The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Diseases of plants.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A human and animal pathogen causing mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and bacteremia.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Infections with bacteria of the species YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS.
A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod- to coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that occurs in a broad spectrum of habitats.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. It is found in the xylem of plant tissue.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.
An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage. Its species are parasitic on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, including man.
Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A species of halophilic bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which lives in warm SEAWATER. It can cause infections in those who eat raw contaminated seafood or have open wounds exposed to seawater.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.
DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is pathogenic for plants.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
The lone genus of bacteria in the family Francisellaceae, frequently found in natural waters. It can be parasitic in humans, other MAMMALS; BIRDS; and ARTHROPODS.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
A species of Ralstonia previously classed in the genera PSEUDOMONAS and BURKHOLDERIA. It is an important plant pathogen.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A family of coccoid to rod-shaped nonsporeforming, gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that includes the genera ACTINOBACILLUS; HAEMOPHILUS; MANNHEIMIA; and PASTEURELLA.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
Several virulence factors of P. penneri can make infections from this invasive pathogen more pronounced, persistent, and harder ... Swarming motility is the coordinated translocation of a bacterial population driven by flagellar rotation in film or on fluid ... These include adherence due to the presence of fimbriae or afimbrial adhesins, invasiveness, swarming phenomenon, hemolytic ... It is an invasive pathogen and a cause of nosocomial infections of the urinary tract or open wounds. Pathogens have been ...
Bacterial effector protein Bacterial outer membrane vesicles Host-pathogen interface Membrane vesicle trafficking Secretomics ... Vesicles from a number of bacterial species have been found to contain virulence factors, some have immunomodulatory effects, ... Gerlach RG, Hensel M (October 2007). "Protein secretion systems and adhesins: the molecular armory of Gram-negative pathogens ... Kuehn MJ, Kesty NC (November 2005). "Bacterial outer membrane vesicles and the host-pathogen interaction". Genes & Development ...
Experimental studies are done to characterize specific bacterial pathogens and to identify their specific virulence factors. ... Bacteria produce various adhesins including lipoteichoic acid, trimeric autotransporter adhesins and a wide variety of other ... For the most part, the genetic approach is the most extensive way in identifying the bacterial virulence factors. Bacterial DNA ... if the pathogen is an intracellular one) obtain nutrition from the host Specific pathogens possess a wide array of virulence ...
They can be transferred as a single unit to new bacterial cells, thus conferring virulence to formerly benign strains. PAIs, a ... Pathogenicity islands carry genes encoding one or more virulence factors, including, but not limited to, adhesins, secretion ... may range from 10-200 kb and encode genes which contribute to the virulence of the respective pathogen. ... Rhodococcus equi virulence plasmid pathogenicity island encodes virulence factors for proliferation in macrophages. The SaPI ...
The majority of bacterial pathogens exploit specific adhesion to host cells as their main virulence factor. "A large number of ... The best characterized bacterial adhesin is the type 1 fimbrial FimH adhesin. This adhesin is responsible for D-mannose ... Many bacterial pathogens are able to express an array of different adhesins. Expression of these adhesins at different phases ... Adhesins are a type of virulence factor. Adherence is an essential step in bacterial pathogenesis or infection, required for ...
Bacterial virulence factors, such as glycocalyx and various adhesins, allow colonization, immune evasion, and establishment of ... An invading pathogen is recognized by its pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Examples of PAMPs include ... Ramachandran G (January 2014). "Gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial toxins in sepsis: A brief review". Virulence. 5 (1): ... muramyl dipeptide in the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall, and CpG bacterial DNA. These PAMPs are ...
Gerlach RG, Hensel M (October 2007). "Protein secretion systems and adhesins: the molecular armory of Gram-negative pathogens ... the generation of bacterial cell surface coatings involved in virulence, gliding motility and the degradation of complex ... Bacterial secretion systems are protein complexes present on the cell membranes of bacteria for secretion of substances. ... Type II (T2SS) secretion system depends on the Sec or Tat system for initial secretion inside the bacterial cell. From the ...
Kuehn MJ, Kesty NC (November 2005). "Bacterial outer membrane vesicles and the host-pathogen interaction". Genes & Development ... Vesicles from a number of bacterial species have been found to contain virulence factors, some have immunomodulatory effects, ... Gerlach RG, Hensel M (October 2007). "Protein secretion systems and adhesins: the molecular armory of Gram-negative pathogens ... in two bacterial pathogens, Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.[19][20] These were identified when mutations in the Hcp ...
"Colonization and Invasion by Bacterial Pathogens". Retrieved 2016-12-03. Epstein, EA; Reizian, ... They contain FimH adhesins at the "tips". The chaperone-usher pathway is responsible for moving many types of fimbriae out of ... Fimbriae are one of the primary mechanisms of virulence for E. coli, Bordetella pertussis, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus ... Fimbriae possess adhesins which attach them to some sort of substratum so that the bacteria can withstand shear forces and ...
"Evolution of Salmonella enterica virulence via point mutations in the fimbrial adhesin". PLOS Pathogens. 8 (6): e1002733. doi: ... "Bacterial protein mimics DNA to sabotage cells' defenses: Study reveals details of Salmonella infections".. ... "PLOS Pathogens. 8 (6): e1002776. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002776. PMC 3380943. PMID 22737074.. ... In addition to its importance as a pathogen, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium has been instrumental in the development of ...
Bacterial culture of H. influenzae is performed on agar plates, the preferable one being chocolate agar, with added X (hemin) ... Most strains of H. influenzae are opportunistic pathogens; that is, they usually live in their host without causing disease, ... They infect the host by sticking to the host cell using trimeric autotransporter adhesins. Naturally acquired disease caused by ... is known to be a major factor in virulence. Their capsule allows them to resist phagocytosis and complement-mediated lysis in ...
These proteins are typically virulence factors, associated with infection or virulence in pathogenic bacteria. The name ... Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins (TAA) Oomen CJ, van Ulsen P, van Gelder P, Feijen M, Tommassen J, Gros P (March 2004). " ... Leo JC, Grin I, Linke D (April 2012). "Type V secretion: mechanism(s) of autotransport through the bacterial outer membrane". ... Benz I, Schmidt MA (August 2011). "Structures and functions of autotransporter proteins in microbial pathogens". International ...
... is a virulence factor (adhesin) of EPEC (e.g. E. coli O127:H6) and EHEC (e.g. E. coli O157:H7) E. coli strains. It is ... Stevens JM, Galyov EE, Stevens MP (February 2006). "Actin-dependent movement of bacterial pathogens". Nature Reviews. ... Mutations in the eaeA gene result in loss of ability to cause A/E lesions, and is required for full virulence in infected ... The N-terminal domains of intimin from A/E lesion forming pathogens have high homology with each other and to invasin from ...
Virulence factors are the weapons possessed by pathogens to cause damage to the host, hence they are molecules or bacterial ... are non proteinaceous adhesins like Wall Teichoic acids (WTAs) and lipoteichoic acids. Since WTAs are required for host ... "Two-for-one bacterial virulence factor revealed". Retrieved 17 January 2016. Cascioferro, S., Totsika, M., & ... bacterial endotoxins and exotoxins). The bacterial adhesion to the host tissues, involving a direct and a specific interaction ...
Other adhesins have also been described, including the genes gfba, fnB, fbBA, fnBB, lmb and gapC; all mediating binding to ... DrsG, a virulence protein abrogating the effect of antimicrobial peptides secreted by human immune cells, is also harboured by ... Skerman, V.B.D.M.; Sneath, P.H.A. (1980). "Approved list of bacterial names". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 30: 225-420. doi:10.1099/ ... Recently, SDSD has been described as an emerging pathogen in fish, causing fulminant necrotic ulcers of the caudal peduncle, ...
It is a human pathogen that causes the disease mycoplasma pneumonia, a form of atypical bacterial pneumonia related to cold ... The P1 adhesin (trypsin-sensitive protein) is a 120 kDa protein highly clustered on the surface of the attachment organelle tip ... In addition, the formation of hydrogen peroxide is a key virulence factor in M. pneumoniae infections. Attachment of M. ... develop over a period of several days and manifestation of pneumonia can be confused with a number of other bacterial pathogens ...
Prokaryotes have adhesion molecules on their cell surface termed bacterial adhesins, apart from using its pili (fimbriae) and ... Anti-adhesion therapy can be used to prevent infection by targeting adhesion molecules either on the pathogen or on the host ... "Virulence. 4 (4): 284-294. doi:10.4161/viru.24606. PMC 3710331. PMID 23799663.. ... Klemm, Per; Schembri, Mark A. (2000). "Bacterial adhesins: function and structure". International Journal of Medical ...
... a pathology that is unusual for bacterial infections. L. ivanovii is a pathogen of mammals, specifically ruminants, and has ... L. monocytogenes, for example, encodes virulence genes that are thermoregulated. The expression of virulence factor is optimal ... Other important adhesins are the internalins. Listeria uses internalin A and B to bind to cellular receptors. Internalin A ... The major human pathogen in the genus Listeria is L. monocytogenes. It is usually the causative agent of the relatively rare ...
Research in the virulence characteristics of this pathogen is currently very limited due to its high susceptibility to the ... Limitations to its use should be considered in the fact that bacterial culture must first be performed which as previously ... it expresses adhesin(s) that recognize mucin on epithelial cells, with which it can gains access to plasma membrane receptors. ... In dogs, Campylobacter upsaliensis can cause a mild to moderate form bacterial gastroenteritis. It is also frequently ...
Bacterial virulence factors, such as glycocalyx and various adhesins, allow colonization, immune evasion, and establishment of ... An invading pathogen is recognized by its pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Examples of PAMPs include ... muramyl dipeptide in the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall, and CpG bacterial DNA. These PAMPs are ... Infections leading to sepsis are usually bacterial, but may be fungal or viral.[17] Gram-positive bacteria was the predominant ...
Africa CW, Nel J, Stemmet M (July 2014). "Anaerobes and bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: virulence factors contributing to ... They have a role in initial attachment and organization of biofilms, as they act as adhesins that mediate invasion and ... The role of P. gingivalis in periodontitis is studied using specific pathogen-free mouse models of periodontal infections. In ... List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota Naito M, Hirakawa H, Yamashita A, Ohara N, Shoji M, Yukitake H, et al. (August 2008). " ...
Both P. acnes and S. epidermidis can interact to protect the host skin health from pathogens colonisation. But in the case of ... The ability to form biofilms on plastic devices is a major virulence factor for S. epidermidis. One probable cause is surface ... The normal practice of detecting S. epidermidis is by using appearance of colonies on selective media, bacterial morphology by ... It produces an extracellular material known as polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), which is made up of sulfated ...
