The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.
A species in the genus N4-like viruses, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Retrovirally encoded accessary proteins that play an essential role VIRUS REPLICATION. They are found in the cytoplasm of host cells and associate with a variety of host cell proteins. Vif stands for "virion infectivity factor".
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Trans-acting protein that combines with host factors to induce immediate early gene transcription in herpes simplex virus.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
A family of insect viruses causing disease in lepidopterous larvae, most commonly from species of the owlet moth family Noctuidae. There is one genus: Ascovirus.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting New World primates and other species. HERPESVIRUS 2, SAIMIRIINE is the type species.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.
A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A genus of the family REOVIRIDAE infecting vertebrates only. Transmission is horizontal and infected species include humans, birds, cattle, monkeys, sheep, swine, baboons, and bats. MAMMALIAN ORTHOREOVIRUS is the type species.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A highly contagious herpesvirus infection affecting the central nervous system of swine, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, and other animals.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 11 recombinant virus-like particles interacts with heparin and cell-surface glycosaminoglycans on human keratinocytes. (1/5443)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11, a 55-kDa polypeptide, forms particulate structures resembling native virus with an average particle diameter of 50-60 nm when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show in this report that these virus-like particles (VLPs) interact with heparin and with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) resembling heparin on keratinocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The binding of VLPs to heparin is shown to exhibit an affinity comparable to that of other identified heparin-binding proteins. Immobilized heparin chromatography and surface plasmon resonance were used to show that this interaction can be specifically inhibited by free heparin and dextran sulfate and that the effectiveness of the inhibitor is related to its molecular weight and charge density. Sequence comparison of nine human L1 types revealed a conserved region of the carboxyl terminus containing clustered basic amino acids that bear resemblance to proposed heparin-binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Specific enzymatic cleavage of this region eliminated binding to both immobilized heparin and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Removal of heparan sulfate GAGs on keratinocytes by treatment with heparinase or heparitinase resulted in an 80-90% reduction of VLP binding, whereas treatment of cells with laminin, a substrate for alpha6 integrin receptors, provided minimal inhibition. Cells treated with chlorate or substituted beta-D-xylosides, resulting in undersulfation or secretion of GAG chains, also showed a reduced affinity for VLPs. Similarly, binding of VLPs to a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant deficient in GAG synthesis was shown to be only 10% that observed for wild type cells. This report establishes for the first time that the carboxyl-terminal portion of HPV L1 interacts with heparin, and that this region appears to be crucial for interaction with the cell surface.  (+info)

A lipid modified ubiquitin is packaged into particles of several enveloped viruses. (2/5443)

An anti-ubiquitin cross-reactive protein which migrates more slowly (6.5 kDa) by SDS-PAGE than ubiquitin was identified in African swine fever virus particles. This protein was extracted into the detergent phase in Triton X-114 phase separations, showing that it is hydrophobic, and was radiolabelled with both [3H]palmitic acid and [32P]orthophosphate. This indicates that the protein has a similar structure to the membrane associated phosphatidyl ubiquitin described in baculovirus particles. A similar molecule was found in vaccinia virus and herpes simplex virus particles, suggesting that it may be a component of uninfected cell membranes, which is incorporated into membrane layers in virions during morphogenesis.  (+info)

A novel Vpr peptide interactor fused to integrase (IN) restores integration activity to IN-defective HIV-1 virions. (3/5443)

A novel approach to complement human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) integrase (IN)-defective virions has been identified. The approach involves fusion of a 23-amino-acid stretch to the N-terminus of wild-type IN and coexpression of this chimera with the IN-defective proviral template in virus producing cells. The 23-amino-acid peptide represents a Vpr "interactor," referred to as the the WxxF or WF domain, which apparently leads to docking of the domain along with the fusion partner onto HIV-1 Vpr, thus permitting virion incorporation of the chimeric protein when expressed, in trans, with other viral products. Transfection of the WF-IN expression plasmid along with HIV-1 viral clones that produce Vpr, but bear an IN mutation, results in the release of a proportion of viral particles that are competent for integration. The extent of complementation was assessed using the MAGI cell assay, where integration of viral DNA results in the eventual appearance of easily visible multinucleated blue syncytia. The efficiency of dWF-IN (double copy of WF domain) complementation is not improved markedly by incorporation of a HIV-1 protease cleavage site (PR) between the dWF domain and IN (dWF-PR-IN), unlike that observed with Vpr fusions to IN. Furthermore, the ability of Vpr-PR-IN and dWF-PR-IN to complement IN-defective proviral clones, both of which bear an intervening protease cleavage site, appear comparable. Western blotting analyses using virions isolated through sucrose cushions demonstrate clearly the incorporation of the dWF-IN fusion protein into Vpr containing HIV-1 particles but not in Vpr-deficient virions. Additional Western blotting analyses indicate that all Vpr-IN and dWF-IN chimeras, with or without a PR site, are packaged into virions. The efficiency of virion incorporation of Vpr-IN and dWF-IN chimeras appears approximately comparable by Western blotting analysis. The ability of dWF-IN to complement IN-defective proviruses with efficiency similar to that of Vpr-PR-IN and dWF-PR-IN indicates that dWF-IN retains the full complement of functions necessary for integration of proviral DNA and is likely due to the benign nature of this small domain at the amino-terminus of IN.  (+info)

A new picornavirus isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). (4/5443)

A previously unknown picornavirus was isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Electron microscopy images and sequence data of the prototype isolate, named Ljungan virus, showed that it is a picornavirus. The amino acid sequences of predicted Ljungan virus capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 were closely related to the human pathogen echovirus 22 (approximately 70% similarity). A partial 5' noncoding region sequence of Ljungan virus showed the highest degree of relatedness to cardioviruses. Two additional isolates were serologically and molecularly related to the prototype.  (+info)

Two types of HTLV-1 particles are released from MT-2 cells. (5/5443)

The MT-2 cell line transformed by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) contains one complete provirus and seven defective proviruses. Four defective genomes have an identical structure (LTR-MA-deltaCA-pX-LTR) with an open reading frame that spans from MA to pX, giving rise to a 3.4-kb (24S) RNA transcript encoding a chimeric Gag-pX protein, p28. MT-2 cells release two distinct types of virions. The major "classic" type of particle has a buoyant density of 1.155-1.16 g/cm3 and contains the standard HTLV-I structural proteins and reverse transcriptase (RT). In addition, about 5% of particles are "light," approximately 1.12 g/cm3, and contain p28, RT activity, and the 3.4-kb RNA transcript. RT-PCR and in vitro translation indicate that some of the classic HTLV-1 particles package 3.4-kb RNA as well as full-length 8.5-kb RNA. In addition to matrix features, the p28 protein has a motif resembling a zinc finger at the C-terminal, pX0 region, which may play a role in the assembly of the defective light virions.  (+info)

Noncytopathic flavivirus replicon RNA-based system for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. (6/5443)

Noncytopathic replicons of the flavivirus Kunjin (KUN) were employed for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. Replicon vector C20DX2Arep, containing a unique cloning site followed by the sequence of 2A autoprotease of foot-and-mouth disease virus, was constructed and used for expression of a number of heterologous genes including chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), green fluorescent protein (GFP), beta-galactosidase, glycoprotein G of vesicular stomatitis virus, and the Core and NS3 genes of hepatitis C virus. The expression and proper processing of these genes upon transfection of BHK21 cells with the recombinant replicon RNAs were demonstrated by immunofluorescence, radioimmunoprecipitation, and appropriate reporter gene assays. Most of these recombinant KUN replicon RNAs were also successfully packaged into secreted virus-like particles (VLPs) by subsequent transfection with Semliki Forest virus replicon RNA expressing KUN structural genes. Infection of BHK21 and Vero cells with these VLPs resulted in continuous replication of the recombinant replicon RNAs and prolonged expression of the cloned genes without any cytopathic effect. We also developed a replicon vector for generation of stable cell lines continuously expressing heterologous genes by inserting an encephalomyelocarditis virus internal ribosomal entry site-neomycin transferase gene cassette into the 3'-untranslated region of the C20DX2Arep vector. Using this vector (C20DX2ArepNeo), stable BHK cell lines persistently expressing GFP and CAT genes for up to 17 passages were established. Thus noncytopathic KUN replicon vectors with the ability to be packaged into VLPs should provide a useful tool for the development of noninfectious and noncytopathic vaccines as well as for gene therapy applications.  (+info)

Intranasal delivery of recombinant parvovirus-like particles elicits cytotoxic T-cell and neutralizing antibody responses. (7/5443)

