The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.
A species in the genus N4-like viruses, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Retrovirally encoded accessary proteins that play an essential role VIRUS REPLICATION. They are found in the cytoplasm of host cells and associate with a variety of host cell proteins. Vif stands for "virion infectivity factor".
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Trans-acting protein that combines with host factors to induce immediate early gene transcription in herpes simplex virus.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
A family of insect viruses causing disease in lepidopterous larvae, most commonly from species of the owlet moth family Noctuidae. There is one genus: Ascovirus.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting New World primates and other species. HERPESVIRUS 2, SAIMIRIINE is the type species.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.
A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A genus of the family REOVIRIDAE infecting vertebrates only. Transmission is horizontal and infected species include humans, birds, cattle, monkeys, sheep, swine, baboons, and bats. MAMMALIAN ORTHOREOVIRUS is the type species.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A highly contagious herpesvirus infection affecting the central nervous system of swine, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, and other animals.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 11 recombinant virus-like particles interacts with heparin and cell-surface glycosaminoglycans on human keratinocytes. (1/5443)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11, a 55-kDa polypeptide, forms particulate structures resembling native virus with an average particle diameter of 50-60 nm when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show in this report that these virus-like particles (VLPs) interact with heparin and with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) resembling heparin on keratinocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The binding of VLPs to heparin is shown to exhibit an affinity comparable to that of other identified heparin-binding proteins. Immobilized heparin chromatography and surface plasmon resonance were used to show that this interaction can be specifically inhibited by free heparin and dextran sulfate and that the effectiveness of the inhibitor is related to its molecular weight and charge density. Sequence comparison of nine human L1 types revealed a conserved region of the carboxyl terminus containing clustered basic amino acids that bear resemblance to proposed heparin-binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Specific enzymatic cleavage of this region eliminated binding to both immobilized heparin and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Removal of heparan sulfate GAGs on keratinocytes by treatment with heparinase or heparitinase resulted in an 80-90% reduction of VLP binding, whereas treatment of cells with laminin, a substrate for alpha6 integrin receptors, provided minimal inhibition. Cells treated with chlorate or substituted beta-D-xylosides, resulting in undersulfation or secretion of GAG chains, also showed a reduced affinity for VLPs. Similarly, binding of VLPs to a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant deficient in GAG synthesis was shown to be only 10% that observed for wild type cells. This report establishes for the first time that the carboxyl-terminal portion of HPV L1 interacts with heparin, and that this region appears to be crucial for interaction with the cell surface.  (+info)

A lipid modified ubiquitin is packaged into particles of several enveloped viruses. (2/5443)

An anti-ubiquitin cross-reactive protein which migrates more slowly (6.5 kDa) by SDS-PAGE than ubiquitin was identified in African swine fever virus particles. This protein was extracted into the detergent phase in Triton X-114 phase separations, showing that it is hydrophobic, and was radiolabelled with both [3H]palmitic acid and [32P]orthophosphate. This indicates that the protein has a similar structure to the membrane associated phosphatidyl ubiquitin described in baculovirus particles. A similar molecule was found in vaccinia virus and herpes simplex virus particles, suggesting that it may be a component of uninfected cell membranes, which is incorporated into membrane layers in virions during morphogenesis.  (+info)

A novel Vpr peptide interactor fused to integrase (IN) restores integration activity to IN-defective HIV-1 virions. (3/5443)

A novel approach to complement human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) integrase (IN)-defective virions has been identified. The approach involves fusion of a 23-amino-acid stretch to the N-terminus of wild-type IN and coexpression of this chimera with the IN-defective proviral template in virus producing cells. The 23-amino-acid peptide represents a Vpr "interactor," referred to as the the WxxF or WF domain, which apparently leads to docking of the domain along with the fusion partner onto HIV-1 Vpr, thus permitting virion incorporation of the chimeric protein when expressed, in trans, with other viral products. Transfection of the WF-IN expression plasmid along with HIV-1 viral clones that produce Vpr, but bear an IN mutation, results in the release of a proportion of viral particles that are competent for integration. The extent of complementation was assessed using the MAGI cell assay, where integration of viral DNA results in the eventual appearance of easily visible multinucleated blue syncytia. The efficiency of dWF-IN (double copy of WF domain) complementation is not improved markedly by incorporation of a HIV-1 protease cleavage site (PR) between the dWF domain and IN (dWF-PR-IN), unlike that observed with Vpr fusions to IN. Furthermore, the ability of Vpr-PR-IN and dWF-PR-IN to complement IN-defective proviral clones, both of which bear an intervening protease cleavage site, appear comparable. Western blotting analyses using virions isolated through sucrose cushions demonstrate clearly the incorporation of the dWF-IN fusion protein into Vpr containing HIV-1 particles but not in Vpr-deficient virions. Additional Western blotting analyses indicate that all Vpr-IN and dWF-IN chimeras, with or without a PR site, are packaged into virions. The efficiency of virion incorporation of Vpr-IN and dWF-IN chimeras appears approximately comparable by Western blotting analysis. The ability of dWF-IN to complement IN-defective proviruses with efficiency similar to that of Vpr-PR-IN and dWF-PR-IN indicates that dWF-IN retains the full complement of functions necessary for integration of proviral DNA and is likely due to the benign nature of this small domain at the amino-terminus of IN.  (+info)

A new picornavirus isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). (4/5443)

A previously unknown picornavirus was isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Electron microscopy images and sequence data of the prototype isolate, named Ljungan virus, showed that it is a picornavirus. The amino acid sequences of predicted Ljungan virus capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 were closely related to the human pathogen echovirus 22 (approximately 70% similarity). A partial 5' noncoding region sequence of Ljungan virus showed the highest degree of relatedness to cardioviruses. Two additional isolates were serologically and molecularly related to the prototype.  (+info)

Two types of HTLV-1 particles are released from MT-2 cells. (5/5443)

The MT-2 cell line transformed by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) contains one complete provirus and seven defective proviruses. Four defective genomes have an identical structure (LTR-MA-deltaCA-pX-LTR) with an open reading frame that spans from MA to pX, giving rise to a 3.4-kb (24S) RNA transcript encoding a chimeric Gag-pX protein, p28. MT-2 cells release two distinct types of virions. The major "classic" type of particle has a buoyant density of 1.155-1.16 g/cm3 and contains the standard HTLV-I structural proteins and reverse transcriptase (RT). In addition, about 5% of particles are "light," approximately 1.12 g/cm3, and contain p28, RT activity, and the 3.4-kb RNA transcript. RT-PCR and in vitro translation indicate that some of the classic HTLV-1 particles package 3.4-kb RNA as well as full-length 8.5-kb RNA. In addition to matrix features, the p28 protein has a motif resembling a zinc finger at the C-terminal, pX0 region, which may play a role in the assembly of the defective light virions.  (+info)

Noncytopathic flavivirus replicon RNA-based system for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. (6/5443)

Noncytopathic replicons of the flavivirus Kunjin (KUN) were employed for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. Replicon vector C20DX2Arep, containing a unique cloning site followed by the sequence of 2A autoprotease of foot-and-mouth disease virus, was constructed and used for expression of a number of heterologous genes including chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), green fluorescent protein (GFP), beta-galactosidase, glycoprotein G of vesicular stomatitis virus, and the Core and NS3 genes of hepatitis C virus. The expression and proper processing of these genes upon transfection of BHK21 cells with the recombinant replicon RNAs were demonstrated by immunofluorescence, radioimmunoprecipitation, and appropriate reporter gene assays. Most of these recombinant KUN replicon RNAs were also successfully packaged into secreted virus-like particles (VLPs) by subsequent transfection with Semliki Forest virus replicon RNA expressing KUN structural genes. Infection of BHK21 and Vero cells with these VLPs resulted in continuous replication of the recombinant replicon RNAs and prolonged expression of the cloned genes without any cytopathic effect. We also developed a replicon vector for generation of stable cell lines continuously expressing heterologous genes by inserting an encephalomyelocarditis virus internal ribosomal entry site-neomycin transferase gene cassette into the 3'-untranslated region of the C20DX2Arep vector. Using this vector (C20DX2ArepNeo), stable BHK cell lines persistently expressing GFP and CAT genes for up to 17 passages were established. Thus noncytopathic KUN replicon vectors with the ability to be packaged into VLPs should provide a useful tool for the development of noninfectious and noncytopathic vaccines as well as for gene therapy applications.  (+info)