"The Staphylococcus aureus RNome and Its Commitment to Virulence". PLoS Pathogens. 7 (3): e1002006. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat. ... Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) include porins and adhesins. Numerous sRNAs regulate the expression of OMPs. The porins OmpC and ... and the plant pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae. Bacterial sRNAs affect how genes are expressed within bacterial ... Svensson, Sarah L.; Sharma, Cynthia M. (June 2016). "Small RNAs in Bacterial Virulence and Communication". Microbiology ...
Virulence factors are the attributes of microorganisms that enable it to colonise a particular niche in its host, overcome the ... Monocytes respond to bacterial and inflammatory stimuli with very high levels of local release inflammatory mediators and ... The neutrophils may show an intrinsic functional defect and respond abnormally when challenged by certain pathogens.[11] The ... Adhesins Leukotoxin Cytotoxins Inhibitors of fibroblast proliferation Invasins Chemotactic inhibitors Collagenase Bacteriocins ...
The induction of bacterial filamentation by antibiotics can alter bacterial virulence, which would have important implications ... The filamentation contributes to a pathogen's resistance to this antimicrobial agent. ... with an increased number of adhesins participating in the interaction, making even harder the work for (PMN). The interaction ... Bacterial size < 0.4 μm were not grazed well Bacterial size between 0.4 μm and 1.6 μm were "grazing vulnerable" Bacterial size ...
The binding of the P fimbriae to epithelial cells is mediated by the tip adhesin PapG. Four different alleles of PapG have been ... The P fimbriae is considered to be one of the most important virulence factor in uropathogenic E. coli and plays an important ... P fimbriae are large, linear structures projecting from the surface of the bacterial cell. With lengths of 1-2um, the pili can ... June 2019). "Fimbriae reprogram host gene expression - Divergent effects of P and type 1 fimbriae". PLOS Pathogens. 15 (6): ...
The cagA gene codes for one of the major H. pylori virulence proteins. Bacterial strains with the cagA gene are associated with ... Salama NR, Hartung ML, Müller A (June 2013). "Life in the human stomach: persistence strategies of the bacterial pathogen ... One such adhesin, BabA, binds to the Lewis b antigen displayed on the surface of stomach epithelial cells. H. pylori adherence ... Vulnerability to oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage occurs commonly in many studied bacterial pathogens, including ...
Bacterial pathogens. • Methodology of studying bacterial pathogenesis.. • Virulence factors including toxins and adhesins. ... Bacterial evolution and taxonomy.. Microbial biodiversity at the structural level: Composition of the average bacterial cell ... Part C: Viral pathogens. • Viruses and Human Disease - transmission and spread, overview of important human virus infections, ... Capsule, flagella and adhesins.. Introduction to growth, fuelling and biosynthesis: Division by binary fission, including ...
Determinants of phase variation rate and the fitness implications of differing rates for bacterial pathogens and commensals. ... Heterogeneous Expression of the Virulence-Related Adhesin Epa1 between Individual Cells and Strains of the Pathogen Candida ... Heterogeneous Expression of the Virulence-Related Adhesin Epa1 between Individual Cells and Strains of the Pathogen Candida ... Heterogeneous Expression of the Virulence-Related Adhesin Epa1 between Individual Cells and Strains of the Pathogen Candida ...
Recent studies have indicated that LT toxin enhances enteric pathogen adherence and subsequent intestinal colonization. LT has ... Recent studies have indicated that LT toxin enhances enteric pathogen adherence and subsequent intestinal colonization. LT has ... An elevation in cAMP levels may regulate expression of other bacterial virulence factors and host immune responses. For example ... Viswanathan, V. K., Hodges, K., and Hecht, G. (2009). Enteric infection meets intestinal function: how bacterial pathogens ...
The majority of bacterial pathogens exploit specific adhesion to host cells as their main virulence factor. "A large number of ... The best characterized bacterial adhesin is the type 1 fimbrial FimH adhesin. This adhesin is responsible for D-mannose ... Many bacterial pathogens are able to express an array of different adhesins. Expression of these adhesins at different phases ... Adhesins are a type of virulence factor. Adherence is an essential step in bacterial pathogenesis or infection, required for ...
The inhibition of bacterial virulence has been proposed as an alternative approach to treat multi-drug resistant pathogens. One ... regulation confines exotoxin production to the stationary growth phase with concomitant repression of surfaceexpressed adhesins ... Solonamide B, a non-ribosomal depsipeptide of marine bacterial origin, was recently identified as a putative anti-virulence ... interesting anti-virulence target is the agr quorum-sensing system, which regulates virulence of CA-MRSA in response to agr- ...
... many of these bacteria are pathogens. They bind to abiotic and living surfaces, including cells of their Eukaryotic hosts, ... which makes these proteins important virulence factors. We use molecular cloning techniques, but also x-ray crystallography and ... Structure-function relationship in bacterial adhesins (completed) In the project "Structure-function relationship in bacterial ... we try to elucidate the structural basis for bacterial adhesion. The proteins of interest in this project ("adhesins") are ...
Bacterial pathogens utilize a wide variety of molecules called virulence factors to cause infections. Because these molecules ... B. Adhesins, which are bacterial surface structures that allow pathogens to adhere to host cells. ... Although most bacterial pathogens function as extracellular pathogens, several of the more serious pathogens actually reside ... Genetic analyses of bacterial virulence factors has shown that pathogens are distinguished from their nonpathogenic relatives ...
Adhesins are at least partially surface exposed and play a crucial and early role in virulence of the pathogen. Unfortunately, ... "Adhesin" also includes the protein complexes of colonisation factor antigens such as those present in bacterial fimbriae and ... Adhesins are microbial cell-surface components which mediate tight adhesion of the pathogen to its host cell, or to the extra- ... expressed during the hyphal phase of the pathogen; surface Adhesin gene fab1 of Streptococcus parasanguis; Treponema denticola ...
Aminopeptidases are part of the arsenal of virulence factors produced by bacterial pathogens that inactivate host immune ... Collectively these data suggest that P116 is an important adhesin and virulence factor of M. hyopneumoniae ... Many bacterial pathogens require adhesion to the mucosal epithelium to establish colonisation and employ numerous strategies to ... We examined the virulence of an R10w AMGA0674 mutant (PIH9) in vivo and observed reduced recovery and attenuated virulence in ...
Pathogenesis dependent on pathogen virulence factors and host factors. Virulence factors:. Adhesins. Bio-film (evasion ... Bacterial endocarditis. Viral - Rubella, parvovirus, HBV, HCV. Fungal - Histoplasmosis, Disseminated Coccidiodomycosis. ... Experimental limitation of virulence factors results in less joint damage. Host factors cause more damage than pathogen factors ...
mechanisms underlying virulence of bacterial pathogens. Molecular details of action of major virulence factors, such as ... adhesins, toxins, complement resistance and immunomodulatory substances will be discussed. Action of virulence factors will be ... Molecular mechanisms of bacterial virulence The course deals with molecular mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions. Upon ... Principles of host-pathogen interactions will then be analyzed using selected examples of major human pathogens and bacterial ...
Tag words: bacteria, pathogen, pathogenesis, virulence, colonization, invasion, specific adherence, adhesin, invasin. ... Some Specific Bacterial Adhesins and their Receptors. The adhesins of E. coli are their common pili or fimbriae. A single ... Colonization and Invasion by Bacterial Pathogens (page 2) (This chapter has 4 pages) © Kenneth Todar, PhD Specific Adherence of ... The adhesins of bacterial cells are chemical components of capsules, cell walls, pili or fimbriae. The host receptors are ...
These interactions are particularly important at the host-pathogen interface, where bacterial adhesins, toxins, and other ... Since many secreted virulence factors in gram-positive organisms are subsequently attached to the bacterial cell surface via ... while adhesins are retained at the bacterial surface, where they mediate attachment to host tissues. A large subset of adhesins ... Bacterial cells display exquisite subcellular organization in the processing of virulence factors for display on the cell ...
Kern J, Schneewind O (2010) BslA, the S-layer adhesin of B. anthracis, is a virulence factor for anthrax pathogenesis. Mol ... and Bacterial-Host Interactions Facilitate the Bacterial Pathogen Invading the Brain. *Mazen M. Jamil Al-Obaidi. 1. & ... and Bacterial-Host Interactions Facilitate the Bacterial Pathogen Invading the Brain. Cell Mol Neurobiol 38, 1349-1368 (2018). ... The bacterial adhesins of N. meningitidis (PilQ) targets a common carboxy-terminal domain of LR to establish initial contact ...
Experimental studies are done to characterize specific bacterial pathogens and to identify their specific virulence factors. ... Bacteria produce various adhesins including lipoteichoic acid, trimeric autotransporter adhesins and a wide variety of other ... For the most part, the genetic approach is the most extensive way in identifying the bacterial virulence factors. Bacterial DNA ... if the pathogen is an intracellular one) obtain nutrition from the host Specific pathogens possess a wide array of virulence ...
Emerging and polymicrobial pathogens. Chapter 18 Virulence factors of S. mutans 36 ... Oral bacterial adhesins and receptors. Chapter 14 Complex communities 28. Inter-microbial reactions ...
This pathogen is equipped with an armamentarium of surface-exposed adhesins and virulence factors contributing to pneumonia and ... The assessment of the in vivo role of bacterial fitness or virulence factors is of utmost importance to unravel S. pneumoniae ... Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and one of the most common causes of ... Cocultured in vitro models can be utilized to study the unique molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen induced neutrophil ...
This pathogen is equipped with an armamentarium of surface-exposed adhesins and virulence factors contributing to pneumonia and ... Immunology, Issue 86, Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections, Pneumonia, Bacterial, Lung Diseases, Respiratory Tract Infections, ... The assessment of the in vivo role of bacterial fitness or virulence factors is of utmost importance to unravel S. pneumoniae ... DNA microarrays have emerged as a powerful tool for pathogen detection.1-5 For instance, many examples of the ability to type ...
... binding proteins are also expressed by many bacterial pathogens, facilitating extracellular matrix degradation. M. ... Collectively these data suggest that P116 is an important adhesin and virulence factor of M. hyopneumoniae. ... A M. hyopneumoniae protein P116, encoded by mhp108, was investigated as a potential adhesin. Examination of P116 expression ... A variety of pathogenic bacterial species have been shown to bind the extracellular matrix component fibronectin as an ...
Adhesins are found on bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoan pathogens. One example of a bacterial adhesin is type 1 fimbrial ... Virulence Factors of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens. Learning Objectives. *Explain how virulence factors contribute to signs and ... Viral Virulence. Although viral pathogens are not similar to bacterial pathogens in terms of structure, some of the properties ... In addition to capsules and proteases, some bacterial pathogens produce other virulence factors that allow them to evade the ...
