The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The study of infectious diseases associated with plants.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 3 that is genetically similar to STLV-3.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing abortion and respiratory disease in horses.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).

Multicenter comparison of the digene hybrid capture CMV DNA assay (version 2.0), the pp65 antigenemia assay, and cell culture for detection of cytomegalovirus viremia. (1/1221)

We compared the Digene Hybrid Capture CMV DNA Assay version 2.0, the pp65 antigenemia assay, traditional tube culture, and shell vial culture for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia in several patient populations at three centers. Of 561 blood specimens collected from 402 patients, complete clinical and laboratory data were available for 489. Using consensus definitions for true positives and true negatives, the sensitivities of the Hybrid Capture assay, antigenemia, shell vial, and tube culture were 95, 94, 43, and 46%, respectively. The specificities of the Hybrid Capture assay and antigenemia were 95 and 94%, respectively. At all three study sites, the detected level of CMV viremia was significantly higher with the Hybrid Capture assay or antigenemia than with shell vial and tube culture. In a group of 131 healthy nonimmunosuppressed volunteers, the Hybrid Capture assay demonstrated a specificity of over 99%. The Hybrid Capture assay is a standardized assay that is simple to perform and can utilize whole blood specimens that have been stored for up to 48 h. The high sensitivity and specificity of the Hybrid Capture assay along with its simplicity and flexibility make it a clinically useful assay for the detection of CMV viremia in immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients. Further evaluation to determine its role in predicting CMV disease and for monitoring the therapeutic response to anti-CMV therapy is needed.  (+info)

Comparison of levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma as measured by the NucliSens nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and Quantiplex branched-DNA assays. (2/1221)

This study compared levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma as measured by the Quantiplex branched-DNA and NucliSens nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assays. RNA was detectable in 118 of 184 samples (64.13%) by the Quantiplex assay and in 171 of 184 samples (92.94%) by the NucliSens assay. Regression analysis indicated that a linear relationship existed between the two sets of values (P < 0.0001), although the Quantiplex and NucliSens values were significantly different (P < 0.001), with the NucliSens values being approximately 0.323 log higher. Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the overall changes in patient viral load patterns were highly correlative between the two assays: r = 0.912, P < 0.0001. The lower limits of sensitivity were determined to be approximately 100 copies/ml and 1,200 to 1,400 copies/ml for the NucliSens and Quantiplex assays, respectively.  (+info)

A double-selective tissue culture system for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage applied in a long-term environmental surveillance. (3/1221)

We describe a simple, cost-efficient, double-selective method for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage samples containing vaccine polioviruses and other enteroviruses, with a detection limit of 18 to 50 PFU per 1 to 2 liters of sewage. By this method we were able to process 1,700 sewage samples collected between 1991 and 1996, from which 10,472 plaques were isolated, 41 of them being identified as wild-type polioviruses.  (+info)

Milestones in the research on tobacco mosaic virus. (4/1221)

Beijerinck's (1898) recognition that the cause of tobacco mosaic disease was a novel kind of pathogen became the breakthrough which eventually led to the establishment of virology as a science. Research on this agent, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), has continued to be at the forefront of virology for the past century. After an initial phase, in which numerous biological properties of TMV were discovered, its particles were the first shown to consist of RNA and protein, and X-ray diffraction analysis of their structure was the first of a helical nucleoprotein. In the molecular biological phase of research, TMV RNA was the first plant virus genome to be sequenced completely, its genes were found to be expressed by cotranslational particle disassembly and the use of subgenomic mRNA, and the mechanism of assembly of progeny particles from their separate parts was discovered. Molecular genetical and cell biological techniques were then used to clarify the roles and modes of action of the TMV non-structural proteins: the 126 kDa and 183 kDa replicase components and the 30 kDa cell-to-cell movement protein. Three different TMV genes were found to act as avirulence genes, eliciting hypersensitive responses controlled by specific, but different, plant genes. One of these (the N gene) was the first plant gene controlling virus resistance to be isolated and sequenced. In the biotechnological sphere, TMV has found several applications: as the first source of transgene sequences conferring virus resistance, in vaccines consisting of TMV particles genetically engineered to carry foreign epitopes, and in systems for expressing foreign genes. TMV owes much of its popularity as a research mode to the great stability and high yield of its particles. Although modern methods have much decreased the need for such properties, and TMV may have a less dominant role in the future, it continues to occupy a prominent position in both fundamental and applied research.  (+info)