Intranasal delivery of recombinant parvovirus-like particles elicits cytotoxic T-cell and neutralizing antibody responses. (7/5443)

We previously demonstrated that chimeric porcine parvovirus-like particles (PPV:VLP) carrying heterologous epitopes, when injected intraperitoneally into mice without adjuvant, activate strong CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses specific for the foreign epitopes. In the present study, we investigated the immunogenicity of PPV:VLP carrying a CD8(+) T-cell epitope from the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) administered by mucosal routes. Mice immunized intranasally with recombinant PPV:VLP, in the absence of adjuvant, developed high levels of PPV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and/or IgA in their serum, as well as in mucosal sites such as the bronchoalveolar and intestinal fluids. Antibodies in sera from mice immunized parenterally or intranasally with PPV:VLP were strongly neutralizing in vitro. Intranasal immunization with PPV:VLP carrying the LCMV CD8(+) T-cell epitope also elicited a strong peptide-specific cytotoxic-T-cell (CTL) response. In contrast, mice orally immunized with recombinant PPV:VLP did not develop any antibody or CTL responses. We also showed that mice primed with PPV:VLP are still able to develop strong CTL responses after subsequent immunization with chimeric PPV:VLP carrying a foreign CD8(+) T-cell epitope. These results highlight the attractive potential of PPV:VLP as a safe, nonreplicating antigen carrier to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity after nasal administration.  (+info)

Human antibody responses to mature and immature forms of viral envelope in respiratory syncytial virus infection: significance for subunit vaccines. (8/5443)

A number of antibodies generated during human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been cloned by the phage library approach. Antibodies reactive with an immunodominant epitope on the F glycoprotein of this virus have a high affinity for affinity-purified F antigen. These antibodies, however, have a much lower affinity for mature F glycoprotein on the surface of infected cells and are nonneutralizing. In contrast, a potent neutralizing antibody has a high affinity for mature F protein but a much lower affinity for purified F protein or F protein in viral lysates. The data indicate that at least two F protein immunogens are produced during natural RSV infection: immature F, found in viral lysates, and mature F, found on infected cells or virions. Binding studies with polyclonal human immunoglobulin G suggest that the antibody responses to the two immunogens are of similar magnitudes. Competitive binding studies suggest that overlap between the responses is relatively limited. A mature envelope with an antigenic configuration different from that of the immature envelope has an evolutionary advantage in that the infecting virus is less subject to neutralization by the humoral response to the immature envelope that inevitably arises following lysis of infected cells. Subunit vaccines may be at a disadvantage because they most often resemble immature envelope molecules and ignore this aspect of viral evasion.  (+info)