Sequence heterogeneity of PsaA, a 37-kilodalton putative adhesin essential for virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. ... in the virulence of this pathogen include components of the type IV pili and those involved in the generation of bacterial ... Lipoproteins of Bacterial Pathogens. A. Kovacs-Simon, R. W. Titball, S. L. Michell ... This review highlights the diverse roles that lipoproteins of bacterial pathogens play in infection, and as such, it can be ...
57%, p = 0.002). Virulence factors cbp, fbp, speG, sicG, gfbA, and bca clustered clonally into these clades. A clonal ... distribution of virulence factors may account for severe and fatal cases of bacteremia caused by invasive GCGS. ... pyogenes, sharing 61%-72% sequence homology (11,17). These pathogens can exchange genes through bacterial phages and other ... pyogenes have been identified in SDSE, including hemolysin, streptolysin, exotoxin, proteinase, adhesin, streptokinase, and ...
I. Targeting Virulence Factors as a Therapy for Bacterial Infections. Infectious microbes can be viewed as an endless tide, ... Here, we discuss sortase, a prominent virulence factor in Gram-positive pathogens, as a target for the development of anti- ... Lee SF and Boran TL (2003) Roles of sortase in surface expression of the major protein adhesin P1, saliva-induced aggregation ... The corollary to this is to develop anti-infectives that inhibit bacterial virulence strategies, such as attachment to host ...
Bacterial motility is also associated with virulence of bacterial pathogens. The initiation of this process involves the ... This action could be related to the ability of proanthocyanidins (PACs) to bind to proteins, such as the adhesins present on ... The bacterial adhesion is a critical first step prior to invasion. In fact, if E. coli cannot attach to the inner urinary wall ... Preparation of bacterial suspensions and pre-incubation period. E. coli strain ATCC 10536 was grown on TSA plates, at 37ºC. ...
... are required for correct folding and subsequent activity of secreted virulence factors in a number of bacterial pathogens (7-10 ... including adhesins, toxins, exoenzymes, and superantigens. These virulence factors, once produced, are typically transported ... Bacterial hypoxic responses revealed as critical determinants of the host-pathogen outcome by TnSeq analysis of Staphylococcus ... PPIase-mediated folding is required for subsequent activity of secreted virulence factors in a number of bacterial pathogens (8 ...
In Brazil, the involvement of adhesins, toxins and other virulence factors of E. coli isolated of urinary infections, pyometra ... In: Gyles, C.L., Prescott, J.F., Songer, G., Thoen, C.O. (eds). Pathogenesis of bacterial infections in animals. Wiley- ... Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) (5, 10, 30). E. coli that are ... Surface virulence factors of UPEC include several adhesins that are primarily fimbrial (5). These fimbriae recognize receptors ...
Molecular mechanisms modulating host epithelial integrity in response to bacterial adhesion at University of Birmingham, listed ... as a new and wide-spread family of bacterial adhesins mediating host-pathogen interactions (Krachler et al, PNAS 2011). We are ... and a potential target of novel drugs targeting bacterial virulence. We recently identified Multivalent Adhesion Molecules ( ... Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens University of Leeds Faculty of Biological ...
... adhesin explanation free. What is adhesin? Meaning of adhesin medical term. What does adhesin mean? ... Looking for online definition of adhesin in the Medical Dictionary? ... Adhesin. Any of a number of bacterial virulence factors-e.g., pili in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, lipotechoic acid in group A ... Directed mutagenesis of adhesin genes in several oral pathogens will be used to create a library of knockout strains.. BAC-STAR ...
ExPEC are characterized by pathogenic virulence factor genes coding for various combinations of adhesins, toxins, iron- ... ExPEC virulence factors are encoded on the bacterial chromosome, where they are usually located within pathogenicity-associated ... reported only 144 clonal group A E. coli (25.2%) (29). The multidrug-resistant nature of these pathogens is of increasing ... non-B2 resistance score 4.5 [2.5-7]; p,0.0001) but carried more virulence factor genes (B2 virulence score 7 [5-7] vs. non-B2 ...
... as well as the production of other virulence factors such as bacterial adhesins and biofilm. Consequently, the pathogen- ... K. Tateda, T. J. Standiford, J. C. Pechere, and K. Yamaguchi, "Regulatory effects of macrolides on bacterial virulence: ... In addition to high levels of tissue penetration, which may counteract seemingly macrolide-resistant bacterial pathogens, these ... Antibiotics cooperate with host defences to eradicate microbial pathogens. In this setting, the antibiotic-exposed pathogens ...
  • The study shows how heterogeneity can impact the virulence-related properties of C. glabrata cell populations, with potential implications for microbial pathogenesis more broadly. (
  • Adherence is an essential step in bacterial pathogenesis or infection, required for colonizing a new host. (
  • To maintain the synergism between the kind of immunity conferred by the vaccines and the cellular location of the included antigens, new findings are gathered about the virulence factors such as toxins, adhesins, invasins (mostly enzymes), anti-apoptotic factors, anti-phagocytic factors, and many more molecules that aid in pathogenesis and invasiveness. (
  • Adhesion of bacteria to the uroepithelial cells is a key point in the development of urinary tract infection (UTI), and it is a major virulence factor in their complex pathogenesis. (
  • In this section, we examine various types and specific examples of virulence factors and how they contribute to each step of pathogenesis. (
  • Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that relies on a large repertoire of secreted and cell wall-associated proteins for pathogenesis. (
  • Thus, ToxR-dependent modulation of porins apparently preceded, and possibly contributed to, the evolution of V. cholerae as a human pathogen, but little is known about the potential role of OmpU and OmpT in V. cholerae pathogenesis. (
  • Since the pathogenesis of bacterial infectious diseases has been re- searched very thoroughly, the following summary is based on the host-in- vader interactions seen in this type of infection. (
  • There are three main ways the flagella can contribute to bacterial pathogenesis. (
  • Overall, the roles of flagella in bacterial pathogenesis are diverse, although not necessarily mutually exclusive. (
  • Adhesion to specific host RECEPTORS is often a preliminary stage in pathogenesis (see PATHOGEN ). (
  • After the 2000 Terrain Mapping, the program shifted to its current focus on the study of pathogenesis itself, providing opportunities for researchers working in viral and bacterial systems as well as those in the eukaryote systems funded before. (
  • Globally several laboratories are involved in identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M.tb ) proteins that play a crucial role in immunomuodulation, gene regulation, pathogenesis and virulence with the aim of developing novel anti-mycobacterials. (
  • The jejunal microbiota is considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of CD as CD is associated with bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine, which can worsen malabsorption or cause malabsorption despite adherence to treatment [3]. (
  • They uncover new mechanisms and complexity of virus-host interactions that may have important implications for further studies on the evolution of cellular small RNA biogenesis that impact pathogen infection, pathogenesis, as well as organismal development. (
  • Several non-adhesin functional classes of proteins involved in host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis are known to provide protection against bacterial infections. (
  • Therefore, knowledge of bacterial pathogenesis has potential to identify PVCs. (
  • Better prediction accuracy of Jenner-Predict web server signifies that domains involved in host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis are better criteria for prediction of PVCs. (
  • In this book, a group of distinguished scientists from eight different countries and three continents, under the expert guidance of the editors Camille Locht and Michel Simonet, overview the molecular and cellular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. (
  • a valuable book for both graduate students and mature scientists working in the field of bacterial pathogenesis. (
  • The identification of factors that enhance the virulence of bacteria is a critical step in understanding the molecular basis for their pathogenesis. (
  • The involvement of bacterial components in the host-pathogen interaction of GBS pathogenesis and its related diseases is thought to be due to a variety of virulence factors expressed by Streptococcus agalactiae. (
  • These observations add a novel aspect to bacterial pathogenesis where bacteria's own intracellular protein component can act as a potential therapeutic candidate by decreasing the severity of disease thus promoting its invasion inhibition. (
  • Therefore, the objective of this study was to use bioinformatics tools to mine the newly annotated genome of a clinical isolate of A. suis [ 6 ] and identify adhesin-associated genes that may be involved in the early stages of pathogenesis of this organism. (
  • Adhesins play an important role in the pathogenesis of most bacteria by allowing them to attach to, colonise, and invade their hosts. (
  • Since this protein was already shown to be involved in the recognition of laminin and heparan sulphate-containing proteoglycans, the present observations reinforce the adhesive activities of LBP/Hlp, which can be therefore considered as a multifaceted mycobacterial adhesin, playing an important role in both leprosy and tuberculosis pathogenesis. (
  • UPEC expresses multiple adhesins and virulence factors that provoke inflammation and enable bacterial colonization of the bladder as the first step in UTI pathogenesis ( 2 - 5 ). (
  • Recent studies have indicated that LT toxin enhances enteric pathogen adherence and subsequent intestinal colonization. (
  • These obtained bacterial virulence factors have two different routes used to help them survive and grow: The factors are used to assist and promote colonization of the host. (
  • In the case of pathogens, lipoproteins have been shown to play a direct role in virulence-associated functions, such as colonization, invasion, evasion of host defense, and immunomodulation ( 75 , 82 , 88 ). (
  • Our results indicate that ToxR-dependent modulation of the outer membrane porins OmpU and OmpT is critical for V. cholerae bile resistance, virulence factor expression, and intestinal colonization. (
  • Within the small intestine, the bacteria synthesize CT and other virulence factors, including the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), which is required for intestinal colonization ( 2 ). (
  • It has been suggested that OmpU may act as an adhesin during intestinal colonization ( 15 ), although subsequent studies have disputed this ( 16 ). (
  • Szymanski and Gaynor, 2012 ), this review specifically summarizes our increasing knowledge about the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of C. jejuni and its impact on the virulence and colonization process of this important pathogen. (
  • Differential bacterial counts demonstrated that motile bacteria outcompete nonmotile bacteria in the colonization of the intestines at early time points postinfection. (
  • However, the L. rhamnosus wild type strain showed the best capacity to inhibit pathogen colonization in vitro. (
  • Immunization with Haemophilus influenzae hap adhesin protects against nasopharyngeal colonization in experimental mice. (
  • Our research is directed towards bacterial ligands that bind to specific host receptors and mediate bacterial colonization, host cell signaling, and/or optimal toxin delivery. (
  • Pathogen adherence to a host cell is one of the first essential steps for establishing invasion, colonization and release of virulence factors such as toxins. (
  • Enterobacterial pathogens infect the gut by a multistep process, resulting in colonization of both the lumen and the mucosal epithelium. (
  • Adhesins have a crucial role in mediating colonization and invasion of the host. (
  • The focus of my research is the identification and characterization of bacterial proteins that are required for tissue colonization, the initiation of any infection. (
  • We posit that this adhesin is associated with tropism and colonization of disparate tissues by this pathogen. (
  • In humans, proteases can act as host defence mechanisms to counteract bacterial colonization. (
