanism would be advantageous, both to quickly combine the basic virus components, but also to ensure selectivity of the genome and correct possible assembly errors. (u-psud.fr)
  • In this proposal we will develop and test new assembly effectors and determine the mechanism(s) by which they act. (grantome.com)
  • Based on these observations, a plausible mechanism of assembly is proposed. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Some researchers believe that understanding capsid self-assembly could present new ways to fight disease by disrupting virus reproduction. (learner.org)
  • Their lifecycles include a range of processes, such as specific genome encapsidation and efficient capsid self-assembly. (pnas.org)
  • I mean, that's self-assembly with a vengeance. (webofstories.com)
  • In addition to providing a rapid, inexpensive and convenient system to produce, protect and recover chimeric gene transcripts of any length or sequence, this E. coli system also offers a rapid approach for studying the molecular requirements for plant virus "self-assembly" in vivo. (springer.com)
  • We anticipate that our approach using recognition as well as a liquid crystalline self-assembly system of engineered viruses may provide new pathways to organizing electronic, optical, and magnetic materials. (utexas.edu)
  • The self-assembly feature enhances biodistribution and the half-life of the peptides, while integration into the target cell membrane increases fusion inhibitor potency. (osu.edu)
  • Interestingly, none of these potyviral CPs were expressed as a fusion to a Histidine tag, perhaps based on the rationale that this tag would compromise CP self-assembly. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Collectively, our results will facilitate the understanding of viral morphogenesis in RSV and other pleomorphic enveloped viruses. (gatech.edu)
  • Morphogenesis of RSV is dependent upon cholesterol-rich (lipid raft) membrane microdomains, but the specific role of individual raft molecules in RSV assembly is not well defined. (biologists.org)
  • These studies solved a longstanding mystery on how a virus discovered a century ago utilizes the plasma membrane of the host cell to replicate," Saad said. (newswise.com)
  • What is even more remarkable is how ASV and HIV-1 share very similar structural features that drive membrane targeting and assembly. (newswise.com)
  • Jiri Vlach et al, Structural basis for targeting avian sarcoma virus Gag polyprotein to the plasma membrane for virus assembly, Journal of Biological Chemistry (2018). (phys.org)
  • African Swine Fever Virus: Transport From Perinuclear Assembly Sites to The Plasma Membrane. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Altogether, these data suggest that ASFV transport from assembly sites to the plasma membrane involves at least four mechanisms: microtubule-based motility, transport along cortical actin filaments, actin polymerisation from the plasma membrane and bi-directional movement along pre-existing projections. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) assembly has been long thought to occur exclusively at the plasma membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By using a combination of light and electron microscopy techniques we study the 3D architecture of these virus-induced membrane alterations and try to identify functional sub-compartments. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Plant and animal viruses can enter through endocytosis, in which the cell membrane surrounds and engulfs the entire virus. (oercommons.org)
  • Some enveloped viruses enter the cell when the viral envelope fuses directly with the cell membrane. (oercommons.org)
  • The complete virus particle, called a virion, leaves the host cell by budding and using a part of its host cell's membrane as the envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • The E2 protein's cytoplasmic domain interacts with the nucleocapsid of the virus, while its ectodomain binds to receptors on the surface of the host membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • These insights open up the opportunity to block or repurpose PS function in assembly for both novel antiviral therapy and gene/drug/vaccine applications. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • UNITED NATIONS (AP) --The president of the U.N. General Assembly is warning that a vaccine for COVID-19 must be made available to everyone who needs it because if just one country is left out the world will still face a crisis from the coronavirus. (dtnpf.com)
  • This controversy began toward the end of 2006, when Indonesia decided not to share influenza A virus (H5N1) samples with WHO for risk assessment (e.g., surveillance) or risk management (e.g., vaccine development) purposes. (cdc.gov)
  • Indonesia's decision reportedly stemmed from its reaction to an Australian company's development of an avian influenza vaccine derived from a virus strain that Indonesia provided to WHO ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Since no effective vaccine is available for the two virus subtypes, comprehensive understanding of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 genetic and epidemic features is important for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 infections. (plos.org)
  • We observed a strong correlation between assembly kinetics and antiviral effect in cultured cells. (grantome.com)
  • We have demonstrated that interfering with assembly of the viral capsid can be an effective antiviral strategy. (grantome.com)
  • Viruses in turn have developed strategies to cope with this innate antiviral response. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Taken together, these findings show that kinases produced by host cells can control the ability of viruses to replicate by modifying the viral nucleoproteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • HBV is a noncytopathic DNA virus that specifically enters hepatocytes through the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) receptor to replicate and produce virion progeny ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Viruses have developed a wide range of strategies to escape from the host cells in which they replicate. (pasteur.fr)
