The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Diseases of plants.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.
Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Antibiotic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.
A human and animal pathogen causing mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and bacteremia.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.
An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A species of halophilic bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which lives in warm SEAWATER. It can cause infections in those who eat raw contaminated seafood or have open wounds exposed to seawater.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod- to coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that occurs in a broad spectrum of habitats.
Infections with bacteria of the species YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.
Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.
The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Infections with bacteria of the family BACTEROIDACEAE.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
A species of EDWARDSIELLA distinguished by its hydrogen sulfide production. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A species of gram-negative bacteria, primarily infecting SWINE, but it can also infect humans, DOGS, and HARES.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is pathogenic for plants.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.

Import of DNA into mammalian nuclei by proteins originating from a plant pathogenic bacterium. (1/5284)

Import of DNA into mammalian nuclei is generally inefficient. Therefore, one of the current challenges in human gene therapy is the development of efficient DNA delivery systems. Here we tested whether bacterial proteins could be used to target DNA to mammalian cells. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a plant pathogen, efficiently transfers DNA as a nucleoprotein complex to plant cells. Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transfer to plant cells is the only known example for interkingdom DNA transfer and is widely used for plant transformation. Agrobacterium virulence proteins VirD2 and VirE2 perform important functions in this process. We reconstituted complexes consisting of the bacterial virulence proteins VirD2, VirE2, and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in vitro. These complexes were tested for import into HeLa cell nuclei. Import of ssDNA required both VirD2 and VirE2 proteins. A VirD2 mutant lacking its C-terminal nuclear localization signal was deficient in import of the ssDNA-protein complexes into nuclei. Import of VirD2-ssDNA-VirE2 complexes was fast and efficient, and was shown to depended on importin alpha, Ran, and an energy source. We report here that the bacterium-derived and plant-adapted protein-DNA complex, made in vitro, can be efficiently imported into mammalian nuclei following the classical importin-dependent nuclear import pathway. This demonstrates the potential of our approach to enhance gene transfer to animal cells.  (+info)

Evidence for a structural motif in toxins and interleukin-2 that may be responsible for binding to endothelial cells and initiating vascular leak syndrome. (2/5284)

The dose-limiting toxicity of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and immunotoxin (IT) therapy in humans is vascular leak syndrome (VLS). VLS has a complex etiology involving damage to vascular endothelial cells (ECs), extravasation of fluids and proteins, interstitial edema, and organ failure. IL-2 and ITs prepared with the catalytic A chain of the plant toxin, ricin (RTA), and other toxins, damage human ECs in vitro and in vivo. Damage to ECs may initiate VLS; if this damage could be avoided without losing the efficacy of ITs or IL-2, larger doses could be administered. In this paper, we provide evidence that a three amino acid sequence motif, (x)D(y), in toxins and IL-2 damages ECs. Thus, when peptides from RTA or IL-2 containing this sequence motif are coupled to mouse IgG, they bind to and damage ECs both in vitro and, in the case of RTA, in vivo. In contrast, the same peptides with a deleted or mutated sequence do not. Furthermore, the peptide from RTA attached to mouse IgG can block the binding of intact RTA to ECs in vitro and vice versa. In addition, RTA, a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38-lys), and fibronectin also block the binding of the mouse IgG-RTA peptide to ECs, suggesting that an (x)D(y) motif is exposed on all three molecules. Our results suggest that deletions or mutations in this sequence or the use of nondamaging blocking peptides may increase the therapeutic index of both IL-2, as well as ITs prepared with a variety of plant or bacterial toxins.  (+info)

Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor interacts with mouse blastocysts independently of ErbB1: a possible role for heparan sulfate proteoglycans and ErbB4 in blastocyst implantation. (3/5284)

Blastocyst implantation requires molecular and cellular interactions between the uterine luminal epithelium and blastocyst trophectoderm. We have previously shown that heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is induced in the mouse luminal epithelium solely at the site of blastocyst apposition at 16:00 hours on day 4 of pregnancy prior to the attachment reaction (22:00-23:00 hours), and that HB-EGF promotes blastocyst growth, zona-hatching and trophoblast outgrowth. To delineate which EGF receptors participate in blastocyst activation, the toxicity of chimeric toxins composed of HB-EGF or TGF-(&agr;) coupled to Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) were used as measures of receptor expression. TGF-(&agr;) or HB-EGF binds to EGF-receptor (ErbB1), while HB-EGF, in addition, binds to ErbB4. The results indicate that ErbB1 is inefficient in mediating TGF-(&agr;)-PE or HB-EGF-PE toxicity as follows: (i) TGF-(&agr;)-PE was relatively inferior in killing blastocysts, 100-fold less than HB-EGF-PE, (ii) analysis of blastocysts isolated from cross-bred egfr+/- mice demonstrated that HB-EGF-PE, but not TGF-(&agr;)-PE, killed egfr-/- blastocysts, and (iii) blastocysts that survived TGF-(&agr;)-PE were nevertheless killed by HB-EGF-PE. HB-EGF-PE toxicity was partially mediated by cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), since a peptide corresponding to the heparin-binding domain of HB-EGF as well as heparitinase treatment protected the blastocysts from the toxic effects of HB-EGF-PE by about 40%. ErbB4 is a candidate for being an HB-EGF-responsive receptor since RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that day 4 mouse blastocysts express two different erbB4 isoforms and immunostaining with anti-ErbB4 antibodies confirmed that ErbB4 protein is expressed at the apical surface of the trophectoderm cells. It is concluded that (i) HB-EGF interacts with the blastocyst cell surface via high-affinity receptors other than ErbB1, (ii) the HB-EGF interaction with high-affinity blastocysts receptors is regulated by heparan sulfate, and (iii) ErbB4 is a candidate for being a high-affinity receptor for HB-EGF on the surface of implantation-competent blastocysts.  (+info)

Prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by elimination of recipient-reactive donor T cells with recombinant toxins that target the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor. (4/5284)

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), due to the presence of recipient-reactive T cells, limits the usefulness of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is a major contributor to patient mortality. To prevent GVHD, murine and human T cells were activated by antigen or mitogens and treated with a genetically engineered form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) directed against the IL-2 receptor. Treatment with the chimeric toxin eliminated alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) as determined by cytotoxicity and mixed lymphocyte culture assays. Precursor frequencies of alloreactive cytotoxic T cells and proliferative T cells were reduced up to 100-fold as shown by limiting dilution assays. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that treatment with the chimeric toxin completely eliminated CD25+ cells from the cultures. Toxin treatment had no significant effect on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells as determined in vitro by colony-forming assays and in vivo by long-term hematopoietic recovery after 950 rad irradiation. Toxin treatment decreased GVHD in transplanted mice to less than 10% (as compared to 88% in untreated controls). Thus, it is possible to prevent life-threatening GVHD after BMT by using a CD25 receptor-directed toxin to eliminate host-reactive T cells from bone marrow grafts.  (+info)

Suppression of metastasis formation by a recombinant single chain antibody-toxin targeted to full-length and oncogenic variant EGF receptors. (5/5284)

Cytotoxic strategies which are directed to tumor-associated antigens might be most beneficial for cancer patients with minimal tumor load such as in an adjuvant setting after initial therapy. We have recently described a highly potent single chain antibody-toxin, scFv(14E1)-ETA, which consists of the variable domains of the antibody 14E1 genetically fused to a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A. ScFv(14E1)-ETA specifically recognizes the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the oncogenically activated receptor variant EGFRvIII, which have been implicated in the development of various human malignancies. Here we have investigated the antimetastatic activity of bacterially expressed scFv(14E1)-ETA and its disulfide-stabilized derivative ds-scFv(14E1)-ETA in a novel model for disseminated disease which is based on murine renal carcinoma cells subsequently transfected with the E. coli beta-galactosidase gene, and human full-length or variant EGFR cDNAs. Intravenous injection of these Renca-lacZ/EGFR and Renca-lacZ/EGFRvIII cells in syngenic Balb/c mice led to the formation of pulmonary metastases which were readily detectable upon excision of the lungs and X-gal staining. Systemic treatment of mice with scFv(14E1)-ETA resulted in the complete suppression of Renca-lacZ/EGFRvIII metastasis formation and drastically reduced the number of pulmonary Renca-lacZ/EGFR tumor nodules. The ds-scFv(14E1)-ETA derivative where the antibody variable regions are connected by an artificial disulfide bond displayed improved thermal stability at physiological temperature but due to reduced cytotoxic activity was less potent than the original scFv(14E1)-ETA in metastasis suppression.  (+info)

Endoprotease PACE4 is Ca2+-dependent and temperature-sensitive and can partly rescue the phenotype of a furin-deficient cell strain. (6/5284)

PACE4 is a member of the eukaryotic subtilisin-like endoprotease family. The expression of human PACE4 in RPE.40 cells (furin-null mutants derived from Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells) resulted in the rescue of a number of wild-type characteristics, including sensitivity to Sindbis virus and the ability to process the low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Expression of PACE4 in these cells failed to restore wild-type sensitivity to Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Co-expression of human PACE4 in these cells with either a secreted form of the human insulin pro-receptor or the precursor form of von Willebrand factor resulted in both proproteins being processed; RPE.40 cells were unable to process either precursor protein in the absence of co-expressed PACE4. Northern analysis demonstrated that untransfected RPE.40 cells express mRNA species for four PACE4 isoforms, suggesting that any endogenous PACE4 proteins produced by these cells are either non-functional or sequestered in a compartment outside of the secretory pathway. In experiments in vitro, PACE4 processed diphtheria toxin and anthrax toxin protective antigen, but not Pseudomonas exotoxin A. The activity of PACE4 in vitro was Ca2+-dependent and, unlike furin, was sensitive to temperature changes between 22 and 37 degrees C. RPE.40 cells stably expressing human PACE4 secreted an endoprotease with the same Ca2+ dependence and temperature sensitivity as that observed in membrane fractions of these cells assayed in vitro. These results, in conjunction with other published work, demonstrate that PACE4 is an endoprotease with more stringent substrate specificity and more limited operating parameters than furin.  (+info)

Extrahepatic synthesis of plasminogen in the human cornea is up-regulated by interleukins-1alpha and -1beta. (7/5284)

The avascular cornea has limited access to plasma proteins, including plasminogen, a protein that is synthesized by the liver and supplied to most tissues via the blood. Recent experiments by others using plasminogen-deficient mice revealed the importance of plasmin, the active form of plasminogen, for the maintenance of the normal cornea and for corneal wound healing [Kao, Kao, Bugge, Kaufman, Kombrinck, Converse, Good and Degan (1998) Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39, 502-508; Drew, Kaufman, Kombrinck, Danton, Daugherty, Degen and Bugge (1998) Blood 91, 1616-1624]. In the present experiments, plasmin was identified as a major serine proteinase in the human cornea. The major plasminogen and plasmin forms on non-reducing zymograms and Western blots had Mr values of 76x10(3) and 85x10(3), with minor forms of Mr 200x10(3), 135x10(3), 68x10(3) and 45x10(3). Angiostatin-like peptides with Mrs of 48x10(3), 45x10(3) and 38x10(3) were observed which bound to lysine-Sepharose and reacted with anti-plasminogen monoclonal antibodies directed towards kringle domains 1-3 of plasminogen. The cornea contained 1.1+/-0.15 microgram of plasminogen+plasmin/cornea, or 0.54+/-0.05 microgram of plasminogen+plasmin/mg of protein. Cornea conditioned medium contained nine times the amount of plasminogen+plasmin that could be extracted from the cornea. These data suggested that corneal cells, unlike most extrahepatic cells, synthesize plasminogen. The synthesis of plasminogen by the cornea was confirmed by immunoprecipitation of metabolically labelled plasminogen, sequencing of its cDNA obtained by reverse transcriptase-PCR and inhibition of protein synthesis. Interleukins-1alpha and -1beta stimulated corneal plasminogen synthesis 2-3-fold; however, interleukin-6 decreased corneal plasminogen synthesis by approx. 40% at early times after addition of the cytokine. By 24 h of culture, no differences were noted in the presence and absence of interleukin-6. Thus the cornea can synthesize plasminogen and regulate its synthesis in response to its environment, including cytokines induced in the cornea by injury and inflammation. Therefore the cornea can control the amount of plasminogen, the precursor of both plasmin and angiostatin.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of a flagellar export locus of Helicobacter pylori. (8/5284)