Beijerinck's work on tobacco mosaic virus: historical context and legacy. (5/1221)

Beijerinck's entirely new concept, launched in 1898, of a filterable contagium vivum fluidum which multiplied in close association with the host's metabolism and was distributed in phloem vessels together with plant nutrients, did not match the then prevailing bacteriological germ theory. At the time, tools and concepts to handle such a new kind of agent (the viruses) were non-existent. Beijerinck's novel idea, therefore, did not revolutionize biological science or immediately alter human understanding of contagious diseases. That is how bacteriological dogma persisted, as voiced by Loeffler and Frosch when showing the filterability of an animal virus (1898), and especially by Ivanovsky who had already in 1892 detected filterability of the agent of tobacco mosaic but kept looking for a microbe and finally (1903) claimed its multiplication in an artificial medium. The dogma was also strongly advocated by Roux in 1903 when writing the first review on viruses, which he named 'so-called "invisible" microbes', unwittingly including the agent of bovine pleuropneumonia, only much later proved to be caused by a mycoplasma. In 1904, Baur was the first to advocate strongly the chemical view of viruses. But uncertainty about the true nature of viruses, with their similarities to enzymes and genes, continued until the 1930s when at long last tobacco mosaic virus particles were isolated as an enzyme-like protein (1935), soon to be better characterized as a nucleoprotein (1937). Physicochemical virus studies were a key element in triggering molecular biology which was to provide further means to reveal the true nature of viruses 'at the threshold of life'. Beijerinck's 1898 vision was not appreciated or verified during his lifetime. But Beijerinck already had a clear notion of the mechanism behind the phenomena he observed. Developments in virology and molecular biology since 1935 indicate how close Beijerinck (and even Mayer, Beijerinck's predecessor in research on tobacco mosaic) had been to the mark. The history of research on tobacco mosaic and the commitments of Mayer, Beijerinck and others demonstrate that progress in science is not only a matter of mere technology but of philosophy as well. Raemaekers' Mayer cartoon, inspired by Beijerinck, artistically represents the crucial question about the reliability of our images of reality, and about the scope of our technological interference with nature.  (+info)

Burnet Oration: living in the Burnet lineage. (6/1221)

Scientific discoveries are not made in isolation. Innovation depends on resources, both intellectual and physical. A primary requirement is the development and maintenance of appropriate institutions. Such structures do not emerge by chance, but arise from opportunity, political will and the continued efforts and commitment of many people over long periods. Suitable buildings, laboratories and state-of-the-art equipment are obviously necessary, but hardware alone is of little value in the absence of a vibrant research culture. The key characteristics of the latter are intellectual foment, open debate and a body of wisdom and knowledge about the particular subject area. Rolf Zinkernagel and 1 played a part in triggering a paradigm shift in the understanding of T cell recognition, a contribution recognized by the 1996 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. In our Nobel lectures, we both discussed briefly why it was that the John Curtin School of Medical Research (JCSMR) of 1973-75 provided a milieu that facilitated the emergence of the underlying experiments and ideas. My intention here is to discuss in more detail the scientific lineages that put this physical and intellectual environment in place, focusing particularly on the influence of Sir Frank Macfarlane (Sir Mac) Burnet as we celebrate his centenary year.  (+info)

Effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on hepatitis B virus DNA and hepatitis C virus RNA quantification as measured with branched-DNA technology. (7/1221)

Quantification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA often is performed in specimens that have been frozen and thawed more than once. To ensure optimal therapeutic and prognostic value, it is important to establish whether viral load measurements are affected by repeated freeze-thaw (FT) cycles. We therefore evaluated the effect of multiple FT cycles on HBV DNA and HCV RNA quantification by testing serum specimens subjected to one (baseline), two, four, and eight FT cycles with the appropriate Chiron Quantiplex assay. Linear regression analysis showed minor increases of 1.7% per FT cycle for both HBV DNA and HCV RNA. The rise in HCV RNA levels was more pronounced among low-concentration samples, since further analysis revealed an increase of 3.2% per FT cycle among samples with 0.2 to 3.86 Meq of HCV RNA per ml. Given that the coefficient of variation for the Quantiplex assays is generally 10 to 15%, the minor increases in HBV DNA and HCV RNA levels with progressive FT cycles for the specimens tested were recognized only because analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant trend (P < 0.05). Due to the minor statistical trend, the clinical impact for individual patient specimens is likely to be limited, but it may deserve further study. In conclusion, the concentration of HBV DNA and HCV RNA in serum specimens subjected to up to eight short-term FT cycles was stable.  (+info)