We previously demonstrated that chimeric porcine parvovirus-like particles (PPV:VLP) carrying heterologous epitopes, when injected intraperitoneally into mice without adjuvant, activate strong CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses specific for the foreign epitopes. In the present study, we investigated the immunogenicity of PPV:VLP carrying a CD8(+) T-cell epitope from the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) administered by mucosal routes. Mice immunized intranasally with recombinant PPV:VLP, in the absence of adjuvant, developed high levels of PPV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and/or IgA in their serum, as well as in mucosal sites such as the bronchoalveolar and intestinal fluids. Antibodies in sera from mice immunized parenterally or intranasally with PPV:VLP were strongly neutralizing in vitro. Intranasal immunization with PPV:VLP carrying the LCMV CD8(+) T-cell epitope also elicited a strong peptide-specific cytotoxic-T-cell (CTL) response. In contrast, mice orally immunized with recombinant PPV:VLP did not develop any antibody or CTL responses. We also showed that mice primed with PPV:VLP are still able to develop strong CTL responses after subsequent immunization with chimeric PPV:VLP carrying a foreign CD8(+) T-cell epitope. These results highlight the attractive potential of PPV:VLP as a safe, nonreplicating antigen carrier to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity after nasal administration.  (+info)

Human antibody responses to mature and immature forms of viral envelope in respiratory syncytial virus infection: significance for subunit vaccines. (8/5443)

A number of antibodies generated during human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been cloned by the phage library approach. Antibodies reactive with an immunodominant epitope on the F glycoprotein of this virus have a high affinity for affinity-purified F antigen. These antibodies, however, have a much lower affinity for mature F glycoprotein on the surface of infected cells and are nonneutralizing. In contrast, a potent neutralizing antibody has a high affinity for mature F protein but a much lower affinity for purified F protein or F protein in viral lysates. The data indicate that at least two F protein immunogens are produced during natural RSV infection: immature F, found in viral lysates, and mature F, found on infected cells or virions. Binding studies with polyclonal human immunoglobulin G suggest that the antibody responses to the two immunogens are of similar magnitudes. Competitive binding studies suggest that overlap between the responses is relatively limited. A mature envelope with an antigenic configuration different from that of the immature envelope has an evolutionary advantage in that the infecting virus is less subject to neutralization by the humoral response to the immature envelope that inevitably arises following lysis of infected cells. Subunit vaccines may be at a disadvantage because they most often resemble immature envelope molecules and ignore this aspect of viral evasion.  (+info)