Page contains details about MS2-miR146a recombinant virus-like particles conjugated with HIV Tat47-57 peptides . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
The results of yeast and mammalian two-hybrid assays previously indicated complex formation between prenylated Rab acceptor 1 (PRA1) and the cytoplasmic domain of gp41 (gp41CD) for both the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses [ Evans, D. T., Tilman, K. C. & Desrosiers, R. C. (2002). J Virol 76, 327-337 ]. The assembly and release of infectious virus particles was studied under conditions of PRA1 overexpression in a transient transfection assay or suppression by RNA interference. Although a clear pattern of co-localization of PRA1 and gp41 was observed, no changes in virion release, infectivity or envelope content were observed as a result of either PRA1 suppression or overexpression. These data show that PRA1 co-localizes with gp41 inside cells and they are consistent with a direct or indirect interaction between these proteins. However, variation in the levels of PRA1 expression did not influence virion production, infectivity or envelope incorporation under the conditions of these assays.
In this report, we show that the products of UL47, UL49, and US11 ORFs bind RNA in vitro and in the context of infected cells, and that the packaged RNAs can be expressed in infected cells. We also show that VP22, the product of the UL49 ORF, mediates the transfer of the RNA from cell to cell. Relevant to our results are the following:. (i) The procedure we have used to identify the protein capable of binding RNAs was to electrophoretically separate virion proteins in denaturing gels, renature the proteins in situ, and react them with a labeled riboprobe representing the RNA detected in all virion preparations tested. Using this procedure, we unambiguously demonstrated that three virion protein bands bind RNAs. These proteins were identified as the products of the UL47, UL49, and US11 genes. In these assays, we used as probe the most abundant RNA packaged in virions. Because we used a riboprobe representing a single viral RNA, we cannot exclude the possibility that there exist virion proteins ...
Enveloped virus-like particles (VLPs) are increasingly used as vaccines and immunotherapeutics. Frequently, very time consuming density gradient centrifugation
click on the image for a larger view) Figure 2. RSV virion structure and expression. Panel A shows a diagrammatic representation of a mature Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) virion. The legend at the right identifies individual proteins found in the mature virion. The outer membrane of the virion contains the transmembrane protein (TM), which is associated with the surface protein (SU). The matrix protein (MA) lies just under this outer membrane. The core of the virion is structurally delimited by the capsid protein (CA). Inside the capsid are two viral RNA genomes, shown partially covered with nucleocapsid protein (NC). The two genomic RNAs are hydrogen bonded near their 5 ends. The core also contains reverse transcriptase (RT), integrase (IN), and protease (PR). Panel B shows the relationship of the proviral DNA, the open reading frames, viral RNAs, and proteins of RSV. The LTRs of the provirus are shown as a series of three boxes (U3, R, and U5). The viral genome is divided into gag, pol, env, and ...
The experiments outlined in this study present evidence for an intracellular compartment in macrophages into which HIV‐1 virions assemble and in which virions retain infectivity for extended intervals. Although infectious virions were sequestered intracellularly at low levels, these results have important implications regarding reservoirs for viral persistence. Because of the efficiency of viral dissemination in trans and the replicative capacity of the virus, low levels of intracellular infectious virus may ignite viral replication upon transmission to lymphocytes (Carr et al, 1999). By analogy, DCs can capture extracellular virions and, even though at undetectable levels, captured virions can initiate a vigorous infection upon dissemination to lymphocytes (Cameron et al, 1992). Furthermore, rare latent proviruses ignite efficient replication upon reactivation from latency (Kieffer et al, 2004). While such mechanisms may have a minor contributing role to cumulative virus burden in highly ...
Virion incorporation of SIVmac316 Env is highly responsive to mutations of potential trafficking motifs.Viruses were produced by transfection of HEK293T cells a
In addition, mass spectrophotometry was executed to verify 442-51-3 detection of the LGp in C6/36 virions. Gel slices have been excised from protein separation
Virion entry via fusion at the plasma membrane releases the virion core into the cytoplasm. The core disassembles partially, allowing the virion copy of reverse transcriptase to start using the RNA genome as a template to synthesize a complementary strand of DNA. Reverse transcriptase also has an RNAase H activity, by which it digests the RNA genome strand. The ssDNA is then converted to dsDNA, also by reverse transcriptase. To make sure there is no loss due to the need for primers, the overall process is quite complex, involving jumps and duplicate synthesis of the end regions of the genome. The net result is a dsDNA molecule that is actually longer than the RNA genome. Both ends of the DNA contain the LTR (long terminal repeat) sequence (whereas the RNA genome had some of this sequence at its 5 end and part at its 3 end.) While this DNA synthesis was proceeding, it s likely that the overall complex was being transported towards the nucleus. Regardless of exactly where the dsDNA is ...
Antibodies facilitate binding and internalization of fully immature DENV particles.Binding of immature and standard virion preparations to P388D1 cells with and
adenovirus virion protein mu: 19-amino acid DNA-binding peptide derived form the L2-79R precursor by two cleavages that are mediated by the virus-encoded endoproteinase; amino acid sequence given in first source
Plays critical roles in virus replication, from virus entry and uncoating to assembly and budding of the virus particle. M1 binding to ribonucleocapsids (RNPs) in nucleus seems to inhibit viral transcription. Interaction of viral NEP with M1-RNP is thought to promote nuclear export of the complex, which is targeted to the virion assembly site at the apical plasma membrane in polarized epithelial cells. Interactions with NA and HA may bring M1, a non-raft-associated protein, into lipid rafts. Forms a continuous shell on the inner side of the lipid bilayer in virion, where it binds the RNP. During virus entry into cell, the M2 ion channel acidifies the internal virion core, inducing M1 dissociation from the RNP. M1-free RNPs are transported to the nucleus, where viral transcription and replication can take place.
Viral surface protein implicated in the binding to specific host surface molecule(s). This binding can lead to virion entry into the host cell, it can trigger signaling pathways, or it can allow the virion to be carried by the host cell to a specific organ ...
CYT006-AngQb: a virus-shaped noninfectious particle that is chemically coupled with angiotensin II, an octapeptide vasoconstrictor which induces the body to produce antibodies against this small molecule to minimize its effects on constricting blood vessels
/vuy ree on , vir ee /, n. the infectious form of a virus as it exists outside the host cell, consisting of a nucleic acid core, a protein coat, and, in some species, an external envelope. [ | F virion (1959), equiv. to viri(en) viral (see VIRUS
Hi, Does somebody know if is possible to obtain or produce Human papilloma (HPV) virion? Thank you in advance for information send to my email P.Hubert at Pascale Hubert ...
Virology Highlights features highlighted articles published in Virology, with posts summarizing the research in the authors words.
Recently, cell lifestyle systems producing hepatitis C virus particles (HCVcc) were developed. we developed serum-free culture systems producing high-titer single-density sf-HCVcc, showing similar biological properties as HCVcc. This methodology has the potential to advance HCV vaccine development and to facilitate biophysical studies of HCV. within the family. Due to a high degree of genetic heterogeneity, HCV has been categorized in 6 essential genotypes and several subtypes epidemiologically, differing in around 30% and 20% of their nucleotide and amino Vorinostat acidity sequence, [3 respectively,4]. Genotypes display important biological and clinical variations [5C10]. Serotypes Rabbit Polyclonal to 5-HT-2C. never have been defined; nevertheless, different genotypes and subtypes display differential level of sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies within sera of chronically contaminated patients also to monoclonal neutralizing antibodies with restorative potential [6,11C14]. The 9.6 kb HCV ...
In this study, we have defined the signal for virion incorporation of HIV-1 Nef as a bipartite membrane-targeting signal which consists of covalently attached myristic acid and a cluster of positive charges in the N-terminal region of the protein. This signal is reminiscent of a Src homology region 4 (SH-4), which mediates plasma membrane targeting of protein tyrosine kinases of the Src family (45). It also resembles the membrane-targeting signal in the N-terminal MA domain of retroviral Gag polyproteins, which is essential for virus budding (reviewed in reference 34). Membrane binding of Nef and of N-terminally altered Nef proteins correlated with their incorporation into virus particles and was independent of any other viral protein. Furthermore, the N-terminal anchor domain was sufficient for plasma membrane localization and virion incorporation of a chimeric protein (Anchor-GFP). Recently, the N-terminal 10 amino acids of Nef have been shown to target a chimeric GFP to the plasma membrane of ...
The binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Hx10) virions to two different cell lines was analyzed by using a novel assay based on the detection, by anti-HLA-DR-specific antibodies, of HLA-DR+ virus binding to HLA-DR- cells. Virion attachment to the CD4+-T-cell line A3.01 was highly CD4 dependent in that it was potently inhibited by CD4 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), and little virus binding to the CD4- sister A2.01 line was observed. By contrast, virion binding to HeLa cells expressing moderate or high levels of CD4 was equivalent to, or lower than, binding to wild-type CD4- HeLa cells. Moreover, several CD4 MAbs did not reduce, but enhanced, HIV-1 attachment to HeLa-CD4 cells. CD4 was required for infection of HeLa cells, however, demonstrating a postattachment role for this receptor. MAbs specific for the V2 and V3 loops and the CD4i epitope of gp120 strongly inhibited virion binding to HeLa-CD4 cells, whereas MAbs specific for the CD4bs and the 2G12 epitopes enhanced attachment.