Motility of Helicobacter species has been shown to be essential for successful colonization of the host. We have investigated the organization of a flagellar export locus in Helicobacter pylori. A 7-kb fragment of the H. pylori CCUG 17874 genome was cloned and sequenced, revealing an operon comprising an open reading frame of unknown function (ORF03), essential housekeeping genes (ileS and murB), flagellar export genes (fliI and fliQ), and a homolog to a gene implicated in virulence factor transport in other pathogens (virB11). A promoter for this operon, showing similarity to the Escherichia coli sigma70 consensus, was identified by primer extension. Cotranscription of the genes in the operon was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR, and transcription of virB11, fliI, fliQ, and murB was detected in human or mouse biopsies obtained from infected hosts. The genetic organization of this locus was conserved in a panel of H. pylori clinical isolates. Engineered fliI and fliQ mutant strains were completely aflagellate and nonmotile, whereas a virB11 mutant still produced flagella. The fliI and fliQ mutant strains produced reduced levels of flagellin and the hook protein FlgE. Production of OMP4, a member of the outer membrane protein family identified in H. pylori 26695, was reduced in both the virB11 mutant and the fliI mutant, suggesting related functions of the virulence factor export protein (VirB11) and the flagellar export component (FliI).  (+info)

to the scientific community. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the research that has been conducted over the first 25 years to identify 394 known or putative virulence factor genes present in the genomes of E. coli O157:H7 strains. Finally, an examination of the conservation of these 394 virulence factor genes across additional genomes of E. coli O157:H7 is provided which summarizes the first 25 years and 13 genomes of this human pathogen. Advances in Microbiology, 4, 390-423. Holly A. Reiland, Morrine A. Omolo, Timothy J. Johnson, and David J. Baumler. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=46371#.U4XdzRYqbSt. ...
Msadek, T., Kunst, F., Henner, D., Klier, A., Rapoport, G., Dedonder, R. (1990) Signal transduction pathway controlling synthesis of a class of degradative enzymes in Bacillus subtilis : expression of the regulatory genes and analysis of mutations in degS and degU. J Bacteriol 172: 824-834. ...
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nanoscale proteoliposomes secreted from the cell envelope of all Gram-negative bacteria. Originally considered as an artifact of the cell wall, OMVs are now recognized as a general secretion system, which serves to improve the fitness of bacteria and facilitate bacterial interactions in polymicrobial communities as well as interactions between the microbe and the host. In general, OMVs are released in increased amounts from pathogenic bacteria and have been found to harbor much of the contents of the parental bacterium. They mainly encompass components of the outer membrane and the periplasm including various virulence factors such as toxins, adhesins, and immunomodulatory molecules. Numerous studies have clearly shown that the delivery of toxins and other virulence factors via OMVs essentially influences their interactions with host cells. Here, we review the OMV-mediated intracellular deployment of toxins and other virulence factors with a special focus on intestinal
PLOS Pathogens publishes Open Access research and commentary that significantly advance the understanding of pathogens and how they interact with host organisms. Get Started ...
Ahmed Ali Al-Tufaili*, Dr. Falah Salim Manhal, Dr. Ahlam Kadhem Naeem. ABSTRACT. Background: The generally accepted hypothesis today is that UPEC involved from nonpathogenic strains by acquiring new virulence factor from accessory DNA horizontal transfer located at the chromosome or plasmid level. Aim of study: investigate the genetic determination of some pathogenicity-associated virulence factors (PAVFs) genes such as fimH, hlyA and iucC genes in UPEC and capability of transferring of them from UPEC to related and non related species such as E.coli JM 109 and P. aeruginosa as well as evaluation of genes transferring effeciency. Method: During the period from May 2014 to November 2014.a total of 290 samples has been collected from patients suffering from Urinary tract infections (170 samples) and burn infections (120 samples) from Alzahraa and Alsadr teaching Hospital as well as private clinics analytical laboratories and Central Health Laboratory in Al-Najaf Al- Ashraf City Results: seventy ...
c-Jun is a member of the early mammalian transcriptional regulators belonging to the AP-1 family, which participates in a wide range of cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, and differentiation. Despite its established role in cell survival upon stress, its participation in the stress response induced by bacterial infections has been poorly investigated. To study the potential role of c-Jun in this context we choose the widely studied α-toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus, a pore-forming toxin that is a critical virulence factor in the pathogenesis of these bacteria. We analyzed the effect of α-toxin treatment in the activation, expression, and protein levels of c-Jun in A549 lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, we explored the role of c-Jun in the cellular fate after exposure to α-toxin. Our results show that staphylococcal α-toxin per se is able to activate c-Jun by inducing phosphorylation of its Serine 73 residue. Silencing of the JNK (c-Jun N-terminal Kinase)
Authors: Jinoh Kim, Ajitha Thanabalasuriar, Tessa Chaworth-Musters, J Chris Fromme, Elizabeth A Frey, Paula I Lario, Pavel Metalnikov, Keyrillos Rizg, Nikhil A Thomas, Sau Fung Lee, Elizabeth L Hartland, Philip R Hardwidge, Tony Pawson, Natalie C Strynadka, B Brett Finlay, Randy Schekman, Samantha Gruenheid
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BioCentrum is a privately-owned biotechnology service and product provider. The company conducts its own research, development and implementation projects in the area of microbiology and protein chemistry. The special interest is focused on bacterial virulence factors as potential therapeutic targets for drug development and on antibacterial peptides exerting an antibiotic activity.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Discovery of Salmonella virulence factors translocated via outer membrane vesicles to murine macrophages. AU - Yoon, Hyunjin. AU - Ansong, Charles. AU - Adkins, Joshua N.. AU - Heffron, Fred. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, an intracellular pathogen and leading cause of food-borne illness, encodes a plethora of virulence effectors. Salmonella virulence factors are translocated into host cells and manipulate host cellular activities, providing a more hospitable environment for bacterial proliferation. In this study, we report a new set of virulence factors that is translocated into the host cytoplasm via bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMV). PagK (or PagK1), PagJ, and STM2585A (or PagK2) are small proteins composed of ~70 amino acids and have high sequence homology to each other (,85% identity). Salmonella lacking all three homologues was attenuated for virulence in a mouse infection model, suggesting at least partial functional ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors using a silkworm model. AU - Miyazaki, Shinya. AU - Matsumoto, Yasuhiko. AU - Sekimizu, Kazuhisa. AU - Kaito, Chikara. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Previous studies have indicated that the silkworm model is useful for identifying virulence genes of Staphylococcus aureus, a human pathogenic bacterium. Here we examined the scope of S. aureus virulence factors that can be evaluated using the silkworm model. Gene-disrupted mutants of the agr locus, arlS gene and saeS gene, which regulate the expression of cell surface adhesins and hemolysins, exhibited attenuated virulence in silkworms. Mutants of the hla gene encoding α-hemolysin, the hlb gene encoding β-hemolysin, and the psmα and psmβ operons encoding cytolysins, however, showed virulence in silkworms indistinguishable from that of the parent strain. Thus, these S. aureus cytolysins are not required for virulence in silkworms. In contrast, the gene-disrupted mutants ...
FIG. 1. Immunoprecipitation studies with anti-VirB6, anti-VirB7, and anti-VirB9 antisera. (A) Isolation of VirB protein complexes from detergent-solubilized membrane extracts of wild-type A348. (B) VirB complexes isolated from PC1000(pSJB610). Lanes: αB6, αB7, and αB9, anti-VirB antisera; PI, preimmune serum; PA, protein A Sepharose (these were all used for precipitation); Sol. Prot., solubilized starting material for the precipitations; MW, molecular weight markers, with sizes in kilodaltons shown at left. Blots were probed with antiserum to the VirB proteins listed at the right. The cross-reactive material in the blot developed with anti-VirB10 antiserum is heavy-chain IgG, but native VirB10 (48 kDa) and VirB10′ (40 kDa) derived from translation from an internal Met were clearly distinguished from this background in the immunoblots. The IgG light chain also was immunoreactive and formed a nonspecific background in blots developed with the anti-VirB6, -VirB8, and -VirB9 antisera. ...
Bacterial pathogens regulate virulence factor expression at both the level of transcription initiation and mRNA processing/turnover. Within Staphylococcus aureus, virulence factor transcript synthesis is regulated by a number of two-component regulatory systems, the DNA binding protein SarA, and the SarA family of homologues. However, little is known about the factors that modulate mRNA stability or influence transcript degradation within the organism. As our entree to characterizing these processes, S. aureus GeneChips were used to simultaneously determine the mRNA half-lives of all transcripts produced during log-phase growth. It was found that the majority of log-phase transcripts (90%) have a short half-life (|5 min), whereas others are more stable, suggesting that cis- and/or trans-acting factors influence S. aureus mRNA stability. In support of this, it was found that two virulence factor transcripts, cna and spa, were stabilized in a sarA-dependent manner. These results were validated by
virB11, one of the 11 genes of the virB operon, is absolutely required for transport of T-DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens into plant cells. Previous studies reported that VirB11 is an ATPase with autophosphorylation activity and localizes to the inner membrane even though the protein does not contain the consensus N-terminal export sequence. In this report, we show that VirB11 localizes to the inner membrane even in the absence of other tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid-encoded proteins. To facilitate the further characterization of VirB11, we purified this protein from the soluble fraction of an Escherichia coli extract by fusing VirB11 to the maltose-binding protein. The maltose-binding protein-VirB11 fusion was able to complement a virB11 deletion mutant of A. tumefaciens for tumor formation and also localized properly to the inner membrane of A. tumefaciens. The 72-kDa protein, purified from E. coli, exhibited no autophosphorylation, ATPase activity, or ATP-binding activity. To study the ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Arsenic atom in PDB 2vs0: Structural Analysis of Homodimeric Staphylococcal Aureus Virulence Factor Esxa
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Given that antibiotics are losing effectiveness faster than replacements are being found, chemist Timothy Wencewicz suggests we try a new approach. Drugs that hobble the production of virulence factors, small molecules that help bacteria to establish an infection in a host, would put much less selective pressure on bacteria and delay the evolution of resistance. In Infectious Diseases he describes recent work on a target virulence factor.
Knowledge of toxins, virulence factors and antibiotic resistance genes is essential for bio-defense applications aimed at identifying functional signatures for characterizing emerging or engineered pathogens. Whereas genetic signatures identify a pathogen, functional signatures identify what a pathogen is capable of. To facilitate rapid identification of sequences and characterization of genes for signature discovery, we have collected all publicly available (as of this writing), organized sequences representing known toxins, virulence factors, and antibiotic resistance genes in one convenient database, which we believe will be of use to the bio-defense research community. MvirDB integrates DNA and protein sequence information from Tox-Prot, SCORPION, the PRINTS virulence factors, VFDB, TVFac, Islander, ARGO and a subset of VIDA. Entries in MvirDB are hyperlinked back to their original sources. A blast tool allows the user to blast against all DNA or protein sequences in MvirDB, and a browser ...
Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as one of the major agents of dairy cow intra-mammary infections. This microorganism can express a wide spectrum of pathogenic factors used to attach, colonize, invade and infect the host. The present study evaluated 120 isolates from eight different countries that were genotyped by RS-PCR and investigated for 26 different virulence factors to increase the knowledge on the circulating genetic lineages among the cow population with mastitis. New genotypes were observed for South African strains while for all the other countries new variants of existing genotypes were detected. For each country, a specific genotypic pattern was found. Among the virulence factors, fmtB, cna, clfA and leucocidins genes were the most frequent. The sea and sei genes were present in seven out of eight countries; seh showed high frequency in South American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Argentina), while sel was harboured especially in one Mediterranean country (Tunisia). The ...
Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as one of the major agents of dairy cow intra-mammary infections. This microorganism can express a wide spectrum of pathogenic factors used to attach, colonize, invade and infect the host. The present study evaluated 120 isolates from eight different countries that were genotyped by RS-PCR and investigated for 26 different virulence factors to increase the knowledge on the circulating genetic lineages among the cow population with mastitis. New genotypes were observed for South African strains while for all the other countries new variants of existing genotypes were detected. For each country, a specific genotypic pattern was found. Among the virulence factors, fmtB, cna, clfA and leucocidins genes were the most frequent. The sea and sei genes were present in seven out of eight countries; seh showed high frequency in South American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Argentina), while sel was harboured especially in one Mediterranean country (Tunisia). The ...
Staphylococcus aureus are widespread bacteria that can cause different infectious diseases, including superficial, invasive, and life-threatening infections. Furtheremore, MRSA is prevalent in hospitals and the community and has become a major concern around the world.. Many different virulence factors, such as surface proteins, are involved in the pathogenesis of these bacteria. One of these important proteins is sasX that has many different roles in this process, including biofilm formation, which helps the bacteria in producing micro colonies and adhesion on the surfaces and bacterial resistance against unexpected conditions (11). Regarding recent studies, SasX had an important role in the pathogenesis of the asian population and ST239 colon (8) and based on its importance, even new studiese have focused on the role of SasX protein in immunization and vaccinaton (9). Furthermore, recent studies have shown that the sasX gene is spreading to other colonies and species (8, 12). On the other ...