Page contains details about MS2-miR146a recombinant virus-like particles conjugated with HIV Tat47-57 peptides . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
The results of yeast and mammalian two-hybrid assays previously indicated complex formation between prenylated Rab acceptor 1 (PRA1) and the cytoplasmic domain of gp41 (gp41CD) for both the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses [ Evans, D. T., Tilman, K. C. & Desrosiers, R. C. (2002). J Virol 76, 327-337 ]. The assembly and release of infectious virus particles was studied under conditions of PRA1 overexpression in a transient transfection assay or suppression by RNA interference. Although a clear pattern of co-localization of PRA1 and gp41 was observed, no changes in virion release, infectivity or envelope content were observed as a result of either PRA1 suppression or overexpression. These data show that PRA1 co-localizes with gp41 inside cells and they are consistent with a direct or indirect interaction between these proteins. However, variation in the levels of PRA1 expression did not influence virion production, infectivity or envelope incorporation under the conditions of these assays.
In this report, we show that the products of UL47, UL49, and US11 ORFs bind RNA in vitro and in the context of infected cells, and that the packaged RNAs can be expressed in infected cells. We also show that VP22, the product of the UL49 ORF, mediates the transfer of the RNA from cell to cell. Relevant to our results are the following:. (i) The procedure we have used to identify the protein capable of binding RNAs was to electrophoretically separate virion proteins in denaturing gels, renature the proteins in situ, and react them with a labeled riboprobe representing the RNA detected in all virion preparations tested. Using this procedure, we unambiguously demonstrated that three virion protein bands bind RNAs. These proteins were identified as the products of the UL47, UL49, and US11 genes. In these assays, we used as probe the most abundant RNA packaged in virions. Because we used a riboprobe representing a single viral RNA, we cannot exclude the possibility that there exist virion proteins ...
Enveloped virus-like particles (VLPs) are increasingly used as vaccines and immunotherapeutics. Frequently, very time consuming density gradient centrifugation
click on the image for a larger view) Figure 2. RSV virion structure and expression. Panel A shows a diagrammatic representation of a mature Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) virion. The legend at the right identifies individual proteins found in the mature virion. The outer membrane of the virion contains the transmembrane protein (TM), which is associated with the surface protein (SU). The matrix protein (MA) lies just under this outer membrane. The core of the virion is structurally delimited by the capsid protein (CA). Inside the capsid are two viral RNA genomes, shown partially covered with nucleocapsid protein (NC). The two genomic RNAs are hydrogen bonded near their 5 ends. The core also contains reverse transcriptase (RT), integrase (IN), and protease (PR). Panel B shows the relationship of the proviral DNA, the open reading frames, viral RNAs, and proteins of RSV. The LTRs of the provirus are shown as a series of three boxes (U3, R, and U5). The viral genome is divided into gag, pol, env, and ...
The experiments outlined in this study present evidence for an intracellular compartment in macrophages into which HIV‐1 virions assemble and in which virions retain infectivity for extended intervals. Although infectious virions were sequestered intracellularly at low levels, these results have important implications regarding reservoirs for viral persistence. Because of the efficiency of viral dissemination in trans and the replicative capacity of the virus, low levels of intracellular infectious virus may ignite viral replication upon transmission to lymphocytes (Carr et al, 1999). By analogy, DCs can capture extracellular virions and, even though at undetectable levels, captured virions can initiate a vigorous infection upon dissemination to lymphocytes (Cameron et al, 1992). Furthermore, rare latent proviruses ignite efficient replication upon reactivation from latency (Kieffer et al, 2004). While such mechanisms may have a minor contributing role to cumulative virus burden in highly ...
Virion incorporation of SIVmac316 Env is highly responsive to mutations of potential trafficking motifs.Viruses were produced by transfection of HEK293T cells a
In addition, mass spectrophotometry was executed to verify 442-51-3 detection of the LGp in C6/36 virions. Gel slices have been excised from protein separation
Virion entry via fusion at the plasma membrane releases the virion core into the cytoplasm. The core disassembles partially, allowing the virion copy of reverse transcriptase to start using the RNA genome as a template to synthesize a complementary strand of DNA. Reverse transcriptase also has an RNAase H activity, by which it digests the RNA genome strand. The ssDNA is then converted to dsDNA, also by reverse transcriptase. To make sure there is no loss due to the need for primers, the overall process is quite complex, involving jumps and duplicate synthesis of the end regions of the genome. The net result is a dsDNA molecule that is actually longer than the RNA genome. Both ends of the DNA contain the LTR (long terminal repeat) sequence (whereas the RNA genome had some of this sequence at its 5 end and part at its 3 end.) While this DNA synthesis was proceeding, it s likely that the overall complex was being transported towards the nucleus. Regardless of exactly where the dsDNA is ...
Antibodies facilitate binding and internalization of fully immature DENV particles.Binding of immature and standard virion preparations to P388D1 cells with and
adenovirus virion protein mu: 19-amino acid DNA-binding peptide derived form the L2-79R precursor by two cleavages that are mediated by the virus-encoded endoproteinase; amino acid sequence given in first source
Plays critical roles in virus replication, from virus entry and uncoating to assembly and budding of the virus particle. M1 binding to ribonucleocapsids (RNPs) in nucleus seems to inhibit viral transcription. Interaction of viral NEP with M1-RNP is thought to promote nuclear export of the complex, which is targeted to the virion assembly site at the apical plasma membrane in polarized epithelial cells. Interactions with NA and HA may bring M1, a non-raft-associated protein, into lipid rafts. Forms a continuous shell on the inner side of the lipid bilayer in virion, where it binds the RNP. During virus entry into cell, the M2 ion channel acidifies the internal virion core, inducing M1 dissociation from the RNP. M1-free RNPs are transported to the nucleus, where viral transcription and replication can take place.
Viral surface protein implicated in the binding to specific host surface molecule(s). This binding can lead to virion entry into the host cell, it can trigger signaling pathways, or it can allow the virion to be carried by the host cell to a specific organ ...
CYT006-AngQb: a virus-shaped noninfectious particle that is chemically coupled with angiotensin II, an octapeptide vasoconstrictor which induces the body to produce antibodies against this small molecule to minimize its effects on constricting blood vessels
/vuy ree on , vir ee /, n. the infectious form of a virus as it exists outside the host cell, consisting of a nucleic acid core, a protein coat, and, in some species, an external envelope. [ | F virion (1959), equiv. to viri(en) viral (see VIRUS
Hi, Does somebody know if is possible to obtain or produce Human papilloma (HPV) virion? Thank you in advance for information send to my email P.Hubert at Pascale Hubert ...
Virology Highlights features highlighted articles published in Virology, with posts summarizing the research in the authors words.
Recently, cell lifestyle systems producing hepatitis C virus particles (HCVcc) were developed. we developed serum-free culture systems producing high-titer single-density sf-HCVcc, showing similar biological properties as HCVcc. This methodology has the potential to advance HCV vaccine development and to facilitate biophysical studies of HCV. within the family. Due to a high degree of genetic heterogeneity, HCV has been categorized in 6 essential genotypes and several subtypes epidemiologically, differing in around 30% and 20% of their nucleotide and amino Vorinostat acidity sequence, [3 respectively,4]. Genotypes display important biological and clinical variations [5C10]. Serotypes Rabbit Polyclonal to 5-HT-2C. never have been defined; nevertheless, different genotypes and subtypes display differential level of sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies within sera of chronically contaminated patients also to monoclonal neutralizing antibodies with restorative potential [6,11C14]. The 9.6 kb HCV ...
In this study, we have defined the signal for virion incorporation of HIV-1 Nef as a bipartite membrane-targeting signal which consists of covalently attached myristic acid and a cluster of positive charges in the N-terminal region of the protein. This signal is reminiscent of a Src homology region 4 (SH-4), which mediates plasma membrane targeting of protein tyrosine kinases of the Src family (45). It also resembles the membrane-targeting signal in the N-terminal MA domain of retroviral Gag polyproteins, which is essential for virus budding (reviewed in reference 34). Membrane binding of Nef and of N-terminally altered Nef proteins correlated with their incorporation into virus particles and was independent of any other viral protein. Furthermore, the N-terminal anchor domain was sufficient for plasma membrane localization and virion incorporation of a chimeric protein (Anchor-GFP). Recently, the N-terminal 10 amino acids of Nef have been shown to target a chimeric GFP to the plasma membrane of ...
The binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Hx10) virions to two different cell lines was analyzed by using a novel assay based on the detection, by anti-HLA-DR-specific antibodies, of HLA-DR+ virus binding to HLA-DR- cells. Virion attachment to the CD4+-T-cell line A3.01 was highly CD4 dependent in that it was potently inhibited by CD4 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), and little virus binding to the CD4- sister A2.01 line was observed. By contrast, virion binding to HeLa cells expressing moderate or high levels of CD4 was equivalent to, or lower than, binding to wild-type CD4- HeLa cells. Moreover, several CD4 MAbs did not reduce, but enhanced, HIV-1 attachment to HeLa-CD4 cells. CD4 was required for infection of HeLa cells, however, demonstrating a postattachment role for this receptor. MAbs specific for the V2 and V3 loops and the CD4i epitope of gp120 strongly inhibited virion binding to HeLa-CD4 cells, whereas MAbs specific for the CD4bs and the 2G12 epitopes enhanced attachment.
The pseudovirions are virus-like particles generated by in vitro production of HIV-1 viral proteins which are capable of assembly into particles. The presence of gag gene products in addition to envelope glycoprotein should assist in humoral and cellular immunologic responses to internal HIV-1 viral proteins. The pseudovirion vaccine has been tested in preclinical trials in mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, and nonhuman primates with good safety and immunogenicity profile.. A total of 78 volunteers will be recruited and randomly assigned to receive pseudovirion vaccine and/or the placebo/adjuvant. All volunteers will receive injections intramuscularly at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months.. Group I (30 volunteers): pseudovirion vaccine w/adjuvant or w/o adjuvant. Group II (30 volunteers): pseudovirion vaccine w/adjuvant or w/o adjuvant. Group III (18 volunteers): adjuvant (QS21 or alum) or saline placebo. NOTE: Group I will receive appropriate adjuvant or saline placebo at Month 3 without pseudovirion vaccine. ...