  • Thus, salivary agglutinin is believed to facilitate bacterial clearance from the oral cavity or to promote colonization, depending on whether it is in solution or adsorbed on a surface ( 14 , 20 ). (
  • Another major virulence-associated factor of C. glabrata is the expression of adhesin proteins encoded by the subtelomeric EPA gene family. (
  • Approximately 67 genes encoding adhesin-like glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins reside within the C. glabrata genome, and at least 17 or 23 (depending on the strain) of these proteins can be allocated to the Epa family ( 12 , 24 ). (
  • Several of the Epa proteins are important for adherence and virulence. (
  • The different Epa proteins have different specificities for glycan-containing ligands ( 57 ), and deletion of EPA1 alone produced no significant virulence phenotype in murine models of systemic or vaginal candidiasis ( 11 ). (
  • Bacteria produce various adhesins including lipoteichoic acid, trimeric autotransporter adhesins and a wide variety of other surface proteins to attach to host tissue. (
  • A major group of virulence factors are proteins that can control the activation levels of GTPases. (
  • They bind to abiotic and living surfaces, including cells of their Eukaryotic hosts, which makes these proteins important virulence factors. (
  • Bacterial lipoproteins are a set of membrane proteins with many different functions. (
  • Due to this broad-ranging functionality, these proteins have a considerable significance in many phenomena, from cellular physiology through cell division and virulence. (
  • Lipid modification of bacterial proteins facilitates the anchoring of hydrophilic proteins to hydrophobic surfaces through the hydrophobic interaction of the attached acyl groups to the cell wall phospholipids. (
  • Further study of this group of bacterial proteins will contribute to a better understanding of their roles and mechanisms of action, supporting their use in the development of countermeasures against bacterial pathogens. (
  • This action could be related to the ability of proanthocyanidins (PACs) to bind to proteins, such as the adhesins present on these E. coli fimbriae [1-4]. (
  • The ability of S. aureus to cause disease is largely due to an extensive repertoire of secreted and cell wall-associated proteins, including adhesins, toxins, exoenzymes, and superantigens. (
  • This step often requires the assistance of bacterial folding proteins, such as PPIases. (
  • Plasmin(ogen)-binding proteins are also expressed by many bacterial pathogens, facilitating extracellular matrix degradation. (
  • Bacteria initially adhere to the cell membrane and extracellular matrix substrates through surface proteins (adhesins) [ 17 , 18 ] and are then internalized by different NPPCs. (
  • The protein, named MAM-7, can mediate pathogen attachment to mammalian cells even in the absence of other adhesion proteins [5, 6]. (
  • The autotransporters are a large and diverse family of bacterial secreted and outer membrane proteins, which are present in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and play a role in numerous environmental and virulence-associated interactions. (
  • Adhesins are bacterial proteins that mediate adherence to surfaces, the first step in infection. (
  • TTSSs are conserved organelles that deliver bacterial effector proteins capable of modulating host functions into host cells. (
  • The LEE also encodes a regulator (Ler), an adhesin (intimin) and its receptor (Tir) responsible for intimate attachment, several secreted proteins, and their chaperones ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • PilB, the bona fide pilin, is the major component whereas PilA, the pilus associated adhesin, and PilC the pilus anchor are both accessory proteins incorporated into the pilus backbone. (
  • A hypothesis explaining why so many pathogen virulence proteins are moonlighting proteins Franco-Serrano, Luis;Cedano, Juan;Perez-Pons, Josep Antoni;Mozo-Villarias, Angel;Piñol, Jaume;Amela, Isaac;Querol, Enrique 2018-04-30 00:00:00 Abstract Moonlighting or multitasking proteins refer to those proteins with two or more functions performed by a single polypeptide chain. (
  • A survey shows that 25% of the proteins of the database correspond to moonlighting functions related to pathogens virulence activity. (
  • Why is the canonical function of these virulence proteins mainly from ancestral key biological functions (especially of primary metabolism)? (
  • Our hypothesis is that these proteins present a high conservation between the pathogen protein and the host counterparts. (
  • Therefore, the host immune system will not elicit protective antibodies against pathogen proteins. (
  • Although many pathogen proteins can be antigenic, only a few of them would elicit a protective immune response. (
  • moonlighting proteins, vaccines, virulence proteins, host immune response, epitope, conservation INTRODUCTION Moonlighting and multitasking proteins refer to those proteins with two or more functions performed by a single polypeptide chain. (
  • A remarkable fact is that 25% of these known multitasking proteins present a moonlighting function related to the pathogen's virulence activity (Table S1, Supporting Information). (
  • These facts rise two major questions: Why is the canonical function of these virulence proteins mainly from ancestral key biological functions (especially of primary metabolism)? (
  • The high percentage of moonlighting proteins of our database that have been reported as pathogen virulence factors prompts a question: Are most of them true virulence factors? (
  • Since the function of pathogen moonlighting proteins is related to key metabolism, hence essential proteins, it is difficult to generate mutants or full-gene knock-outs in order to perform direct experimental demonstrations on their virulence involvement. (
  • These in turn activate adhesion and invasion mechanisms by mediating the attachment of pathogen via cell wall associated/secretory proteins, e.g., adhesins followed by their entry into the host cell eventually deciding their fate to live by activation of mechanisms like phagocytosis. (
  • A number of new GBS surface-exposed or secreted proteins have been identified (GBS immunogenic bacterial adhesion protein, leucine-rich repeat of GBS, serine-rich repeat proteins), the three-dimensional structures of known streptococcal proteins (αC protein, C5a peptidase) have been solved, and an understanding of the pathogenetic role of "old" and new determinants has been better defined in recent years. (
  • Among these are 6 autotransporters, 25 fimbriae-associated genes (encoding 3 adhesins), 12 outer membrane proteins, and 4 additional genes (encoding 3 adhesins). (
  • Electrophysiological techniques are used to decipher the molecular mechanisms of pore-forming proteins from a variety of organisms, with special emphasis on translocons used for the assembly of adhesins and pili needed for pathogen infections, and on porins involved in the uptake of antibiotics and extracellular signals controlling virulence. (
  • proteins , enzymes or toxins (such as cholera toxin in pathogenic bacteria for example Vibrio cholerae ) from across the interior ( cytoplasm or cytosol ) of a bacterial cell to its exterior. (
  • The role of nonfimbrial adhesins: proteins of outer membrane and lipopolysaccharide in adherence and invasion of bacteria to host cells. (
  • Lipopolysacharide and outer membrane proteins belong to non fimbrial adhesins. (
  • Based on the hypothesis that AasP might play an important role in A. pleuropneumoniae adhesion and virulence by processing other surface-associated proteins, the predicted catalytic site of AasP was deleted and the isogenic mutant, AP76DeltaaasP, was compared to the wild-type strain in a biofilm assay as well as an aerosol infection model. (
  • The mechanism by which this critical protein functions is unclear and the long term goal of this arm of my research is to define how MorC and associated proteins determine membrane structure and function in this oral pathogen. (
  • The interaction of AIEC with IEC depends on bacterial factors mainly type 1 pili, flagella, and outer membrane proteins. (
  • A peptidoglycan-associating alpha-helical motif in the C-terminal regions of some bacterial cell-surface proteins was completely conserved amongst the putative cadF (-like) ORFs from the C. lari isolates. (
  • Vaccines and Biomarkers: can we exploit bacterial surface proteins as vaccine candidates or as biomarkers, e.g. for improved clinical diagnostics? (
  • S. mutans expresses several surface adhesins that can bind to salivary pellicles formed on the teeth ( 23 ), whereas sucrose-dependent adherence is mediated by glucan binding proteins and water-insoluble glucans produced from sucrose by glucosyltransferase (GTF) enzymes ( 16 ). (
  • Salivary agglutinin (also known as gp340) is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein in human saliva that mediates the adhesion and aggregation of S. mutans ( 4 , 14 , 18 ) via the cell wall-associated adhesin P1 (a member of the AgI/II family of cell surface proteins), encoded by spaP ( 14 ). (
  • Although the arsenal of bacterial effectors and their cellular targets have been studied extensively, little is known about the prerequisites for deployment of type III secreted proteins during infection. (
  • This prevalence marks them as key microbial virulence factors in addition to a bacterium's ability to produce toxins and resist the immune defenses of the host. (
  • Virulence Factors basically Include the Antigenic Structure and The Toxins produced by the organisms. (
  • These interactions are particularly important at the host-pathogen interface, where bacterial adhesins, toxins, and other virulence factors interact with host tissues ( 31 ). (
  • MRSA strains are particularly serious and potentially lethal pathogens that possess virulence mechanisms including toxins, adhesins, enzymes and immunomodulators. (
  • Understanding the mechanisms used by pathogens and toxins to adhere and invade human cells could lead to the development of new strategies for preventing and controlling the spread of infectious diseases . (
  • These genes may encode factors ranging from toxins and adhesins, with readily recognized roles in disease causation, to enzymes that enhance the pathogen's metabolic properties within the host's nutrient-limiting environment. (
  • Cooperation of Shiga toxins with other virulence factors, such as aggregative adhesin and intimin (eae), could induce more severe disease in infected patients (3). (
  • We compared the genomes with focus on virulence-associated genes and identified multiple clade-specific, species-specific and strain-specific events of gene acquisition and gene loss, including genes encoding O-antigens, protein secretion systems and bacterial toxins. (
  • Recent loss and functional inactivation of genes, including those encoding pertussis vaccine components and bacterial toxins, in individual strains emphasize ongoing evolution. (
  • Adhesins are cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion or adherence to other cells or to surfaces, usually in the host they are infecting or living in. (
  • In the crudest sense, bacterial adhesins serve as anchors allowing bacteria to overcome these environmental shear forces, thus remaining in their desired environment. (
  • Most fimbria of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. (
  • In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. (
  • To effectively achieve adherence to host surfaces, many bacteria produce multiple adherence factors called adhesins. (
  • Adhesins are expressed by both pathogenic bacteria and saprophytic bacteria. (
  • The study of adhesins as a point of exploitation for vaccines comes from early studies which indicated that an important component of protective immunity against certain bacteria came from an ability to prevent adhesin binding. (
  • Virulence factors encoded on mobile genetic elements spread through horizontal gene transfer, and can convert harmless bacteria into dangerous pathogens. (
  • Bacteria like Escherichia coli O157:H7 gain the majority of their virulence from mobile genetic elements. (
  • Gram-negative bacteria secrete a variety of virulence factors at host-pathogen interface, via membrane vesicle trafficking as bacterial outer membrane vesicles for invasion, nutrition and other cell-cell communications. (
  • Another group of virulence factors possessed by bacteria are immunoglobulin (Ig) proteases. (
  • This review aims to elucidate the different mechanisms of blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption that may occur due to invasion by different types of bacteria, as well as to show the bacteria-host interactions that assist the bacterial pathogen in invading the brain. (
  • Therefore, obtaining knowledge of BBB disruption by different types of bacterial species will provide a picture of how the bacteria enter the central nervous system (CNS) which might support the discovery of therapeutic strategies for each bacteria to control and manage infection. (