The pseudovirions are virus-like particles generated by in vitro production of HIV-1 viral proteins which are capable of assembly into particles. The presence of gag gene products in addition to envelope glycoprotein should assist in humoral and cellular immunologic responses to internal HIV-1 viral proteins. The pseudovirion vaccine has been tested in preclinical trials in mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, and nonhuman primates with good safety and immunogenicity profile.. A total of 78 volunteers will be recruited and randomly assigned to receive pseudovirion vaccine and/or the placebo/adjuvant. All volunteers will receive injections intramuscularly at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months.. Group I (30 volunteers): pseudovirion vaccine w/adjuvant or w/o adjuvant. Group II (30 volunteers): pseudovirion vaccine w/adjuvant or w/o adjuvant. Group III (18 volunteers): adjuvant (QS21 or alum) or saline placebo. NOTE: Group I will receive appropriate adjuvant or saline placebo at Month 3 without pseudovirion vaccine. ...
The pseudovirions are virus-like particles generated by in vitro production of HIV-1 viral proteins which are capable of assembly into particles. The presence of gag gene products in addition to envelope glycoprotein should assist in humoral and cellular immunologic responses to internal HIV-1 viral proteins. The pseudovirion vaccine has been tested in preclinical trials in mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, and nonhuman primates with good safety and immunogenicity profile.. A total of 78 volunteers will be recruited and randomly assigned to receive pseudovirion vaccine and/or the placebo/adjuvant. All volunteers will receive injections intramuscularly at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months.. Group I (30 volunteers): pseudovirion vaccine w/adjuvant or w/o adjuvant. Group II (30 volunteers): pseudovirion vaccine w/adjuvant or w/o adjuvant. Group III (18 volunteers): adjuvant (QS21 or alum) or saline placebo. NOTE: Group I will receive appropriate adjuvant or saline placebo at Month 3 without pseudovirion vaccine. ...
Although ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) is considered the primary receptor for CoV-2 cell entry, recent reports suggest that alternative pathways may contribute. This paper considers the hypothesis that viral binding to cell-surface integrins may contribute to the high infectivity and widespread extra-pulmonary impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This potential is suggested on the basis of the emergence of an RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) sequence in the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein. RGD is a motif commonly used by viruses to bind cell-surface integrins. Numerous signaling pathways are mediated by integrins and virion binding could lead to dysregulation of these pathways, with consequent tissue damage. Integrins on the surfaces of pneumocytes, endothelial cells and platelets may be vulnerable to CoV-2 virion binding. For instance, binding of intact virions to integrins on alveolar cells could enhance viral entry. Binding of virions to integrins on endothelial cells could ...
IFITMs are broad antiviral factors that block incoming virions in endosomal vesicles, protecting target cells from infection. In the case of HIV-1, we and others reported the existence of an additional antiviral mechanism through which IFITMs lead to the production of virions of reduced infectivity. However, whether this second mechanism of inhibition is unique to HIV or extends to other viruses is currently unknown. To address this question, we have analyzed the susceptibility of a broad spectrum of viruses to the negative imprinting of the virion particles infectivity by IFITMs. The results we have gathered indicate that this second antiviral property of IFITMs extends well beyond HIV and we were able to identify viruses susceptible to the three IFITMs altogether (HIV-1, SIV, MLV, MPMV, VSV, MeV, EBOV, WNV), as well as viruses that displayed a member-specific susceptibility (EBV, DUGV), or were resistant to all IFITMs (HCV, RVFV, MOPV, AAV). The swapping of genetic elements between resistant ...
The subsequent steps in herpesvirus maturation have been disputed for some time. One model, originally proposed for HSV-1, suggested that perinuclear virions retain their integrity and leave the cell via the secretory pathway (10, 17, 38, 89). During this transit, viral envelope glycoproteins are modified in situ. In this model, perinuclear virions already contain the full complement of tegument and envelope proteins characteristic of mature extracellular virions. An alternative model proposed that the primary envelope fuses with the outer leaflet of the nuclear membrane (or the endoplasmic reticulum [ER] membrane with which it is contiguous), resulting in loss of the primary envelope and, presumably, the primary tegument and translocation of capsids into the cytoplasm (reviewed in references 25 and 51; Fig. 3, step 2). Final tegumentation and envelopment then occur in cytoplasmic compartments. In this model, perinuclear and intracytoplasmic/extracellular enveloped virions may differ in ...
Retroviruses contain a dozen or so genes, and these enable the various stages of the virus lifecycle from the initial entry into a new cell to the replication and formation of new virus particles late in the lifecycle. When retroviruses form infectious virions, they do so by first expressing their RNA and protein components and then assembling these molecular components on the inside of an infected cell. These components will bind to the cell membrane and assemble there, leading to the budding off of an immature virion. Inside the immature virion are long Gag polyproteins, which are precursors of the structural proteins nucleocapsid, capsid, and matrix. After budding, the virion must still mature into an active, infectious particle by using a protease to chop the precursor Gag proteins into their component pieces. Once these structural proteins are free, they can self-assemble into the structures that give a retrovirus its classic shape and appearance. Capsid proteins, for instance, assemble ...
Simon, Bieniasz and Jouvenet found that the Gag molecules are recruited from the inside of the cell and travel to the cells surface. When enough Gag molecules get close and start bumping into each other, the cells outer membrane starts to bulge outward into a budding virion and then pinches off to form an individual, infectious particle. At this point, the researchers showed that the virion is a lone entity, no longer exchanging resources with the cell. By using tricks from optics and physiology, they were able to watch the steps of viral assembly, budding, and even scission off the cell surface. With such a view they can start to describe the entire lifeline in the birth of the virus ...
Virion is a turn-based strategy that focuses on territory control. The prototype was developed in three weeks by four people.. Virion is currently being developed further and will be targeting mobile and tablet devices in late 2015 or early 2016.. ...
Unlike all other picornaviruses, the primary cleavage of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) polyprotein occurs at the 2A/2B junction and is carried out by the only
The intestinal mucosa is a key anatomical site for HIV-1 replication and CD4+ T-cell depletion. Accordingly, a series of in vivo studies in macaques showed that antibody-mediated blockade of the principal gut-homing integrin, α4β7, resulted in reduced SIV transmission, delayed disease progression, and effective virus control persisting for months after antibody withdrawal. We aimed at elucidating the potential mechanism(s) underlying the protective effects of anti-α4β7 antibody treatment.. HIV-1 strains were grown in human PBMC activated in the presence/absence of retinoic acid; virion-capture assays were performed using magnetic beads armed with antibodies to α4β7 or other cellular receptors, or recombinant MAdCAM-1 or ICAM-1; α4β7+ or - viral particles were produced by co-transfection of 293T cells with HIV-1 clones with or without α4 and β7; for virion-homing studies, fluorescent α4β7+ or - virus was injected into the tail vein of C57BL/6 mice, and ...
In contrast to negative staining, cryoelectron microscopy cryo-EM of intact BTV particles shows the icosahedral morphology of the mature particle, with a diameter of 86 nm. The outer layer consists of 60 sail-shaped, spikelike structures made up of VP2 110 kDa trimers and of 120 globular structures made up of VP5 59 kDa trimers Figure 2 . The most external part of the outer capsid is the propeller-shaped triskelion blade of VP2, the tip of which bends upward, perpendicularly to the plane of the.... ...
Researchers at the Universities of York and Leeds have discovered that the genetic code in Hepatitis B produces a protective casing in which new infectious virus particles are formed. This system is necessary to properly assemble new genetic material and therefore, spread. While there is a vaccine for the disease, no cure exists for the two million already infected globally who often die from resulting liver cancer.. We often compare the disease to HIV due to the way in which the virus is passed from person-to-person, but unlike HIV there are no effective drugs to improve quality of life outcomes, Professor Peter Stockley, a structural virologist from the University of Leeds, said in a statement. Now that we know how the virus assembles, we can interrupt the interactions with the RNA signals-a bit like when a twig catches the sprocket on a bike, knocking the chain off. The researchers are working with the National Institutes of Health in the USA to identify potential drug candidates that are ...
Pokemon Virion : This game is the third part of the sub-game series of Pokémon Colosseum / XD. The idea of the project is to completely replicate the dead before the little project while using RPG Maker VX Ace. In the region of Fodna is a strange conspiracy. Encrypted (cipher) criminal organizations do not work for