The pseudovirions are virus-like particles generated by in vitro production of HIV-1 viral proteins which are capable of assembly into particles. The presence of gag gene products in addition to envelope glycoprotein should assist in humoral and cellular immunologic responses to internal HIV-1 viral proteins. The pseudovirion vaccine has been tested in preclinical trials in mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, and nonhuman primates with good safety and immunogenicity profile.. A total of 78 volunteers will be recruited and randomly assigned to receive pseudovirion vaccine and/or the placebo/adjuvant. All volunteers will receive injections intramuscularly at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months.. Group I (30 volunteers): pseudovirion vaccine w/adjuvant or w/o adjuvant. Group II (30 volunteers): pseudovirion vaccine w/adjuvant or w/o adjuvant. Group III (18 volunteers): adjuvant (QS21 or alum) or saline placebo. NOTE: Group I will receive appropriate adjuvant or saline placebo at Month 3 without pseudovirion vaccine. ...
Although ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) is considered the primary receptor for CoV-2 cell entry, recent reports suggest that alternative pathways may contribute. This paper considers the hypothesis that viral binding to cell-surface integrins may contribute to the high infectivity and widespread extra-pulmonary impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This potential is suggested on the basis of the emergence of an RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) sequence in the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein. RGD is a motif commonly used by viruses to bind cell-surface integrins. Numerous signaling pathways are mediated by integrins and virion binding could lead to dysregulation of these pathways, with consequent tissue damage. Integrins on the surfaces of pneumocytes, endothelial cells and platelets may be vulnerable to CoV-2 virion binding. For instance, binding of intact virions to integrins on alveolar cells could enhance viral entry. Binding of virions to integrins on endothelial cells could ...
IFITMs are broad antiviral factors that block incoming virions in endosomal vesicles, protecting target cells from infection. In the case of HIV-1, we and others reported the existence of an additional antiviral mechanism through which IFITMs lead to the production of virions of reduced infectivity. However, whether this second mechanism of inhibition is unique to HIV or extends to other viruses is currently unknown. To address this question, we have analyzed the susceptibility of a broad spectrum of viruses to the negative imprinting of the virion particles infectivity by IFITMs. The results we have gathered indicate that this second antiviral property of IFITMs extends well beyond HIV and we were able to identify viruses susceptible to the three IFITMs altogether (HIV-1, SIV, MLV, MPMV, VSV, MeV, EBOV, WNV), as well as viruses that displayed a member-specific susceptibility (EBV, DUGV), or were resistant to all IFITMs (HCV, RVFV, MOPV, AAV). The swapping of genetic elements between resistant ...
The subsequent steps in herpesvirus maturation have been disputed for some time. One model, originally proposed for HSV-1, suggested that perinuclear virions retain their integrity and leave the cell via the secretory pathway (10, 17, 38, 89). During this transit, viral envelope glycoproteins are modified in situ. In this model, perinuclear virions already contain the full complement of tegument and envelope proteins characteristic of mature extracellular virions. An alternative model proposed that the primary envelope fuses with the outer leaflet of the nuclear membrane (or the endoplasmic reticulum [ER] membrane with which it is contiguous), resulting in loss of the primary envelope and, presumably, the primary tegument and translocation of capsids into the cytoplasm (reviewed in references 25 and 51; Fig. 3, step 2). Final tegumentation and envelopment then occur in cytoplasmic compartments. In this model, perinuclear and intracytoplasmic/extracellular enveloped virions may differ in ...
Retroviruses contain a dozen or so genes, and these enable the various stages of the virus lifecycle from the initial entry into a new cell to the replication and formation of new virus particles late in the lifecycle. When retroviruses form infectious virions, they do so by first expressing their RNA and protein components and then assembling these molecular components on the inside of an infected cell. These components will bind to the cell membrane and assemble there, leading to the budding off of an immature virion. Inside the immature virion are long Gag polyproteins, which are precursors of the structural proteins nucleocapsid, capsid, and matrix. After budding, the virion must still mature into an active, infectious particle by using a protease to chop the precursor Gag proteins into their component pieces. Once these structural proteins are free, they can self-assemble into the structures that give a retrovirus its classic shape and appearance. Capsid proteins, for instance, assemble ...
Simon, Bieniasz and Jouvenet found that the Gag molecules are recruited from the inside of the cell and travel to the cells surface. When enough Gag molecules get close and start bumping into each other, the cells outer membrane starts to bulge outward into a budding virion and then pinches off to form an individual, infectious particle. At this point, the researchers showed that the virion is a lone entity, no longer exchanging resources with the cell. By using tricks from optics and physiology, they were able to watch the steps of viral assembly, budding, and even scission off the cell surface. With such a view they can start to describe the entire lifeline in the birth of the virus ...
Virion is a turn-based strategy that focuses on territory control. The prototype was developed in three weeks by four people.. Virion is currently being developed further and will be targeting mobile and tablet devices in late 2015 or early 2016.. ...
Unlike all other picornaviruses, the primary cleavage of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) polyprotein occurs at the 2A/2B junction and is carried out by the only
The intestinal mucosa is a key anatomical site for HIV-1 replication and CD4+ T-cell depletion. Accordingly, a series of in vivo studies in macaques showed that antibody-mediated blockade of the principal gut-homing integrin, α4β7, resulted in reduced SIV transmission, delayed disease progression, and effective virus control persisting for months after antibody withdrawal. We aimed at elucidating the potential mechanism(s) underlying the protective effects of anti-α4β7 antibody treatment.. HIV-1 strains were grown in human PBMC activated in the presence/absence of retinoic acid; virion-capture assays were performed using magnetic beads armed with antibodies to α4β7 or other cellular receptors, or recombinant MAdCAM-1 or ICAM-1; α4β7+ or - viral particles were produced by co-transfection of 293T cells with HIV-1 clones with or without α4 and β7; for virion-homing studies, fluorescent α4β7+ or - virus was injected into the tail vein of C57BL/6 mice, and ...
In contrast to negative staining, cryoelectron microscopy cryo-EM of intact BTV particles shows the icosahedral morphology of the mature particle, with a diameter of 86 nm. The outer layer consists of 60 sail-shaped, spikelike structures made up of VP2 110 kDa trimers and of 120 globular structures made up of VP5 59 kDa trimers Figure 2 . The most external part of the outer capsid is the propeller-shaped triskelion blade of VP2, the tip of which bends upward, perpendicularly to the plane of the.... ...
Researchers at the Universities of York and Leeds have discovered that the genetic code in Hepatitis B produces a protective casing in which new infectious virus particles are formed. This system is necessary to properly assemble new genetic material and therefore, spread. While there is a vaccine for the disease, no cure exists for the two million already infected globally who often die from resulting liver cancer.. We often compare the disease to HIV due to the way in which the virus is passed from person-to-person, but unlike HIV there are no effective drugs to improve quality of life outcomes, Professor Peter Stockley, a structural virologist from the University of Leeds, said in a statement. Now that we know how the virus assembles, we can interrupt the interactions with the RNA signals-a bit like when a twig catches the sprocket on a bike, knocking the chain off. The researchers are working with the National Institutes of Health in the USA to identify potential drug candidates that are ...
Pokemon Virion : This game is the third part of the sub-game series of Pokémon Colosseum / XD. The idea of the project is to completely replicate the dead before the little project while using RPG Maker VX Ace. In the region of Fodna is a strange conspiracy. Encrypted (cipher) criminal organizations do not work for
This chapter intends to provide an overview of the use of viruses for medical applications. The first part describes the basic characteristics of viral particles regarding their chemical composition and size, as well as their structure and assembly/disassembly abilities. Next, a discussion about the newest and most important strategies for virus particles modification including genetic, chemical, and self-assembly/encapsulation engineering towards the development of new virus particles for biomedical applications, including targeted delivery and therapy, molecular imaging for disease detection, vaccine development, and bacterial infection control ...
Some of these individuals may be completely asymptomatic and if the R number was to be based on this type of individual it would be small. Then there are the super spreaders (again some of which may be asymptomatic, again this is something that research is currently trying to establish) who it seems shed large numbers of viral particles and therefore deliver a much bigger dose capable of infecting many individuals. If the R number was based on this type of individual alone it would be high.. In reality there is probably a spectrum of different types of infected individuals some very low, some with very high infectious viral loads and some filling the gap in between these extremes that overall gives us an average R number. Evidence is emerging to suggest that there are some infected individuals who dont shed infectious viral particles at all. More research is needed to understand the reason behind this wide variation in virus shedding and load but in all probability it comes down to the way in ...
The sizes of plant viral genomes vary from about four kilo bases (kb) to about twenty kb. Exceptions are the phycodna viruses of algae whose DNAs are over three hundred kb. Virions may be roundish in shape (in actuality an intricate geometrical form called an icosahedron), rod-shaped, or filamentous ...
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Viruses are small infectious particles that cannot replicate on their own, but need to infect a cell in order to copy. Viral particles (called virions) consist of a protein envelope and a genetic material inside.
59. Outer covering of virus made up of protein is A. capsid B. coat C. virion D. VirioidWhat do you think? . @sunleaf01 , What do you think it s...
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The initial 3D size of the particle. The current size of the particle is calculated procedurally based on this value and the active size modules.
Dive into the research topics of Heterogeneity of a fluorescent tegument component in single pseudorabies virus virions and enveloped axonal assemblies. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Vaccinia virus (VV) morphogenesis commences with the formation of lipid crescents that grow into spherical immature virus (IV) and then infectious intracellular mature virus (IMV) particles. Early studies proposed that the lipid crescents were synthesized de novo and matured into IMV particles that contained a single lipid bilayer (S. Dales and E. H. Mosbach, Virology 35:564-583, 1968), but a more recent study reported that the lipid crescent was derived from membranes of the intermediate compartment (IC) and contained a double lipid bilayer (B. Sodiek et al., J. Cell Biol. 121:521-541, 1993). In the present study, we used high-resolution electron microscopy to reinvestigate the structures of the lipid crescents, IV, and IMV particles in order to determine if they contain one or two membranes. Examination of thin sections of Epon-embedded, VV-infected cells by use of a high-angular-tilt series of single sections, serial-section analysis, and high-resolution digital-image analysis detected only a single,
Vaccinia virus (VACV), the model poxvirus, produces two types of infectious particles: mature virions (MVs) and extracellular virions (EVs). EV particles possess two membranes and therefore require an unusual cellular entry mechanism. By a combination of fluorescence and electron microscopy as well as flow cytometry, we investigated the cellular processes that EVs required to infect HeLa cells. We found that EV particles were endocytosed, and that internalization and infection depended on actin rearrangements, activity of Na+/H+ exchangers, and signalling events typical for the macropinocytic mechanism of endocytosis. To promote their internalization, EVs were capable of actively triggering macropinocytosis. EV infection also required vacuolar acidification, and acid exposure in endocytic vacuoles was needed to disrupt the outer EV membrane. Once exposed, the underlying MV-like particle presumably fused its single membrane with the limiting vacuolar membrane. Release of the viral core into the ...
In the natural history of HPV infections, the HPV virions can induce two different pathways, namely the infectious virion producing pathway and the clonal transforming pathway. An overview is given of the burden that is associated with HPV infections that can both lead to cervical cancer and/or temporal subfertility. That HPV infections cause serious global health burden due to HPV-associated cancers is common knowledge, but that it is also responsible for a substantial part of idiopathic subfertility is greatly underestimated. The bulk of the detected HPV DNA whether in men or women is however infectious from origin. Because the dissociation between HPV viruses and HPV virions or infection and disease remains difficult for clinicians as well as for HPV detection, we propose a review of the different effects caused by the two different HPV virion induced pathways, and highlight the mechanisms that are responsible for causing transient subfertility and cancer. ...
It has been proposed that cholesterol in host cell membranes plays a pivotal role for cell entry of HIV. However, it remains largely unknown why virions prefer cholesterol-rich heterogeneous membranes to uniformly fluid membranes for membrane fusion. Using giant plasma membrane vesicles containing cholesterol-rich ordered and cholesterol-poor fluid lipid domains, we demonstrate that the HIV receptor CD4 is substantially sequestered into ordered domains, whereas the co-receptor CCR5 localizes preferentially at ordered/disordered domain boundaries. We also show that HIV does not fuse from within ordered regions of the plasma membrane but rather at their boundaries. Ordered/disordered lipid domain coexistence is not required for HIV attachment but is a prerequisite for successful fusion. We propose that HIV virions sense and exploit membrane discontinuities to gain entry into cells. This study provides surprising answers to the long-standing question about the roles of cholesterol and ordered lipid ...
Influenza virus particles. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of influenza (flu) virus particles (virions). Each virion consists of ribonucleic acid (RNA, dark patches), surrounded by a nucleocapsid (orange) and a lipid envelope (dark rings). In the envelope are two types of protein spike, haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N), which determine the strain of virus. - Stock Image C016/9407
Based on the assumption that every virus particle operates independently from all other virus particles, the researchers set up a probability model. This model predicts how many virus particles have caused an infection and how many different virus genotypes are present in infected hosts, such as plants, insects or people. The results of the infection experiment with the susceptible insects are in agreement with the model predictions. From this it can be derived that the virus particles have an independent effect, and that a single virus particle can indeed cause infection and/or disease ...
Enveloped viruses are wrapped in a lipid membrane; the viral envelope fuses with a host (plasma or endosomal) cell membrane, allowing penetration of the viral core into the host cell. The extracellular form of Vaccinia virus (EEV, for extracellular enveloped virus) is wrapped in two lipid envelopes, however, posing a challenge to viral entry: Fusion of the outer envelope will result in the intracellular release of a form called the intracellular mature virus (IMV), which is still surrounded by a lipid membrane. Law et al. used immunoelectron microscopy to investigate EEV invasion of PtK2 potoroo kidney cells and saw that, rather than fusing with the plasma membrane, the outer membrane became disrupted at the site of cell contact. It remained outside the cell, allowing the inner viral membrane to fuse with the plasma membrane. Outer membrane disruption occurred only at the site of cell contact and was not stimulated by binding to glass. Exposure to polyanions (PA), heparin, or dextran sulfate, ...
Post-doctoral fellow in Clarisse Berlioz-Torrents lab from 2007 to 2010. TIP47 and HIV Envelope Incorporation. Current position: Post-doctoral research associate in virology, Kings College London, Londres, Royaume-Uni. Email: [email protected] ...
View Notes - General Properties of Viruses-review from MCB 2000 at University of Florida. General Properties of Viruses Structure 1. Nucleic acid - Single or double stranded. Segmented or
Although many different components gather to form a single virion, the Gag protein is the only one necessary for assembly. It attaches to the inner face of the cells outer membrane and when enough Gag molecules flood an area, they coalesce in a way that spontaneously forms a sphere.... When enough Gag molecules get close and start bumping into each other, the cells outer membrane starts to bulge outward into a budding virion and then pinches off to form an individual, infectious particle. ...
Viruses are parasitic organisms that live in infected cells and produce virions to disseminate their genes. Most viral proteins have no homologues in modern
A purified therapeutic grade thrombin is described which is essentially free of lipid envelope viruses, has a specific activity of about 2200 NIH units per milligram of protein to about 3200 NIH units per milligram of protein, is essentially homogeneous and may be produced on a commercial-scale. The thrombin is acceptable from human administration.
We present the charged-particle pseudorapidity density in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=5.02 TeV over a broad pseudorapidity range. The distributions are determined using the same experimental apparatus and methodologies, thereby minimizing systematic uncertainties, and providing clear and model-independent observations on the system-size dependence of the particle production at relativistic energies. An increase of particle production in Pb-Pb collisions near mid-rapidity, relative to pp collisions, is observed. The relative linearity in p-Pb collisions of the ratio to the smaller system indicate a coherent particle production throughout the longitudinal extend of the collision zone ...
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Read Virus maturation: dynamics and mechanism of a stabilizing structural transition that leads to infectivity, Current Opinion in Structural Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Calculating Exponential Growth. Students read an essay, Its All in the Numbers, about the rapid spread of HIV particles in the body, then learn how to calculate exponential growth using pennies to model the rapid spread of HIV particles in the body.
The h1n1 meaning can explain a lot about what type of virus h1n1 really is including how it mutates, the h1n1 virus structure and how it...
Many games, even on current next-gen hardware, render particles using camera facing quads. In many cases these particles are used to represent volumes of many smaller microscopic particles. These volumes typically are simulated simply by determining how much contribution they present to the view using a simple blend function. This blend function defines how much the simulated volume of particles obscures the scene behind them ...
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These products go on to become part of new virions within the cell, helper proteins that help assemble the new virions, or ... Release of virions[edit]. Phages may be released via cell lysis, by extrusion, or, in a few cases, by budding. Lysis, by tailed ... Virion assembly[edit]. In the case of the T4 phage, the construction of new virus particles involves the assistance of helper ... In contrast to virion release, phages displaying a lysogenic cycle do not kill the host but, rather, become long-term residents ...
Virion[redigér , redigér wikikode]. HPV er en lille virus med en størrele på omkring 60 nm uden membrankappe og men en kapsid ...
Most virus species have virions that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope. The average virion is about one one- ... These proteins go on to become either new virions within the cell, helper proteins, which help assembly of new virions, or ... The term virion (plural virions), which dates from 1959,[19] is also used to refer to a single, stable infective viral particle ... virion; 2011 [Retrieved 2014-12-19].. *^ Casjens S. In: Mahy BWJ and Van Regenmortel MHV. Desk Encyclopedia of General Virology ...
Cytoplasmic virion factory. Host Megavirus chilensis. 7 (Tyr, Arg, Met, Cys, Trp, Asn, Ile). Yes. Yes. No. Yes. Acanthamoeba ( ... These seeds then develop in full bloomed virion factory over the following 14 hours. The full course of infection (until the ... to designate viruses replicating entirely within the cytoplasm of their hosts through the de novo synthesis of large virion ...
A typical HIV virion is 180 nm and a typical parvovirus can vary between 15 and 24 nm, which is very small. One great advantage ...
12 in virion. DNA pilot protein (or minor spike protein) J. 60 in virion. Binds to new single-stranded phage DNA; accompanies ...
The virions also contain two identical single-stranded RNA molecules 7-10 kilobases in length. Although virions of different ... The main virion components are: *Envelope: composed of lipids (obtained from the host plasma membrane during the budding ... Env proteins play a role in association and entry of virions into the host cell.[5] Possessing a functional copy of an env gene ... Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are major components of the viral capsid, which are about 2000-4000 copies per virion. ...
Structure of the influenza viron. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins are shown on the surface of the ...
The virion has a capsid (coat protein) but no envelope. The icosahedral symmetry of the capsid is round to elongated. The range ... The virions are mainly found in the cytoplasm of the infected plant (as inclusion bodies). ... for the length of the virion particle is about 30-57 nm. AMV is a multipartite virus and is composed of 4 particles (3 ...
Electron micrograph of an Ebola virus virion. During August we have translated Disease and it is now live in more than 60 ...
The virions are enveloped, slightly pleomorphic, spherical and measure 80-100 nm in diameter. Projections of envelope make the ... Virions contain one molecule of (each) linear positive-sense single stranded RNA. ...
There are no host ribosomes within the viron. Each virion contains three copies of the genome. The envelope is single layered ...
Influenza A Virus Cell Entry, Replication, Virion Assembly and Movement. Frontiers in Immunology 2018 ...
komponen virion. Berfungsi seperti Vpr[15]. Vpu (Protein U virus). 81 AA (terfosforilasi), 9,2 & 16 kDalton. retikulum ... virion, sitoplasma, nukleus. Meningkatkan produksi HIV di tahap akhir; mengatur ekspresi MHC I dan CD4[15]. ... sitoplasma, beberapa molekul yang terbungkus dalam virion dewasa. Penting untuk infektivitas dan replikasi pada sel primer; ... Siklus hidup HIV diawali dengan penempelan partikel virus (virion) dengan reseptor pada permukaan sel inang, di antaranya ...
The transcription leads to the splicing and full-length mRNAs and full-length progeny virion RNA. The virion protein and ... Pol is the domain that encodes the virion protease.. Retrovirus enters host cell[edit]. The retrovirus begins the journey into ... In the gag region of the virus, the synthesis of the internal virion proteins are maintained which make up the matrix, capsid ... into the nucleus where one strand of the retroviral genome is put into the chromosomal DNA by the help of the virion intergrase ...
All members of the order have a virion structure that consists of a DNA core surrounded by an icosahedral capsid composed of 12 ... Simplified diagram of Herpesvirales virion structure in cross-section. (1) nucleoprotein, (2) DNA, (3) capsid, (4) tegument, (5 ... the latter is involved in the packaging of the DNA during virion assembly.[7] ...
Granuloviruses form small granules that each carry one virion. Granuloviruses can be divided into two classes: the 'slow' and ' ...
The protein can not be found in the virion. Structure[edit]. Viruses in Birnaviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and ... that is processed into the major structural proteins of the virion: VP2, VP3 (a minor structural component of the virus), and ...
The cleaved glycoproteins are incorporated into the virion envelope when the virus buds and release from the cell membrane.[23] ...
A coronavirus virion. References[change , change source]. *↑ "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". International ...
The TTV1 virion contains four virus-encoded proteins, TP1-4. The proteins do not display any sequence similarity to structural ...
Each blister contains infectious virus particles (virions). Close contact, particularly abrasive contact as found in contact ...
Assembly of new virions in the nucleus. Virions are released by lysis of the cell. Virion maturation by the viral proteasehost ...
Electron micrograph of Cauliflower mosaic virus virions Virus classification Group: Group VII (dsDNA-RT) ...
Virion architecture unifies globally distributed pleolipoviruses infecting halophilic archaea. . In: Journal of Virology. . 86 ... Orsay virus utilizes ribosomal frameshifting to express a novel protein that is incorporated into virions, in: Virology 450-451 ...
Similar Alphaviruses use gC protein to aid in binding the virion to the cell and gD to stabilize it, if required. gB, gD, gH, ... Vacuoles of mature virions are formed and released via exocytosis to other cells. Epithelial, lymphocytes, and macrophages are ... L genes are transcribed "after the synthesis of DNA and viral protein onset". Virion DNA maturation occurs as the nucleocapids ... After entering the host organism a virion begins the process of replication by first attaching to cells using glycoprotein ...
This virus particle matures into brick-shaped intracellular mature virion (IMV). IMV virion can be released upon cell lysis, or ... Assembly of progeny virions starts in cytoplasmic viral factories, producing an spherical immature particle. ... can acquire a second double membrane from trans-Golgi and bud as external enveloped virion (EEV)host receptors, which mediates ...
These virions are about 75 nm wide and 180 nm long. Cytorhabdovirus genomes are linear, around 13 kb in length. Viral ...
The 42 nm virions, which are capable of infecting liver cells known as hepatocytes, are referred to as "Dane particles".[38] In ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the hepadnavirus family.[36] The virus particle (virion) consists of an outer lipid ... These virions are 30-42 nm in diameter. The nucleocapsid encloses the viral DNA and a DNA polymerase that has reverse ... The infectious virion contains an inner "core particle" enclosing viral genome. The icosahedral core particle is made of 180 or ...
The virions are generally enveloped though the intracellular mature virion form of the virus, which contains a different ... This virus particle matures into brick-shaped intracellular mature virion (IMV). IMV virion can be released upon cell lysis, or ... The virion is exceptionally large, its size is around 200 nm in diameter and 300 nm in length and carries its genome in a ... Assembly of progeny virions starts in cytoplasmic viral factories, producing an spherical immature particle. ...
Retrieved from "" ...
Virion studied sculpture in Paris under Jean-Paul Aubé and Charles Gauthier and exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français ... Charles Louis Eugene Virion Archived 2015-06-22 at the Wayback Machine National Museum of Wildlife Art of the United States, ... Charles Louis Eugène Virion (Ajaccio, 1 December 1865 - Montigny-sur-Loing, 30 December 1946) was a noted French sculptor and ... Armand Point "VIRION, Charles Louis Eugène." Benezit Dictionary of Artists, Oxford Art Online, Oxford University Press. ...
In some virions the capsid is further enveloped by a fatty membrane, in which case the virion can be inactivated by exposure to ... Virion, an entire virus particle, consisting of an outer protein shell called a capsid and an inner core of nucleic acid ( ... Virions of most plant viruses are rod-shaped; the capsid is a naked cylinder (lacking a fatty membrane) within which lies a ... Other virions have a capsid consisting of an irregular number of surface spikes and the nucleic acid loosely coiled within. ...
I am Virion, the programmer from Big Bunker Studio, a 2-person indie game development team. Today I am here to introduce to you ...
... tegument. More ». ›Helical capsid protein. ›T=1 icosahedral capsid protein. ›T=2 icosahedral capsid protein. ›T=3 ...
Viron may refer to: Viron P. Vaky (born 1925), American diplomat an alternative form of Vyronas, a suburb of Athens, Greece ... Viron, a fictional city in The Book of the Long Sun by Gene Wolfe Viron, a playable race (or their language) in the computer ... a single virus particle This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Viron. If an internal link led you ... Philippines This may also be a misspelling of virion, ... RTS game Ground Control II Viron Transit, a bus company ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
... Pascale Hubert P.Hubert at Fri Aug 30 08:34:01 EST 1996 *Previous message: technicians post: virology ... Hi, Does somebody know if is possible to obtain or produce Human papilloma (HPV) virion? Thank you in advance for information ...
A three-dimensional reconstruction of Sindbis virus at 7.0 Å resolution presented here provides a detailed view of the virion ... A three-dimensional reconstruction of Sindbis virus at 7.0 Å resolution presented here provides a detailed view of the virion ...
Alphaherpesvirus axon-to-cell spread involves limited virion transmission. Matthew P. Taylor, Oren Kobiler, and Lynn W. Enquist ... Alphaherpesvirus axon-to-cell spread involves limited virion transmission Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Strikingly, although epithelial or neuronal cells express 3-10 viral genomes after infection by free virions, epithelial cells ... the number of virions transmitted is unknown. We have developed two methods to quantitate ADS events using a compartmentalized ...
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The virus and the virion. The illustration at left depicts a virion - the infectious particle that is designed for transmission ... In the above scheme, the olive green lines are the (-) strand RNAs found in the influenza virion. Once the virion enters the ... whereas the virion is used to spread from cell to cell. He wrote that "to confuse the virion with the virus would be the same ... Influenza B virions have four proteins in the envelope: HA, NA, NB, and BM2. Like the M2 protein of influenza A virus, the BM2 ...
First Video of Birth of HIV Virion. May 30th, 2008 Editors News ...
Viron War lyrics & video : Cold is the night, snow falls from the sky I stare at this scene, so beautiful but unreal to me ... VIRON. War Lyrics. Cold is the night, snow falls from the sky. I stare at this scene, so beautiful but unreal to me. Inside me ...
HIV Virion and Genome. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 is a member of the Retroviridae family. It is an enveloped virus ... In order to adequately comprehend the scope of laboratory methods, a basic understanding of the structure of the HIV virion and ...
Virions from both cells incorporated similar proportions of E1/E2 and capsid, but NHF virions included larger amounts of CD63. ... However, virions budding from NPAF were smaller, more compact, and 26 times more infectious than virions budding from NHF. NHF- ... For analysis of the proteins in virions, equal amounts of purified virions were separated by SDS/PAGE (10%) and transferred to ... Ultrastructural analysis showed that the virions budding from the surface of NPAF were small and regular, whereas virions ...
Promising interim results for Sinopharms inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. *Download PDF Copy ... One study of a recently tested inactivated beta-propiolactone aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccine ... Promising interim results for Sinopharms inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. News-Medical. 27 November 2020. ,https ... Promising interim results for Sinopharms inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. News-Medical, viewed 27 November 2020, ...
Enveloped eHAV virions mediate pDC activation. Since highly concentrated preparations of nonenveloped virions do not stimulate ... Human pDCs preferentially sense enveloped hepatitis A virions. Zongdi Feng,1 You Li,1 Kevin L. McKnight,1 Lucinda Hensley,1 ... HAV-infected cells, but not purified nonenveloped virions, stimulate human pDCs to produce IFN-α. We isolated BDCA4+ pDCs by ... Enveloped virions were concentrated from supernatants of HAV-infected culture collected between 2 and 6 weeks after inoculation ...
ASM journals are the most prominent publications in the field, delivering up-to-date and authoritative coverage of both basic and clinical microbiology.. About ASM , Contact Us , Press Room. ASM is a member of. ...
Allison Viron Photography. Company Description. Custom wedding photography. I work with each couple to capture their memories ...
VIRON? International Corporation is a leading manufacturer of industrial air moving and air cleaning systems made from ... Viron International Corp.. Address: 505 Hintz Road Owosso, MI 48867-9603 USA Phone: (989) 723-8255 Fax: (989) 723-8417 http:// ...
Split Virion),Inactivated industry policy and plan, Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated product specification, ... In a word, it was a depth research report on Global and China Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated industry. And thanks ... Most up-to-date research on "Global and China Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated Industry 2014 Market Research Report ... And also listed Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated upstream raw materials equipments and down stream clients survey ...
1x Viron "ready to fly". 1x Viron Kite Bag. 1x Viron Gear Guide. 1x Sandbag. 1x Repair Kit ... When it comes to relaunch, we set a new kiteboarding benchmark with the Viron. The Viron is the first kite to incorporate Auto- ... The Viron surpasses all boundaries. This is a kite that makes it possible for children to get started in the sport. It is the ... The Viron delivers exactly the flight feeling you need for a safe entry into the sport. With all the functions and handling of ...
Goat polyclonal Rubella Virions antibody. Validated in ELISA, Inhibition, ICC/IF. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, cells or ...
Recombinant and virion-derived soluble and particulate immunogens for vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis.. Heinz FX1, ... These included soluble dimeric forms (virion-derived protein E dimers with and without membrane anchor; recombinant protein E ... Different protein E-containing preparations were either derived from purified virions or were produced as recombinant proteins ...
Histone Modifications in Papillomavirus Virion Minichromosomes. Samuel S. Porter, Jennifer C. Liddle, Kristen Browne, Diana V. ... Histone Modifications in Papillomavirus Virion Minichromosomes. Samuel S. Porter, Jennifer C. Liddle, Kristen Browne, Diana V. ... Histone Modifications in Papillomavirus Virion Minichromosomes. Samuel S. Porter, Jennifer C. Liddle, Kristen Browne, Diana V. ... Histone Modifications in Papillomavirus Virion Minichromosomes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
2560px-HI-virion-structure_en.svg. Published March 5, 2019. at 800 × 614 in 2560px-HI-virion-structure_en.svg ...
... based HIV-1 virion fusion assay exploits the incorporation of beta-lactamase-Vpr chimeric proteins into HIV-1 virions and their ... based HIV-1 virion fusion assay exploits the incorporation of beta-lactamase-Vpr chimeric proteins into HIV-1 virions and their ... Fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based HIV-1 virion fusion assay Methods Mol Biol. 2004;263:333-44. doi: 10.1385/1-59259- ... Importantly, it can be applied to study HIV-1 virion fusion in primary cells and can be combined with immunostaining for subset ...
This review discusses the impact of the genome size on Ad virion stability and emphasizes the need to consider this aspect of ... However, radical modifications to the genome size significantly decreases virion stability, suggesting that the virus genome ... Indeed, a similar relationship between genome size and virion stability has been noted for many viruses. ... plays a role in maintaining the physical stability of the Ad virion. ...
... Cell Host Microbe. 2009 Jun 18;5(6):550-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2009.05.015. ... Second, an understanding of how the host ESCRT pathway enables virion budding is accruing. Third, it has become apparent that a ...
  • The enveloped influenza A virions have three membrane proteins (HA, NA, M2), a matrix protein (M1) just below the lipid bilayer, a ribonucleoprotein core (consisting of 8 viral RNA segments and three proteins: PA, PB1, PB2), and the NEP/NS2 protein. (
  • Influenza B virions have four proteins in the envelope: HA, NA, NB, and BM2. (
  • The 5′ two-thirds of genomic RNA encodes the nonstructural replicase proteins (nsP1-4), and the 3′ one-third encodes the structural virion proteins (capsid, pE2, 6K, and E1) ( 1 ). (
  • Different protein E-containing preparations were either derived from purified virions or were produced as recombinant proteins in COS cells. (
  • The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based HIV-1 virion fusion assay exploits the incorporation of beta-lactamase-Vpr chimeric proteins into HIV-1 virions and their subsequent delivery into the cytoplasm of target cells as a marker of fusion. (
  • Our analysis resulted in the identification of 13 viral proteins associated with TAdV-3 virions including a novel uncharacterized TaV3gp04 protein. (
  • Further, we detected 18 host proteins in purified virions, many of which are involved in cell-to cell spread, cytoskeleton dynamics and virus replication. (
  • The bacteriophage virion proteins play extremely important roles in the fate of host bacterial cells. (
  • Accurate identification of bacteriophage virion proteins is very important for understanding their functions and clarifying the lysis mechanism of bacterial cells. (
  • In this study, a new sequence-based method was developed to identify phage virion proteins. (
  • This analysis will provide novel insights into the function of phage virion proteins. (
  • We believe that the PVPred will become a powerful tool to study phage virion proteins and to guide the related experimental validations. (
  • A mutant that did not express pUL71 was able to efficiently accumulate viral genomes and proteins that were tested but was defective for the production and release of infectious virions. (
  • HCMV virions contain about 70 viral proteins ( 2 ), representing about a third of its ~200 viral protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs) ( 3 ), including capsid constituents, tegument species, and envelope glycoproteins ( 1 ). (
  • To achieve its intricate virion architecture, as well as to ensure high-fidelity packaging of virion proteins and efficient release of infectious progeny, HCMV employs a highly coordinated, but incompletely understood, process of assembly and egress ( 4 ). (
  • The vAC is a juxtanuclear collection of membranes, virion proteins, and cellular proteins that include markers of the exocytic and endocytic networks. (
  • It consists of 180 identical capsid proteins, which self-assemble around the central RNA yielding highly defined icosahedral virions of 28 nm in size. (
  • Regulation of MSV and WDV virion-sense promoters by WDV nonstructural proteins: a role for their retinoblastoma protein-binding motifs. (
  • It was previously reported that two unidentified proteins were present in bacteriophage Sf6 virion (Casjens et al, 2004, J. Mol. (
  • The illustration at left depicts a virion - the infectious particle that is designed for transmission of the nucleic acid genome among hosts or host cells. (
  • SINV RNA and protein synthesis was greater in NHF than in NPAF, but virions budding from NPAF were 26 times more infectious and were regular dense particles whereas virions from NHF were larger particles containing substantial amounts of CD63. (
  • A 17 angstrom resolution asymmetric reconstruction of the infectious P22 virion reveals that tightly spooled DNA about the portal dodecamer forces a conformation that is significantly different from that observed in isolated portals assembled from ectopically expressed protein. (
  • Poxviruses produce two morphologically distinct infectious particles, mature virions (MVs) and extracellular virions (EVs). (
  • C ) Schematic depicting pulse-labeling HDX-MS of whole infectious H3N2 X-31 virions. (
  • Importantly, the secreted envelope glycoproteins were mostly associated with infectious virions, despite the low specific infectivity inherent to the HCVcc system. (
  • By selectively engineering these three adaptive PB1 and PA mutations into the parental CA/07 strain, we demonstrated that adaptive mutations in polymerase subunits decreased the production of defective viral genome segments with internal deletions, and dramatically increased the release of infectious virions from mouse cells. (
  • Virion , an entire virus particle, consisting of an outer protein shell called a capsid and an inner core of nucleic acid (either ribonucleic or deoxyribonucleic acid- RNA or DNA ). (
  • Viral protein detected in the virion. (
  • A three-dimensional reconstruction of Sindbis virus at 7.0 Å resolution presented here provides a detailed view of the virion structure and includes structural evidence for key interactions that occur between the capsid protein (CP) and transmembrane (TM) glycoproteins E1 and E2. (
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) virions contain one or more functions which mediate the shutoff of host protein synthesis and the degradation of host mRNA. (
  • HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants deficient in the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis (vhs mutants) were isolated and were found to be defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. (
  • In the present study we have mapped the vhs1 mutation affecting the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis to a 265-base-pair NruI-XmaIII fragment spanning map coordinates 0.604 to 0.606 of the HSV-1 genome. (
  • Unique region of the minor capsid protein of human parvovirus B19 is exposed on the virion surface. (
  • To determine the position of VP1 in both empty capsids and virions, we expressed a fusion protein containing the unique region of VP1. (
  • By performing feature analysis, we found that the correlation between two amino acids with one gap was more important than other correlations for phage virion protein prediction and that some of the 1-gap dipeptides were important and mainly contributed to the virion protein prediction. (
  • The human cytomegalovirus virion is composed of a DNA genome packaged in an icosahedral capsid, surrounded by a tegument of protein and RNA, all enclosed within a glycoprotein-studded envelope. (
  • Several features of the myristoylated outer capsid protein mu1, not seen in a previous X-ray crystal structure of the mu1-sigma3 heterohexamer, are evident in the virion. (
  • The most remarkable and highly conserved signature is the virion RNA polymerase (vRNAP), which is by far the largest protein described among all known phages23. (
  • Isolation and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Against a Virion Core Protein of Orf Virus Strain NA1/11 As Potential Diagnostic Tool for Orf Viruses. (
  • The results indicate that 5F2D8 specifically recognizes orf virus encoded protein ORFV086, a late expression virion core protein that plays important roles in progeny virus particle assembly, morphogenesis, and maturity. (
  • A dengue complex-specific epitope, capable of mediating infection enhancement, was identified on a 20,000 dalton protein found on intracellular virions. (
  • We also found that the VP3 protein and particularly the coiled coil domain are crucial for the stability of Nora virus virions when exposed to heat or proteases. (
  • Virion RNA of beet yellows virus (BYV) is a messenger-sense RNA of about 14500 nucleotides containing no poly(A) or covalently linked protein. (
  • This 17,000 d protein is not BYDV coat protein, as determined by immunoprecipitation assays, and therefore is a 17,000 d BYDV VPg (virion protein-genome linked). (
  • The structure and flexibility of conical HIV-1 capsids determined within intact virions. (
  • Positive immunologic reactions of intact virions with sera from man and mouse with "autoimmune" disease and specifically immunized rabbits are consistent with the hypothetical role if viruses as immunogens or as the antigenic participants of immunecomplex vasculitis. (
  • Here, we used pulse-labeling hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and cryo-electron tomography to monitor and characterize the structural dynamics of HA during fusion activation on intact virions. (
  • Together, these complementary analyses reveal that ADS events are restricted to small numbers of viral particles, most often a single virion, resulting in a single viral genome initiating infection. (
  • Our results also suggest that the minimum duration of the HIV-1 life cycle in vivo is 1.2 days on average, and that the average HIV-1 generation time, defined as the time from release of a virion until it infects another cell and causes the release of a new generation of viral particles, is 2.6 days. (
  • Formulation and immunological evaluation of a trivalent vaccine comprising emulsified submicron particles and inactivated virions of H5N1/EV71/JEV," Human Vaccine & Immunotherapeutics , vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 2378-2385, 2013. (
  • Most alphaviruses package only the genomic RNA into virions, which are enveloped particles with icosahedral symmetry, having a triangulation number (T) = 4. (
  • More recently, technologies have been developed-or adapted from other fields, such as nanotechnology-to allow for the real-time quantification of physical virion particles, while supplying additional information such as particle diameter concomitantly. (
  • Our results show that VP3 does not have a role in the actual assembly of the virus particles, but virions that lack VP3 or harbor VP3 with a disrupted coiled coil domain are incapable of transmission via the fecal-oral route. (
  • The lack of effect of furin cleavage on virion infectivity mirrors that observed in the normally cleaved S glycoprotein of the murine coronavirus and highlights an additional level of complexity in coronavirus entry. (
  • In order to adequately comprehend the scope of laboratory methods, a basic understanding of the structure of the HIV virion and its genome is necessary. (
  • However, radical modifications to the genome size significantly decreases virion stability, suggesting that the virus genome plays a role in maintaining the physical stability of the Ad virion. (
  • Indeed, a similar relationship between genome size and virion stability has been noted for many viruses. (
  • This review discusses the impact of the genome size on Ad virion stability and emphasizes the need to consider this aspect of virus biology in Ad-based vector design. (
  • The RNA product of VSV polymerase activity is present throughout the cytoplasm, and its synthesis is inhibited by the interferon system, as judged by autoradiographs that show the physical distribution, in cells, of RNA produced by virion polymerase in the absence of translation-a demonstration of the transcription product of the viral genome. (
  • Phylogenetic tree based on the virion RNA polymerase (a) and large terminase subunits (b) of N4-like bacteriophages for which genome sequences are available. (
  • The mechanism of HIV-1 core assembly: insights from three-dimensional reconstructions of authentic virions. (
  • The saturating proton-concentration dependence and the low rate of internal virion acidification derived from authentic virions support a transporter model for the mechanism of proton transfer. (
  • In some virions the capsid is further enveloped by a fatty membrane, in which case the virion can be inactivated by exposure to fat solvents such as ether and chloroform . (
  • Other virions have a capsid consisting of an irregular number of surface spikes and the nucleic acid loosely coiled within. (
  • Computer model showing the human enterovirus 71 mature virion capsid glycoprotein VP1 (red) complexed with Fab fragments of the monoclonal antibody D5 (green, blue). (
  • Hence, we propose that VP3 is imperative to Nora virus virions as it confers stability to the viral capsid. (
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  • The 72-nm-diameter particle appears to be identical in construction to virions containing genomic RNA. (
  • Strikingly, although epithelial or neuronal cells express 3-10 viral genomes after infection by free virions, epithelial cells infected by HSV-1 or pseudorabies virus following ADS express fewer than two viral genomes. (
  • Here, we show both in vitro and ex vivo that HIV-1 of R5 but not X4 phenotype is capable of selectively triggering dendritic cells (DCs) to migrate within 30 min between intestinal epithelial cells to sample virions and transfer infection to target cells. (
  • The reorganization of membranes into the vAC is believed to be essential for the sorting of virion glycoproteins and for coordination of cellular trafficking required for egress of virions ( 6 , 7 , 14 ). (
  • Whole inactivated SIV virion vaccines with functional envelope glycoproteins: safety, immunogenicity, and activity against intrarectal challenge. (
  • Importantly, while intracellular glycoproteins were competent for interaction with entry factors (glycosaminoglycans and CD81) they were found to undergo drastic changes during virion morphogenesis and secretion. (
  • Indeed, some E2 glycans were modified and most importantly, virion-associated glycoproteins formed high molecular mass covalent complexes that retained a functional conformation. (
  • It also gave further insights into the incorporation of HCV glycoproteins in the virion envelope. (
  • We show here that pUL71, a component of the virion tegument with a previously uncharacterized function, is required for the virus-induced reorganization of host cell membranes, which is necessary for efficient viral assembly and egress. (
  • However, it remains largely unknown why virions prefer cholesterol-rich heterogeneous membranes to uniformly fluid membranes for membrane fusion. (
  • One study of a recently tested inactivated beta-propiolactone aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate by Chinese researchers has been published. (
  • Most up-to-date research on "Global and China Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated Industry 2014 Market Research Report" to its huge collection of research reports. (
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  • To evaluate the compliance, in terms of immunogenicity, of the influenza vaccine (split virion, inactivated) Northern Hemisphere (NH) 2009-2010 formulation in two adult groups, aged 18 to 60 years and aged 61 years or older. (
  • To describe the safety of the influenza vaccine (split virion, inactivated) NH 2009-2010 formulation in both adult groups. (
  • To provide information concerning the immunogenicity of intramuscular (IM) Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion, Inactivated), Northern Hemisphere 2009-2010 Formulation. (
  • Immunogenicity and safety of an intramuscular split-virion quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in individuals aged ≥ 6 months in India. (
  • We have developed an in vitro fluorescence-based assay to monitor internal acidification of individual virions triggered to undergo membrane fusion. (
  • Yuen, L. , Davison, A.J. and Moss, B. (1987) Early promoter-binding factor from vaccinia virions. (
  • The virions of vesicular stomatitis virus contain an enzyme that catalyzes the incorporation of ribonucleotides into RNA. (
  • The antisera immunoprecipitated both recombinant empty capsids and human plasma-derived virions, and agglutinated the latter as shown by immune electron microscopy. (
  • The 26 virion RNA polymerase and large terminase subunits were compared using the ClustalW program, and the phylogenetic tree was generated with the neighbour-joining method and 1000 bootstrap replicates (CLC Genomics Workbench 6). (
  • Nevertheless neutralization remains possible by targeting the virion glycoprotein H (gH) / gL heterodimer, and the neutralizing antibody responses of MuHV-4 carriers are improved by boosting with recombinant gH/gL. (
  • Therefore driving virion uptake appears to be an important function of gH/gL that provides a major target for antibody-mediated neutralization. (
  • Achieving this intricate virion architecture requires a coordinated process of assembly and egress. (
  • pE2 is further cleaved by a furin-like protease in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) before arrival at the cell surface, virion assembly, and release. (
  • These data indicate that a portion of the amino terminus of VP1 is located on the virion surface, and that this region contains intrinsic neutralizing determinants. (
  • The captured virions or vesicles were labeled with fluorescent antibodies against other surface antigens. (
  • BST2, a type I interferon (IFN)-stimulated restriction factor that anchors nascent Env-containing virions at the surface of infected cells has been shown to enhance ADCC functions. (
  • Viron significantly improves speech understanding. (
  • Claverie suggested that the viral factory corresponds to the organism, whereas the virion is used to spread from cell to cell. (
  • EMDB-9131: Cryo-EM structure of the ZIKV virion in complex with Fab fragment. (
  • The synthesis of all the BYV RNA-directed polypeptides was blocked by the cap analogue m 7 Gpp, thus suggesting the presence of a cap structure at the 5′ end of virion RNA. (
  • Recombinant and virion-derived soluble and particulate immunogens for vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis. (
  • Instead they blocked virion endocytosis and transport to the late endosomes where membrane fusion normally occurs. (
  • Together, these observations point to a role for pUL71 in the establishment and/or maintenance of a functional viral assembly compartment that is required for normal virion trafficking and egress from infected cells. (
  • Hi, Does somebody know if is possible to obtain or produce Human papilloma (HPV) virion? (
  • Zu Rhein, G M.. "Polyoma-like Virions in a Human Demyelinating Disease. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Polyoma-like virions in a human demyelinating disease. (
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus that displays the signature virion architecture of all herpesviruses ( 1 ). (
  • A virion is not the same as a virus. (
  • The idea that virus and virion are distinct was first proposed by Bandea in 1983. (
  • If we accept that the virus is the infected cell, then it becomes clear that most virologists have confused the virion and the virus. (
  • But virologists are not the only ones at fault - the media writes about the AIDS virus while showing an illustration of the virion. (
  • To develop a better understanding of virus-host interactions, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of proteinase K treated purified TAdV-3 virions isolated from spleens of infected turkeys, by utilizing one-dimensional liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. (
  • Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function. (
  • Aura virus, however, packages both the genomic RNA and the subgenomic RNA into virions. (
  • Importantly, it can be applied to study HIV-1 virion fusion in primary cells and can be combined with immunostaining for subset discrimination in heterogeneous target cell populations. (
  • Primary source: 'Virions were approximately spherical (Figure 1), with diameters between 106 and 183 nm. (
  • Here, accessibility of antibodies to the native Env MPER on single virions has been addressed through STED microscopy. (
  • Double diffusion experiments with antibodies to single-stranded (s-s) DNA confirmed physicochemical data that adeno-associated satellite virions contain s-s DNA but the DNA extracted from such virions is double-stranded. (
  • Enhancing Virion Tethering by BST2 Sensitizes Productively and Latently HIV-infected T cells to ADCC Mediated by Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies. (
  • Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of papillomavirus virions (blue). (
  • Using a new mathematical model to analyze a detailed set of viral load data collected from five infected patients after the administration of a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 protease, it was estimated that productively infected cells have, on average, a lifespan of 2.2 days (t 1=2 = 1:6 days) and that plasma virions have a mean lifespan of 0.3 days (t 1=2 = 0:24 days). (
  • We propose that HIV virions sense and exploit membrane discontinuities to gain entry into cells. (
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