  • many of these bacteria are pathogens. (
  • However, in many Gram-positive bacteria, the presence of lipoproteins is necessary for virulence ( 106 , 175 ). (
  • Those responsible for this adhesion are filamentous appendages (fimbriae or pili) on the surface of the bacteria, although there are also adherent structures, or adhesins, not fimbriated. (
  • It is know that cranberry (fruit of Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) reduces bacteria adhesion, motility by change on bacterial cell morphology and the biomass of a biofilm. (
  • Bacterial adhesion is one of the first and most crucial steps during the interaction between bacteria and host organisms. (
  • It has been proposed that pathogenicity be used to characterize a particular species and that virulence be used to describe the sum of the disease-causing properties of a population (strain) of a pathogenic species (Fig. Determinants of Bacterial Pathogenicity and Virulence Relatively little is known about the factors determining the pathogenicity and virulence of microorganisms, and most of what we do know concerns the disease-causing mechanisms of bacteria. (
  • To examine the role of flagella as adhesins, invasion and adhesion assays were performed with flagellated motile and nonmotile bacteria and nonflagellated bacteria. (
  • Flagella can also serve as adhesins to tether bacteria to host cells much like fimbrial adhesins. (
  • a bacterial product that enables bacteria to adhere to and colonize a host. (
  • Any of a number of bacterial virulence factors-e.g., pili in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, lipotechoic acid in group A streptococci-which jut from the surface of the bacteria and bind to glycoprotein or glycolipid receptors on host epithelial cells, facilitating bacterial adherence, a critical step in bacterial infections. (
  • Salmonella modulates its gene expression for survival upon exposure to the above stresses, and this can also simultaneously alter the expression of virulence factors and the surface structures of bacteria. (
  • Some adhesins from Gram-positive bacteria covalently attach to host-cell-surface ligands through a thioester bond. (
  • Most bacterial pathogens, including gram-positive bacteria, have long filamentous structures known as pili extending from their surface. (
  • We investigate recent literature to highlight the latest developments in the field of glycobiology focused on inhibiting the initial steps of pathogen invasion, with examples for bacteria, toxin and virus interactions. (
  • In recent decades the development of molecular biology and genetic tools has led to extensive studies on the molecular and cellular aspects of the virulence properties of pathogenic bacteria. (
  • Genes that enhance the ability of bacteria to infect, to evade host immune responses, and to disseminate are commonly referred to as virulence genes. (
  • We therefore investigated the prevalence of stx-encoding bacterial strains and typical virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae and ehxA) in pathogenic bacteria isolated from diarrhoeal stool samples of patients taken during sporadic outbreaks of foodborne illness in the Islamic Republic of Iran. (
  • Bacteria are mostly beneficial, even though a minority are known as pathogens. (
  • Bacterial Adhesion: How do bacteria stick to surfaces, or in the case of pathogens, to host cells? (
  • For this reason, infective doses of different pathogens differ in a great range and depend on the host as well as bacteria. (
  • However, high levels of certain bacteria in the gut flora are not harmful, rather it is particular bacterial types that appear to determine larval rearing success. (
  • Similar to BmaC and BtaE, the BtaF adhesin was expressed in a small subpopulation of bacteria, and in all cases, it was detected at the new pole generated after cell division. (
  • the sum total of niche-specific genes is the virus' virulence. (
  • A pathogen's virulence factors are encoded by genes that can be identified using molecular Koch's postulates. (
  • When genes encoding virulence factors are inactivated, virulence in the pathogen is diminished. (
  • A cluster of virulence genes encoded on a pathogenicity island is responsible for the pathogenicity of L. monocytogenes . (
  • The transmembrane transcriptional activators ToxR and TcpP modulate expression of Vibrio cholerae virulence factors by exerting control over toxT , which encodes the cytoplasmic transcriptional activator of the ctx , tcp , and acf virulence genes. (
  • The presence of certain virulence genes may be accessory in order to elucidate if E. coli isolates may be harmful. (
  • Pneumonia isolates carried higher proportions of virulence genes sfa/foc , papGIII , hlyC , cnf1 , and iroN compared with bacteremia isolates. (
  • This increased Salmonella -host cell association was also correlated with significant induction of several virulence-associated genes, implying an increased potential of cold-stressed Salmonella to cause an infection. (
  • To attempt to identify the genes coding for adhesins to some key components of the hosts extracellular matrix molecules, phage display libraries of fragmented genomic DNA from Haemophilus influenzae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, were prepared in the phage display vector pG8SAET. (
  • Four genes encoding putative adhesins were identified. (
  • None of these genes have previously been proposed to code for adhesins. (
  • The LEE contains 41 genes and encodes a type III secretion system (TTSS), a common virulence mechanism for many human and plant pathogens ( 4 , 9 , 10 ). (
  • To gain a comprehensive understanding of LEE function, we undertook a systematic approach by generating a full set of deletion mutants for all 41 CR LEE genes and characterizing the mutants for LEE gene expression, type III secretion (TTS), host actin modulation, and virulence in mice. (
  • and all of the LEE genes are required for full CR virulence in mice. (
  • We are looking for associations of specific virulence factor alleles with the strain origins, pathotypes, and the presence of antibiotic resistance genes, antibiotypes. (
  • Further identification of novel tal genes in Xcm strains with virulence contributions are prerequisite to decipher the Xcm -cotton interactions. (
  • The isolates were examined for carriage of the virulence genes stx1 and stx2 in all isolates and eae/ehxA in Escherichia coli. (
  • A high distribution of stx genes in farm or wild animals, wastewater, and land and aquatic environments suggests possible involvement of different bacterial species carrying these genes when stx-related diseases occur during outbreaks of water- and foodborne illness (5). (
  • Forty-seven putative adhesin-associated genes predicted to encode 24 putative adhesins were discovered. (
  • With the exception of 2 autotransporter-encoding genes ( aidA and ycgV ), both with described roles in virulence in other species, all of the putative adhesin-associated genes had homologues in A. pleuropneumoniae . (
  • Gene loss was more frequent than gene gain throughout the evolution, and loss of hundreds of genes was associated with the origin of several species, including the recently evolved human-restricted B. pertussis and B. holmesii , B. parapertussis and the avian pathogen B. avium . (
  • Distribution of virulence adhesion associated genes and antimicrobial susceptibility in Pasteurella multocida from ovine pasteurellosis in Iran', International Journal of Molecular and Clinical Microbiology , 5(2), pp. 556-563. (
  • Jabbari, A., Rezaei, E., Esmaelizad, M. Distribution of virulence adhesion associated genes and antimicrobial susceptibility in Pasteurella multocida from ovine pasteurellosis in Iran. (
  • The results of PCR analysis for the frequency of virulence-associated genes indicted that the genes encoding adhesins (ptfA, fimA, hsf-1 and ompH), were each found in more than 93.0% of the isolates. (
  • Five different virulence profiles (P1 - P5) were obtained among the 30 isolates of ovine origin, and profile P2, harboring all adhesion genes except pfhA and ptfA, had the highest frequency. (
  • The results of this investigation provide useful information for understanding the antimicrobial resistance patterns, capsular types and adhesin genes prevalence of P.multocida isolate from sheep in Iran. (
  • Mutations within the hgp, hup, hpbA and hel (encoding lipoprotein e , another periplasmic heme binding protein) genes had no influence on virulence in a bacteremia model with 5-day old rats (Morton et al. (
  • Analysis of the secondary structure of this regulator indicated that it possesses all the domains necessary for gene regulation but with novel features not previously recorded for other regulators of virulence genes. (
  • These immunoglobulins play a major role in destruction of the pathogen through mechanisms such as opsonization. (
  • This paper is focused on the various mechanisms of macrolide-mediated anti-inflammatory activity which target both microbial pathogens and the cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, with emphasis on their clinical relevance. (
  • Many of these virulence factors and their regulatory elements can be divided into a smaller number of groups based on the conservation of similar mechanisms. (
  • Comprehension of these common themes in microbial pathogenicity is critical to the understanding and study of bacterial virulence mechanisms and to the development of new "anti-virulence" agents, which are so desperately needed to replace antibiotics. (
  • The above bacterial pathogenicity factors are confronted by the following host defense mechanisms: & Nonspecific defenses including mechanical, humoral, and cellular sys- tems. (
  • Our findings provide significant insights into bacterial virulence mechanisms and disease. (
  • Aimed at the entire scientific community from students to senior scientists and physicians, the book is relevant to a broad range of people interested in the mechanisms of bacterial infectious diseases and is a recommended text for all microbiology laboratories. (
  • Research into mechanisms of virulence underpins work to devise improved control measures for infectious diseases. (
  • Without the availability of a suitable experimental host, studies on mechanisms of virulence either cannot proceed or cannot be interpreted in an appropriate contextual manner. (
  • This chapter considers the advantages and disadvantages of different hosts, including mammals, zebra fish, plants, Caenorhabditis elegans , insects such as Drosophila melanogaster and Galleria mellonella , and cell culture systems for investigating mechanisms of virulence of pathogens which cause disease in humans. (
  • I propose that bacterial pathogenicity is the result of multiple events in any given bacterium (vs. singular events) that occurred after the Fall and that no intentional pathogenic mechanisms exist. (
  • The present study concentrated on determining the virulence mechanisms of Vibrio splendidus DMC-1 (biovar 1), which was isolated from a batch of turbot larvae suffering very high mortality at a turbot hatchery. (
  • Given the global distribution of LT-specific ETEC strains and the fact that no effective vaccines are currently available, it is likely that infections caused by these pathogens will have a large impact on global public health. (
  • Finally, virulence factors maintained on mobile genetic elements and pathogenicity islands ensure that new strains of pathogens evolve constantly. (
  • Interest in the beneficial attributes of the human GI microbiota has led to the identification of various bacterial strains that are used frequently as probiotics. (
  • Factor Afa (encoded by afa gene) is an afimbrial adhesin, and together with P and S fimbriae, have been epidemiologically related to E. coli strains that cause UTI in humans and pets (4). (
  • Recombinants strains of Lactobacillus (RL) expressing pathogen antigens can be used as part of an anti-adhesion strategy where RL block the pathogen union sites in host cells. (
  • Recombinant strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus pSEC-MAM7 and L. rhamnosus pCWA-MAM7) adhered to CaCo-2 cells and competed with the pathogen. (
  • Only two strains (isolated from two different patients, 0.1% of specimens tested) were agglutinated by O157 antiserum and both were non-motile (H-). However, both strains produced verotoxin and expressed other virulence markers, suggesting that they were responsible for the diarrhoea. (
  • A- Bacterial loads in blood of 6-weeks CD1 mice collected 24 h post-intravenous injection with GBS or recombinant L. lactis strains (4 mice per strain). (
  • 1. Switching virulence factor SNPs between Salmonella strains and functional assays. (
  • Strains of other species have demonstrated virulence factors such as hemolysins, hemagglutinins, fimbrial adhesins, proteases and phospholipases [4]. (
  • Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are prevalent bacterial pathogens that cause both health care and community-associated infections. (