This chapter intends to provide an overview of the use of viruses for medical applications. The first part describes the basic characteristics of viral particles regarding their chemical composition and size, as well as their structure and assembly/disassembly abilities. Next, a discussion about the newest and most important strategies for virus particles modification including genetic, chemical, and self-assembly/encapsulation engineering towards the development of new virus particles for biomedical applications, including targeted delivery and therapy, molecular imaging for disease detection, vaccine development, and bacterial infection control ...
Viruses rely mainly on the cells of living organisms for food and energy, since they can only survive or reproduce themselves if they can capture or steal energy from another living organism. Therefore they can not survive outside of a living host organism, which is the reason why they are usually considered as non-living. Every living cell contains some type of protein. The viruses can take this protein and infect other cells, causing them to grow abnormally or die. These abnormal cells will then start to reproduce rapidly, thus spreading the infection. It is very important to get rid of the virus, or at least slow its reproduction rate, before it causes any more problems.. The proteins that make up virus particles are generally very large. When the particles move around in the fluid around the human body they become tangled in tissues. The proteins eventually become so entangled that they can not be broken down and spread in the fluid. However, the body is such a complex and wonderful system ...
Some of these individuals may be completely asymptomatic and if the R number was to be based on this type of individual it would be small. Then there are the super spreaders (again some of which may be asymptomatic, again this is something that research is currently trying to establish) who it seems shed large numbers of viral particles and therefore deliver a much bigger dose capable of infecting many individuals. If the R number was based on this type of individual alone it would be high.. In reality there is probably a spectrum of different types of infected individuals some very low, some with very high infectious viral loads and some filling the gap in between these extremes that overall gives us an average R number. Evidence is emerging to suggest that there are some infected individuals who dont shed infectious viral particles at all. More research is needed to understand the reason behind this wide variation in virus shedding and load but in all probability it comes down to the way in ...
The sizes of plant viral genomes vary from about four kilo bases (kb) to about twenty kb. Exceptions are the phycodna viruses of algae whose DNAs are over three hundred kb. Virions may be roundish in shape (in actuality an intricate geometrical form called an icosahedron), rod-shaped, or filamentous ...
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Viruses are small infectious particles that cannot replicate on their own, but need to infect a cell in order to copy. Viral particles (called virions) consist of a protein envelope and a genetic material inside.
59. Outer covering of virus made up of protein is A. capsid B. coat C. virion D. VirioidWhat do you think? . @sunleaf01 , What do you think it s...
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The initial 3D size of the particle. The current size of the particle is calculated procedurally based on this value and the active size modules.
Dive into the research topics of Heterogeneity of a fluorescent tegument component in single pseudorabies virus virions and enveloped axonal assemblies. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Vaccinia virus (VV) morphogenesis commences with the formation of lipid crescents that grow into spherical immature virus (IV) and then infectious intracellular mature virus (IMV) particles. Early studies proposed that the lipid crescents were synthesized de novo and matured into IMV particles that contained a single lipid bilayer (S. Dales and E. H. Mosbach, Virology 35:564-583, 1968), but a more recent study reported that the lipid crescent was derived from membranes of the intermediate compartment (IC) and contained a double lipid bilayer (B. Sodiek et al., J. Cell Biol. 121:521-541, 1993). In the present study, we used high-resolution electron microscopy to reinvestigate the structures of the lipid crescents, IV, and IMV particles in order to determine if they contain one or two membranes. Examination of thin sections of Epon-embedded, VV-infected cells by use of a high-angular-tilt series of single sections, serial-section analysis, and high-resolution digital-image analysis detected only a single,
Vaccinia virus (VACV), the model poxvirus, produces two types of infectious particles: mature virions (MVs) and extracellular virions (EVs). EV particles possess two membranes and therefore require an unusual cellular entry mechanism. By a combination of fluorescence and electron microscopy as well as flow cytometry, we investigated the cellular processes that EVs required to infect HeLa cells. We found that EV particles were endocytosed, and that internalization and infection depended on actin rearrangements, activity of Na+/H+ exchangers, and signalling events typical for the macropinocytic mechanism of endocytosis. To promote their internalization, EVs were capable of actively triggering macropinocytosis. EV infection also required vacuolar acidification, and acid exposure in endocytic vacuoles was needed to disrupt the outer EV membrane. Once exposed, the underlying MV-like particle presumably fused its single membrane with the limiting vacuolar membrane. Release of the viral core into the ...
In the natural history of HPV infections, the HPV virions can induce two different pathways, namely the infectious virion producing pathway and the clonal transforming pathway. An overview is given of the burden that is associated with HPV infections that can both lead to cervical cancer and/or temporal subfertility. That HPV infections cause serious global health burden due to HPV-associated cancers is common knowledge, but that it is also responsible for a substantial part of idiopathic subfertility is greatly underestimated. The bulk of the detected HPV DNA whether in men or women is however infectious from origin. Because the dissociation between HPV viruses and HPV virions or infection and disease remains difficult for clinicians as well as for HPV detection, we propose a review of the different effects caused by the two different HPV virion induced pathways, and highlight the mechanisms that are responsible for causing transient subfertility and cancer. ...
It has been proposed that cholesterol in host cell membranes plays a pivotal role for cell entry of HIV. However, it remains largely unknown why virions prefer cholesterol-rich heterogeneous membranes to uniformly fluid membranes for membrane fusion. Using giant plasma membrane vesicles containing cholesterol-rich ordered and cholesterol-poor fluid lipid domains, we demonstrate that the HIV receptor CD4 is substantially sequestered into ordered domains, whereas the co-receptor CCR5 localizes preferentially at ordered/disordered domain boundaries. We also show that HIV does not fuse from within ordered regions of the plasma membrane but rather at their boundaries. Ordered/disordered lipid domain coexistence is not required for HIV attachment but is a prerequisite for successful fusion. We propose that HIV virions sense and exploit membrane discontinuities to gain entry into cells. This study provides surprising answers to the long-standing question about the roles of cholesterol and ordered lipid ...
Influenza virus particles. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of influenza (flu) virus particles (virions). Each virion consists of ribonucleic acid (RNA, dark patches), surrounded by a nucleocapsid (orange) and a lipid envelope (dark rings). In the envelope are two types of protein spike, haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N), which determine the strain of virus. - Stock Image C016/9407
Based on the assumption that every virus particle operates independently from all other virus particles, the researchers set up a probability model. This model predicts how many virus particles have caused an infection and how many different virus genotypes are present in infected hosts, such as plants, insects or people. The results of the infection experiment with the susceptible insects are in agreement with the model predictions. From this it can be derived that the virus particles have an independent effect, and that a single virus particle can indeed cause infection and/or disease ...
Enveloped viruses are wrapped in a lipid membrane; the viral envelope fuses with a host (plasma or endosomal) cell membrane, allowing penetration of the viral core into the host cell. The extracellular form of Vaccinia virus (EEV, for extracellular enveloped virus) is wrapped in two lipid envelopes, however, posing a challenge to viral entry: Fusion of the outer envelope will result in the intracellular release of a form called the intracellular mature virus (IMV), which is still surrounded by a lipid membrane. Law et al. used immunoelectron microscopy to investigate EEV invasion of PtK2 potoroo kidney cells and saw that, rather than fusing with the plasma membrane, the outer membrane became disrupted at the site of cell contact. It remained outside the cell, allowing the inner viral membrane to fuse with the plasma membrane. Outer membrane disruption occurred only at the site of cell contact and was not stimulated by binding to glass. Exposure to polyanions (PA), heparin, or dextran sulfate, ...
Post-doctoral fellow in Clarisse Berlioz-Torrents lab from 2007 to 2010. TIP47 and HIV Envelope Incorporation. Current position: Post-doctoral research associate in virology, Kings College London, Londres, Royaume-Uni. Email: [email protected] ...
View Notes - General Properties of Viruses-review from MCB 2000 at University of Florida. General Properties of Viruses Structure 1. Nucleic acid - Single or double stranded. Segmented or
Although many different components gather to form a single virion, the Gag protein is the only one necessary for assembly. It attaches to the inner face of the cells outer membrane and when enough Gag molecules flood an area, they coalesce in a way that spontaneously forms a sphere.... When enough Gag molecules get close and start bumping into each other, the cells outer membrane starts to bulge outward into a budding virion and then pinches off to form an individual, infectious particle. ...
Viruses are parasitic organisms that live in infected cells and produce virions to disseminate their genes. Most viral proteins have no homologues in modern
A purified therapeutic grade thrombin is described which is essentially free of lipid envelope viruses, has a specific activity of about 2200 NIH units per milligram of protein to about 3200 NIH units per milligram of protein, is essentially homogeneous and may be produced on a commercial-scale. The thrombin is acceptable from human administration.
We present the charged-particle pseudorapidity density in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=5.02 TeV over a broad pseudorapidity range. The distributions are determined using the same experimental apparatus and methodologies, thereby minimizing systematic uncertainties, and providing clear and model-independent observations on the system-size dependence of the particle production at relativistic energies. An increase of particle production in Pb-Pb collisions near mid-rapidity, relative to pp collisions, is observed. The relative linearity in p-Pb collisions of the ratio to the smaller system indicate a coherent particle production throughout the longitudinal extend of the collision zone ...
reative Biostructure can provide customized Mempro™ C1 domain-containing protein production services using virus-like particles system.
Read Virus maturation: dynamics and mechanism of a stabilizing structural transition that leads to infectivity, Current Opinion in Structural Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Calculating Exponential Growth. Students read an essay, Its All in the Numbers, about the rapid spread of HIV particles in the body, then learn how to calculate exponential growth using pennies to model the rapid spread of HIV particles in the body.
The h1n1 meaning can explain a lot about what type of virus h1n1 really is including how it mutates, the h1n1 virus structure and how it...
Many games, even on current next-gen hardware, render particles using camera facing quads. In many cases these particles are used to represent volumes of many smaller microscopic particles. These volumes typically are simulated simply by determining how much contribution they present to the view using a simple blend function. This blend function defines how much the simulated volume of particles obscures the scene behind them ...
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Virion studied sculpture in Paris under Jean-Paul Aubé and Charles Gauthier and exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français ... Charles Louis Eugene Virion Archived 2015-06-22 at the Wayback Machine National Museum of Wildlife Art of the United States, ... Charles Louis Eugène Virion (Ajaccio, 1 December 1865 - Montigny-sur-Loing, 30 December 1946) was a noted French sculptor, ... Armand Point "VIRION, Charles Louis Eugène." Benezit Dictionary of Artists, Oxford Art Online, Oxford University Press. ...
Virion is another name for a virus particle. Virion may also refer to: Charles Virion (1865-1946), a noted French sculptor and ... ceramicist Pierre Virion (1899-1988), a French journalist and writer Virion Screen Project, a screen based digital art ... exhibition This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Virion. If an internal link led you here, you may ...
... (1899-1988) was a French journalist and promoter of the Judeo-Masonic conspiracy theory. Taguieff, Pierre-André ( ...
The Virion Screen Project was held from 19 July 2015 to 1 August 2015.[citation needed] Developed by Rachael Parsons, Virion ... Virion Screen Project Website Virion Screen Project Discussion Creative Industries Precinct Rachael Parsons Urban Dental Health ... Using the Virion website, internet users were invited to upload an image, short video work or sound work to be exhibited during ... Virion is a screen based digital art exhibition that links to public sites across Brisbane, focused in the Kelvin Grove Urban ...
Look up viron in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Viron may refer to: Viron P. Vaky (1925-2012), American diplomat an ... Philippines Virion, a virus particle This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Viron. If an internal ... alternative form of Vyronas, a suburb of Athens, Greece Viron, a fictional city in The Book of the Long Sun by Gene Wolfe Viron ... a playable race (or their language) in the computer RTS game Ground Control II Viron Transit, a bus company servicing the ...
Viron Transportation Company or Viron Transit is a bus company servicing the Ilocos Region, Philippines. The bus company is ... Viron Transit is utilizing Mitsubishi Fuso, Hino Pilipinas, Mercedes Benz, King Long buses, Viron Motor/Marilao Works (VMW) at ... Viron Transportation Co., Inc. ("Viron" originates from "VIRgilio RONdaris") is related to the former Times Transit (because it ... Starting May 20, 2013, Viron Transit will be using the front of the terminal formerly used by Times located along Quezon Avenue ...
... was born in Corpus Christi, Texas on Sept. 13th, 1925, as a son of Greek immigrants. During the Second World War ... Viron Peter Vaky (September 13, 1925 - November 22, 2012) was an American diplomat who was United States Ambassador to Costa ... "Viron P. Vaky, ambassador who helped shape Latin American policy, dies at 87". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 December 2014. ... "Council on Foreign Relations". ...
... (Dutch: Kasteel de Viron, French: Château de Viron) is a castle in Dilbeek, Flemish Brabant, Belgium, which ... It was built in 1863 by the Jean-Pierre Cluysenaar, commissioned by the de Viron family, which settled in Dilbeek in 1775. The ... Media related to Kasteel de Viron at Wikimedia Commons Official website (Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, ...
The term virion (plural virions), which dates from 1959, is also used to refer to a single viral particle that is released from ... These proteins go on to become either new virions within the cell, helper proteins, which help assembly of new virions, or ... The whole virion is slightly pleomorphic, ranging from ovoid to brick-shaped. Mimivirus is one of the largest characterised ... When virions are coated with stain (positive staining), fine detail is obscured. Negative staining overcomes this problem by ...
"Virion tegument". Retrieved 7 May 2019. Yu, Xuekui; Shah, Sanket; Lee, Manfred; Dai, Wei; Lo, Pierrette; Britt ...
... all the virion components are very similar. The main virion components are: Envelope: composed of lipids (obtained from the ... The virions also contain two identical single-stranded RNA molecules 7-10 kilobases in length. The two molecules are present as ... Env proteins play a role in association and entry of virions into the host cell. Possessing a functional copy of an env gene is ... Virions, viruses in the form of independent particles of retroviruses, consist of enveloped particles about 100 nm in diameter ...
Virion, C. (1972). Charles Virion's French Country Cookbook. Hawthorn Books. p. 100. Sinclair, C.G. (1998). International ...
See section: Virion Structure. Chang CK, Hou MH, Chang CF, Hsiao CD, Huang TH (March 2014). "The SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid ... Virions acquired an envelope by budding into the cisternae and formed mostly spherical, sometimes pleomorphic, particles that ... upon uptake of virions into target cell endosomes (25). Alternatively, the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) ...
See section: Virion Structure. Naskalska A, Dabrowska A, Szczepanski A, Milewska A, Jasik KP, Pyrc K (October 2019). "Membrane ... Virions acquired an envelope by budding into the cisternae and formed mostly spherical, sometimes pleomorphic, particles that ... The name refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which ... They are responsible for virion assembly, intracellular trafficking and morphogenesis (budding). The spikes are the most ...
Charles Virion "GAUTHIER, Charles." Benezit Dictionary of Artists, Oxford Art Online, Oxford University Press. Retrieved 23 ...
See section: Virion Structure. Ryu YB, Park SJ, Kim YM, Lee JY, Seo WD, Chang JS, et al. (March 2010). "SARS-CoV 3CLpro ...
... es have no true virion. They do not have structural proteins or a capsid. Mitoviruses have nonsegmented, linear, ...
"Mass of virion - Virus Vaccinia". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-11-01. "Conversion from J to kg". The NIST Reference on Constants ...
Each virion may contain defective interfering copies. In Influenza A (H1N1) PB1-F2 is produced from an alternative reading ... The influenzavirus virion is pleomorphic; the viral envelope can occur in spherical and filamentous forms. In general, the ... the arrangement within the virion is uncertain. The ribonuclear proteins are filamentous and fall in the range of 50-130 nm ... and other viral proteins are assembled into a virion. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase molecules cluster into a bulge in the ...
... es have a naked RNA genome without a virion and derive their name from this feature. Narnaviruses have no true virion ...
The Wohl Virion Centre, London; Arts Council England, London; Arts Council England, Brighton; and Arts Council England, ...
Cornacchione, S.; Sadick, N. S.; Neveu, M.; Talbourdet, S.; Lazou, K.; Viron, C.; Renimel, I.; De Quéral, D.; Kurfurst, R.; ...
"Häviävästä Viron satasesta voi lukea Suomea kosiskelevan viestin". Retrieved 2010-10-20. Zetterberg, Seppo (2007). Viron ... ISBN 978-951-746-520-5. Zetterberg, Seppo (2017). Uusi Viron historia. Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura. ISBN 978-952-222-838-3 ...
The virion has a capsid (coat protein) but no envelope. The icosahedral symmetry of the capsid is round to elongated. The range ... The virions are mainly found in the cytoplasm of the infected plant (as inclusion bodies; Inclusions of Alfalfa mosaic virus).[ ... Virions assemble. (Most details of the replication cycle are still unknown). AMV infects over 600 plant species in 70 families ... for the length of the virion particle is about 30-57 nm. AMV is a multipartite virus and is composed of four particles (three ...
Virions are the products of a completed viral replication cycle; upon release from the infected cell, they are fully capable of ... Most virions are exceedingly simple in structure and physically minute, averaging just 1⁄100 the size of the typical bacterium ... While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent virions. ... virus counter A specialized type of flow cytometer used to rapidly quantify the number of individual virions or viral particles ...
Mature virions bud from the Golgi apparatus into vesicles which are transported to the cell surface.[citation needed] ... These RNA segments are single-stranded, and exist in a helical formation within the virion. Besides, they exhibit a pseudo- ... They have an enveloped, spherical virion. Though generally found in arthropods or rodents, certain viruses in this order ... spherical virions with diameters of 80-120 nm. These viruses contain no matrix proteins. Bunyaviruses have bi- or tripartite ...
The influenza virion is roughly spherical. It is an enveloped virus; the outer layer is a lipid membrane which is taken from ...
An RNA polymerase in the virion." This paper went on to show that "the virions of vesicular stomatitis virus contain an enzyme ... An RNA Polymerase in the Virion*". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 66 (2): 572 ...
Structure of Virions; A. Virion Morphology", Advances in Virus Research, Academic Press, 48: 5-6, doi:10.1016/S0065-3527(08) ...
p. 8. ISBN 978-1-304-50057-1. Viron Koka (1985). Rrymat e mendimit politiko-shoqëror në Shqipëri: në vitet 30 të shekullit XX. ...
Kilbourne, E. D. (2008). A Rondelay (Without Cadenza) By The Virion Of Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 359. ... A Rondelay (Without Cadenza) By The Virion Of Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):359. doi:10.3201/eid1402. ... A Rondelay (Without Cadenza) By The Virion Of Influenza On This Page ... A Rondelay (Without Cadenza) By The Virion Of Influenza. Volume 14, Number 2-February 2008 ...
1x Viron "ready to fly". 1x Viron Kite Bag. 1x Viron Gear Guide. 1x Sandbag. 1x Repair Kit ... When it comes to relaunch, we set a new kiteboarding benchmark with the Viron. The Viron is the first kite to incorporate Auto- ... The Viron surpasses all boundaries. This is a kite that makes it possible for children to get started in the sport. It is the ... The Viron delivers exactly the flight feeling you need for a safe entry into the sport. With all the functions and handling of ...
... Virology. ... The lack of effect of furin cleavage on virion infectivity mirrors that observed in the normally cleaved S glycoprotein of the ...
Drug-induced reductions in virion-associated cyclophilin A levels were accompanied by reductions in virion infectivity, ... The association of cyclophilin A with HIV-1 virions was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by cyclosporin A as well as by SDZ ... Sequences in the capsid domain of p55gag are both required and sufficient for the virion-association of cyclophilin A. ... The association of cyclophilin A with HIV-1 virions was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by cyclosporin A as well as by SDZ ...
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This model of the HI-Virus, enlarged millions of times, shows the outer lipid membrane with protein structures, and the internal nucleus which contains the viral hereditary matter (RNA).Transferring DNA and molecular bond images into three-dimensional models, molecular biology models support visual learning in the classroom. The replicas showcase hydrogen bonds in DNA, covalent bonding between molecules, individual structures of complex molecules, and other popular biological concepts. Kits contain enough supplies for each student to have their own. The molecular biology models are built with quality materials that wont degrade even after multiple constructions, alterations, and deconstructions.
Biological: High-Dose Inactivated, Split-Virion Influenza Vaccine Biological: Inactivated, Split-Virion Influenza Vaccine Phase ... Immunogenicity of High-dose Inactivated, Split-virion Influenza Vaccine Versus Standard Fluzone Vaccine in the Elderly. The ... Participants will receive the High-Dose Inactivated, Split-Virion Influenza Vaccine Lot 1 ... Participants will receive the High-Dose Inactivated, Split-Virion Influenza Vaccine Lot 2 ...
Baker TS, Newcomb WW, Olson NH, Cowsert LM, Olson C, Brown JC.Structures of bovine and human papillomaviruses. Analysis by cryoelectron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction. Biophys J. 1991 Dec60(6):1445-56.PubMed ID1663794 ...
For more information on performance contracting, go to For information on CMS Energy, visit ... "In addition, CMS Viron is creating an energy action plan that will use a licensed teacher on staff [at the school] to provide ... CMS Viron is providing facility upgrades for a Chambersburg middle school that will lower energy and operational costs by an ... An energy audit conducted by CMS Viron is said to have shown that the school had overpaid its water bill because the existing ...
This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience ...
The aim of this surveillance was to assess the quadrivalent inactivated split-virion influenza vaccine (IIV4) during routine ... Trivalent split-virion inactivated influenza vaccine. IIV3-ID:. Intradermally administered trivalent split-virion inactivated ... Chabanon, AL., Wague, S., Moureau, A. et al. Enhanced passive safety surveillance of the quadrivalent inactivated split-virion ... The aim of this surveillance was to assess the quadrivalent inactivated split-virion influenza vaccine (IIV4) during routine ...
Picornavirus RNA is protected from cleavage by ribonuclease during virion uncoating and transfer across cellular and model ... "Picornavirus RNA is protected from cleavage by ribonuclease during virion uncoating and transfer across cellular and model ... acidification of endosomes results in the disassembly of the virion into pentamers and in the release of the viral RNA into the ... ...
Virion Structure and In Vitro Genome Release Mechanism of Dicistrovirus Kashmir Bee Virus. Warning This publication doesnt ... Here, we present the structure of the virion of KBV determined to a resolution of 2.8 angstrom. We show that the exposure of ... Virion Structure and In Vitro Genome Release Mechanism of Dicistrovirus Kashmir Bee Virus ...
... as Viron Weaver returns once again as Michael and Willows son. ... Viron Weaver, is once again back at the ABC Studios filming ...
Instead, pandoravirus virions are built of unrelated abundant proteins. Here we show that the second most abundant virion ... Evolution of a major virion protein of the giant pandoraviruses from an inactivated bacterial glycoside hydrolase. ... The ancestral form of MVP2 was apparently acquired early in the evolution of the Nucleocytoviricota, to become a minor virion ... opening the way for a major increase in the size of the virion and the genome. Exaptation of a carbohydrate-binding protein for ...
Title : RSV virion and vaccine products Personal Author(s) : Thornburg, Natalie J. Corporate Authors(s) : National Center for ...
Frog oocytes synthesize and completely process the precursor polypeptide to virion structural proteins after microinjection of ... Frog oocytes synthesize and completely process the precursor polypeptide to virion structural proteins after microinjection of ...
fully glycosylated Spike [virion membrane] (R-COV-9698327) * complex N-glycan-PALM-Spike S1 Fragment [endocytic vesicle ... S1:S2:M lattice:E protein [virion membrane] (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) * complex N-glycan-PALM-Spike S2 ... S1:S2:M lattice:E protein [virion membrane] (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) * complex N-glycan-PALM-Spike S2 ... S1:S2:M lattice:E protein [virion membrane] (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) * complex N-glycan-PALM-Spike S2 ...
Budding and maturation of HIV virion (Homo sapiens) * HIV Virion Budding (Homo sapiens) * Immature HIV virion [extracellular ... Maturation of HIV Virion (Homo sapiens) * Immature HIV virion [extracellular region] (Homo sapiens) ...
Ocugen & Bharat Biotech to Co-Develop COVAXIN™, A Whole-Virion Inactivated COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate, for US Market; COVAXIN ... an advanced-stage whole-virion inactivated vaccine candidate, for the United States market. COVAXIN has been evaluated in ...
H1N1 Antibody Persistence 1 Year After Immunization With an Adjuvanted or Whole-Virion Pandemic Vaccine and Immunogenicity and ... H1N1 Antibody Persistence 1 Year After Immunization With an Adjuvanted or Whole-Virion Pandemic Vaccine and Immunogenicity and ...
Replacement throttle for Viron XI-700 Pro electric scooters. Check out our electric scooter repair centre and e-scooter spare ... Replacement throttle / power button assembly for Viron XI-700 Pro electric scooters. ...
Sopimus turvalaitejärjestelmien uudistamisesta kattaa suurimman osan Viron rautatieverkosta. Eesti Raudteen uudistusohjelma on ... Sopimus turvalaitejärjestelmien uudistamisesta kattaa suurimman osan Viron rautatieverkosta. Eesti Raudteen uudistusohjelma on ... Viron kansallinen rautatieyhtiö Eesti Raudtee ja Siemens Mobilityn ja GRK Railin yhteenliittymä ovat allekirjoittaneet ...
HIV Virion and Genome. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 is a member of the Retroviridae family. It is an enveloped virus ... In order to adequately comprehend the scope of laboratory methods, a basic understanding of the structure of the HIV virion and ...
Dive into the research topics of Human cytomegalovirus UL83-coded pp65 virion protein inhibits antiviral gene expression in ... Human cytomegalovirus UL83-coded pp65 virion protein inhibits antiviral gene expression in infected cells. ...
VIRION. We aim to uncover novel antiviral drug targets by embracing neuroscience tools and know-how in the context of virology. ...
... the extent of variation between these humoral responses and virion capture indicates that virion capture antibodies occupy ... Infectious virion capture by HIV-1 gp120-specific IgG from RV144 vaccinees Academic Article ... In an RV144 pilot study, we determined that RV144 vaccination elicited antibodies that could bind infectious virions (including ... mediated capture of infectious virions. Although capture of infectious HIV-1 correlated with other humoral immune responses, ...
  • Instead, pandoravirus virions are built of unrelated abundant proteins. (
  • Frog oocytes synthesize and completely process the precursor polypeptide to virion structural proteins after microinjection of avian myeloblastosis virus RNA. (
  • Nachmias D, Sklan EH, Ehrlich M, Bacharach E. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope proteins traffic toward virion assembly sites via a TBC1D20/Rab1-regulated pathway. (
  • After a duplication in the common ancestor of pandoraviruses and molliviruses, one of the paralogs displaces DJR MCP in pandoraviruses, conceivably, opening the way for a major increase in the size of the virion and the genome. (
  • In order to adequately comprehend the scope of laboratory methods, a basic understanding of the structure of the HIV virion and its genome is necessary. (
  • The aim of this surveillance was to assess the quadrivalent inactivated split-virion influenza vaccine (IIV4) during routine immunization in Finland, as per the national immunization program for 2019/20. (
  • Website maintained by Viron Lintuseura ry @ 2021 All rights reserved - Kaikki sivuston kuvat ovat suojattu tekijänoikeuksilla eikä niitä saa kopioida ilman lupaa. (
  • The lack of effect of furin cleavage on virion infectivity mirrors that observed in the normally cleaved S glycoprotein of the murine coronavirus and highlights an additional level of complexity in coronavirus entry. (
  • It is clearly demonstrated that target cell CypA, and not producer cell CyA, is important for HIV-1 CA-mediated function, and inhibition of HIV- 1 infectivity resulting from virion production in the presence of CsA occurs independently of the CA-CypA interaction. (
  • Pandoraviruses appear to be the most highly derived viruses in this phylum because their evolution involved not only the change in the virion shape, but also, the actual loss of the gene encoding double-jelly roll major capsid protein (DJR MCP), the main building block of icosahedral capsids in this virus assemblage. (
  • Here we show that the second most abundant virion protein of pandoraviruses, major virion protein 2 (MVP2), evolved from an inactivated derivative of a bacterial glycoside hydrolase of the GH16 family. (
  • The ancestral form of MVP2 was apparently acquired early in the evolution of the Nucleocytoviricota , to become a minor virion protein. (
  • Exaptation of a carbohydrate-binding protein for the function of the MVP is a general trend in virus evolution and might underlie the transformation of the virion shape in other groups of the Nucleocytoviricota as well. (
  • The protein encoded by the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) open reading frame UL116 forms a stable complex with glycoprotein H that is incorporated into virions. (
  • M45 is a 97-kDa virion-associated protein encoded by mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) (Krause et al. (
  • Neuraminidase is a protein found on the surface of influenza virus (among other microbes) and in this case is used to aid a virion in escaping the host cell. (
  • The E glycoprotein is the major component of the virion surface and is responsible for the receptor-mediated endocytic fusion and subsequent cell entry, as well as direct viral assembly & budding, and immunogenicity. (
  • Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can infect a variety of cell types by using virions of varying glycoprotein compositions. (
  • High-level prescribing trends for Influenza H1N1(Split viron, inactivated, adjuvanted) (BNF code 1404000AJ) across all GP practices in NHS England for the last five years. (
  • all data on Influenza H1N1(Split viron, inactivated, adjuvanted) or data on Influenza H1N1(Split viron, inactivated, adjuvanted) by Sub-ICB Location . (
  • The diverse viruses in the phylum Nucleocytoviricota (also known as NLCDVs, Nucleo-cytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses) typically possess large icosahedral virions. (
  • However, in several families of Nucleocytoviricota , the icosahedral capsid was replaced by irregular particle shapes, most notably, the amphora-like virions of pandoraviruses and pithoviruses, the largest known virus particles in the entire virosphere. (
  • Mature YFV virion is an icosahedral particle about 40 nm in diameter. (
  • Virions are non-envel- oped with icosahedral symmetry. (
  • policies/position-papers, consulté en août 2022). (
  • 2017 ( ( velopment-of-evidence-based-vaccine-related-recommenda- of-evidence-based-vaccine-related-recommendations, consulté en tions, accessed August 2022). (
  • process, consulté en août 2022). (
  • This undated electron microscopic (EM) handout image provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention depicts a monkeypox virion, obtained from a clinical sample associated with the 2003 prairie dog outbreak. (
  • FILE - This 2003 electron microscope image made available by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows mature, oval-shaped monkeypox virions, left, and spherical immature virions, right, obtained from a sample of human skin associated with the 2003 prairie dog outbreak. (
  • The immature (intracellular) and mature (extracellular) infectious virion. (
  • We found that multiple envelopment events occurred at individual vesicles leading to multiviral bodies (MViBs), which subsequently traversed the cytoplasm to release virions as intermittent bulk pulses at the plasma membrane to form extracellular virus accumulations (EVAs). (
  • Each virion is approximately 50nm in diameter. (
  • 2005) whereas the peak mobility diameter of the MS2 virions was 30 nm. (
  • These experiments demonstrate that, in addition to its ability to package cyclophilin A into virions, gag encodes the functional target of cyclosporine A, indicating that the drug-resistant mutants do not require virion-associated cyclophin A to initiate infection. (
  • 14. Baltimore D. RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in virions of RNA tumour viruses. (
  • The structure of an infectious P22 virion shows the signal for headful DNA packaging. (
  • Incoming HIV virion-derived Gag Spacer Peptide 2 (p1) is a target of effective CD8+ T cell antiviral responses. (
  • Our data show that non-beneficial HLA class I alleles can elicit an effective antiviral response through early presentation of HIV virion-derived epitopes and also demonstrate the importance of SP2 as an immune target. (
  • For the more distantly related aphthovirus genus (e.g. foot-and-mouth disease viruses and equine rhinitis A virus) acidification of endosomes results in the disassembly of the virion into pentamers and in the release of the viral RNA into the lumen of the endosome, but no details have been elucidated as how the RNA crosses the vesicle membrane. (
  • R116 is N-glycosylated, expressed with late viral gene kinetics, and is incorporated into the virion envelope. (
  • The predominant virion RNA species had a sedimentation constant of 46S and its estimated molecular weight was 4·8 × 106 daltons. (
  • It's been a while since we've seen General Hospital 's Wiley walking around Port Charles but that's about to change… His portrayer, Viron Weaver, is once again back at the ABC Studios filming scenes. (
  • Replacement throttle / power button assembly for Viron XI-700 Pro electric scooters. (
  • Viral integration may be curtailed when CD8+ T cells are triggered to kill infected CD4+ T cells through recognition of histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-bound peptides derived from incoming virions. (
  • The Viron is the first kite to incorporate Auto-Relaunch. (
  • With all the functions and handling of a full-grown kitesurfing kite but with moderate power, the Viron is at home wherever maximum safety and reliability are required. (
  • The Viron is the result of our constant attempt to construct a kite resistant to all operating errors. (
  • The Viron is the storm kite for accomplished riders and at the same time, the kite that kiteschools have been wishfully waiting for. (
  • But this is just one of the features that make the Viron an extraordinary safe kite. (
  • The Viron is not just any kite, it defines a class of its own. (
  • The Viron is a kite for all beginners, kite schools, lightweights and gusty winds. (
  • Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. (
  • Here, we present the structure of the virion of KBV determined to a resolution of 2.8 angstrom. (
  • The melting-temperature profile of the virion RNA suggested absence of secondary structure. (
  • CMS Viron will retrofit interior lights, install temperature control systems, convert the heating system from electricity to fuel oil, install trash compactors, and provide water-conservation measures. (
  • The diffusion and subsequent enzymatic action, especially of soluble (not virion-associated) phage-produced EPS depolymerase, causes halo formation. (
  • When the kiter activates the quick release, the leading edge of the Viron immediately shrinks together, simultaneously the tips will lay against each other. (
  • And just in case that isn't enough, the Viron is equipped with a new safety release, dependable, quick and easy to operate. (
  • The Viron delivers exactly the flight feeling you need for a safe entry into the sport. (
  • Please note that this website may contain links to third-party websites over which Virion maintains no control and takes no responsibility regarding their privacy considerations or content. (
  • Inhibitor of vesicular stomatitis virus transcriptase in purified virions. (
  • Sistema infectivo de un virus, compuesto por el genoma vírico, un centro vírico proteico y una cubierta proteica, la cápside, que puede estar desnuda o encerrada en una cubierta lipoproteica denominada peplos. (
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  • In addition, CMS Viron is creating an energy action plan that will use a licensed teacher on staff [at the school] to provide curriculum enhancements, working with after-school clubs and science classes to make students more aware of saving energy," stated Bill Viverito, business development manager for CMS Viron. (
  • Bothersome, long steering paths are unknown to the Viron, you have access to the entire depower throw within an arms length. (
  • OVERLAND PARK, KS - CMS Energy Corp.'s energy performance contracting unit, CMS Viron Energy Services, announced that it has been awarded a performance contract valued at $2.4 million from the Chambersburg School District in Chambersburg, PA. (
  • CMS Viron Energy Services specializes in energy performance contracting and energy-efficiency projects. (
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