Chicago-Virulence factors among strains of Escherichia coli thatcause prostatitis are more prevalent than among strains that cause pyelonephritisor cystitis, according to a study by Spanish researchers presented at theannual Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapyhere.
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Microbial entry into host tissue is a critical first step in causing infection in animals and plants. In plants, it has been assumed that microscopic surface openings, such as stomata, serve as passive ports of bacterial entry during infection. Surprisingly, we found that stomatal closure is part of a plant innate immune response to restrict bacterial invasion. Stomatal guard cells of Arabidopsis perceive bacterial surface molecules, which requires the FLS2 receptor, production of nitric oxide, and the guard-cell-specific OST1 kinase. To circumvent this innate immune response, plant pathogenic bacteria have evolved specific virulence factors to effectively cause stomatal reopening as an important pathogenesis strategy. We provide evidence that supports a model in which stomata, as part of an integral innate immune system, act as a barrier against bacterial infection.
LINK TO PAPER HERE … Hmm … did you catch that? HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED MECHANISMS FOR REGULATING VIRULENCE FACTOR EXPRESSION IN RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNALS OR BY REVERSIBLE MUTATIONS. So … just as Eric and Dylan were no doubt affected by their environment which in turn was partly to blame for their behavior, in the same way, B. Pertussis is ALSO affected by its environment in the human body and this environment has a direct effect on VIRULENCE FACTOR EXPRESSION, i.e. whether the bacterium is dangerous to humans or not. This definitely calls for more study. (Note to self: do a full blog research article on this). This is a fascinating topic in light of the info on microbe pleomorphism (must read Wiki article on this topic HERE) and the resulting virulence (or non-virulence) discovered by Antoine Bechamp way back in Pasteurs day. To explain simply the difference between Pasteur and Bechamp, Pasteur taught that microbes - viruses and bacteria - are bad guys and you need to have ...
Importantly, this effector-triggered immunity has been shown to be a powerful means of augmenting the defense response specifically to pathogens but not to harmless commensals, and makes a major contribution to how plants cope with microbial attack and restrict pathogen growth. Our previous work revealed in metazoans an innate immune pathway that specifically responds to virulence factors encoded by virulent bacteria that we referred to as AVI (Boyer et al., 2011, Diabate et al., 2015). The identification of such system with similarities to plant ETI is paradigm-shifting and indicates that animals like plants have evolved sophisticated strategies to gauge the virulent potential of microbes and respond commensurately (Stuart et al., 2013). Using the prototypal RhoGTPase targeting toxin CNF1 we proved that the animal host is able to monitor the activity of virulence factors (Boyer et al., 2011). Our initial work has been extended to SopE a Salmonella virulence factor activating RhoGTPases. SopE ...
The type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs) are virulence mechanisms used by various Gram-negative bacteria to overcome the host immunity. They are often target-cell contact induced and activated. Activation results in targeting of virulence effector substrates into host cells. One class of secreted substrates, translocators, are required for the intracellular targeting of the second class, the virulence effectors, into host target cells. T3SSs are mainly regulated at 2 levels; a shift from environmental to host temperature results in low level induction of the system whereas target cell contact further induces and activates the system. In the Yersinia T3SS, YopN, one of the secreted substrates, is involved in the latter level of activation. Under non-inducing conditions, YopN complexes with TyeA, SycN and YscB and this complex suppresses the T3SS via an unknown mechanism. When the system is induced, the complex is believed to dissociate and YopN is secreted resulting in the activation of the system. ...
Originally, TAL proteins are virulence factors of the plant-pathogenic Xanthomonas spp. that are injected into plant cells via a type III secretion system in order to modulate transcription1. For this purpose, their c-terminal end contains a nuclear localisation signal (NLS) and an acidic activation domain. The central part of the TAL protein contains a number of almost similar repeats that mediate specific binding to target loci in the genome (see figure 10). In 2009, two groups have simultaneously pointed out that each of these repeats specifically binds to one base of the target DNA via two amino acids (aa 12 and 13), named the repeat variable diresidues (RVD)2. Moreover, it has been shown that DNA binding of these proteins is highly modular, i.e. the number bases or sequence of the target DNA can be changed by adjusting the number or order of the repeats in the TAL protein, respectively. It is still unclear, how the sequence of DNA binding modules and TALE activity correlate. The minimal ...
Originally, TAL proteins are virulence factors of the plant-pathogen Xanthomonas spp. that are injected into plant cells via a type III secretion system in order to modulate transcription1. For this purpose, their c-terminal end contains a nuclear localisation signal (NLS) and an acidic activation domain. The central part of the TAL protein contains a number of almost similar repeats that mediate specific binding to target loci in the genome (see figure 10). In 2009, two groups have simultaneously pointed out that each of these repeats specifically binds to one base of the target DNA via two amino acids (aa 12 and 13), named the repeat variable diresidues (RVD) 2. Moreover, it has been shown that DNA binding of these proteins is highly modular, i.e. the number or order of bases in the target DNA can be changed by adjusting the number or order of the repeats in the TAL protein, respectively. It is still unclear, how the sequence of DNA binding modules and TALE activity correlate. The minimal ...
is certainly a well-known colonizer from the individual nose area and epidermis, but a human pathogen that triggers a wide spectral range of diseases also. pass on and elevated virulence of CA-MRSA strains. Nevertheless, the web host- and cell-specificity of PVL and various other leukocidins, and having less adequate versions, fuels the controversy and impairs the correct evaluation of their function in pathophysiology. Presently, the systems of pore-formation as well as the contribution of PVL and various other leukocidins Rabbit polyclonal to ZBED5 to pathophysiology are incompletely grasped. This review summarizes our current knowledge of leukocidin pore-formation, understanding gaps, and features recent findings determining novel host-factors mixed up in toxin-host interface. As a total result, this review furthers stresses the intricacy behind leukocidin cytotoxicity as well as the issues linked in the goal to review and understand these main virulence factors. is certainly a significant ...
Virulence genes of pathogenic bacteria, which code for toxins, adhesins, invasins or other virulence factors, may be located on transmissible genetic elements such as transposons, plasmids or bacteriophages. In addition, such genes may be part of particular regions on the bacterial chromosomes, term …
Supplementary MaterialsAs a service to our authors and readers, this journal provides supporting information supplied by the authors. linkers rather than rigid motifs leading to a boost in activity on the prospective receptor and anti\virulence potency. is an opportunistic Gram\bad pathogen. It provokes different acute and chronic infections especially in immune\jeopardized and hospitalized individuals.1 Alarmingly, the occurrence of multi\resistant and pan\resistant strains renders currently available antibiotics ineffective and leads to an urgent need for novel treatment options.2 employs an arsenal of virulence\associated factors that allow this pathogen to be effective in CeMMEC13 various web host organisms and conditions.3 The discharge of several virulence factors is handled and synchronized by an activity called quorum sensing (QS).4 QS allows bacterias to collectively regulate gene appearance based on their people density. Little diffusible substances (car\inducers) are secreted in the ...
Figure 2. As if microbes were puppeteers and we humans were the puppets, microbes can control what we eat by a number of marked mechanisms. Adapted from Alcock et al 2014.. People who have desires of chocolate have different microbial metabolites in urine from people indifferent to chocolate, despite having the same diet.. Dysphoria, id est, human discomfort until we eat food which improve microbial welfare, may be due to the expression of bacterial virulence genes and perception of pain by the host. This is because the production of toxins is often triggered by a low concentration of nutrients limiting growth. The detection of sugars and other nutrients regulates virulence and growth of various microbes. These directly injure the intestinal epithelium when nutrients are absent. According to this hypothesis, it has been shown that bacterial virulence proteins activate pain receptors. It has been shown that fasting in mice increases the perception of pain by a mechanism of vagal ...
Around 20% of human cancers are caused by pathogens such as bacteria. A common feature of the so-called cancer-causing bacteria is their capacity to colonise the tissue for years and to be able to escape the control of our immune system. This capacity is the result of a long lasting co-evolution of the bacterial virulence factors and of the host weapons to counteract the infection. The pathogen is able to persist for years while the host is able to confine the infection in small niches of our body. These infection niches might persist for over 20-40 years and the bodys cells in these niches acquire different features from neighbouring healthy cells. To understand the infection niche we have deconstructed it into building blocks and reconstructed it in the lab. The building blocks are the different cells and the bacteria. The mortar-like substances that keep the building blocks together are the factors needed for the cells to communicate and sustain each other. By regenerating the complexity ...
Electroporation was used to insert purified bacterial virulence effector proteins directly into living eukaryotic cells. Protein localization was monitored by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. This method allows for studies on trafficking, function, and protein-protein interactions using active exogenous proteins, avoiding the need for heterologous expression in eukaryotic cells. ...
Biofilm formation is now recognized as a key virulence factor for a wide range of chronic microbial infections. While it has been well known for decades that bacteria and fungi in biofilms become highly tolerant of ...
The process of bacterial pathogenesis involves complex and dynamic responses from both pathogen and host. While the host can mount an array of defense mechanisms to counteract an infection, bacterial pathogens utilize a number of virulence mechanisms to help them in their quest to invade, colonize, and infect. The expression pattern of virulence factors such…
Reprezentanti: vancomicina, teicoplanina. Vancomicina Farmacocinetica: Se absoarbe limitat din intestin si se eliminara prin scaun dupa administrare orala. Dupa administrare i.v (500 mg), nivelul plasmatic este maxim dupa 1-2 ore (6-10 mcg/ml).
come-up, holding and cooling. We hypothesize that slow heating rate during come-up stage, as practiced ... objectives of this study are to understand how different heating rates during come-up stage could affect (1) ... heat-stress-response and virulence genes. Compared to fast heating rate, slow rate caused higher expression of heat .... ...
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The conventional method for lignin quantitation in the pulp industry is the Klason lignin and acid-soluble lignin test, which is standardized according to TAPPI[37] or NREL[38] procedure. The cellulose is first decrystallized and partially depolymerized into oligomers by keeping the sample in 72% sulfuric acid at 30 °C for 1 h. Then, the acid is diluted to 4% by adding water, and the depolymerization is completed by either boiling (100 °C) for 4 h or pressure cooking at 2 bar (124 °C) for 1 h. The acid is washed out and the sample dried. The residue that remains is termed Klason lignin. A part of the lignin, acid-soluble lignin (ASL) dissolves in the acid. ASL is quantified by the intensity of its UV absorption peak at 280 nm. The method is suited for wood lignins, but not equally well for varied lignins from different sources. The carbohydrate composition may be also analyzed from the Klason liquors, although there may be sugar breakdown products (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural). A ...
Citation. Linz B, Ivanov YV, Preston A, Brinkac L, Parkhill J, Kim M, Harris SR, Goodfield LL, Fry NK, Gorringe AR, Nicholson TL, Register KB, Losada L, Harvill ET. Acquisition and Loss of Virulence-associated Factors During Genome Evolution and Speciation in Three Clades of Bordetella Species.. BMC Genomics. 2016 Sep 30; 17: 767.. External Citation. Abstract. The genus Bordetella consists of nine species that include important respiratory pathogens such as the classical species B. bronchiseptica, B. pertussis and B. parapertussis and six more distantly related and less extensively studied species. Here we analyze sequence diversity and gene content of 128 genome sequences from all nine species with focus on the evolution of virulence-associated factors.. ...
Fernandes, I., et al. Secretome Analysis Identifies Potential Virulence Factors of Diplodia corticola, a Fungal Pathogen Involved in Cork Oak (Quercus suber) Decline. Fungal Biotechnology. (118) 5-6, 516-523. 18/05/2014.. ...
General Information: Isolated from a soil sample from Nepal. Causative agent of plague. Specific virulence factors are encoded within pathogenicity islands (PAIs) that are required for the invasive phenotype associated with Yersinia infections. One key virulence plasmid contained by the three human-specific pathogens is pCD1/pYv, which encodes a type III secretion system for the delivery of virulence proteins that contribute to internalization into the host cell. It is the causative agent of plague (bubonic and pulmonary) a devastating disease which has killed millions worldwide. The organism can be transmitted from rats to humans through the bite of an infected flea or from human-to-human through the air during widespread infection. Yersinia pestis is an extremely pathogenic organism that requires very few numbers in order to cause disease, and is often lethal if left untreated. The organism is enteroinvasive, and can survive and propagate in macrophages prior to spreading systemically ...
General Information: Specific virulence factors are encoded within pathogenicity islands (PAIs) that are required for the invasive phenotype associated with Yersinia infections. One key virulence plasmid contained by the three human-specific pathogens is pCD1/pYv, which encodes a type III secretion system for the delivery of virulence proteins that contribute to internalization into the host cell. This species is a food and waterborn pathogen that causes gastroenteritis (inflammation of the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestine) and is able to proliferate at temperatures as low as 4 degrees C. ...