  • strains should be considered as a newly emerging foodborne pathogen in outbreaks. (
  • Individual-cell analyses of expression revealed very striking heterogeneity for Epa1, an adhesin that mediates ∼95% of adherence to epithelial cells in vitro . (
  • Sorted cells expressing high or low levels of Epa1 exhibited high and low adherence to epithelial cells, indicating a link between gene expression noise and potential virulence. (
  • Type 1 fimbrial adhesin allows the fimbriae of ETEC cells to attach to the mannose glycans expressed on intestinal epithelial cells. (
  • The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract lives in close harmony with a complex microbiota that contributes to digestion, pathogen exclusion, and optimal functioning of the epithelial barrier and immune system ( 36 ). (
  • This adhesin binds to epithelial and endothelial cell lines derived from the human urinary tract (5). (
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne, gram-positive pathogen that uses flagella to increase the efficiency of epithelial cell invasion (A. Bigot, H. Pagniez, E. Botton, C. Frehel, I. Dubail, C. Jacquet, A. Charbit, and C. Raynaud, Infect. (
  • For instance, the flagella of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli contribute to bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells in a manner that is independent of motility ( 7 ). (
  • pylori to the gastric epithelial cell surface through formation of membrane attachment pedestals requires bacterial adhesins to recognise and specifically bind to host receptors expressed on the cell surface. (
  • Campylobacter jejuni is considered a pathogen that invades the human epithelial cells, rather than an inhabitant like Prevotella jejuni. (
  • Neisseria meningitidis, which uses fructose-1,6 biphosphate aldolase as an adhesin, loses the adherence capacity to the epithelial and endothelial cells when isogenically mutated, but this capacity returns in the complementation assay (Tunio et al.2010). (
  • These studies led us to identify a 22-kDa surface-exposed heparin-binding haemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) which is involved in the interaction of M. tuberculosis and M. leprae with epithelial cells, but not with professional phagocytes (Menozzi et al. (
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane protein F is an adhesin in bacterial binding to lung epithelial cells in culture. (
  • Here, we describe a novel S. sonnei adhesin, SSO1327 which is a Multivalent Adhesion Molecule (MAM) required for invasion of epithelial cells and macrophages and for infection in vivo. (
  • Furthermore, BtaF was found to participate in bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells and was required for full virulence in mice. (
  • Staphylococcus is a Gram-positive commensal and opportunistic human pathogen that causes serious community-acquired and nosocomial infections, including abscess formation, wound infection, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, and sepsis/septic shock [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an opportunistic human pathogen known for their invasive diseases caused in newborns, pregnant women, and nonpregnant adults. (
  • The highly infectious human pathogen B. pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough, a respiratory disease that is particularly serious and sometimes fatal in infants and in elderly people. (
  • Since many secreted virulence factors in gram-positive organisms are subsequently attached to the bacterial cell surface via sortase enzymes, we sought to investigate the spatial relationship between secretion and cell wall attachment in Enterococcus faecalis . (
  • Finally, we demonstrate an additional role for PpiB in S. aureus hemolysis and demonstrate that the S. aureus parvulin-type PPIase PrsA also plays a role in the activity of secreted virulence factors. (
  • Candida glabrata has risen to being second only to C. albicans as the most prevalent yeast pathogen in humans, being responsible for approximately 26% of Candida bloodstream infections in the United States ( 22 ). (
  • Adhesion and bacterial adhesins are also a potential target for prophylaxis or treatment of bacterial infections. (
  • IMPORTANCE Staphylococcus aureus is a highly dangerous bacterial pathogen capable of causing a variety of infections throughout the human body. (
  • We are developing novel anti-infectives, which are bacteriomimetic materials based on MAMs, to competitively inhibit pathogen attachment and thus attenuate infections. (
  • These widely celebrated research accomplishments instilled broad confidence into regulatory agencies as well as practicing physicians that all bacterial infections can be controlled by antibiotic treatment ( Stewart, 1967 ). (
  • Assuming that anti-infective therapy of this nature can be implemented for bacterial infections, such compounds may not be associated with the same resistance phenomena as antibiotics with bactericidal activity, a conjecture that remains speculative because such therapy has not been developed or approved for human use. (
  • Primary, innate defects are rare, whereas acquired, sec- ondary immune defects occur frequently, paving the way for infections by microorganisms known as "facultative pathogens" (opportunists). (
  • In the early 1970s, physicians were finally forced to abandon their belief that, given the vast array of effective antimicrobial agents, virtually all bacterial infections were treatable. (
  • The majority of infections caused by this pathogen are life threatening, primarily because S. aureus has developed multiple evasion strategies, possesses intracellular persistence for long periods, and targets the skin and soft tissues. (
  • Adhesion is an important virulence factor in bacterial infections. (
  • Generally considered nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens, species of Prevotella have been associated with serious infections. (
  • Earlier studies suggested that PVL was a major virulence factor in community-associated MRSA infections. (
  • In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the biological basis of MRSA virulence and explore future directions for research, including potential vaccines and antivirulence therapies under development that might allow clinicians to more successfully treat and prevent MRSA infections. (
  • We employed microinjection, time-lapse microscopy, bacterial genetics, and barcoded consortium infections to describe the complete infection cycle of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in both human and murine enteroids. (
  • However, the majority of the closest homologues of the A. suis adhesins are found in A. ureae and A. capsulatus -species not known to infect swine, but both of which can cause systemic infections. (
  • Similar to A. suis, these pathogens ( A. capsulatus and A. ureae ) cause systemic infections and it is tempting to speculate that they employ similar strategies to invade the host, but more work is needed before that assertion can be made. (
  • Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. (
  • Although these two bacterial species display different tropisms for human tissues, they both trigger infections characterized by a systemic dissemination step which requires specific interactions of the pathogen with host cell (Pessolani et al. (
  • Clinical signs and symptoms and physical examination findings alone cannot distinguish S pneumoniae disease from infections caused by other pathogens. (
  • However, nongonococcal bacterial infections can also occur and can rapidly destroy joint structures. (
  • The expression of bacterial pathogenicity is dependent upon complex regulatory circuits. (
  • The determinants of bacterial pathogenicity and virulence can be outlined as follows: & Adhesion to host cells (adhesins). (
  • The terms pathogenicity and virulence are not clearly defined in their relevance to microorganisms. (
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions 11 Virulence, Pathogenicity, Susceptibility, Disposition 1 virulent strain avirulent type or var (e. (
  • Adhesin MAD1 is involved in insect pathogenicity and MAD2 with fungal adhesion to plant roots (WANG & St. (
  • Bacterial pathogenicity islands (PAI) often encode both effector molecules responsible for disease and secretion systems that deliver these effectors to host cells. (
  • A creation model of the origin of bacterial pathogenicity will be developed based on the findings. (
  • Expression of these adhesins at different phases during infection play the most important role in adhesion based virulence. (
  • This has led to the exploration of adhesin activity interruption as a method of bacterial infection treatment. (
  • Additionally, Adhesins are attractive vaccine candidates because they are often essential to infection and are surface-located, making them readily accessible to antibodies. (
  • However, changes may occur during several CNS pathological events involving bacterial infection. (
  • Although the size and diversity of the lymphocyte repertoire make it likely that there is an antigen, a specific lymphocyte for any given pathogen, the frequency of these cells can be extremely low and normally will not be sufficient to protect the host against a primary infection. (
  • Therefore one of the most obvious ways to prevent UTIs is to reduce the adhesiveness of bacterial cells that could cause the infection. (
  • In a urinary tract infection (UTI), the bacterial adhesion is a critical first step prior to invasion. (
  • Using a range of state-of-the-art molecular techniques, including protein and lipid biochemistry, microbial genetics, infection models and high resolution imaging, this project will study how pathogens and commensals use MAMs to interact with their host, and how these signals are integrated in a polymicrobial community. (
  • without them, most pathogens cannot sustain an infection. (
  • Macrolides target cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, as well as structural cells, and are beneficial in controlling harmful inflammatory responses during acute and chronic bacterial infection. (
  • The ketolide, telithromycin, also has excellent penetration into bronchopulmonary tissues and macrophages, while macrolides and macrolide-like agents are also accumulated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), which, in turn, effect the active delivery of these agents to sites of bacterial infection [ 3 , 6 ]. (
  • Bacterial pathogens employ a number of genetic strategies to cause infection and, occasionally, disease in their hosts. (
  • However, pathogens use only a small number of biochemical families to express distinct functional factors at the appropriate time that causes infection. (
  • Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) (5, 10, 30). (
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions & The factors determining the genesis, clinical picture and outcome of an infection include complex relationships between the host and invading or- ganisms that differ widely depending on the pathogen involved. (
  • Because C. jejuni harbors distinct properties in establishing an infection in comparison to pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, it represents an excellent organism for elucidating new aspects of the dynamic interaction and metabolic cross talk between a bacterial pathogen, the microbiota and the host. (
  • All of the EHEC and EPEC LEE-encoded virulence factors tested thus far play equivalent roles in CR virulence ( 12 - 18 ), indicating that CR infection of mice is a relevant animal model for studying EPEC and EHEC. (
  • The dermatophyte infection process is initiated through the release of arthroconidial adhesin, which binds to the host stratum corneum. (
  • A. suis and A. pleuropneumoniae share many of the same putative adhesins, suggesting that the different diseases, tissue tropism, and host range of these pathogens are due to subtle genetic differences, or perhaps differential expression of virulence factors during infection. (
  • This work begins to examine adhesin-associated factors that allow some members of the family Pasteurellaceae to invade the bloodstream while others cause a more localised infection. (
  • Infection of human mucosal tissue by Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires sequential and mutually dependent virulence factors and a novel pilus-associated adhesin. (
  • Tissue damage predisposes humans to life-threatening disseminating infection by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (
  • Bacterial adherence to host tissue is a critical first step in this infection process. (
  • Further, we demonstrate that invasion and fulminant infection of intact host tissue requires the coordinated and mutually dependent action of multiple bacterial factors, including pilus fibre retraction and the host cell intoxication system, termed type III secretion. (