Direct Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) typing on peripheral blood mononuclear cells: no association between EBV type 2 infection or superinfection and the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (8/1221)

In the literature, a correlation has been suggested between the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) type 2 infection. To further investigate a possible role for EBV type 2 infection in the development of AIDS-NHL, we developed a sensitive and type-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and analyzed EBV types directly on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in three subgroups of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected individuals: 30 AIDS-NHL patients, 42 individuals progressing to AIDS without lymphoma (PROG), either developing opportunistic infections (AIDS-OI) or Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS), and 18 long-term asymptomatic individuals (LTA). Furthermore, EBV type analysis was performed on PBMC samples obtained from AIDS-NHL patients in the course of HIV-1 infection. The results showed that: (1) direct analysis of PBMC is superior to analysis of B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCL) grown from the same PBMC samples; (2) in HIV-1 infected individuals, there is a high prevalence of EBV type 2 infection (50% in LTA, 62% in progressors, and 53% in AIDS-NHL) and superinfection with both type 1 and 2 (24% in LTA, 40% in progressors, and 47% in AIDS-NHL); (3) EBV type 2 (super)infection is not associated with an increased risk for development of AIDS-NHL; (4) type 2 infection can be found early in HIV-1 infection, and neither type 2 infection nor superinfection correlates with a failing immune system.  (+info)

1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.

Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:

1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.

Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.

The most common symptoms of enterovirus infections include:

* Diarrhea
* Vomiting
* Fever
* Abdominal pain
* Headache
* Fatigue

In some cases, enterovirus infections can lead to more severe complications, such as:

* Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD)
* Aseptic meningitis
* Encephalitis
* Myocarditis

Enteroviruses are highly contagious and can be spread through:

* Close contact with an infected person
* Contaminated food and water
* Insect vectors

There is no specific treatment for enterovirus infections, but symptoms can be managed with supportive care, such as hydration, rest, and pain relief. Antiviral medications may be used in severe cases.

Prevention measures include:

* Good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly preparing and storing food and water
* Avoiding sharing items that come into contact with the mouth, such as utensils and drinking glasses.

The common types of RTIs include:

1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can affect both the upper and lower respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches.
3. Bronchitis: An inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which can be caused by viruses or bacteria, resulting in symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
4. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
5. Tonsillitis: An inflammation of the tonsils, which can be caused by bacteria or viruses, resulting in symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and bad breath.
6. Sinusitis: An inflammation of the sinuses, which can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi, leading to symptoms such as headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
7. Laryngitis: An inflammation of the larynx (voice box), which can be caused by viruses or bacteria, resulting in symptoms such as hoarseness, loss of voice, and difficulty speaking.

RTIs can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, blood tests, and nasal swab cultures. Treatment for RTIs depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.

It's important to note that RTIs can be contagious and can spread through contact with an infected person or by touching contaminated surfaces. Therefore, it's essential to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.

Symptoms of influenza include:

* Fever (usually high)
* Cough
* Sore throat
* Runny or stuffy nose
* Headache
* Muscle or body aches
* Fatigue (tiredness)
* Diarrhea and nausea (more common in children than adults)

Influenza can lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections. These complications are more likely to occur in people who have a weakened immune system, such as the elderly, young children, and people with certain chronic health conditions (like heart disease, diabetes, and lung disease).

Influenza is diagnosed based on a physical examination and medical history. A healthcare provider may also use a rapid influenza test (RIT) or a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for influenza typically involves rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) to relieve fever and body aches. Antiviral medications, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza), may also be prescribed to help shorten the duration and severity of the illness. However, these medications are most effective when started within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms.

Prevention is key in avoiding influenza. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza, as well as practicing good hygiene such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and staying home when you are sick.

1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.

Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).

Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.

Herpesviridae infections are caused by the Herpesviridae family of viruses and can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, sexual contact, or from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. Symptoms of herpesviridae infections can vary depending on the type of virus and the individual infected, but may include fever, fatigue, muscle aches, and skin sores or rashes.

There is no cure for herpesviridae infections, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the risk of transmission to others. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding close contact with those who are infected, can also help prevent the spread of these viruses.