Listeria monocytogenes is a common bacterium that causes human infections, like miscarriage and septicemia. Listeria uses specific virulence factors to produce proteins that will assist in invasion, replication, and escape. By manipulation of the virulence factors through knockout mutants, this study observed their role and importance in the infection and proliferation life cycle. JEG-3 cells, a human placental line, were infected with wild type Listeria or knockout mutants of individual virulence factors, Internalin A&B, Listeriolysin O, and ActA. Through Colony Forming Unit Assay, it was possible to analyze the number of colonies representing the number of Listeria bacteria after definitive time points. Each virulence factor did play a significant role in the growth and infection of Listeria in the JEG-3 cells as fewer colonies were found in the knockout mutant plates than the wild type. Each virulence factor affected a distinct portion of the invasion, replication, and escape cycle. The omission of a
Bacillus anthracis can be identified on the basis of the detection of virulence factor genes located on two plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2. Thus isolates lacking both pXO1 and pXO2 are indistinguishable from closely related B. cereus group bacteria. We developed a multiplex PCR assay for characterization o …
ABSTRACT: Candida albicans is a classical example of causative agent for opportunistic fungal infection. Normally, it colonizes skin, gastrointestinal tract, genital, and mucosal membranes, but in certain condition it may responsible for diseases. This phenomenon was mainly associated with immunological status of the host. However, there were fndings that showed the possibility of putative virulence factors work on the transition of commensally to pathogenic role of the yeast. In this review, some virulence factors were discussed. Indeed, there were factors that may be considered as putative virulence factors of C. albicans. ...
Metagenomic technologies enable the study of microbial genetic material in human biomedical sample types such as stool, nasal, oral, urogenital, skin and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. In addition, environmental samples such as soil, water, air and biofilms can be also be analyzed. Metagenomic data can not only be used to examine healthy microbiomes and shed light on causes, effects, and future therapies for a variety of diseases, but it can also be useful to help understand the environments microbial biodiversity. QIAGEN provides next-generation sequencing technologies for metagenomics, as well as qPCR assays and arrays for verification of sequencing results and screening for specific bacterial species, virulence factor genes, and antibiotic resistance genes ...
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen with well-characterized bacteriophage contributions to its virulence potential. Recently, we identified plasmidial and episomal prophages in S. aureus strains using an extra-chromosomal DNA (exDNA) isolation and sequencing approach, uncovering the plasmidial phage ϕBU01, which was found to encode important virulence determinants. Here, we expanded our extra-chromosomal sequencing of S. aureus, selecting 15 diverse clinical isolates with known chromosomal sequences for exDNA isolation and next-generation sequencing. We uncovered the presence of additional episomal prophages in 5 of 15 samples, but did not identify any plasmidial prophages. exDNA isolation was found to enrich for circular prophage elements, and qPCR characterization of the strains revealed that such prophage enrichment is detectable only in exDNA samples and would likely be missed in whole-genome DNA preparations (e.g., detection of episomal prophages did not correlate with higher ...
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Complete Genome Sequences of Eight Helicobacter pylori Strains with Different Virulence Factor Genotypes and Methylation Profiles, Isolated from Patients with Diverse Gastrointestinal Diseases on Okinawa Island, Japan, Determined Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology ...
This material is based upon work supported in part by the Office of Research and Sponsored Projects and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DUE-0963648 and CREST Grant No. HRD-1242122. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF). ...
Our laboratory studies the roles of sensory transduction in bacterial-host interactions. Genes and operons that encode virulence factors are often subject to coordinate regulation in response to environmental signals, and bacterial virulence factors frequently target host cell signaling pathways. Specific areas of interest include: a) biochemical analysis of signal transduction pathways in pathogenic bacteria, b) genetic organization of bacterial virulence regulons, and c) in vivo and in vitro studies of mechanisms of pathogenesis. We are also investigating mechanisms involved in the induction of cytotoxic T cell responses by Listeria monocytogenes (LM). In the course of these studies, we have developed a new class of live Listeria-based vaccines with activity against heterologous pathogens and tumors. In a third project, we have discovered a new class of retroelements, called diversity generating retroelements, which are capable of generating vast amounts diversity in proteins involved in ...
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Education: BSc and MSc in molecular biology from University of Oslo (UiO).. Areas of interest: ESKAPE pathogens, Antimicrobial resistance, Virulence.. I graduated from the University of Oslo in 2020 with a masters degree in molecular biology, where I focused on microbiology. In my masters I worked with Acinetobacter baumannii in the lab of Prof. Ole Andreas Løchen Økstad at UiO. I am currently a PhD student looking more closely into novel virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ...
Mariotti P, Malito E, Biancucci M, Lo Surdo P, Mishra RP, Nardi-Dei V, Savino S, Nissum M, Spraggon G, Grandi G, Bagnoli F, Bottomley MJ. Structural and functional characterization of the Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor and vaccine candidate FhuD2. Biochem J. 2013 Feb 01; 449(3):683-93 ...
This work provides both in vivo and in vitro evidence that S. aureus can survive inside PMN and that this ability is regulated, at least in part, by the global regulator, sar, which governs the synthesis and secretion of several virulence factors (2). These data extend observations made in vitro with PMN and macrophages in the 1950s and 1960s (11, 12, 13, 14) and support current in vitro studies of S. aureus invasion and survival in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and osteoblasts (16, 17, 18). Taken together, these data clearly indicate that the pathogenesis of S. aureus infection involves both extracellular and intracellular locales. Moreover, our data suggest that S. aureus, like bona fide intracellular pathogens (26), has the ability to invade and survive inside the very cell that is responsible for its destruction. Our electron microscopy studies and those assessing invasion of epithelial cells (17) suggest a possible mechanism by which this could occur. In both epithelial cells and ...
This work provides both in vivo and in vitro evidence that S. aureus can survive inside PMN and that this ability is regulated, at least in part, by the global regulator, sar, which governs the synthesis and secretion of several virulence factors (2). These data extend observations made in vitro with PMN and macrophages in the 1950s and 1960s (11, 12, 13, 14) and support current in vitro studies of S. aureus invasion and survival in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and osteoblasts (16, 17, 18). Taken together, these data clearly indicate that the pathogenesis of S. aureus infection involves both extracellular and intracellular locales. Moreover, our data suggest that S. aureus, like bona fide intracellular pathogens (26), has the ability to invade and survive inside the very cell that is responsible for its destruction. Our electron microscopy studies and those assessing invasion of epithelial cells (17) suggest a possible mechanism by which this could occur. In both epithelial cells and ...
Read A hypothesis explaining why so many pathogen virulence proteins are moonlighting proteins, Pathogens and Disease on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Expertise Antibiotic resistance Escherichia coli Virulence factors Role in StARE The University of Aveiro team will evaluate the efficiency of advanced water treatment processes in the removal of genes conferring resistance to antibiotics that are critically important to humans. We will use culture-dependent and independent approaches and our experiments will include the analysis of field…
A new study from researchers in the Department of Biochemistry has shed light on machinery that causes virulence in a group of pathogenic bacteria including Shigella and Salmonella.. The work from Professor Judy Armitages lab, led by Dr Andreas Diepold, reveals intriguing features of the injectisome, an essential virulence factor that is responsible for the transmission of bacterial proteins into host cells. These proteins allow the bacteria to proliferate without being eliminated by the host immune system.. Published in PLoS Biology with collaborators from the Department of Physics in Oxford and the Biozentrum in Basel, the findings suggest the possibility of a novel target for the development of anti-virulence drugs. (1). Read more (Department of Biochemistry website). ...
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Novel thiazolidinedione-hydroxamates as inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence factor Zmp1(2020). Authors: Veronika Slachtova, Marek Sebela, Eveline Torfs, Lauren Oorts, Davie Cappoen, Karel Berka, Vaclav Bazgier, Lucie Brulikova ...
AB - Type IV pili (Tfp), which are key virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens, define a large group of multipurpose filamentous nanomachines widespread in Bacteria and Archaea. Tfp biogenesis is a complex multistep process, which relies on macromolecular assemblies composed of 15 conserved proteins in model gram-negative species. To improve our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms of filament assembly, we have used a synthetic biology approach to reconstitute, in a nonnative heterologous host, a minimal machinery capable of building Tfp. Here we show that eight synthetic genes are sufficient to promote filament assembly and that the corresponding proteins form a macromolecular complex at the cytoplasmic membrane, which we have purified and characterized biochemically. Our results contribute to a better mechanistic understanding of the assembly of remarkable dynamic filaments nearly ubiquitous in prokaryotes ...
BioCentrum is a privately-owned biotechnology service and product provider. The company conducts its own research, development and implementation projects in the area of microbiology and protein chemistry. The special interest is focused on bacterial virulence factors as potential therapeutic targets for drug development and on antibacterial peptides exerting an antibiotic activity.
Inflammation mediated by the inflammasome and the cytokine IL-1β are some of the earliest and most important alarms to infection. These pathways are responsive to the virulence factors that pathogens use to subvert immune processes, and thus are typically activated only by microbes with potential to cause severe disease. Among the most serious human infections are those caused by the pathogenic streptococci, in part because these species numerous strategies for immune evasion. Since the virulence factor armament of each pathogen is unique, the role of IL-1β and the pathways leading to its activation varies for each infection. This review summarizes the role of IL-1β during infections caused by streptococcal pathogens, with emphasis on emergent mechanisms and concepts countering paradigms determined for other organisms ...
Staphylococcus aureus is an efficient human colonizer and pathogen. S.aureus ability to colonize and/or cause infections in humans is due to its expression of many virulence factors. These virulence factors aid the bacterium in adhering, invading and evading the host´s immune defences. This study focused on exploring the role of two cell wall anchored proteins: Serine-aspartate containing protein ...
Infection, whether acute, chronic, local, or systemic, is something that all surgeons respect and fear. To counter infection, tissue injury activates an acute-phase response mediated by the liver and promotes coagulation, immunity, and tissue regeneration. However, microorganisms are able to survive and disseminate throughout tissues because of virulence factors that they express. These virulence factors…
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... produce a variety of so-called virulence factors that permit them to evade the defense mechanisms of the host and thus cause ... These factors include polysaccharide capsules and M proteins that impede phagocytosis, enzymes that degrade host tissues, and ... Other articles where Virulence factor is discussed: necrotizing fasciitis: … ... Virulence factor. microbiology. Learn about this topic in these articles:. necrotizing fasciitis. * In necrotizing fasciitis. … ...
Virulence factor BrkB (IPR017039). Short name: Virul_fac_BrkB Family relationships *Virulence factor BrkB (IPR017039) *Inner ...
Virulence factors of Francisella tularensis.. Hood AM.. Abstract. The mechanism causing viable Francisella tularensis to lose ... virulence in aerosols has been investigated. Fully virulent organisms were found to be encapsulated and avirulent organisms ...
... it is an example of a virulence factor from a fungus. Other virulence factors include factors required for biofilm formation (e ... When placed at random, the transposon may be placed next to a virulence factor or placed in the middle of a virulence factor ... Small molecules being investigated for their ability to inhibit virulence factors and virulence factor expression include ... "Characterization of Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus aureus: Novel Function of Known Virulence Factors That Are Implicated ...
In addition to several virulence factors which have been previously reported, we are proposing new candidate virulence factors ... Plesiomonas shigelloides Draft genome Virulence factors Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis PATRIC Electronic ... Phenotypic characterization and putative virulence factors of human, animal and environmental isolates of Plesiomonas ... Payne SM (1988) Iron and virulence in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Crit Rev Microbiol 16:81-111CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Avril JL., Mesnard R. (1991) Factors Influencing the Virulence of Acinetobacter. In: Towner K.J., Bergogne-Bérézin E., Fewson C ...
... is a virulence factor that plays a pivotal role in the infection mechanism. Combining different in-vitro and in-vivo approaches ... cruzi genes which code for the factors responsible for the virulence, in particular a protein called Tc52. As in any parasitic ... analysis of the amino acid sequence important to the immunoregulatory function of Trypansosma cruzi Tc52 virulence factor. ... Knowledge of the biological activity of this factor raises the prospects for developing vaccination strategies or drugs to ...
Swarming of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is a Complex Adaptation Leading to Increased Production of Virulence Factors and Antibiotic ... Putative Quorum-Sensing Regulator BlxR of Brucella melitensis Regulates Virulence Factors Including the Type IV Secretion ... Twitching Motility Is Essential for Virulence in Dichelobacter nodosus Xiaoyan Han, Ruth M. Kennan, John K. Davies, Leslie A. ... Effects of Oxygen on Virulence Traits of Streptococcus mutans Sang-Joon Ahn, Zezhang T. Wen, Robert A. Burne ...
Drugs that hobble the production of virulence factors, small molecules that help bacteria to establish an infection in a host, ... In Infectious Diseases he describes recent work on a target virulence factor. ... One class of virulence factors common to many pathogens is siderophores, small molecules whose job is to seek out iron in the ... Virulence factors allow bacteria to evade the human immune system, to infect tissues and cells and to establish a foothold ...
... Published Tuesday 20 December 2016 Published Tue 20 Dec ... "Tuberculosis virulence factor identified, may be target for new drug." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 20 Dec. 2016. ... 2016, December 20). "Tuberculosis virulence factor identified, may be target for new drug." Medical News Today. Retrieved from ...
"Pathotyping" Multiplex PCR Assay for Haemophilus parasuis: a Tool for Prediction of Virulence Kate J. Howell, Lucy A. Weinert, ...
Conversely, virulence factors that have an effect in one species, but not in another, may be targeting factors specific to that ... only a limited number of enterococcal virulence-related factors have been described, including cytolysin (Cyl), a factor called ... Mammalian virulence factors enhance E. faecalis killing of C. elegans. (A) Survival of C. elegans placed on lawns of E. ... A simple model host for identifying Gram-positive virulence factors. Danielle A. Garsin, Costi D. Sifri, Eleftherios Mylonakis ...
Brucella lipopolysaccharide acts as a virulence factor.. Lapaque N1, Moriyon I, Moreno E, Gorvel JP. ... Virulence factors involved in Brucella replication and Brucellas strategies to circumvent the immune response are under ... These properties make lipopolysaccharide an important virulence factor for Brucella survival and replication in the host. ... IV secretion system and that are involved in intracellular replication are considered as one of Brucellas virulence factors. ...
VIRULENCE FACTORS OF SALMONELLA Investigators. Baumler, Andreas. Institutions. University of California - Davis. Start date. ... As a result, virulence mechanisms that set typhoid fever apart from human gastroenteritis remain understudied. Experiments ... This outcome will be significant, because it will have broad relevance for understanding the molecular virulence mechanisms ... Typhi specific virulence mechanisms will be useful, and necessary, to understand how the interplay between pathogen and the ...
Polar targeting of Shigella virulence factor IcsA in Enterobacteriacae and Vibrio. Macarthur Charles, Marisa Pérez, Jessica H. ... Polar targeting of Shigella virulence factor IcsA in Enterobacteriacae and Vibrio. Macarthur Charles, Marisa Pérez, Jessica H. ... Polar targeting of Shigella virulence factor IcsA in Enterobacteriacae and Vibrio. Macarthur Charles, Marisa Pérez, Jessica H. ... Polar targeting of Shigella virulence factor IcsA in Enterobacteriacae and Vibrio Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
Virulence factors: Virulence factors are typically proteins found within microorganisms and viruses. These factors facilitate ... Molecules known as virulence factors are produced by bacteria, viruses, and fungi to help them to infect host cells. One of ... Kanazawa University Research: Virulence Factor of the Influenza A Virus Mapped in Real-time. News provided by ... Inactivating virulence factors can thus significantly weaken the infectivity of pathogens.. High-speed atomic force microscopy ...
In the present review, we present the recent findings on virulence factors research, focusing on their role in bacterial ... Other differential factors, such as the presence and composition of an integrative conjugative element associated with the Hrp ... Many virulence determinants of E. amylovora have been characterized, including the Type III secretion system (T3SS), the ... network to sense the relevant environmental signals and coordinate the expression of early and late stage virulence factors ...
Molecules known as virulence factors are produced by bacteria, viruses, and fungi to help them to infect host cells. ... Molecules known as virulence factors are produced by bacteria, viruses, and fungi to help them to infect host cells. One of ... Researchers map virulence factor of influenza A virus in real-time. *Download PDF Copy ... virulence factors found in the influenza A viruses is hemagglutinin (HA). Researchers at Kanazawa University have recently ...
... Microbiology. 1998 Apr;144 ( Pt 4):829-38. doi: 10.1099/00221287 ... In vivo virulence assays using a systemic mouse model suggest that C. dubliniensis is marginally less virulent than C. albicans ... study the phylogenetic relationship between these two species was investigated and a comparison of putative virulence factors ...
Many of the virulence factors that we study in the context of human disease may also have an ecological role within microbial ... Several P. aeruginosa virulence factors that are important in disease are involved in the killing of C. albicans filaments. We ... Pseudomonas-Candida Interactions: An Ecological Role for Virulence Factors Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... 3F) (23). Last, inactivation of several virulence-factor regulators including GacA, LasR, RhlR, and RpoN, resulted in either ...
This enzyme has been postulated to be a cryptococcal virulence factor. We cloned a phospholipase-enc … ... Extracellular phospholipase activity is a virulence factor for Cryptococcus neoformans Mol Microbiol. 2001 Jan;39(1):166-75. ... This enzyme has been postulated to be a cryptococcal virulence factor. We cloned a phospholipase-encoding gene (PLB1) from C. ... These data demonstrate that secretory phospholipase is a virulence factor for C. neoformans. ...
Evaluation of Virulence Factor Profiling in the Characterization of Veterinary Escherichia coli Isolates Donna E. David, Aaron ... Antimicrobial Resistance, Virulence Factors, and Genetic Profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from Seafood The presence of V. ... Associations between the Presence of Virulence Determinants and the Epidemiology and Ecology of Zoonotic Escherichia coli K. M ... Phylogenetic Backgrounds and Virulence-Associated Traits of Escherichia coli Isolates from Surface Waters and Diverse Animals ...
virulence-factor-made-by-influenza-a-viruses-is-potential-new-target-for-vaccine-and-anti-viral-drug-development/. 2230/. ... Virulence factor made by influenza virus is potential target for vaccine drug development. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic ... Virulence factor made by influenza virus is potential target for vaccine drug development ...
... May 2002 , Volume 15 , Number 5. Pages 472 - 480. ... The virulence of the hrpG and hrcC mutant strains (both gene products presumed to be involved in protein secretion) was greatly ... We developed improved virulence assays for Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 on African violet varieties and devised a new method for ... The results, therefore, establish the importance of hrp genes in the virulence of E. chrysanthemi and their ability to elicit ...
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of PDI on virulence factors of S. aureus and to assess the potential ... The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of PDI on virulence factors of S. aureus and to assess the potential ... The results indicate that the expression of some external virulence factors is affected by PDI and enterotoxin producing ... The surviving bacteria neither developed resistance nor recovered the expression of the virulence factors after 10 cycles of ...
"Multivariate linear regression can be used to identify the relative levels of importance of virulence factors in virulence ... Although there is much literature discussing the contribution of virulence factors to microbial virulence, there is no ... Multivariate Linear Regression May Assist in Determining Virulence Factors for Microbes. By American Society for Microbiology. ... linear regression may offer a new approach in determining contributions of multiple virulence factors to the overall virulence ...
Immunodominance in Mouse and Human CD4+ T-Cell Responses Specific for the Bordetella pertussis Virulence Factor P.69 Pertactin ... Modulation of Pertussis and Adenylate Cyclase Toxins by Sigma Factor RpoE in Bordetella pertussis Mariette Barbier, Dylan T. ...
A. M. El-Mahdy, E. M. A. El-Sawy, R. Hassan, and W. A. El-Naggar, Characterization of some virulence factors associated with ... R. Hassan, R. Barwa, and R. H. Shehata, "Antimicrobial resistance genes and some virulence factors in Escherichia coli and ... Association between Virulence Factors and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Compared to ... R. Hassan, W. El-Naggar, E. El-Sawy, and A. El-Mahdy, "Characterization of some virulence factors associated with ...
Various virulence factors and some virulence factor-associated genes were screened. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was ... Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and expression of a multitude of virulence factors may work in a harmony resulting in ... Association between Virulence Factors and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Compared to ... this study suggests a correlation between ESBL production and some virulence factors. Therefore, success of treatment depends ...
Crystal structure of the LasA virulence factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: substrate specificity and mechanism of M23 ... Crystal Structure of the LasA Virulence Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3it5/pdb ...
  • Bacteria like Escherichia coli O157:H7 gain the majority of their virulence from mobile genetic elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • R. Hassan, R. Barwa, and R. H. Shehata, "Antimicrobial resistance genes and some virulence factors in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from Mansoura University Hospitals," The Egyptian Journal of Medical Microbiology , vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 27-40, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Virulence, pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and plasmid profile of Escherichia coli strains isolated from drinking and recreational waters," in 17th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and 25th International Congress of Chemotherapy , 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Hybridization with oligonucleotide microchips (microarrays) was used for discrimination among strains of Escherichia coli and other pathogenic enteric bacteria harboring various virulence factors. (asm.org)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) virulence markers ( stx1 , stx2 , eae , ehxA ) in E. coli strains isolated from young calves aged fewer than 7 days (bobby calves). (cambridge.org)
  • Virulence factors in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection. (asm.org)
  • Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli are characterized by the expression of distinctive bacterial properties, products, or structures referred to as virulence factors because they help the organism overcome host defenses and colonize or invade the urinary tract. (asm.org)
  • Reiland, H. , Omolo, M. , Johnson, T. and Baumler, D. (2014) A Survey of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Virulence Factors: The First 25 Years and 13 Genomes. (scirp.org)
  • Chicago-Virulence factors among strains of Escherichia coli thatcause prostatitis are more prevalent than among strains that cause pyelonephritisor cystitis, according to a study by Spanish researchers presented at theannual Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapyhere. (urologytimes.com)
  • Our study showed that several pathogenic Aeromonas species possessing virulence traits and antimicrobial resistance similar to those of Aeromonas isolates causing clinical diseases were present. (asm.org)
  • Presence of the ACP1 gene correlates with increased proteinase expression and activity in pathogenic isolates as well as cytopathic effect on a fibroblast monolayer, an in vitro assay of virulence. (jci.org)
  • The observation that a histolytic cysteine proteinase gene is present only in pathogenic isolates of E. histolytica suggests that this aspect of virulence in amebiasis is genetically predetermined. (jci.org)
  • The S. aureus isolates were further characterized for virulence genes and antibiotic susceptibility. (mdpi.com)
  • A high incidence of virulence genes was identified in 96.2% of the isolates and 20 different virulence gene profiles were confirmed. (mdpi.com)
  • A combination of hla and hld was the most prevalent coexistence virulence genes and accounted for 59.6% of all isolates. (mdpi.com)
  • Using an in-vitro biofilm model to assess the virulence potential of Bacterial Vaginosis or non-Bacterial Vaginosis Gardnerella vaginalis isolates. (ebscohost.com)
  • One hundred and thirty-four isolates were positive for one or more virulence factors: eighty-four from diarrheic animals, and fifty from non-diarrheic calves. (scielo.br)
  • The study was conducted to characterize pheno-genotypically the virulence factors and resistance pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk samples of cows with subclinical mastitis. (scielo.br)
  • 2011) Virulence Factors and Genetic Characteristics of Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Myanmar. (scirp.org)
  • This study investigated the prevalence of 19 virulence factors and biofilm production in 86 EAEC isolates causing diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age from Ifakara, Tanzania. (ajtmh.org)
  • These results again show the high heterogeneity of virulence factors among EAEC isolates causing diarrhea in children, and that biofilm may be an important virulence factor, strongly associated with the presence of AggR. (ajtmh.org)
  • Esp was the only virulence factor found among E. faecium isolates, where it was common. (diva-portal.org)
  • A total of 35 different S. aureus virulence factors were identified among the two isolates. (arvojournals.org)
  • Vilela, C. L. / Characterization of virulence factors of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis field isolates . (dtu.dk)
  • Objectives: To study the biodiversity, virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility patterns in clinical isolates of Candida parapsilosis sensu lato. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • Virulence factors encoded on mobile genetic elements spread through horizontal gene transfer, and can convert harmless bacteria into dangerous pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that many pathogens have converged on similar virulence factors to battle against eukaryotic host defenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously, our laboratory and others have shown not only that the Gram-negative human pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica kill the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, but also that P. aeruginosa and S. enterica virulence factors required for mammalian pathogenesis also are required for efficient killing of C. elegans ( 6 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • PLOS Pathogens: Coping with Multiple Virulence Factors: Which Is Most Important? (plos.org)
  • 3 , 5 Furthermore, and particularly relevant in the context of a discussion on TV virulent factors, the parasite's elusive nature also renders the characterisation of the molecular and cellular basis of its pathobiology less straightforward, as highlighted for similarly elusive bacterial pathogens. (bmj.com)
  • 7 These considerations also underscore the limitations of the reductive approach implied by the original four Koch postulates and their molecular children, used to characterise pathogens and their virulence factors. (bmj.com)
  • Our results suggest that microarray analysis of microbial virulence factors might be very useful for automated identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Recently, mADP-RTs were shown to be present in plant pathogenic bacteria, suggesting that mADP-RTs are also important virulence factors of plant pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • The fact that ClpB is usually up-regulated in pathogens together with its immune reactivity suggests that ClpB acting as a protein disaggregase may be important for pathogen invasion and virulence. (scirp.org)
  • One newly emerging field is identification of the specific roles of alternative sigma factors in regulating expression of virulence genes and virulence-associated genes in bacterial pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Thus the parallel that is being attempted for pathogenic microorganisms is that known virulence factors may be used as predictors for identifying undiscovered pathogens and microbial causes of emerging diseases. (iwaponline.com)
  • The type III secretion system (TTSS) is a key virulence mechanism of many important gram-negative bacterial pathogens. (asm.org)
  • The TTSS is conserved among different bacterial pathogens, and mutations and deletions to the system significantly decrease virulence, making the TTSS an important potential therapeutic target. (asm.org)
  • The delivery of virulence factors directly into host cells to interfere with and alter host processes is a crucial step in bacterial virulence for several significant animal and plant pathogens ( 38 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • Streptolysin S (SLS)-like virulence factors from clinically relevant Gram-positive pathogens have been proposed to behave as potent cytotoxins, playing key roles in tissue infection. (asm.org)
  • We exploit the apparent parallels between Gram-positive infection in simple and more complex organisms by using the nematode to identify an E. faecalis virulence factor, ScrB, which is relevant to mammalian pathogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • In the present review, we present the recent findings on virulence factors research, focusing on their role in bacterial pathogenesis and indicating other virulence factors that deserve future research to characterize them. (mdpi.com)
  • This approach was applied to Cryptococcus neoformans and Bacillus anthracis and results showed the method to be useful in determining the relative contributions of virulence factors in pathogenesis. (rxpgnews.com)
  • We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis. (asm.org)
  • Virulence factors of recognized importance in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) include adhesins (P fimbriae, certain other mannose-resistant adhesins, and type 1 fimbriae), the aerobactin system, hemolysin, K capsule, and resistance to serum killing. (asm.org)
  • Extensive research has been conducted to identify virulence factor genes involved in the pathogenesis of E. coli O157:H7 and many genome sequences of E. coli O157:H7 strains have become available to the scientific community. (scirp.org)
  • Scientific efforts in the eradication of neglected tropical diseases, such as those caused by the parasitic helminthes, can be improved if a database of key virulence factors directly implicated in pathogenesis is available. (academicjournals.org)
  • The pathogenesis of candiduria involves several factors, among which may be counted germ tube and hypha formation, adhesion factors, phenotypic switching, and slime production, as well as the production of different enzymes. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in pigs: the role of virulence factors in pathogenesis and protection. (ugent.be)
  • Haesebrouck F, Chiers K, Van Overbeke I, Ducatelle R. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in pigs: the role of virulence factors in pathogenesis and protection. (ugent.be)
  • Virulence factors of biotypes of Staphylococcus epidermidis from clinical sources. (asm.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus, antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors. (scielo.br)
  • These factors include polysaccharide capsules and M proteins that impede phagocytosis, enzymes that degrade host tissues, and toxins that overstimulate the immune system, causing fever and shock. (britannica.com)
  • Research scientists from the IRD and INSERM (1) who are studying this trypanosome found that one of the proteins it secretes, Tc52, is a virulence factor that plays a pivotal role in the infection mechanism. (innovations-report.com)
  • A major group of virulence factors are proteins that can control the activation levels of GTPases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virulent strains of bacteria are ones that produce "virulence factors," small molecules and proteins that convert a benign bacterium into a pathogen. (eurekalert.org)
  • VirB proteins that form the type IV secretion system and that are involved in intracellular replication are considered as one of Brucella's virulence factors. (nih.gov)
  • Asymmetric localization is key to the proper function of certain prokaryotic proteins important to virulence, chemotaxis, cell division, development, motility, and adhesion. (pnas.org)
  • The data also suggest that other effector proteins secreted by the Hrp system are required for full virulence and HR elicitation. (apsnet.org)
  • US - Previously unknown bacterial proteins which may be important factors involved in necrotic enteritis in chickens have been discovered, in a recently completed project at the University of Connecticut. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • They discovered previously unknown bacterial proteins which may be important factors involved in the disease. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • According to the scientists, none of these proteins have been previously considered as potential virulence factors in necrotic enteritis. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Among them are proteins resembling those associated with virulence in some other pathogenic bacteria, including proteins associated with adhesion, which seems to be related to the ability of bacteria to produce disease. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • To discover novel C. fulvum effectors that might play a role in virulence, we utilized two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to visualize proteins secreted during C. fulvum -tomato interactions. (wiley.com)
  • Collectively, this study shows for the first time that the type III secreted proteins EspA and EspB are needed to form A/E lesions in vivo and are indeed virulence factors. (rupress.org)
  • However, it is not known if these processes, and thus these secreted proteins, are needed for virulence in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Virulence genes encode proteins whose functions are essential for the bacterium to effectively establish an infection in a host organism. (asm.org)
  • As alternative sigma factors have been shown to regulate expression of both virulence and virulence-associated genes, these proteins can contribute both directly and indirectly to bacterial virulence. (asm.org)
  • σ 54 forms a distinct subfamily of sigma factors referred to as σ N in almost all species for which these proteins have been characterized to date. (asm.org)
  • Sigma factors are a class of proteins constituting essential dissociable subunits of prokaryotic RNA polymerase. (asm.org)
  • To validate the strategy, a library of genes encoding glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored surface proteins was screened for virulence phenotypes in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Virulence factors in C. albicans include proteins that mediate adherence to and invasion of host tissues ( 43 ), morphological change from yeast to hyphae ( 29 , 30 ), secretion of lytic enzymes ( 17 , 27 , 41 ), maintenance of cell wall integrity ( 55 ), and avoidance of the host immune response ( 39 ). (asm.org)
  • Many of these virulence factors are glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins, which comprise 88% of all covalently linked cell wall proteins in C. albicans ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Numerous GPI proteins have been identified as virulence factors in C. albicans . (asm.org)
  • To identify new virulence factors in C. albicans , we used a conditional gene overexpression/suppression approach to screen a library of genes encoding GPI-anchored proteins for virulence phenotypes. (asm.org)
  • After discarding compounds that had no effect on secretion, inhibited bacterial growth, and/or caused degradation of EPEC-secreted proteins, the search was focused on a class of compounds that, while not direct inhibitors of type III secretion, inhibit expression of TTSS-related genes and other genes involved in virulence. (asm.org)
  • The potential virulence factors studied were Staphylococcal enterotoxin A-D (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) production and binding capacity to the extracellular matrix proteins: fibronectin, collagen type I, collagen type II and bone sialoprotein (BSP). (diva-portal.org)
  • Gram-negative bacteria secrete a variety of virulence factors at host-pathogen interface, via membrane vesicle trafficking as bacterial outer membrane vesicles for invasion, nutrition and other cell-cell communications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our analysis of S. Typhi specific virulence mechanisms will be useful, and necessary, to understand how the interplay between pathogen and the innate immune system gives rise to responses that distinguish typhoid fever from gastroenteritis. (usda.gov)
  • Here, we describe a protocol for the identification of pathogenicity and virulence genes through random insertional mutagenesis using the fungal wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae as an example for the protocol. (wur.nl)
  • PUMA3 represents the first CSS system dedicated to the transcriptional activation of virulence functions in a human pathogen. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. (asm.org)
  • Virulence factors allow a pathogen to thrive in the host and cause disease. (pigprogress.net)
  • Here, we evaluate whether the various pathogen-derived Ave1 homologs are virulence factors. (wur.nl)
  • HSP90COCHAPERONES (Are Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) Co-Chaperones Virulence Factors in the Human Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans? (europa.eu)
  • The currently defined virulence factors clearly contribute to the virulence of wild-type strains but are usually insufficient in themselves to transform an avirulent organism into a pathogen, demonstrating that other as-yet-undefined virulence properties await discovery. (asm.org)
  • Finally, an examination of the conservation of these 394 virulence factor genes across additional genomes of E. coli O157:H7 is provided which summarizes the first 25 years and 13 genomes of this human pathogen. (scirp.org)
  • A strategy to circumvent the problem of multidrug resistant pathogen is the discovery of anti-infectives targeting bacterial virulence or host immunity. (rsc.org)
  • Collectively, our finding shows that H. atra possess anti-infective properties against P. aeruginosa infection through inhibition of pathogen virulence and eventually, the restitution of host lys-7 expression. (rsc.org)
  • Mycolactone is a polyketide macrolide lipid-like secondary metabolite synthesized by Mycobacterium ulcerans , the causative agent of BU (Buruli ulcer), and is the only virulence factor for this pathogen identified to date. (portlandpress.com)
  • To gain further insight into the similarities and differences between the major pathogen A. fumigatus and the nonpathogen A. fischeri , we examined whether A. fischeri strain NRRL 181 biosynthesizes gliotoxin and whether the production of secondary metabolites influences the virulence profile of A. fischeri . (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that LaeA-regulated secondary metabolites are virulence factors in the genomic and phenotypic background of the major pathogen A. fumigatus but are much less important in the background of the nonpathogen A. fischeri . (asm.org)
  • It acts as an important virulence factor during P. sojae infection but also acts as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) in soybean (Glycine max) and solanaceous species, where it can trigger defense responses including cell death. (oregonstate.edu)
  • These properties make lipopolysaccharide an important virulence factor for Brucella survival and replication in the host. (nih.gov)
  • Antibiotic resistance, efflux pump genes and virulence determinants in Enterococcus spp. (ebscohost.com)
  • Corneal pathogenicity is determined predominantly by a repertoire of secreted virulence factors (in the presence and absence of the organism) and increasing antibiotic resistance. (arvojournals.org)
  • When the anti-virulence factor is knocked out Salmonella becomes up to 10 times more virulent," says Brett Finlay, Peter Wall Prof. of Microbiology and Biochemistry at UBC and senior investigator at the Michael Smith Laboratories. (pigprogress.net)
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  • Aggressive periodontitis is a multifactorial disease with many complex interactions including host factors, microbiology and genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its pathogenicity results from the possession of virulence genes that produce different toxins which result in self-limiting to severe illness often requiring hospitalization. (mdpi.com)
  • The identification of virulence genes that can be targeted to alter pathogenicity is a necessary step in devising novel strategies to treat or prevent Candida infections. (asm.org)
  • Although there has been progress in identifying loci involved in the pathogenicity of this organism, analysis of the genome sequence has revealed few obvious virulence factors. (asm.org)
  • So far, many of the factors identified are encoded on a 30-kb Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) that has at least 17 open reading frames ( 40 ). (asm.org)
  • This putative C6 transcription factor of S. sclerotiorum (SsC 6 TF1) was knocked down using a gene-silencing approach to investigate its functions in vegetative growth and sclerotial development as well as its virulence and pathogenicity in pea. (asm.org)
  • However, most studies exploring Sclerotinia virulence and pathogenicity have focused on oxalic acid, effectors, and cell-wall degrading enzymes and few studies have focused on fungal transcription factors (TFs) involved in virulence ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • A Novel extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor regulates virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that reduces the quantity of CFTR in the apical membrane of human airway epithelial cells. (osti.gov)
  • Effects of pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor pyocyanin on human " by Catherine M. McDermott, Russ Chess-Williams et al. (edu.au)
  • and S. aureus secrete a SMase C that plays an important role in virulence by increasing Cer, which changes the physical properties of the membrane and could also participate in signal transduction leading to cell death. (asm.org)
  • Gene expression analysis revealed that PeSte12 was induced over time during apple infection compared to axenic growth, particularly from 2 dpi, reinforcing its role in virulence. (csic.es)
  • PDI, contrarily to traditional antibiotics, inhibited the expression of virulence factors, efficiently inactivating either highly virulent strains and low virulent S. aureus strains, inactivating also antibiotic susceptible and resistant strains, without development of photoresistance after at least 10 consecutive cycles of treatment, and so this therapy may become a strong promising alternative to antibiotics to control pathogenic microorganisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Drawing the line between commensal and pathogenic Gardnerella vaginalis through genome analysis and virulence studies. (ebscohost.com)
  • JCVI: Acquisition and Loss of Virulence-associated Factors During Genome Evolution and Speciation in Three Clades of Bordetella Species. (jcvi.org)
  • Here we analyze sequence diversity and gene content of 128 genome sequences from all nine species with focus on the evolution of virulence-associated factors. (jcvi.org)
  • The importance of genome lengths and the roles of individual genes in virulence of NDV in its natural host, chickens, have not been determined. (umd.edu)
  • In this study, the effects of naturally occurring nucleotide insertions in NDV genome and roles of individual genes in the virulence of NDV in chickens were determined. (umd.edu)
  • In part because analysis of the genome sequence revealed few obvious virulence factors, several laboratories have created site-specific mutations or used transposon mutagenesis of LVS or F. novicida as a means to identify virulence-associated loci ( 20 , 33 , 36 , 42 , 44 , 51 , 53 , 58 ). (asm.org)
  • This is the first reported study to demonstrate definitively that gG is a virulence factor in ILTV and that deletion of gG from this alphaherpesvirus genome causes marked attenuation of the virus in its natural host. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In this study, 389 transcription factors (TFs) were mined from the complete genome sequence of S. sclerotiorum and their in planta expression patterns were determined in susceptible and partially resistant pea lines and compared to in vitro expression patterns on culture medium. (asm.org)
  • This study profiled genome-wide expression for S. sclerotiorum transcription factors in planta and in vitro and functionally characterized a novel transcription factor, SsC 6 TF1, which positively regulates sclerotial development and virulence on pea. (asm.org)
  • 4 Based on the specific virulence factors present, pathogenic E. coli can be classified as either extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) or intestinal pathogenic E. coli (InPEC). (scielo.org.za)
  • The impact of secDF deletion on transcription and expression of specific virulence determinants varied: While coagulase transcription and activity were reduced, the opposite was observed for the autolysin Atl. (uzh.ch)
  • Upon perception of the extracellular signal by the receptor the ECF sigma factor is activated and promotes the transcription of a specific set of gene(s). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Brucella lipopolysaccharide acts as a virulence factor. (nih.gov)
  • Ave1 has homology to plant natriuretic peptides that are regulators of homeostasis, and acts as a virulence factor on tomato plants that lack Ve1 as well as on Arabidopsis. (wur.nl)
  • Distribution of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Genes in Enterococcus spp. (asm.org)
  • The article presents a study related to association of virulence factor with antimicrobial resistance in enterococci isolated from urine. (ebscohost.com)
  • The 3rd year student, investigating the role of Hsp90 co-chaperones in virulence, selected five co-chaperones that are not essential for growth, to not elicit selective pressure for drug resistance, and examined their contributions to growth in in vivo and in vitro virulence assays. (europa.eu)
  • These strains were assessed for growth and survival in vitro and in macrophages and for virulence in mice. (aber.ac.uk)
  • This work thus aimed to address whether CLI improves necrotizing fasciitis outcome by modulating virulence factors of CLI-susceptible and CLI-resistant GAS in vitro and in vivo. (uzh.ch)
  • One of the transcription factors was significantly induced in planta at 24 and 48 h postinfection compared to the expression in vitro . (asm.org)
  • This study investigated expression levels of transcription factors in S. sclerotiorum in planta (pea lines) and in vitro (culture medium). (asm.org)
  • We developed a conditional overexpression/suppression genetic strategy in Candida albicans to enable simultaneous testing of gain or loss of function in order to identify new virulence factors. (asm.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility and virulence factors of strains Candida spp isolated of urine in Ceara - Brazil. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • Many virulence determinants of E. amylovora have been characterized, including the Type III secretion system (T3SS), the exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran, biofilm formation, and motility. (mdpi.com)
  • The presence of six genes ( eaeA , slt-I , slt-II , fliC , rfbE , and ipaH ) encoding bacterial antigenic determinants and virulence factors of bacterial strains was monitored by multiplex PCR followed by hybridization of the denatured PCR product to the gene-specific oligonucleotides on the microchip. (asm.org)
  • The aim of this study was to report on antibiotic susceptibility patterns as well as highlight the presence of efflux pump genes and virulence genetic determinants in Enterococcus spp. (ebscohost.com)
  • Conclusions The combination of different effects of secDF deletion on transcription, regulation and translocation lead to impaired cell division, reduced resistance and altered expression of virulence determinants suggesting SecDF to be of major relevance in S. aureus. (uzh.ch)
  • In addition to several virulence factors which have been previously reported, we are proposing new candidate virulence factors such as a repeats-in-toxin protein, lysophospholipase, a twin-arginine translocation system and the type VI secretion effector Phospholipase A1. (springer.com)
  • Using techniques of cellular and molecular biology, and of biochemistry, they sought to identify the nature and function of T. cruzi genes which code for the factors responsible for the virulence, in particular a protein called Tc52. (innovations-report.com)
  • One example of a bacterial virulence factor acting like a eukaryotic protein is Salmonella protein SopE it acts as a GEF, turning the GTPase on to create more GTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virulence of the hrpG and hrcC mutant strains (both gene products presumed to be involved in protein secretion) was greatly reduced on leaves of semitolerant African violet varieties. (apsnet.org)
  • The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae , including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). (asm.org)
  • Coordinate expression of CT, TCP, and other virulence factors is controlled by a transmembrane protein, ToxR ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • ToxT is an AraC-like regulatory protein that directly activates transcription of several virulence genes, including the ctx and tcp genes, which encode CT and TCP, respectively ( 4 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Efforts aiming to identify new drug targets, demonstrated that the environmentally responsive chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), which is a central regulator of the cell's protein balance, regulates C. albicans virulence and stress response pathways. (europa.eu)
  • When measuring protein levels in virulence-related conditions such as filamentous growth and biofilm formation, the student noticed that Hsp90-activating and inhibiting co-chaperones were co-regulated. (europa.eu)
  • Structural basis for the specific inhibition of protein kinase G, a virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (uniprot.org)
  • A crucial virulence factor for intracellular mycobacterial survival is protein kinase G (PknG), a eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein kinase expressed by pathogenic mycobacteria that blocks the intracellular degradation of mycobacteria in lysosomes. (uniprot.org)
  • The finding that Nef activates a member of the PAK family of protein kinases provides new insights into the mechanisms of action of this critical virulence factor. (epfl.ch)
  • Examples of virulence genes are L. monocytogenes inlA , which encodes the internalin-A protein important for invasion of nonprofessional phagocytes ( 129 ), and the spv gene cluster of Salmonella enterica , which allows for bacterial growth inside macrophages ( 128 ). (asm.org)
  • The reciprocal swap between NDV strains BC and GBT for the genes, nucleocapsid protein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F), hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN) and large polymerase (L) protein genes, showed that F protein gene is most important for NDV virulence, followed by the L protein gene. (umd.edu)
  • The NS1 protein of influenza virus is a major virulence factor essential for virus replication, as it redirects the host cell to promote viral protein expression. (rupress.org)
  • These experiments identified the FTT1103 protein as an essential virulence factor and also demonstrated the feasibility of creating defined attenuated vaccines based on a type A strain. (asm.org)
  • Background SecDF is an accessory factor of the conserved Sec protein translocation machinery and belongs to the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) family of multidrug exporters. (uzh.ch)
  • The NDT80/PhoG transcription factor (TF) family includes the DNA-binding meiosis-specific protein ScNdt80p, a key modulator of the progression of the meiotic divisions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( 15 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • In compromised hosts, however, P. aeruginosa uses an arsenal of virulence factors to cause serious infections associated with burns, catheters, and implants. (sciencemag.org)
  • Group A Streptococcus (GAS) has acquired an arsenal of virulence factors, promoting life-threatening invasive infections such as necrotizing fasciitis. (uzh.ch)
  • We developed improved virulence assays for Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 on African violet varieties and devised a new method for the construction of precise bacterial gene knockouts. (apsnet.org)
  • These data indicate that the same gene can increase or decrease candidal virulence in distinct models of infection, emphasizing the importance of studying virulence genes in different anatomical contexts. (asm.org)
  • Overall, we have identified a class of compounds that can be used as a tool to probe the mechanism(s) that regulates virulence gene expression in EPEC. (asm.org)
  • A recent paper used a gene probe to detect type III genes as an indicator of virulence, and there was no interference due to genetic similarity between type III systems and the flagellar assembly apparatus ( 40 ). (asm.org)
  • One corollary is that determining what gene products should be regarded as virulence factors may depend on how one defines "virulence" and "virulence factor. (evmedreview.com)
  • Therefore, asking whether deletion of the gene encoding a putative virulence factor decreases virulence may be too crude a criterion for identifying the gene product as a contributor to virulence. (evmedreview.com)
  • In the present study, the PeSte12 transcription factor gene was identified, and deletant mutants were produced by gene replacement. (csic.es)
  • Researchers at the University of British Columbia, Canada, have discovered an anti-virulence factor in Salmonella, providing knowledge that could be used to design improved Salmonella vaccines. (pigprogress.net)
  • An anti-virulence factor controls the degree of infectiveness. (pigprogress.net)
  • The finding, published in Public Library of Science, suggests that there is a distinct pathway in Salmonella that acts as an anti-virulence factor during salmonellosis. (pigprogress.net)
  • Immunological and biochemical anti-virulence factor interventions are effective in animal models of UTI and hold promise for the prevention of UTI in humans. (asm.org)
  • Expression of the two major virulence factors cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), as well as that of a number of other virulence factors, is regulated by environmental stimuli resulting in little to no expression outside the host but high levels of expression within the host intestine. (asm.org)
  • Lipase, protease, and biofilm as the major virulence factors in staphylococci isolated from acne lesions. (ebscohost.com)
  • Various virulence factors and some virulence factor-associated genes were screened. (hindawi.com)
  • It is desirable to be able to identify both the organism and its virulence factors, and this may be feasible by using oligonucleotide microchips specifically recognizing and discriminating bacterial rDNA and various virulence factors. (asm.org)
  • Although most strains are commensal, pathogenic E. coli strains can contain various virulence factors and can be responsible for a variety of infections. (scielo.org.za)
  • Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the research that has been conducted over the first 25 years to identify 394 known or putative virulence factor genes present in the genomes of E. coli O157:H7 strains. (scirp.org)
  • Coping with Multiple Virulence Factors: Which Is Most Important? (plos.org)
  • A well established statistical tool known as multivariate linear regression may offer a new approach in determining contributions of multiple virulence factors to the overall virulence of pathogenic microbes say researchers from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York and Westminster College, Salt Lake City, Utah. (rxpgnews.com)
  • By microarray analysis we show that PUMA3 regulates the expression of a number of genes encoding potential virulence factors, including a two-partner secretion (TPS) system. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • None of the potential virulence factors studied was more prevalent among the IE strains. (diva-portal.org)
  • Potential virulence factors have not yet been identified for HEV. (iwaponline.com)
  • One reason that relatively little is known about enterococcal virulence factors is that the mammalian models used to study enterococcal infections are cumbersome and expensive. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, enterococcal virulence factors and the ability to adhere to abiotic surfaces such as urinary catheters were studied. (diva-portal.org)
  • We propose that many virulence factors studied in the context of human infection may also have a role in bacterial-fungal interactions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Do the fungal homologs of Verticillium dahliae effector Ave1 act as virulence factors? (wur.nl)
  • Hence, this project specifically focuses on (1) understanding the co-chaperones' role in fungal virulence, (2) determining if and how their near telomeric locations affects their regulation, (3) identifying the factors that regulate their expression. (europa.eu)
  • Indeed, certain co-chaperones are important for survival of oxidative stress and heat shock, for biofilm formation, and the survival of an invertebrate model of fungal virulence. (europa.eu)
  • Therefore, this study revealed a new role of the novel member of the fungal NDT80 transcription factor family as a regulator of cell separation, hyphal growth, and virulence. (asm.org)
  • The hrcC and hrpG mutants did not produce a rapid hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco, unlike the wild-type bacterium, and the hrpN mutant gave a reduced HR. The results, therefore, establish the importance of hrp genes in the virulence of E. chrysanthemi and their ability to elicit HR on nonhosts. (apsnet.org)
  • Both methods have been used to identify virulence genes in S. aureus. (gla.ac.uk)
  • To identify virulence genes and attenuating mutations that were directly relevant to type A strains, we created a transposon insertion library in Schu S4 and then screened this library for attenuated mutants to identify potential new live vaccine candidates for use against tularemia ( 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Disruption of IcsA leads to loss of bacterial intracellular actin assembly, loss of cell-to-cell spread, and markedly reduced virulence in humans and animal models ( 2 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, all three strains showed markedly reduced virulence in mice, with those carrying only rpfB or rpfD being unable to maintain chronic infection in vivo. (aber.ac.uk)
  • The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of PDI on virulence factors of S. aureus and to assess the potential development of resistance of this bacterium as well as the recovery of the expression of the virulence factors after successive PDI cycles. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our purpose was to investigate the effect of PDAT on the neutralization and or inhibition of S. aureus virulence factors. (arvojournals.org)
  • Impact of PDAT on S. aureus secreted virulence factors is strain dependent. (arvojournals.org)
  • The objective was to study potential bacterial virulence factors in S. aureus endocarditis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Another group of virulence factors possessed by bacteria are immunoglobulin (Ig) proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virulence factors allow bacteria to evade the human immune system, to infect tissues and cells and to establish a foothold within the body. (eurekalert.org)
  • Tim Wencewicz, PhD, assistant professor of chemistry in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis, thinks we should be looking for agents that block virulence factors rather than continuing to search for ones to kill bacteria outright. (eurekalert.org)
  • Molecules known as virulence factors are produced by bacteria, viruses, and fungi to help them to infect host cells. (prnewswire.com)
  • mADP-RTs are well established as important virulence factors of bacteria that infect mammals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Upon contact with the eukaryotic cell, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis increased the rate of transcription of virulence genes ( yop ), as determined by in situ monitoring of light emission from individual bacteria expressing luciferase under the control of the yopE promoter. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results suggest a key role for the type III secretion system of pathogenic bacteria to coordinate secretion with expression of virulence factors after physical contact with the target cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • Virulence factors of anaerobic bacteria: an overview. (harvard.edu)
  • We previously reported that coronatine, a virulence factor of plant bacteria, facilitates bacterial infection through an ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-mediated, non-canonical mechanism in the model dicot plant, Arabidopsis thaliana . (rsc.org)
  • This study confirmed the predicted presence or absence of virulence factors especially effectors across bacterial strains and within strains of the same species and other clusters conserved in gram negative bacteria. (academicjournals.org)
  • One of virulence factors found in the influenza A viruses is hemagglutinin (HA). (prnewswire.com)
  • Influenza A Virus: Is Virulence Attributable to Virulence Factors? (evmedreview.com)
  • It would be quite reasonable to suppose that this activity qualifies PA-X as an influenza A virus virulence factor. (evmedreview.com)
  • This organism expresses a number of virulence factors which allow it to colonize the human intestine and cause disease. (asm.org)
  • Researchers led by Dr Joan Smyth performed basic research on the organism to determine the factors which allow it to cause the disease. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • however, they are often time-consuming and do not directly characterize virulence factors of the organism identified. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, virulence-associated genes can contribute to bacterial survival in the environment and therefore may enhance the capacity of the bacterium to spread to new individuals or to survive passage through a host organism. (asm.org)
  • We present several examples of alternative sigma factors that have been shown to contribute to virulence in at least one organism. (asm.org)
  • M. tuberculosis encodes five resuscitation promoting factors, RpfA-E, which share homology with Micrococcus luteus Rpf, a muralytic enzyme implicated in reactivation of this organism from a dormant state. (aber.ac.uk)
  • A total of 217 E. coli strains were obtained from feces after culture and were screened by PCR for detection of virulence factors EAST-1, enterohemolysin, Saa, CNF2, F41, F5, STa, intimin, Stx1 and Stx2. (scielo.br)
  • Functional genomic characterization of virulence factors from necrotizing fasciitis-causing strains of Aeromonas hydrophila. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Genotypic characterization, based on the analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of virulence factor fragment products was performed on members of the X. vasicola pv. (academicjournals.org)
  • Your recent download bacterial virulence factors and rho gtpases current topics 's the Near East, where you'll come how the Crusades came the Abstract of Genoa, Pisa, and Venice. (sara-jordan.com)
  • Multivariate linear regression can be used to identify the relative levels of importance of virulence factors in virulence studies, and this information can be used to prioritize antigen identification for vaccine development and the design of antimicrobial strategies that target virulence mechanisms," say the researchers. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Topics discussed include resistance and virulence genes found in transposable genetic elements of enterococci, drug resistance developed by enterococci involved in urinary tract infection and possibilities of acquisition of plasmids by the microorganisms developing drug resistance. (ebscohost.com)
  • Differences have been reported among these species in antifungal susceptibility and virulence characteristics. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • and Gpi7, an antivirulence factor that reduces candidal resistance to macrophages and virulence in mice ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Although PDI is being shown to be a promising alternative to the antibiotic approach for the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms, information on effects of photosensitization on particular virulence factors is strikingly scarce. (frontiersin.org)
  • Krajewska, J. and Kędzierska-Mieszkowska, S. (2014) AAA+ ClpB chaperone as a potential virulence factor of pathogenic microorganisms: Other aspect of its chaperone function. (scirp.org)
  • In vivo virulence assays using a systemic mouse model suggest that C. dubliniensis is marginally less virulent than C. albicans. (nih.gov)
  • Transcriptional fusion assays confirmed that virulence-associated promoters were more sensitive to inhibition by this class of compounds. (asm.org)
  • The assay was able to detect these virulence factors in 15 Salmonella , Shigella , and E. coli strains. (asm.org)
  • Virulence factors were detected by PCR, whereas biofilm production was determined using a microtiter plate assay. (ajtmh.org)
  • We could give anti-virulence antibiotics to people with healthy immune systems, who would be able to clear infections with this assistance," he said, "and traditional antibiotics combined with antivirulence therapies to people with compromised immune systems, who really need them. (eurekalert.org)
  • Staphylococci involve infections in association with a number of bacterial virulence factors. (ebscohost.com)
  • Virulence factor expression is more common among certain genetically related groups of E. coli which constitute virulent clones within the larger E. coli population. (asm.org)
  • This study aimed to determine the virulence factors, phylogenetic groups, and the relationships between pathovars and phylogenetic groups of E. coli strains isolated from feces of buffalo calves. (scielo.br)
  • Although there is much literature discussing the contribution of virulence factors to microbial virulence, there is no designated methodology for determining the impact of individual virulence factors on overall microbial virulence. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Factors contributing to disease are extremely complicated, possibly involving differences in one or more traits associated with an organism's taxon, genotype or isolate and its infectious dose, and age or condition, as well as the host's physiology and immune status. (iwaponline.com)
  • This important, yet largely unanswered, question can be addressed by examining how A. fumigatus and its close nonpathogenic relatives are similar or different with respect to virulence-associated traits. (asm.org)
  • In addition, biofilm is known to be associated with their virulence. (ebscohost.com)
  • AggR was the most prevalent virulence factor in the biofilm-forming group (65% versus 38%, P = 0.032). (ajtmh.org)
  • Thus, pyrimidines play a necessary role in the inhibition of mRNA nuclear export by virulence factors. (rupress.org)
  • The research also demonstrates that Salmonella has the ability to control its virulence even before it enters the host. (pigprogress.net)
  • We demonstrate that ToxT-dependent transcriptional activation of virulence factors is also regulated by environmental signals, indicating environmental modulation of ToxT transcriptional activity. (asm.org)
  • We suggest that negative regulation of ToxT transcriptional activity prevents incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors. (asm.org)
  • Several P. aeruginosa virulence factors that are important in disease are involved in the killing of C. albicans filaments. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although most P. aeruginosa CSS systems are involved in the regulation of iron uptake, we have identified a novel system involved in the regulation of virulence. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The virulence factor depressed stimulated adenosine triphosphate release, which to our knowledge is a novel finding with implications for awareness of bladder filling in patients with P. aeruginosa urinary tract infection. (edu.au)
  • The most virulent strains possessed one of the following four virulence factors or a combination of them: cytotoxic enterotoxin, exotoxin A, and type 3 and 6 secretion system effectors AexU and Hcp. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Therefore, our data suggest that PsXEG1 contributes to P. sojae virulence, but soybean recognizes PsXEG1 to induce immune responses, which in turn can be suppressed by RXLR effectors. (oregonstate.edu)
  • To successfully establish an infection, E. amylovora uses a complex regulatory network to sense the relevant environmental signals and coordinate the expression of early and late stage virulence factors involving two component signal transduction systems, bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and quorum sensing. (mdpi.com)
  • The results indicate that the expression of some external virulence factors is affected by PDI and enterotoxin producing strains were more susceptible to PDI than non-toxigenic strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • Extended spectrum β -lactamases (ESBLs) and expression of a multitude of virulence factors may work in a harmony resulting in treatment failure. (hindawi.com)
  • Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT . (asm.org)
  • Laboratory conditions which stimulate V. cholerae virulence factor expression have been elucidated and include temperature, osmolarity, pH, CO 2 , amino acids, and bile (for a review, see reference 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Differential expression of virulence factors in different biotypes of V. cholerae has been shown to be due to differential toxT expression ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Moreover, expression of ToxT from an inducible promoter in V. cholerae strains containing mutations in toxR or tcpP leads to high-level expression of CT and TCP even under noninducing laboratory conditions ( 4 , 12 ), whereas there is no expression of either of these factors in a V. cholerae strain lacking toxT ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • These data have been incorporated into a cascade model for virulence where inducing environmental signals within the host stimulate ToxR and TcpP to activate transcription of toxT , whose product then activates virulence factor expression in a constitutive manner ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Our results illuminate an additional level of environmental control over virulence factor expression in V. cholerae . (asm.org)
  • An eps mutant was less efficient than the wild-type strain in initiating a maceration symptom, suggesting that production of EPS is required for the full expression of the E. chrysanthemi virulence. (apsnet.org)
  • As the regulon of a single sigma factor can be composed of hundreds of genes, sigma factors can provide effective mechanisms for simultaneously regulating expression of large numbers of prokaryotic genes. (asm.org)
  • This reversal of mRNA export block allowed expression of antiviral factors. (rupress.org)
  • This class of compounds does not affect bacterial viability or motility, indicating that it is not significantly affecting the expression of essential genes and is specific to virulence-associated genes. (asm.org)
  • Its impact in eliminating or inhibiting secreted virulence factor expression is unknown. (arvojournals.org)
  • One transcription factor displaying high expression in planta was found to be involved in sclerotial development and virulence on pea. (asm.org)
  • The present study was conducted to correlate the biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis and their virulence factors. (ebscohost.com)
  • We did not find any statistical correlation between G. vaginalis biotypes and its virulence factors. (ebscohost.com)
  • produce a variety of so-called virulence factors that permit them to evade the defense mechanisms of the host and thus cause disease. (britannica.com)
  • As a result, virulence mechanisms that set typhoid fever apart from human gastroenteritis remain understudied. (usda.gov)
  • This outcome will be significant, because it will have broad relevance for understanding the molecular virulence mechanisms that distinguish typhoid fever from gastroenteritis. (usda.gov)
  • This review summarizes the virtual explosion of information regarding the epidemiology, biochemistry, mechanisms of action, and genetic basis of these urovirulence factors that has occurred in the past decade and identifies areas in need of further study. (asm.org)
  • Transcriptomic analyses using RNA-seq have become a powerful approach to explore plant resistance to white mold ( 8 , 9 ) and virulence mechanisms of S. sclerotiorum ( 10 , 11 ). (asm.org)
  • IcsA (VirG) is essential to Shigella intracellular motility and virulence. (pnas.org)
  • A few factors that regulate or facilitate phagosome escape and intracellular survival of F. tularensis have been identified ( 22 , 31 , 40 , 43 , 49 ). (asm.org)
  • Putative virulence factors for Cryptosporidium might be found in recently recognized genes involved in processes such as excystation, adherence to host cells, invasion, intracellular maintenance and host cell destruction. (iwaponline.com)

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