  • B. bronchiseptica , a respiratory pathogen of diverse mammals, causes a variety of pathologies ranging from chronic and often asymptomatic infection to more acute diseases such as kennel cough in dogs, bronchitis in cats, and bronchopneumonia and atrophic rhinitis in pigs [ 2 - 4 ]. (
  • Early transcriptional activation events that occur in bladder immediately following bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) are not well defined. (
  • No significant differences between AP76 wild-type and AP76DeltaaasP were observed upon experimental infection of pigs, indicating that AasP does not play a crucial role in A. pleuropneumoniae virulence. (
  • The infection resides in synovial or periarticular tissues and is usually bacterial-in younger adults, frequently Neisseria gonorrhoeae . (
  • The adhesion of bacterial pathogens to host cells is an event that determines infection, and ultimately invasion and intracellular multiplication. (
  • Once translocated across the membrane, many virulence factors, such as the Streptococcus pyogenes SpeB protease, are secreted into the extracellular milieu ( 4 ), while adhesins are retained at the bacterial surface, where they mediate attachment to host tissues. (
  • Their optimism was shaken by the emergence of resistance to multiple antibiotics among such pathogens as Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (
  • Specificity of salivary-bacterial interactions: Role of terminal sialic acid residues in the interaction of salivary glycoproteins with Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans. (
  • Comparisons of Streptococcus genomes are revealing the basis of virulence. (
  • 3) The M protein enhances the virulence of Streptococcus by preventing phagocytosis. (
  • Interactions between salivary agglutinin and the adhesin P1 of Streptococcus mutans contribute to bacterial aggregation and mediate sucrose-independent adherence to tooth surfaces. (
  • We use molecular cloning techniques, but also x-ray crystallography and NMR to better understand the interactions of these adhesins with surfaces, hoping that one day, this knowledge can be used to block adhesion. (
  • We recently identified Multivalent Adhesion Molecules (MAMs) as a new and wide-spread family of bacterial adhesins mediating host-pathogen interactions (Krachler et al, PNAS 2011). (
  • Despite this variability, a number of general principles apply to the interactions be- tween the invading pathogen with its aggression factors and the host with its defenses. (
  • In silico analysis showed that the protein contains a domain related to adhesin that may play a role in host-pathogen interactions. (
  • The expression of this adhesin-like gene was also induced during the co-culture of T. rubrum with a human keratinocyte cell line, confirming its role in fungal-host interactions. (
  • Bacterial adhesins provide species and tissue tropism. (
  • A variety of pathogenic bacterial species have been shown to bind the extracellular matrix component fibronectin as an adherence mechanism. (
  • Among the various bacterial species associated with the development of periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis is suspected to be one of the most important causative agents of the chronic form of this disease [ 2 ]. (
  • And, why are they shared by many pathogen species? (
  • This species is impacted by a devastating bacterial disease known as bacterial blight of cotton (BBC), which is caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. (
  • However, the ability of a pathogen to cause disease is implicitly dependent not only on the bacterial species but also on the host. (
  • The genus Bordetella consists of nine species that include important respiratory pathogens such as the 'classical' species B. bronchiseptica , B. pertussis and B. parapertussis and six more distantly related and less extensively studied species. (
  • Here we analyze sequence diversity and gene content of 128 genome sequences from all nine species with focus on the evolution of virulence-associated factors. (
  • Mycobacterial Hlp, a positively-charged, surface-exposed molecule with roughly twice the size of other bacterial Hlps, is a highly conserved protein shared by all mycobacterial species (Lefrançois et al. (
  • The role of LPS in adherence of Gram-negative organisms to host cells has been evaluated for several bacterial species. (
  • This basic structure is conserved across type 1 fimbrial adhesins though recent studies have shown that in vitro induced mutations can lead to the addition of C-terminal domain specificity resulting in a bacterial adhesion with dual bending sites and related binding phenotypes. (
  • Numerous studies have shown that inhibiting a single adhesin in this coordinated effort can often be enough to make a pathogenic bacterium non-virulent. (
  • Pathogenic streptococci and enterococci primarily rely on the conserved secretory (Sec) pathway for the translocation and secretion of virulence factors out of the cell. (
  • The isolates were then tested with H7 antisera and investigated for the production of verocytotoxin and other pathogenic markers including plasmid-associated EHEC adhesin and chromosomally encoded attachment-effacement gene. (
  • The authors comprehensively describe the most relevant and up-to-date information on pathogenic features across the bacterial world. (
  • These results indicated that flagella do not function as adhesins to enhance the adhesion of L. monocytogenes to targeted host cells. (
  • Hemagglutinins may function as adhesins and are required for virulence of several bacterial pathogens. (
  • There is currently no protective vaccine against pneumonic plague and we are studying the structure and function of putative adhesins, as well as their immunogenic and protective properties for the development of a multi-subunit vaccine. (
  • However, many of the putative adhesins of A. suis share even greater homology with those of other pathogens within the family Pasteurellaceae . (
  • Additionally, the major adhesin of the pneumococcal pilus-1, RrgA is able to bind the BBB endothelial receptors: polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), thus leading to invasion of the brain. (
  • Recall that an adhesin is a protein or glycoprotein found on the surface of a pathogen that attaches to receptors on the host cell. (
  • These fimbriae recognize receptors of the host cell surface and may improve bacterial adhesion. (
  • The characterization and identification of new bacterial effectors and the host cell receptors involved will undoubtedly lead to new discoveries with beneficial purposes. (
  • In this review, we will focus on the host NPPC receptors that are involved in the molecular interaction with S. aureus to accomplish bacterial internalization. (
  • A better understanding of the structure and function of the microbial ligands and host receptors will help to design new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against bacterial pathogens. (
  • These factors/determinants initially get a stimulus by the communication between specific ligands and their respective receptors in a host-pathogen interaction. (
  • Binding of the H. pylori HopQ adhesin to CEACAM receptors allows delivery of the CagA oncoprotein and hijacking of host cell signaling. (
  • coli are examples ofA) adhesins.B) ligands.C) receptors.D) adhesins and ligands.E) adhesins, ligands, and receptors. (
  • Coordinate expression of virulence factors is mediated by the transcriptional activator ToxR, a transmembrane protein with a cytoplasmic DNA-binding domain ( 3 ). (
  • One example of a bacterial virulence factor acting like a eukaryotic protein is Salmonella protein SopE it acts as a GEF, turning the GTPase on to create more GTP. (
  • Salmonella is an important food-borne pathogen throughout the world. (
  • Salmonella expresses two major groups of bacterial adhesins, namely, pilus (fimbrial) and nonpilus (afimbrial) adhesins. (
  • Recently, we became interested in the use of next generation sequencing methods to screen for the distribution of virulence factors and virulence factor alleles in large collections of Salmonella isolates. (
  • Allelic variation in Salmonella: an underappreciated driver of adaptation and virulence. (
  • The development of resistance in Salmonella shows that it is a multifactorial process and the acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance might have significant influences on the bacterial fitness and virulence. (
  • Presently, fluoroquinolones are the drug of choice for having the high level of clinical efficacy against most of the enteric pathogens including Salmonella [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Identification of a domain in Rck, a product of the Salmonella typhimurium virulence plasmid, required for both serum resistance and cell invasion. (
  • Heating at 130°F (54°C) for 121 minutes is required to reduce Salmonella bacterial counts by 7 log 10 ( 6 ). (
  • In the European Union, Y. enterocolitica is the third most common bacterial foodborne pathogen, after Campylobacter and Salmonella. (
  • Among these severe bacterial causes, nontyphoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter spp are the most common causes in the United States. (
  • An effective and reliable method for testing the virulence of different microbial pathogens is therefore a useful research tool. (
  • This protocol describes how the chicken embryo can be used as a trustworthy, inexpensive, ethically desirable and quickly accessible model to assess the virulence of the human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, which can also be extended to other microbial pathogens. (
  • We discuss the appropriate controls to use and potential adjustments needed for adapting the protocol for other microbial pathogens. (
  • What are the microbial pathogens that exhibit significant antigenic variation? (
  • The effectiveness of anti-adhesin antibodies is illustrated by studies with FimH, the adhesin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). (
  • In a prospective, nationwide study in France of Escherichia coli responsible for pneumonia in patients receiving mechanical ventilation, we determined E. coli antimicrobial susceptibility, phylotype, O-type, and virulence factor gene content. (
  • Human enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli , and the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR) possess the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) PAI. (
  • Diarrheagenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Citrobacter rodentium (CR) are attaching/effacing (A/E) bacterial pathogens that attach to host intestinal epithelium and efface brush border microvilli, forming A/E lesions ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) comprise a group of emerging zoonotic pathogens of worldwide importance. (
  • The corollary to this is to develop anti-infectives that inhibit bacterial virulence strategies, such as attachment to host tissues, for example. (
  • Thus, PhcA mediates a second strategic switch between initial pathogen attachment and subsequent dispersal inside the host. (
  • Thus, PhcA helps R. solanacearum succeed over the course of its complex life cycle by ensuring avid attachment to plant surfaces and rapid growth early in disease, followed by high virulence and effective dispersal later in disease. (
  • The molecular details of attachment and the identity of the bacterial adhesin and host receptor remain controversial. (
  • 11 12 The first gene to be associated with A/E activity was the EPEC eae gene encoding intimin, an outer membrane protein adhesin essential for intimate bacterial attachment to eukaryotic host cells. (
  • In contrast to the up-regulation of IcsA-dependent and independent attachment and invasion by deoxycholate in S. flexneri, deoxycholate negatively regulates IcsA and MAM in S. sonnei resulting in reduction in attachment and invasion and virulence attenuation in vivo. (
  • The organism's key virulence-associated factors include glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored adhesins, encoded subtelomerically by the EPA gene family. (
  • Virulence factor gene content and antimicrobial drug resistance were higher in pneumonia than in commensal isolates. (
  • As part of a larger systematic study on the autotransporters of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of the severe tropical disease melioidosis, we have constructed an insertion mutant in the bpss1439 gene encoding an unstudied predicted trimeric autotransporter adhesin. (
  • Identification of a virulence tal gene in the cotton pathogen, Xanthomonas citri pv. (
  • Interestingly, keratin also promoted the up-regulation of a gene encoding an adhesin-like protein with a tandem repeat sequence. (
  • Glycosylation with heptose residues mediated by the aah gene product is essential for adherence of the AIDA-I adhesin. (
  • The translation product of this gene showed homology with a well-established group of regulators of bacterial virulence gene expression, known as ToxR. (