Some common types of herpesviridae infections include:

* Herpes simplex virus (HSV) - Causes cold sores and genital herpes.
* Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) - Causes chickenpox and shingles.
* Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) - Associated with certain types of cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma.

There are several types of hepatitis C, including genotype 1, which is the most common and accounts for approximately 70% of cases in the United States. Other genotypes include 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The symptoms of hepatitis C can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, pale stools, and itching all over the body. Some people with hepatitis C may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis C is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can cure the infection but may have side effects such as fatigue, nausea, and depression. In recent years, new drugs known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have become available, which can cure the infection with fewer side effects and in a shorter period of time.

Prevention measures for hepatitis C include avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, using condoms to prevent sexual transmission, and ensuring that any tattoos or piercings are performed with sterilized equipment. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, such as healthcare workers and individuals who engage in high-risk behaviors.

Overall, hepatitis C is a serious and common liver disease that can lead to significant health complications if left untreated. Fortunately, with advances in medical technology and treatment options, it is possible to manage and cure the virus with proper care and attention.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

The symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, hepatitis B can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HBV antigens or antibodies in the body. Treatment for acute hepatitis B typically involves rest, hydration, and medication to manage symptoms, while chronic hepatitis B may require ongoing therapy with antiviral drugs to suppress the virus and prevent liver damage.

Preventive measures for hepatitis B include vaccination, which is recommended for individuals at high risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, sexually active individuals, and those traveling to areas where HBV is common. In addition, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing of needles or other bodily fluids, and proper sterilization of medical equipment can help reduce the risk of transmission.

Overall, hepatitis B is a serious infection that can have long-term consequences for liver health, and it is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

These fields of study are called plant virology, animal virology and human or medical virology. There are several approaches to ... Virology. Vol. 1 (Ninth ed.). ISBN 0-340-66316-2. Dimmock NJ, Easton AJ, Leppard K (2007). Introduction to Modern Virology ( ... Most of the tests used in veterinary virology and medical virology are based on PCR or similar methods such as transcription ... Molecular virology is the study of viruses at the level of nucleic acids and proteins. The methods invented by molecular ...
... is a branch of virology engaged in the study and engineering of synthetic man-made viruses. It is a ... Codagenix - Synthetic virology technology to investigate novel vaccine strategies SynVaccine - Synthetic virology technology to ... synthetic virology technology to investigate anti-bacterial viruses and gene therapy vectors for cancer v t e (Articles with ... "Synthetic Virology: Engineering Viruses for Gene Delivery". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology ...
In virology, temperate refers to the ability of some bacteriophages (notably coliphage λ) to display a lysogenic life cycle. ... v t e (Virology, Bacteriophages, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ...
Robert F. Garry (2004). "Virology on the Internet: the time is right for a new journal". Virology Journal. 1 (1): 1. doi: ... Virology, Creative Commons Attribution-licensed journals, Virology journals). ... Virology Journal is an open-access peer-reviewed medical journal published by BioMed Central. It publishes research related to ... Virology Journal is abstracted and indexed in PubMed PubMed Central MEDLINE Thomson Reuters CAB International Chemical ...
... is the study of viruses in non-human animals. It is an important branch of veterinary medicine. ... Bat virome History of virology Social history of viruses Virus evolution Bourhy H, Gubala AJ, Weir RP, Boyle DB (2009). Mahy ... ISBN 978-0-12-375158-4. Roy P. (2009). Mahy BWJ; van Regenmortel MHV (eds.). Desk Encyclopedia Animal and Bacterial Virology. ... Edward J Dubovi & MacLachlan NJ (2010). Fenner's Veterinary Virology, Fourth Edition. Boston: Academic Press. p. 365. ISBN 978- ...
... is an English-language virology textbook, originally it was published in two volumes and edited by Bernard N. ... The first edition in 1985 was called Virology, but from the second edition, the book's title was changed to Fields Virology. ... 11 February 2020). Fields Virology: Emerging Viruses. Wolters Kluwer Health. ISBN 978-1-975112-55-4. "Fields Virology: Emerging ... The book is widely regarded as an influential work on the subject and is cited as the bible of virology by many virologists. ...
In virology, the second highest taxonomy rank established by the ICTV is subrealm, which is the rank below realm. Subrealms of ... In virology, realm is the highest taxonomic rank established for viruses by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ... DiMaio, F; Yu, X; Rensen, E; Krupovic, M; Prangishvili, D; Egelman, EH (2015). "Virology. A virus that infects a ... Ward, C. W. (1993). "Progress towards a higher taxonomy of viruses". Research in Virology. 144 (6): 419-53. doi:10.1016/S0923- ...
Virology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in virology. Established in 1955 by George Hirst, Lindsay Black and Salvador ... Elsevier: Virology: Abstracting and Indexing (accessed 18 February 2013) Scholia has a venue profile for Virology. Official ... 1999) When two is better than one: Thoughts on three decades of interaction between Virology and the Journal of Virology. J ... Robert Wagner, founding editor of the Journal of Virology, describes Virology in the mid-1960s as "the well-established ...
"Virology". "Journals Ranked by Impact: Virology". 2016 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters ... Future Virology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Future Medicine. The editor-in-chief is Mark Wainberg ( ... Virology journals, Future Science Group academic journals, Monthly journals, All stub articles, Microbiology journal stubs, ...
... or Virology Institute may refer to: Institute of Advanced Virology, Kerala, India National Institute of ... Virology, India National Institute of Virology (Pakistan), Pakistan Virology Institute of the Philippines, Philippines Wuhan ... Institute of Virology, China This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Institute of Virology. If an ...
This glossary of virology is a list of definitions of terms and concepts used in virology, the study of viruses, particularly ... synthetic virology T-number temperate tissue tropism transduction triangulation number Contents: A B C D E G H I K L M N O P Q ... Virology is often considered a subfield of microbiology or of medical science. virome viropexis The active uptake by a host ... virology The study of viruses and virus-like agents, which seeks to understand and explain their structure, classification, ...
The Journal of Virology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers research concerning all aspects of virology ... Journal of Virology 86: 7025-7026 (text) "Journals Ranked by Impact: Virology". 2012 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science ( ... Scholia has a venue profile for Journal of Virology. Official website v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ... Its 2015 impact factor was 4.606, ranking it fifth out of 33 journals in the category "Virology". American Society for ...
A resistance mutation is a mutation in a virus gene that allows the virus to become resistant to treatment with a particular antiviral drug. The term was first used in the management of HIV, the first virus in which genome sequencing was routinely used to look for drug resistance. At the time of infection, a virus will infect and begin to replicate within a preliminary cell. As subsequent cells are infected, random mutations will occur in the viral genome. When these mutations begin to accumulate, antiviral methods will kill the wild type strain, but will not be able to kill one or many mutated forms of the original virus. At this point a resistance mutation has occurred because the new strain of virus is now resistant to the antiviral treatment that would have killed the original virus. Resistance mutations are evident and widely studied in HIV due to its high rate of mutation and prevalence in the general population. Resistance mutation is now studied in bacteriology and parasitology. ...
The Archives of Virology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in virology. It is published by Springer ... "Archives of Virology". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2021. Official website v t ... Virology journals, All stub articles, Microbiology journal stubs, Virus stubs). ... Science+Business Media and is the official journal of the Virology Division of the International Union of Microbiological ...
ISBN 978-0-7637-2932-5. Ackermann, H-W (2009). "History of Virology: Bacteriophages". Desk Encyclopedia of General Virology. p ... Nobel Organisation Ackermann, H-W (2009). "History of Virology: Bacteriophages". Desk Encyclopedia of General Virology. pp. 5- ... Ackermann, H-W (2009). "History of Virology: Bacteriophages". Desk Encyclopedia of General Virology. pp. 3-5. ISBN ... Ackermann, H-W (2009). "History of Virology: Bacteriophages". Desk Encyclopedia of General Virology. p. 5. ISBN 9780123751621. ...
Wiley, 2011.[page needed] Acheson, Nicholas H. Fundamentals of Molecular Virology, 2nd Edition. Wiley, 2011.[page needed] ... Acheson, Nicholas H. Fundamentals of Molecular Virology, 2nd Edition. Wiley, 2011. Acheson, Nicholas H. Fundamentals of ... Molecular Virology, 2nd Edition. Wiley, 2011. Acheson, Nicholas H. Fundamentals of Molecular Virology, 2nd Edition. ... Acheson, Nicholas H. Fundamentals of Molecular Virology, 2nd Edition. Wiley, 2011.[page needed] (Wikipedia articles needing ...
The M.W. Beijerinck Virology Prize (M.W. Beijerinck Virologie Prijs) is a prize in virology awarded every two years by the ... "World-Renowned Scientist and SBU Professor Receives Top International Award in Virology". Stony Brook University News. 25 July ... "made a groundbreaking contribution to research in the field of virology in the broadest sense" and must have an appointment at ... Beijerinck Virology Prize" (PDF). Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. " ...
Spanish Society for Virology Brazilian Society for Virology Korean Society of Virology The Global Foot-and-Mouth (FMD) Research ... "World Society for Virology First International Conference: Tackling Global Virus Epidemics". Virology. 566 (2): 114-21. doi: ... Indian Virological Society Colombian Association for Virology Mexican Virology Networking Finnish Society for Study of ... The World Society for Virology was established in 2017 in order to link different virologists worldwide in an official society ...
The National Institute of Virology in Pune, India is an Indian virology research institute and part of the Indian Council of ... Virology, Short term training courses in Diagnostic virology, Animal tissue culture, Interferon assays, Medical Entomology etc ... in Virology and a PhD course, under the aegis of the Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune.[citation needed] Research areas ... In view of its expanded scope and activities, the VRC was re-designated as the National Institute of Virology (NIV) in 1978. ...
... is a scientific journal that covers the aspects of human virology that directly pertains to virus- ... "Journal of Clinical Virology - Journal - Elsevier". Retrieved 2022-07-06. "Journal of Clinical Virology ... Virology journals, Publications with year of establishment missing). ...
Leibniz Institute of Virology May 9, 2022. Institute renaming: HPI becomes LIV - Leibniz Institute of Virology May 9, 2022. ... In May 2022, the institute was renamed Leibniz Institute of Virology. The aim of the research at the LIV is to develop new ... The Leibniz Institute of Virology was founded in 1948 by Heinrich Pette, a German neurologist. It began as a research facility ... It is now a private foundation and involved with basic research in virology and the immune responses of organisms. The ...
"Journal of Medical Virology". NLM Catalog. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2013-11-12. "Journals ... The Journal of Medical Virology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering fundamental and applied research concerning ... "Virology" category. "Overview". Wiley Online Library. Retrieved 8 January 2021. "Master Journal List". Intellectual Property & ... Hillman Cancer Center Cancer Virology Program). The journal is abstracted and indexed in: Abstracts in Anthropology AGRICOLA ...
... is a hybrid title and allows authors to publish subscription articles free-of-charge. Authors can ... Journal of General Virology is a not-for-profit peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Microbiology Society. The ... Journal of General Virology is indexed in Biological Abstracts, BIOSIS Previews, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Service, ... Journal of General Virology publishes primary research articles, Reviews, Short Communications, Personal Views, and Editorials ...
... webpage This Week in Virology playlist on YouTube (Articles with short description, Short description is ... "TWiV 645: Lions and tigers and zookeepers (oh my)". This Week in Virology. This Week in Virology. July 26, 2020. Archived from ... "Guests". This Week in Virology. This Week in Virology. Archived from the original on 2021-06-03. Retrieved 2020-07-28. "Daniel ... This Week in Virology (abbreviated as TWiV; /ˈtwɪv/) is a science podcast founded and hosted by Vincent Racaniello with co- ...
"Annual Review of Virology". Annual Reviews. Retrieved 10 March 2021. "Annual Review of Virology". MIAR. Retrieved 10 March 2021 ... The Annual Review of Virology is helmed by the editor or the co-editors. The editor is assisted by the editorial committee, ... The Annual Review of Virology is an annual peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Annual Reviews. It was established in ... "Annual Review of Virology, Current Editorial Committee". Annual Reviews. Retrieved 8 March 2021. Official website (Articles ...
The Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (WIV; Chinese: 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所) is a research institute on virology ... "About WIV----Wuhan Institute of Virology". "History". Wuhan Institute of Virology, CAS. Archived from the original on 29 July ... Wuhan Institute of Virology, Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020. Wang ... In June 1978, it was returned to the CAS and renamed Wuhan Institute of Virology. In 2003, the Chinese academy of Sciences ...
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"Institute of Human Virology, Nigeria (IHVN) , Devex". Retrieved 19 May 2020. "About Institute of Human Virology ... The Institute of Human Virology Nigeria (IHVN) is a non-governmental organization that focuses on HIV/AIDS related problems in ... It was established as an affiliate to the Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore in ...
The Institute of Advanced Virology (IAV) has been established by the Government of Kerala through Kerala Biotechnology ... v t e (Use dmy dates from July 2019, Research institutes in Thiruvananthapuram, Virology institutes, 2019 establishments in ... "Pinarayi inaugurates first Institute of Advanced Virology". Mathrubhumi. Retrieved 18 March 2019. "Global Virus Network (GVN) ... Clinical virology, Viral diagnostics, Viral vaccines, Antiviral drug research, Viral applications, Viral epidemiology, Vector ...
The National Institute of Virology (NIV) in Pakistan is a national research institute concentrating on biosafety. It has a ... v t e v t e (COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan, Research institutes in Pakistan, Organizations established in 2019, Virology ... "Sindh plans to set up modern virology lab - Pakistan Today". Pakistan Today, 2020. 2 February 2020. ... Rizvi, Safdar (18 March 2020). "On the cusp: National Institute of Virology, like many other organizations, are working to ...
Epidemiology in the Virology Laboratory. During the outbreak in 1993, definitive proof that the agent causing HPS was a novel ...
Wuhan Institute of Virology denies Chinas link to coronavirus. Michael Pillsbury on China denying its link to the coronavirus ...
1 Comment / This Week in Virology / By Vincent Racaniello Vincent and Alan travel to Tufts Veterinary School where they meet up ...
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Associate Director of Virology, Moderna, Inc. [email protected]. Virus/Flavivirus pathogenesis, virus-host-vector interactions, ...
Clinical Virology Newsletters focuses on the introduction of new test methods, test utilization, and result interpretation are ... Clinical Virology Newsletters focuses on the introduction of new test methods, test utilization, and result interpretation are ...
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Virology Study in Virology is offered in partnership between the Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Theme in the School of ... The Virology minor requirements are listed in the Virology unit of study table. ... A minor in Virology will equip you with knowledge and skills relating to the role of viruses in human, animal and plant hosts. ... Students are challenged with current topics and findings in the field of virology and provided with forums to develop their ...
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Woke virology? Ron DeSantis finds another thing to ban in Florida By Matt Field , May 12, 2023 ... is quite clear that COVID was created in gain-of-function projects funded by DARPA and NIAID at the Wuhan Institute of Virology ...
Dear Virologist,We are preparing selected talks for the XVI SEV Virology Congress in Málaga on September 2022, to be joined in ... For research focussed on plant virology, please see the twinned Research Topic in Frontiers in Microbiology.This Research Topic ... covers a wide range of topics related to virology in Spain and worldwide that were represented in the XVI Spanish Virology ... our society has experimented that Virology is a changing panorama with a large impact on health, economy, and society. In the ...
A Dictionary of Virology, therefore, is not only unique, it is useful-quite remarkable for a dictionary-pleasant and ... A Dictionary of Virology, Third Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(6):646. doi:10.3201/eid0806.020058.. ... A Dictionary of Virology includes useful, informative, and concise definitions and brief descriptions of a multitude of words ... The third edition of Brian Mahys Dictionary of Virology provides definitions of words commonly and uncommonly used in the ...
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American Society for Virology Annual Meeting. June 24, 2017 - June 28, 2017 : Madison, WI Event Site ... Visit us at the American Society for Virology Annual Meeting in Madison, WI. ...
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DOST happy with Dutertes call on Congress to pass bill creating PH Virology Institute. BY Charissa Luci-Atienza ... DOST Secretary Fortunato "Boy" T. de la Peña said the President has granted his wish to include the passage of the Virology S&T ... Facade of the P2-billion Virology Institute of the Philippines, which is expected to rise at the New Clark Economic Zone in ... He then asked Congress to enact a law creating the Center for Disease Prevention and Control and the Virology and Vaccine ...
Poxviruses are large viruses containing a double-stranded DNA genome. Their peculiarity is that they replicate in the cytoplasma. The most prominent member of the Poxviridae arguably is variola virus, which is the causative agent causing pocks in humans. Following a world-wide vaccination program using the closely related vaccinia virus, human poxvirus-related disease was eradicated in 1978.. ...
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Duke Center for Virology is powered by WordPress at Duke WordPress Sites. Please read the Duke Wordpress Policies. Contact the ... At each meeting, two Center for Virology investigators, their lab members or other Duke or Triangle-area researchers working in ... To subscribe to the Center for Virology mailing list, email [email protected] with the subject line "subscribe centerforvirology ... virology-related areas give informal 30-minute presentations about their current research. ...
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  • By now, it is quite clear that COVID was created in gain-of-function projects funded by DARPA and NIAID at the Wuhan Institute of Virology. (
  • This minor is designed to introduce students who have a basic understanding of molecular biology to the rapidly evolving field of virology. (
  • Students are challenged with current topics and findings in the field of virology and provided with forums to develop their critical thinking capabilities and communication skills. (
  • The third edition of Brian Mahy's Dictionary of Virology provides definitions of words commonly and uncommonly used in the field of virology, words that so often divide us into subgroups. (
  • Clinical Virology Newsletters focuses on the introduction of new test methods, test utilization, and result interpretation are distributed by email to interested persons. (
  • Recent Advances in Clinical Virology. (
  • Federal Research Center for Virology and Microbiology has a license for producing highly-effective biopharmaceuticals such as vaccines and diagnostic kits. (
  • In this review , we highlight the virology and pathogenesis of epidemic and possible used therapeutics in a simplified and concise form to be easily understood and available for healthcare members and even general population . (
  • Study in Virology is offered in partnership between the Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Theme in the School of Medical Sciences in the Faculty of Medicine and Health and the Discipline of Microbiology in the School of Life and Environmental Sciences in the Faculty of Science. (
  • For research focussed on plant virology, please see the twinned Research Topic in Frontiers in Microbiology . (
  • According to 28th of June 2017 Organization Charter, Federal Research Center for Virology and Microbiology has 3 branches. (
  • The main functions of Federal Research Center for Virology and Microbiology are basic and applied research in the field of natural sciences, development of means and methods of defence against emerging, exotic and zoonotic infectious diseases of livestock. (
  • Fundamental research of FRCVM is oriented toward receiving new scientific knowledge in different branches of virology, microbiology, and their use for veterinary needs. (
  • A minor in Virology will equip you with knowledge and skills relating to the role of viruses in human, animal and plant hosts. (
  • Critically evaluate the research literature dealing with pathogenic processes of viruses and epidemiology and apply this knowledge to virology research. (
  • KEPHIS Virology laboratory has capacity to analyze numerous plant viruses. (
  • He then asked Congress to enact a law creating the Center for Disease Prevention and Control and the Virology and Vaccine Institute in the Philippines. (
  • served as the chairs of sessions at the International Congress for Virology held at that time. (
  • So that by the time I spent 1970 there and my boss Walter Dowdle spent the year 1972 there, the faculty, especially in virology, was absolutely world-class. (
  • At each meeting, two Center for Virology investigators, their lab members or other Duke or Triangle-area researchers working in virology-related areas give informal 30-minute presentations about their current research. (
  • Perform culture, microscopy, diagnostic and molecular techniques used in the modern diagnostic virology laboratory, and explain and critically evaluate the scientific principles behind these important techniques. (
  • The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) said Monday, July 26, that it was "happy" to hear that the bill seeking the establishment of a Virology Science and Technology Institute of the Philippines (VSTIP) has been included in the list of priority measures President Duterte mentioned during his sixth and final State of the Nation Address (SONA). (
  • Facade of the P2-billion Virology Institute of the Philippines, which is expected to rise at the New Clark Economic Zone in Capas, Tarlac. (
  • DOST Secretary Fortunato "Boy" T. de la Peña said the President has granted his wish to include the passage of the Virology S&T Institute of the Philippines Act or the Virology & Vaccine Institute of the Philippines Act in his final SONA. (
  • We are happy that the President mentioned the VIP (Virology Institute of the Philippines) in the SONA," she said. (
  • Duke Center for Virology is powered by WordPress at Duke WordPress Sites . (
  • 1. Become aware that speaker lists covering 35 years of 4 major virology conferences show historical bias against female speaker selections. (
  • Peter Drotman] Many virology students today recognize Dr. Fenner because of the large body of work that he produced, including some landmark books and texts. (
  • The Virology minor requirements are listed in the Virology unit of study table . (
  • At least five of these became benchmarks in virology, the books that I used along the way and I'm sure all my colleagues as well. (
  • So many virologists, pathologists, and other infectious disease scientists got their first taste of virology from either one of these two books. (
  • Recently, our society has experimented that Virology is a changing panorama with a large impact on health, economy, and society. (