  • Cells that a virus may use to replicate are called permissive . (oercommons.org)
  • The permissive cell must make the substances that the virus needs or the virus will not be able to replicate there. (oercommons.org)
  • A virus must use cell processes to replicate. (oercommons.org)
  • Hybrid genome assembly resulted in a decrease in the number of contigs in 6 out of 7 samples and an increase in N(G)50 and N(G)75 of all 7 samples sequenced by both technologies. (nanoporetech.com)
  • Genome assembly is considered to be a challenging problem in computational biology, and has been studied extensively by many researchers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bringing these reads all together in order to reconstruct the original sequence (the genome) is commonly known as the (whole-) genome assembly problem. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MOTIVATION: An accurate genome assembly from short read sequencing data is critical for downstream analysis, for example allowing investigation of variants within a sequenced population. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Wright, Ke, and colleagues decided to examine virus-infected cells directly a couple years ago, after working with purified viruses for a long time. (eurekalert.org)
  • For influenza virus, nucleoprotein (NP) non-specifically binds nucleic acids and spontaneously oligomerizes. (prolekare.cz)
  • 1994 "The nucleoprotein of marburg virus is phosphorylated. (lens.org)
  • My laboratory uses cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and correlative microscopy approaches to explore the structure and function of bacteria, viruses and human cells. (researchschool.nl)
  • Here, electron microscopy (EM) associated with immunolabeling approaches were used to go deeply into the assembly of the "prototypic" MLV in chronically infected NIH3T3 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the issues expected to be discussed at the World Health Assembly next week is the proportional division of funds between pandemic preparedness measures and response activities, according to the secretariat's report [pdf]. (ip-watch.org)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is the most recent emerging arbovirus with pandemic potential. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • UNITED NATIONS - The United Nations General Assembly has rejected two resolutions on the coronavirus pandemic, one from Russia and the other from Saudi Arabia. (southernstandard.com)
  • Under new voting rules instituted because the assembly isn't holding meetings during the pandemic, a draft resolution is circulated to member nations. (southernstandard.com)
  • Aquatic birds represent a vast reservoir from which new pandemic influenza A viruses can emerge1. (flu.org.cn)
  • Muhammad-Bande was interviewed on the day that ambassadors from the 193 U.N. member nations attended their first in-person plenary meeting in the General Assembly chamber since the pandemic forced diplomats from the world body to work remotely. (dtnpf.com)
  • Researchers at MIT have enlisted viruses to help assemble solar cells and improve their performance. (tgdaily.com)
  • The virus' survival is partly based on its ability to self-assemble quickly and flawlessly in the host cell. (u-psud.fr)
  • f-assembly, via controlled solvent evaporation, was exploited as a facile route to assemble TMV onto the glass surfaces. (tufts.edu)
  • Genetically engineered M13 bacteriphage (viruses) were used to self-assemble various nanomaterials (ZnS, Au, fluorescein, and phycoerythrin) into films and fibers. (utexas.edu)
  • Such RNAs have the potential for efficient production of stable virus-like particle vaccines and/or gene/drug delivery vehicles. (pnas.org)
  • Real-time NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy reveals biphasic assembly kinetics. (nih.gov)
  • The models provide complementary information in support of a common conclusion that the ability of simple pathway models to adequately explain capsid assembly kinetics varies considerably across the space of biologically meaningful assembly parameters. (hindawi.com)
  • This simultaneously ensures specific genome packaging and efficient virion assembly via an RNA-encoded instruction manual. (pnas.org)
  • We discuss the likely roles of the TLS in early stages of virion assembly. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Ebola virus causes devastating hemorrhagic fever outbreaks for which no approved therapeutic exists. (nature.com)
  • Ebola virus (EBOV), which belongs to the family Filoviridae and the order Mononegavirales , is the causative agent of severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and has been responsible for several large outbreaks throughout Africa, with case fatality rates reaching as high as 90% 1 . (nature.com)
  • Nevertheless, despite the significant public health threat posed by this virus, there are still no approved and fully-licensed vaccines or therapeutics to treat Ebola virus disease. (nature.com)
  • 1996 "Marburg and ebola viruses. (lens.org)
  • 2001 "Ebola virus VP40-induced particle formation and association with the lipid bilayer. (lens.org)
  • Speaker Anthony Rendon's office confirmed five people who work in the state Assembly have tested positive for the coronavirus. (ktvu.com)
  • The World Health Assembly has voted to conduct an independent review of the global coronavirus response following Australia's calls for a probe. (news.com.au)
  • The World Health Assembly (WHA) has passed a motion to conduct an independent review of the global coronavirus response, including the source of the virus and how it was transmitted to humans. (news.com.au)
  • A coronavirus outbreak in the California Legislature has indefinitely delayed the state Assembly's return to work from a scheduled summer recess, highlighting the rapid spread of the virus in a state that has imposed new restrictions on bars and restaurants following a surge of cases and hospitalizations.Speaker Anthony Rendon's office confirmed five people who work in the state Assembly have tested positive for the coronavirus. (kcra.com)
  • Several political parties in Bihar want the assembly election in the state to be postponed due to the ongoing coronavirus and the flood situation. (news18.com)
  • RNA-Mediated Virus Assembly: Mechanisms and Consequences for Viral Evolution and Therapy. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Written by experts in their field, Virus Structure and Assembly summarizes our current state of knowledge in the field of virus structure and assembly, comparing and contrasting the mechanisms adopted by viruses with a wide diversity of genome and host. (ark.no)
  • This study has investigated the mechanisms by which ASFV reaches the cell surface from these perinuclear assembly sites. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Recombinant DNA clones were constructed in order to study the mechanisms of proteolytic processing and assembly in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Viruses, in turn, have evolved mechanisms to counter the host's innate immune response by inhibiting the interferon response. (utmb.edu)
  • They've found that a genetically engineered version of a virus called M13, which normally infects bacteria, can be used to control the arrangement of the nanotubes on a surface. (tgdaily.com)
  • JNJ-632, BAY41-4109, and AT130 were incubated at a final concentration of 30 μM together with the recombinant assembly domain (aa 1 to 149) of HBV core for 24 h in the presence of 150 mM NaCl and separated using size exclusion chromatography. (asm.org)
  • The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is an RNA virus that infects a variety of bean. (u-psud.fr)
  • Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family, genus Hepacivirus , which causes acute and chronic liver diseases. (peerj.com)
  • Instead, we grow and infect the cells directly on the grids we use for microscopy, and rapidly freeze them, right at the stage when they are forming new viruses," Ke says. (eurekalert.org)
  • HEp2, A549, and Vbac cells were infected with the ΔSH and ΔF viruses, both of which contain GFP. (hindawi.com)
  • By contrast, no measurable difference in SG assembly was observed between mock and ZIKV-infected cells treated with sodium selenite (Se) or Pateamine A (PatA), compounds that trigger eIF2α-independent SG assembly. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • On day five, pipette the cells and virus-containing medium up and down or use a cell scraper to scrape all the cells. (jove.com)
  • Assembly of G1 and G2 glycoprotein oligomers in Punta Toro virus-infected cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To elucidate the principles governing paramyxovirus assembly and budding, we used cryo-ET to directly visualize MeV-infected human-derived cells. (gatech.edu)
  • In this study, we have used cryo-ET to study the morphology and assembly of RSV from infected human cells in its close-to-native state. (gatech.edu)
  • I will also present results of our cryo-EM methods development as applied to studies of cells and viruses. (researchschool.nl)
  • By whole-cell electron cryotomography, we monitored morphological changes in virus-infected host cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • Viruses can infect only certain species of hosts and only certain cells within that host. (oercommons.org)
  • However, the damage to the cells that the virus infects may make it impossible for the cells to function normally, even though the cells remain alive for a period of time. (oercommons.org)
  • The specificity of this interaction determines the host-and the cells within the host-that can be infected by a particular virus. (oercommons.org)
  • Shortly after the first purification of virus by Stanley (1935), structural studies were begun using the methods of biochemistry (Bawden and Pirie, 1937) and X-ray diffraction (Bernal and Fankuchen, 1941). (springer.com)
  • For structural studies, researchers usually concentrate and purify viruses by centrifuging them through thick solutions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because of the inherent heterogeneity, the structural studies of these two viruses have not been well explored until recent years. (gatech.edu)
  • The restriction factor Fv1 confers resistance to murine leukemia virus (MLV), blocking progression of the viral life cycle after reverse transcription, but before integration into the host chromosome. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • Since the virus has a helical structure (Watson, 1954) and forms highly ordered gels rather than single crystals, the three-dimensional structure must be determined by deconvolution from two-dimensional diffraction patterns of the virus gels which are azimuthally disordered. (springer.com)
  • Other viruses, such as the virus that causes rabies, are helical (rod shaped). (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are some common laboratory strains, which have provided valuable information on the biology of the viruses. (jcvi.org)
  • Moreover, we showed that these critical phosphorylation sites play the same role in influenza B virus and are likely present in influenza C and D viruses, suggesting our results are broadly applicable across viral strains and genera and reveal a global regulatory strategy for Orthomyxoviridae. (prolekare.cz)
  • Our results have demonstrated that RSV is filamentous across several virus strains and cell lines by cryo-ET, cryo-immuno EM, and thin sectioning TEM techniques. (gatech.edu)
  • By including the Dengue virus into our research portfolio, we are able to compare how a persistent (HCV) and an acute lytic virus (DENV) deal with the host cell. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • We have earlier shown that Dengue virus (DENV) induces invaginations of ER membranes (Welsch et al. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Here, we examine that question with respect to viral capsid assembly by studying the 'pathway complexity' of model capsid assembly systems, which we informally define as the number of reaction pathways and intermediates one must consider to accurately describe a given system. (hindawi.com)
  • Assembly Pharmaceuticals was formed in 2012 to develop drugs based on the breakthrough science of co-founder and Indiana University professor Adam Zlotnick, PhD. Dr. Zlotnick is a pioneer in the biophysics of viral capsid assembly. (biocrossroads.com)