  • Cell-surface pili are important virulence factors that enable bacterial pathogens to adhere to specific host tissues and modulate host immune response. (
  • Leicester Research Archive: Identification of a predicted trimeric autotransporter adhesin required for biofilm formation of Burkholderia pseudomallei. (
  • Insights into the autotransport process of a trimeric autotransporter, Yersinia Adhesin A (YadA). (
  • Brucella suis displays the unipolar BmaC and BtaE adhesins, which belong to the monomeric and trimeric autotransporter (TA) families, respectively. (
  • The majority of bacterial pathogens exploit specific adhesion to host cells as their main virulence factor. (
  • It has been found that many pathogens have converged on similar virulence factors to battle against eukaryotic host defenses. (
  • Lipoproteins have been shown to play key roles in adhesion to host cells, modulation of inflammatory processes, and translocation of virulence factors into host cells. (
  • Similarly, there are only a few conserved ways to build the bacterial pilus and nonpilus adhesins used by pathogens to adhere to host substrates. (
  • Bacterial entry into host cells (invasion) is a complex mechanism. (
  • Similarly, once inside a host cell, pathogens have a limited number of ways to ensure their survival, whether remaining within a host vacuole or by escaping into the cytoplasm. (
  • Avoidance of the host immune defenses is key to the success of a pathogen. (
  • Induction of this ToxR-dependent virulence cascade in vitro requires defined but artificial growth conditions, whereas induction within the host is presumed to involve yet unknown environmental signals present within the intestine ( 7 ). (
  • Such variations in the disease outcome might correlate with the well documented different virulence potential of individual C. jejuni isolates and are possibly linked to dissimilarities in motility and surface structures involved in the direct interaction with the host. (
  • Any of various substances present on the surfaces of bacterial cells that facilitate binding to the cells of a host and that are used as antigens in some vaccines. (
  • It produces its costly virulence factors only after it has grown to a high population density inside a host. (
  • and (iii) acid stress, because acids are commonly used in food processing and, more importantly, gastric acidity is the first line of defense against pathogens within the host gut. (
  • However, only a small number of afimbrial adhesin factors, such as misL , ratB , shdA , sinH ( 1 ), and siiE ( 5 ), have been functionally characterized, and in most cases, their binding partners on host cells are not known. (
  • Pathogens of the genus Yersinia, including those that cause plague, inject virulence factors called Yops into host cells that disrupt regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • The building blocks of bacterial flagella, flagellin monomers, are potent stimulators of host innate immune systems. (
  • Allelic variation contributes to bacterial host specificity. (
  • and bacterial evasion of host defences. (
  • GBS is a pathogen that has developed some strategies to resist host immune defenses. (
  • These mediators/determinants also modulate the immune responses by the host toward the pathogen. (
  • To better understand the molecular interplay between mycobacteria and host cells, we have initiated investigations dealing with the identification and characterization of mycobacterial adhesins that interact with human host cells. (
  • Specific adhesion to host tissue cells is an essential virulence factor of most bacterial pathogens. (
  • Interaction between adhesins and their receptor can lead to invasion to host cells. (
  • Crystal structures and funcional analyses of type I and II HopQ bound to human CEACAM 1 provide mechanistic insight into this virulence‐enhancing host‐pathogen interaction. (
  • Of more than 50 000 fungal spe- cies, only about 300 are known to be human pathogens. (
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is a Gram-negative, halophilic bacterium recognized as one of the most important foodborne pathogen. (
  • Gram-positive organisms lack a membrane-bound periplasm but nevertheless secrete many virulence factors that require posttranslational modification ( 21 ). (
  • Bacterial lipid modification is suggested to be initiated at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane rather than in the cytoplasm ( 159 ), but due to insufficient information about Lgt, this is only speculation. (
  • These virulence factors, once produced, are typically transported across the cell membrane by the secretory (Sec) system in a denatured state. (
  • Vecerek and colleagues report that B. bronchiseptica adjusts its membrane fluidity, fatty-acid composition and production of virulence factors in response to temperature, whereas B. pertussis continued producing virulence factors at low temperatures without remodeling its membrane. (
  • Genomics, membrane transport, quorum sensing and the basis of virulence are key areas of interest. (
  • A protein of c. 40 kDa with an N-terminal amino acid sequence showing homology with the OmpU outer membrane protein from V. vulnificus, but other potential virulence factors secreted by this organism were investigated. (
  • Listeria monocytogenes , the facultative intracellular pathogen that causes listeriosis, is a common contaminant in ready-to-eat foods such as lunch meats and dairy products. (
  • This facultative intracellular pathogen is a member of the Epsilonproteobacteria and requires microaerobic atmosphere and nutrient rich media for efficient proliferation in vitro . (
  • Several evidences have recently shown that this rule is also truth for the intracellular pathogen Brucella. (
  • The combined sequences encoding a partial and putative rpsI open reading frame (ORF), non-coding (NC) region, a putative ORF for the Campylobacter adhesin to fibronectin-like protein ( cadF ), a putative Cla_0387 ORF, NC region and a partial and putative Cla_0388 ORF, were identified in 16 Campylobacter lari isolates, using two novel degenerate primer pairs. (
  • One example of a bacterial adhesin is type 1 fimbrial adhesin , a molecule found on the tips of fimbriae of enterotoxigenic E. coli ( ETEC ). (
  • Adhesins are useful targets for experimental vaccines, which reduce colonisation by uropathogenic E coli. (
  • Adhesins explains the pulmonary morbidity due to P aeruginosa seen in intubated ITU/ICU patients, and UTIs caused by E coli are mediated by MS and MR adhesins, which may be inhibited by fruit juices. (
  • In a competition assay, the presence of purified rHagB decreased bacterial adhesion of P. gingivalis or E. coli-HagB to HCAE cells. (
  • A virulence characteristic of enteropathogenic E coli , the attaching/effacing lesion, is considered to be important in EHEC. (
  • The bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis is strictly adapted to human hosts, whereas B. bronchiseptica is also found in the environment. (
  • An isogenic Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae AasP mutant exhibits altered biofilm formation but retains virulence. (
  • Tegetmeyer H, Fricke K, Baltes N. An isogenic Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae AasP mutant exhibits altered biofilm formation but retains virulence. (
  • The extracellular matrix protein adhesin A (EmaA) is a 202 kDa protein that trimerizes to form antenna-like structures on the surface of the bacterium. (
  • Capsules, made of carbohydrate, form part of the outer structure of many bacterial cells including Neisseria meningitidis. (
  • As each B and T lymphocyte contains a unique antigenic receptor, it allows for a large and diverse population of cells capable of recognizing a wide spectrum of pathogens. (
  • Hence, the goal of vaccination is to enhance the number of antigen-specific B and T cells against a given pathogen. (
  • R. solanacearum infects through roots, and low-cell-density-mode-mimicking Δ phcA cells attached to tomato roots better than the wild-type cells, consistent with their increased expression of several adhesins. (
  • Despite the similarities in spore-surface hydrophobicity between spores of C. difficile and Clostridium perfringens (another enteric pathogen that also sporulates in the gut), spores of C. difficile adhere better to Caco-2 cells. (
  • Bacterial membranes are important for the secretion and presentation of virulence determinants as well as communication between cells. (
  • The haemagglutinin appeared specific for turbot cells and may function as an adhesin. (
  • During the last decade Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. (
  • A clonal distribution of virulence factors may account for severe and fatal cases of bacteremia caused by invasive GCGS. (
  • This example continues Pankaj's story that started in Characteristics of Infectious Disease and How Pathogens Cause Disease . (
  • There are five groups of potential bacterial contributors to the pathogen- esis of infectious diseases: 1. (
  • The long-term goal of this laboratory is to understand how bacterial pathogens initiate their infectious process. (
  • A conventional antibiotic-based therapy for infectious diseases has led to the emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens [ 1 ]. (
  • Bacterial causes are more responsible for severe cases of infectious diarrhea than other infectious etiologies. (
  • The best characterized bacterial adhesin is the type 1 fimbrial FimH adhesin. (
  • Mature FimH is displayed on the bacterial surface as a component of the type 1 fimbrial organelle. (
  • A processed multidomain Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae adhesin binds fibrone" by Lisa M. Seymour, Ania T. Deutscher et al. (
  • To further strengthen solonamide anti-virulence candidacy, we report the chemical synthesis of solonamide analogues, investigation of structure-function relationships, and assessment of their potential tomodulate immune cell functions. (
  • The basic platform for formulating a vaccine involves deciphering the kinds of immune responses to the various antigenic factors of the pathogen. (
  • There are many different outcomes to the endless number of encounters that occur between an individual and its pathogens, most of which shape innate and acquired immune responses and affect future encounters with the same pathogen. (
  • In addition, galectins are important in innate immune responses and can directly recognize glycans on pathogens and provide protection independently of antibodies. (
  • To measure immune responses against the alpha toxin, specific-pathogen-free BALB/c mice were inoculated with L. casei PPαT Δupp by oral gavage. (
  • A large subset of adhesins characterized as virulence factors in gram-positive organisms, such as S. pyogenes M protein and Staphylococcus aureus protein A, are covalently linked to the cell wall by the presence of a cell wall sorting (CWS) signal ( 1 , 8 , 41 ). (
  • Staphylococcus aureus is a successful human and animal pathogen. (
  • Thus, their presence on the bacterial surfaces is usually correlated with virulence. (
  • Moreover, Mycobacterium leprae LBP/Hlp, a well-characterized adhesin, was also able to bind collagen I. Finally, using recombinant fragments of M. leprae LBP/Hlp, we mapped the collagen-binding activity within the C-terminal domain of the adhesin. (
  • We have also solved the first 3D structure of the functional domain of the adhesin in collaboration with Dr. Teresa Ruiz in the Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics at the University of Vermont. (
  • Multidrug resistance is now the norm among these pathogens. (
  • Miyata, "Isolation and characterization of P1 adhesin , a leg protein of the gliding bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae," Journal of Bacteriology, vol. (
  • Structural and functional analyses of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. (
  • Collectively these data suggest that P116 is an important adhesin and virulence factor of M. hyopneumoniae . (
  • one of the most important foodborne pathogens worldwide. (
  • Adhesins are important VIRULENCE factors. (
  • The Pasteurellaceae contain a number of important animal pathogens. (
  • Interestingly, PilB was found to be important for virulence in the neonatal context. (
  • Secretion is a very important mechanism in bacterial functioning and operation in their natural surrounding environment for adaptation and survival. (
  • Inoculum size is one of the important virulence factors that cause pathology. (
  • In our search for Toll like receptor (TLR) antagonists, we screened bacterial supernatants and identified alkaline protease (AprA) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a TLR5 signaling inhibitor as evidenced by a marked reduction in IL-8 production and NF-κB activation. (
  • Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a signaling molecule that is involved in the regulation of multiple virulence systems of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (