Molecular Sequence Data
Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
Human T-lymphotropic virus 3
Amino Acid Sequence
Viral Envelope Proteins
Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral
Influenza A virus
Viral Structural Proteins
Viral Nonstructural Proteins
Tobacco Mosaic Virus
Viral Plaque Assay
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Open Reading Frames
Murine hepatitis virus
Herpesvirus 1, Human
Respiratory Tract Infections
Viral Fusion Proteins
Cell Transformation, Viral
Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus
Hepatitis B virus
Sensitivity and Specificity
Viral Core Proteins
DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Gene Products, gag
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Herpesvirus 4, Human
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
DNA Restriction Enzymes
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Multicenter comparison of the digene hybrid capture CMV DNA assay (version 2.0), the pp65 antigenemia assay, and cell culture for detection of cytomegalovirus viremia. (1/1221)We compared the Digene Hybrid Capture CMV DNA Assay version 2.0, the pp65 antigenemia assay, traditional tube culture, and shell vial culture for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia in several patient populations at three centers. Of 561 blood specimens collected from 402 patients, complete clinical and laboratory data were available for 489. Using consensus definitions for true positives and true negatives, the sensitivities of the Hybrid Capture assay, antigenemia, shell vial, and tube culture were 95, 94, 43, and 46%, respectively. The specificities of the Hybrid Capture assay and antigenemia were 95 and 94%, respectively. At all three study sites, the detected level of CMV viremia was significantly higher with the Hybrid Capture assay or antigenemia than with shell vial and tube culture. In a group of 131 healthy nonimmunosuppressed volunteers, the Hybrid Capture assay demonstrated a specificity of over 99%. The Hybrid Capture assay is a standardized assay that is simple to perform and can utilize whole blood specimens that have been stored for up to 48 h. The high sensitivity and specificity of the Hybrid Capture assay along with its simplicity and flexibility make it a clinically useful assay for the detection of CMV viremia in immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients. Further evaluation to determine its role in predicting CMV disease and for monitoring the therapeutic response to anti-CMV therapy is needed. (+info)
Comparison of levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma as measured by the NucliSens nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and Quantiplex branched-DNA assays. (2/1221)This study compared levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma as measured by the Quantiplex branched-DNA and NucliSens nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assays. RNA was detectable in 118 of 184 samples (64.13%) by the Quantiplex assay and in 171 of 184 samples (92.94%) by the NucliSens assay. Regression analysis indicated that a linear relationship existed between the two sets of values (P < 0.0001), although the Quantiplex and NucliSens values were significantly different (P < 0.001), with the NucliSens values being approximately 0.323 log higher. Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the overall changes in patient viral load patterns were highly correlative between the two assays: r = 0.912, P < 0.0001. The lower limits of sensitivity were determined to be approximately 100 copies/ml and 1,200 to 1,400 copies/ml for the NucliSens and Quantiplex assays, respectively. (+info)
A double-selective tissue culture system for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage applied in a long-term environmental surveillance. (3/1221)We describe a simple, cost-efficient, double-selective method for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage samples containing vaccine polioviruses and other enteroviruses, with a detection limit of 18 to 50 PFU per 1 to 2 liters of sewage. By this method we were able to process 1,700 sewage samples collected between 1991 and 1996, from which 10,472 plaques were isolated, 41 of them being identified as wild-type polioviruses. (+info)
Milestones in the research on tobacco mosaic virus. (4/1221)Beijerinck's (1898) recognition that the cause of tobacco mosaic disease was a novel kind of pathogen became the breakthrough which eventually led to the establishment of virology as a science. Research on this agent, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), has continued to be at the forefront of virology for the past century. After an initial phase, in which numerous biological properties of TMV were discovered, its particles were the first shown to consist of RNA and protein, and X-ray diffraction analysis of their structure was the first of a helical nucleoprotein. In the molecular biological phase of research, TMV RNA was the first plant virus genome to be sequenced completely, its genes were found to be expressed by cotranslational particle disassembly and the use of subgenomic mRNA, and the mechanism of assembly of progeny particles from their separate parts was discovered. Molecular genetical and cell biological techniques were then used to clarify the roles and modes of action of the TMV non-structural proteins: the 126 kDa and 183 kDa replicase components and the 30 kDa cell-to-cell movement protein. Three different TMV genes were found to act as avirulence genes, eliciting hypersensitive responses controlled by specific, but different, plant genes. One of these (the N gene) was the first plant gene controlling virus resistance to be isolated and sequenced. In the biotechnological sphere, TMV has found several applications: as the first source of transgene sequences conferring virus resistance, in vaccines consisting of TMV particles genetically engineered to carry foreign epitopes, and in systems for expressing foreign genes. TMV owes much of its popularity as a research mode to the great stability and high yield of its particles. Although modern methods have much decreased the need for such properties, and TMV may have a less dominant role in the future, it continues to occupy a prominent position in both fundamental and applied research. (+info)
Beijerinck's work on tobacco mosaic virus: historical context and legacy. (5/1221)Beijerinck's entirely new concept, launched in 1898, of a filterable contagium vivum fluidum which multiplied in close association with the host's metabolism and was distributed in phloem vessels together with plant nutrients, did not match the then prevailing bacteriological germ theory. At the time, tools and concepts to handle such a new kind of agent (the viruses) were non-existent. Beijerinck's novel idea, therefore, did not revolutionize biological science or immediately alter human understanding of contagious diseases. That is how bacteriological dogma persisted, as voiced by Loeffler and Frosch when showing the filterability of an animal virus (1898), and especially by Ivanovsky who had already in 1892 detected filterability of the agent of tobacco mosaic but kept looking for a microbe and finally (1903) claimed its multiplication in an artificial medium. The dogma was also strongly advocated by Roux in 1903 when writing the first review on viruses, which he named 'so-called "invisible" microbes', unwittingly including the agent of bovine pleuropneumonia, only much later proved to be caused by a mycoplasma. In 1904, Baur was the first to advocate strongly the chemical view of viruses. But uncertainty about the true nature of viruses, with their similarities to enzymes and genes, continued until the 1930s when at long last tobacco mosaic virus particles were isolated as an enzyme-like protein (1935), soon to be better characterized as a nucleoprotein (1937). Physicochemical virus studies were a key element in triggering molecular biology which was to provide further means to reveal the true nature of viruses 'at the threshold of life'. Beijerinck's 1898 vision was not appreciated or verified during his lifetime. But Beijerinck already had a clear notion of the mechanism behind the phenomena he observed. Developments in virology and molecular biology since 1935 indicate how close Beijerinck (and even Mayer, Beijerinck's predecessor in research on tobacco mosaic) had been to the mark. The history of research on tobacco mosaic and the commitments of Mayer, Beijerinck and others demonstrate that progress in science is not only a matter of mere technology but of philosophy as well. Raemaekers' Mayer cartoon, inspired by Beijerinck, artistically represents the crucial question about the reliability of our images of reality, and about the scope of our technological interference with nature. (+info)
Burnet Oration: living in the Burnet lineage. (6/1221)Scientific discoveries are not made in isolation. Innovation depends on resources, both intellectual and physical. A primary requirement is the development and maintenance of appropriate institutions. Such structures do not emerge by chance, but arise from opportunity, political will and the continued efforts and commitment of many people over long periods. Suitable buildings, laboratories and state-of-the-art equipment are obviously necessary, but hardware alone is of little value in the absence of a vibrant research culture. The key characteristics of the latter are intellectual foment, open debate and a body of wisdom and knowledge about the particular subject area. Rolf Zinkernagel and 1 played a part in triggering a paradigm shift in the understanding of T cell recognition, a contribution recognized by the 1996 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. In our Nobel lectures, we both discussed briefly why it was that the John Curtin School of Medical Research (JCSMR) of 1973-75 provided a milieu that facilitated the emergence of the underlying experiments and ideas. My intention here is to discuss in more detail the scientific lineages that put this physical and intellectual environment in place, focusing particularly on the influence of Sir Frank Macfarlane (Sir Mac) Burnet as we celebrate his centenary year. (+info)
Effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on hepatitis B virus DNA and hepatitis C virus RNA quantification as measured with branched-DNA technology. (7/1221)Quantification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA often is performed in specimens that have been frozen and thawed more than once. To ensure optimal therapeutic and prognostic value, it is important to establish whether viral load measurements are affected by repeated freeze-thaw (FT) cycles. We therefore evaluated the effect of multiple FT cycles on HBV DNA and HCV RNA quantification by testing serum specimens subjected to one (baseline), two, four, and eight FT cycles with the appropriate Chiron Quantiplex assay. Linear regression analysis showed minor increases of 1.7% per FT cycle for both HBV DNA and HCV RNA. The rise in HCV RNA levels was more pronounced among low-concentration samples, since further analysis revealed an increase of 3.2% per FT cycle among samples with 0.2 to 3.86 Meq of HCV RNA per ml. Given that the coefficient of variation for the Quantiplex assays is generally 10 to 15%, the minor increases in HBV DNA and HCV RNA levels with progressive FT cycles for the specimens tested were recognized only because analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant trend (P < 0.05). Due to the minor statistical trend, the clinical impact for individual patient specimens is likely to be limited, but it may deserve further study. In conclusion, the concentration of HBV DNA and HCV RNA in serum specimens subjected to up to eight short-term FT cycles was stable. (+info)
Direct Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) typing on peripheral blood mononuclear cells: no association between EBV type 2 infection or superinfection and the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (8/1221)In the literature, a correlation has been suggested between the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) type 2 infection. To further investigate a possible role for EBV type 2 infection in the development of AIDS-NHL, we developed a sensitive and type-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and analyzed EBV types directly on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in three subgroups of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected individuals: 30 AIDS-NHL patients, 42 individuals progressing to AIDS without lymphoma (PROG), either developing opportunistic infections (AIDS-OI) or Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS), and 18 long-term asymptomatic individuals (LTA). Furthermore, EBV type analysis was performed on PBMC samples obtained from AIDS-NHL patients in the course of HIV-1 infection. The results showed that: (1) direct analysis of PBMC is superior to analysis of B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCL) grown from the same PBMC samples; (2) in HIV-1 infected individuals, there is a high prevalence of EBV type 2 infection (50% in LTA, 62% in progressors, and 53% in AIDS-NHL) and superinfection with both type 1 and 2 (24% in LTA, 40% in progressors, and 47% in AIDS-NHL); (3) EBV type 2 (super)infection is not associated with an increased risk for development of AIDS-NHL; (4) type 2 infection can be found early in HIV-1 infection, and neither type 2 infection nor superinfection correlates with a failing immune system. (+info)
1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.
Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:
1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.
Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.
Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.
The most common symptoms of enterovirus infections include:
* Abdominal pain
In some cases, enterovirus infections can lead to more severe complications, such as:
* Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD)
* Aseptic meningitis
Enteroviruses are highly contagious and can be spread through:
* Close contact with an infected person
* Contaminated food and water
* Insect vectors
There is no specific treatment for enterovirus infections, but symptoms can be managed with supportive care, such as hydration, rest, and pain relief. Antiviral medications may be used in severe cases.
Prevention measures include:
* Good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly preparing and storing food and water
* Avoiding sharing items that come into contact with the mouth, such as utensils and drinking glasses.
The common types of RTIs include:
1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can affect both the upper and lower respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches.
3. Bronchitis: An inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which can be caused by viruses or bacteria, resulting in symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
4. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
5. Tonsillitis: An inflammation of the tonsils, which can be caused by bacteria or viruses, resulting in symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and bad breath.
6. Sinusitis: An inflammation of the sinuses, which can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi, leading to symptoms such as headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
7. Laryngitis: An inflammation of the larynx (voice box), which can be caused by viruses or bacteria, resulting in symptoms such as hoarseness, loss of voice, and difficulty speaking.
RTIs can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, blood tests, and nasal swab cultures. Treatment for RTIs depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.
It's important to note that RTIs can be contagious and can spread through contact with an infected person or by touching contaminated surfaces. Therefore, it's essential to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
Symptoms of influenza include:
* Fever (usually high)
* Sore throat
* Runny or stuffy nose
* Muscle or body aches
* Fatigue (tiredness)
* Diarrhea and nausea (more common in children than adults)
Influenza can lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections. These complications are more likely to occur in people who have a weakened immune system, such as the elderly, young children, and people with certain chronic health conditions (like heart disease, diabetes, and lung disease).
Influenza is diagnosed based on a physical examination and medical history. A healthcare provider may also use a rapid influenza test (RIT) or a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment for influenza typically involves rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) to relieve fever and body aches. Antiviral medications, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza), may also be prescribed to help shorten the duration and severity of the illness. However, these medications are most effective when started within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms.
Prevention is key in avoiding influenza. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza, as well as practicing good hygiene such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and staying home when you are sick.
1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.
Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).
Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.
Herpesviridae infections are caused by the Herpesviridae family of viruses and can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, sexual contact, or from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. Symptoms of herpesviridae infections can vary depending on the type of virus and the individual infected, but may include fever, fatigue, muscle aches, and skin sores or rashes.
There is no cure for herpesviridae infections, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the risk of transmission to others. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding close contact with those who are infected, can also help prevent the spread of these viruses.
Some common types of herpesviridae infections include:
* Herpes simplex virus (HSV) - Causes cold sores and genital herpes.
* Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) - Causes chickenpox and shingles.
* Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) - Associated with certain types of cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma.
There are several types of hepatitis C, including genotype 1, which is the most common and accounts for approximately 70% of cases in the United States. Other genotypes include 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The symptoms of hepatitis C can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, pale stools, and itching all over the body. Some people with hepatitis C may not experience any symptoms at all.
Hepatitis C is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can cure the infection but may have side effects such as fatigue, nausea, and depression. In recent years, new drugs known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have become available, which can cure the infection with fewer side effects and in a shorter period of time.
Prevention measures for hepatitis C include avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, using condoms to prevent sexual transmission, and ensuring that any tattoos or piercings are performed with sterilized equipment. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, such as healthcare workers and individuals who engage in high-risk behaviors.
Overall, hepatitis C is a serious and common liver disease that can lead to significant health complications if left untreated. Fortunately, with advances in medical technology and treatment options, it is possible to manage and cure the virus with proper care and attention.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.
There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:
1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)
The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
8. Weight loss
If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:
1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)
HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.
Prevention methods for HIV infection include:
1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.
It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.
The symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, hepatitis B can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.
Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HBV antigens or antibodies in the body. Treatment for acute hepatitis B typically involves rest, hydration, and medication to manage symptoms, while chronic hepatitis B may require ongoing therapy with antiviral drugs to suppress the virus and prevent liver damage.
Preventive measures for hepatitis B include vaccination, which is recommended for individuals at high risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, sexually active individuals, and those traveling to areas where HBV is common. In addition, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing of needles or other bodily fluids, and proper sterilization of medical equipment can help reduce the risk of transmission.
Overall, hepatitis B is a serious infection that can have long-term consequences for liver health, and it is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Institute of Virology
Glossary of virology
Journal of Virology
Resistance mutation (virology)
Archives of Virology
History of virology
Kinetic class (virology)
Beijerinck Virology Prize
World Society for Virology
National Institute of Virology
Journal of Clinical Virology
Leibniz-Institute of Virology
Journal of Medical Virology
Journal of General Virology
This Week in Virology
Annual Review of Virology
Wuhan Institute of Virology
American Society for Virology
Institute of Human Virology Nigeria
Institute of Advanced Virology, Kerala
National Institute of Virology (Pakistan)
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Wuhan Institute of Virology1
- By now, it is quite clear that COVID was created in gain-of-function projects funded by DARPA and NIAID at the Wuhan Institute of Virology. (thebulletin.org)
Field of virology3
- This minor is designed to introduce students who have a basic understanding of molecular biology to the rapidly evolving field of virology. (edu.au)
- Students are challenged with current topics and findings in the field of virology and provided with forums to develop their critical thinking capabilities and communication skills. (edu.au)
- The third edition of Brian Mahy's Dictionary of Virology provides definitions of words commonly and uncommonly used in the field of virology, words that so often divide us into subgroups. (cdc.gov)
- Federal Research Center for Virology and Microbiology has a license for producing highly-effective biopharmaceuticals such as vaccines and diagnostic kits. (vniivvim.ru)
- In this review , we highlight the virology and pathogenesis of epidemic and possible used therapeutics in a simplified and concise form to be easily understood and available for healthcare members and even general population . (bvsalud.org)
- Study in Virology is offered in partnership between the Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Theme in the School of Medical Sciences in the Faculty of Medicine and Health and the Discipline of Microbiology in the School of Life and Environmental Sciences in the Faculty of Science. (edu.au)
- For research focussed on plant virology, please see the twinned Research Topic in Frontiers in Microbiology . (frontiersin.org)
- According to 28th of June 2017 Organization Charter, Federal Research Center for Virology and Microbiology has 3 branches. (vniivvim.ru)
- The main functions of Federal Research Center for Virology and Microbiology are basic and applied research in the field of natural sciences, development of means and methods of defence against emerging, exotic and zoonotic infectious diseases of livestock. (vniivvim.ru)
- Fundamental research of FRCVM is oriented toward receiving new scientific knowledge in different branches of virology, microbiology, and their use for veterinary needs. (vniivvim.ru)
- A minor in Virology will equip you with knowledge and skills relating to the role of viruses in human, animal and plant hosts. (edu.au)
- Critically evaluate the research literature dealing with pathogenic processes of viruses and epidemiology and apply this knowledge to virology research. (edu.au)
- KEPHIS Virology laboratory has capacity to analyze numerous plant viruses. (kephis.org)
- Virology;578: 128-140, 2023 01. (bvsalud.org)
- So that by the time I spent 1970 there and my boss Walter Dowdle spent the year 1972 there, the faculty, especially in virology, was absolutely world-class. (cdc.gov)
- At each meeting, two Center for Virology investigators, their lab members or other Duke or Triangle-area researchers working in virology-related areas give informal 30-minute presentations about their current research. (duke.edu)
- Perform culture, microscopy, diagnostic and molecular techniques used in the modern diagnostic virology laboratory, and explain and critically evaluate the scientific principles behind these important techniques. (edu.au)
- The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) said Monday, July 26, that it was "happy" to hear that the bill seeking the establishment of a Virology Science and Technology Institute of the Philippines (VSTIP) has been included in the list of priority measures President Duterte mentioned during his sixth and final State of the Nation Address (SONA). (mb.com.ph)
- Facade of the P2-billion Virology Institute of the Philippines, which is expected to rise at the New Clark Economic Zone in Capas, Tarlac. (mb.com.ph)
- DOST Secretary Fortunato "Boy" T. de la Peña said the President has granted his wish to include the passage of the Virology S&T Institute of the Philippines Act or the Virology & Vaccine Institute of the Philippines Act in his final SONA. (mb.com.ph)
- We are happy that the President mentioned the VIP (Virology Institute of the Philippines) in the SONA," she said. (mb.com.ph)
- Duke Center for Virology is powered by WordPress at Duke WordPress Sites . (duke.edu)
- 1. Become aware that speaker lists covering 35 years of 4 major virology conferences show historical bias against female speaker selections. (labroots.com)
- Peter Drotman] Many virology students today recognize Dr. Fenner because of the large body of work that he produced, including some landmark books and texts. (cdc.gov)
- The Virology minor requirements are listed in the Virology unit of study table . (edu.au)
- Recently, our society has experimented that Virology is a changing panorama with a large impact on health, economy, and society. (frontiersin.org)