The presence of viruses in the blood.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A species of virus (unassigned to a genus) in the family FLAVIVIRIDAE. It is genetically heterogeneous, of human origin, and transmitted by blood or blood products. Despite its alternate name (Hepatitis G virus), its pathogenicity remains controversial.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
A syndrome characterized by outbreaks of late term abortions, high numbers of stillbirths and mummified or weak newborn piglets, and respiratory disease in young unweaned and weaned pigs. It is caused by PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYNDROME VIRUS. (Radostits et al., Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed, p1048)
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.
The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.
Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.
A genus of the family CIRCOVIRIDAE that infects SWINE; PSITTACINES; and non-psittacine BIRDS. Species include Beak and feather disease virus causing a fatal disease in psittacine birds, and Porcine circovirus causing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs (PORCINE POSTWEANING MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) specific immune responses in anti-HCV positive patients without hepatitis C viraemia. (1/2101)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Most patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) develop chronic infection and persistent viraemia. The immune mechanisms responsible for resolution of viraemia remain poorly understood. HCV specific humoral and cellular immune responses in patients with and without viraemia were investigated. METHODS: In vitro T helper (TH) lymphocyte responses to structural and non-structural HCV proteins were determined by means of proliferative response and cytokine production in 35 anti-HCV positive/HCV RNA negative patients and in 31 patients with chronic HCV infection and persistent viraemia. Humoral responses were determined by measuring HCV specific antibody quantity and specificity. RESULTS: A TH response to two or more HCV proteins was present in 18 of 35 patients with serological viral clearance compared with just one of 31 viraemic patients (p = 0.00001). HCV specific interferon-gamma production was increased only in the former group. In contrast, the antibody levels were significantly lower and directed at fewer HCV antigens in patients with undetectable HCV RNA. CONCLUSIONS: Patients without viraemia after HCV infection frequently have strong TH lymphocyte responses of the TH1 type to multiple HCV antigens many years after the onset of infection, whereas antibody responses are less marked. These results suggest that control of HCV replication may depend on effective TH lymphocyte activation.  (+info)

No evidence for an effect of the CCR5 delta32/+ and CCR2b 64I/+ mutations on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 disease progression among HIV-1-infected injecting drug users. (2/2101)

The relationship between CCR5 and CCR2b genotypes and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 disease progression was studied among the 108 seroconverters of the Amsterdam cohort of injecting drug users (IDUs). In contrast to earlier studies among homosexual men, no effect on disease progression of the CCR5 Delta32/+ and the CCR2b 64I/+ genotypes was found, when progression to AIDS, death, or a CD4 cell count <200/microL was compared by a Cox proportional hazards model. Furthermore, CD4 cell decline (by a regression model for repeated measurements) and virus load in the first 3 years after seroconversion did not differ between the CCR5 and CCR2b wild type and heterozygous genotypes. A nested matched case-control study also revealed no significant effect of the CCR5 and CCR2b mutations. Immunologic differences between IDUs and homosexual men may account for the observed lack of effect. Alternatively, difference in transmission route or characteristics of the HIV-1 variants that circulate in IDUs could also explain this phenomenon.  (+info)

Persistently high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) loads in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with chronic active EBV infection. (3/2101)

Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a severe illness with unusual EBV activation that persists for years, and its pathogenesis is largely unknown. After the creation of an accurate and reproducible polymerase chain reaction system to quantify EBV DNA, virus loads in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were determined in 54 children: 15 with CAEBV, 16 with infectious mononucleosis (IM), and 23 healthy children. Children with CAEBV and those with IM had high virus loads. Lower loads were detected in 47% of seropositive healthy donors. There were two distinct differences between children with CAEBV and those with IM: The former had greater viral replication (10(3)-10(7) copies/2.5x10(5) PBL) than those with IM, and viral replication declined in children with IM whereas active replication persisted for years in subjects with CAEBV. Persisting high virus loads are a possible diagnostic criterion for CAEBV. EBV loads may enable classification and prognosis of EBV infections.  (+info)

High prevalence of hepatitis G virus (HGV) infections in dialysis staff. (4/2101)

BACKGROUND: Patients on renal replacement therapy, haemodialysis (HD), or after kidney transplantation (TX), are known to be at risk of acquiring blood-borne infections (HBV, HCV). GBV-C/Hepatitis G virus (HGV) has been described recently and is considered to cause blood-borne infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the risk for the medical staff of HD and TX patients to acquire HGV infection. METHODS: Eighty-five HD patients and 86 TX recipients were compared with 49 health-care workers and 64 blood donors as controls. The HGV prevalence was determined by RT-PCR and antibodies to E2 protein. RESULTS: A high prevalence of HGV was found in the medical staff (24%) which nearly corresponded to the prevalence of the patients (TX 36%, HD 25%) but not to the controls (9%). In contrast, the prevalence of HCV was low in the medical staff (2%) and controls (0%) but high in HD (13%) and TX (13%). Age and duration of employment in the department did not significantly influence the HGV prevalence in staff. The number of viraemic subjects in staff was high, possibly indicating a more recent infection. CONCLUSION: An occupational risk for HGV exists in medical staff of dialysis and transplant patients. Further routes of transmission than only parenteral may play a role in this setting.  (+info)

Activation in vivo of retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus, a simian homologue of human herpesvirus-8. (5/2101)

Retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus of rhesus macaques (RFHVMm) is a gammaherpesvirus closely related to human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), which is thought to be a necessary cofactor for the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in humans. Here, RFHVMm infection of rhesus macaques exposed to the D-type retrovirus simian retrovirus-2 (SRV-2) is described. Development of SRV-2 viraemia, infection with simian immunodeficiency virus or administration of cyclosporin A could result in persistent RFHVMm viraemia. From this, it is concluded that productive retrovirus infection or otherwise-induced immune suppression has the ability to activate this herpesvirus in vivo. Elevated levels of circulating interleukin-6, a cytokine that plays a central role in KS, were found in RFHVMm-viraemic animals. In viraemic animals, RFHVMm was found in tissues that are common sites for the development of AIDS-associated KS, especially the oral cavity. Together, these data suggest a common biology between RFHVMm infection of macaques and HHV-8 infection and pathogenesis in humans.  (+info)

Clinical significance of expression of human cytomegalovirus pp67 late transcript in heart, lung, and bone marrow transplant recipients as determined by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. (6/2101)

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection was monitored retrospectively by qualitative determination of pp67 mRNA (a late viral transcript) by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) in a series of 50 transplant recipients, including 26 solid-organ (11 heart and 15 lung) transplant recipients (SOTRs) and 24 bone marrow transplant recipients (BMTRs). NASBA results were compared with those obtained by prospective quantitation of HCMV viremia and antigenemia and retrospective quantitation of DNA in leukocytes (leukoDNAemia). On the whole, 29 patients were NASBA positive, whereas 10 were NASBA negative, and the blood of 11 patients remained HCMV negative. NASBA detected HCMV infection before quantitation of viremia did but after quantitation of leukoDNAemia and antigenemia did. In NASBA-positive blood samples, median levels of viremia, antigenemia, and leukoDNAemia were significantly higher than the relevant levels detected in NASBA-negative HCMV-positive blood samples. By using the quantitation of leukoDNAemia as the "gold standard," the analytical sensitivity (47.3%), as well as the negative predictive value (68. 3%), of NASBA for the diagnosis of HCMV infection intermediate between that of antigenemia quantitation (analytical sensitivity, 72. 3%) and that of viremia quantitation (analytical sensitivity, 28.7%), while the specificity and the positive predictive value were high (90 to 100%). However, with respect to the clinically relevant antigenemia cutoff of >/=100 used in this study for the initiation of preemptive therapy in SOTRs with reactivated HCMV infection, the clinical sensitivity of NASBA reached 100%, with a specificity of 68. 9%. Upon the initiation of antigenemia quantitation-guided treatment, the actual median antigenemia level was 158 (range, 124 to 580) in SOTRs who had reactivated infection and who presented with NASBA positivity 3.5 +/- 2.6 days in advance and 13.5 (range, 1 to 270) in the group that included BMTRs and SOTRs who had primary infection (in whom treatment was initiated upon the first confirmation of detection of HCMV in blood) and who presented with NASBA positivity 2.0 +/- 5.1 days later. Following antiviral treatment, the durations of the presence of antigenemia and pp67 mRNA in blood were found to be similar. In conclusion, monitoring of the expression of HCMV pp67 mRNA appears to be a promising, well-standardized tool for determination of the need for the initiation and termination of preemptive therapy. Its overall clinical impact should be analyzed in future prospective studies.  (+info)

Multicenter comparison of the digene hybrid capture CMV DNA assay (version 2.0), the pp65 antigenemia assay, and cell culture for detection of cytomegalovirus viremia. (7/2101)

We compared the Digene Hybrid Capture CMV DNA Assay version 2.0, the pp65 antigenemia assay, traditional tube culture, and shell vial culture for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia in several patient populations at three centers. Of 561 blood specimens collected from 402 patients, complete clinical and laboratory data were available for 489. Using consensus definitions for true positives and true negatives, the sensitivities of the Hybrid Capture assay, antigenemia, shell vial, and tube culture were 95, 94, 43, and 46%, respectively. The specificities of the Hybrid Capture assay and antigenemia were 95 and 94%, respectively. At all three study sites, the detected level of CMV viremia was significantly higher with the Hybrid Capture assay or antigenemia than with shell vial and tube culture. In a group of 131 healthy nonimmunosuppressed volunteers, the Hybrid Capture assay demonstrated a specificity of over 99%. The Hybrid Capture assay is a standardized assay that is simple to perform and can utilize whole blood specimens that have been stored for up to 48 h. The high sensitivity and specificity of the Hybrid Capture assay along with its simplicity and flexibility make it a clinically useful assay for the detection of CMV viremia in immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients. Further evaluation to determine its role in predicting CMV disease and for monitoring the therapeutic response to anti-CMV therapy is needed.  (+info)

Dramatic rise in plasma viremia after CD8(+) T cell depletion in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques. (8/2101)

To determine the role of CD8(+) T cells in controlling simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in vivo, we examined the effect of depleting this cell population using an anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody, OKT8F. There was on average a 99.9% reduction of CD8 cells in peripheral blood in six infected Macaca mulatta treated with OKT8F. The apparent CD8 depletion started 1 h after antibody administration, and low CD8 levels were maintained until day 8. An increase in plasma viremia of one to three orders of magnitude was observed in five of the six macaques. The injection of a control antibody to an infected macaque did not induce a sustained viral load increase, nor did it significantly reduce the number of CD8(+) T cells. These results demonstrate that CD8 cells play a crucial role in suppressing SIV replication in vivo.  (+info)

Non-primate hepacivirus (NPHV), equine pegivirus (EPgV) and Theilers disease associated virus (TDAV) are newly discovered members of two genera in the Flaviviridae family, Hepacivirus and Pegivirus respectively, that include human hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human pegivirus (HPgV). To investigate their epidemiology, persistence and clinical features of infection, large cohorts of horses and other mammalian species were screened for NPHV, EPgV and TDAV viraemia and for past exposure through serological assays for NPHV and EPgV-specific antibodies. NPHV antibodies were detected in 43% of 328 horses screened for antibodies to NS3 and core antibodies, of which three were viraemic by PCR. All five horses that were stablemates of a viraemic horse were seropositive, as was a dog on the same farm. With this single exception, all other species were negative for NPHV antibodies and viraemia: donkeys (n=100), dogs (n=112), cats (n=131), non-human primates (n=164) and humans (n=362). EPgV antibodies to NS3 were
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatitis C viremia and the risk of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected individuals. AU - Lucas, Gregory M.. AU - Jing, Yuezhou. AU - Sulkowski, Mark. AU - Abraham, Alison G.. AU - Estrella, Michelle M.. AU - Atta, Mohamed G.. AU - Fine, Derek M.. AU - Klein, Marina B.. AU - Silverberg, Michael J.. AU - Gill, M. John. AU - Moore, Richard D.. AU - Gebo, Kelly A.. AU - Sterling, Timothy R.. AU - Butt, Adeel A.. AU - Kirk, Gregory D.. AU - Benson, Constance A.. AU - Bosch, Ronald J.. AU - Collier, Ann C.. AU - Boswell, Stephen. AU - Grasso, Chris. AU - Mayer, Ken. AU - Hogg, Robert S.. AU - Harrigan, Richard. AU - Montaner, Julio. AU - Cescon, Angela. AU - Brooks, John T.. AU - Buchacz, Kate. AU - Carey, John T.. AU - Rodriguez, Benigno. AU - Horberg, Michael A.. AU - Thorne, Jennifer E.. AU - Goedert, James J.. AU - Jacobson, Lisa P.. AU - Rourke, Sean B.. AU - Burchell, Ann. AU - Rachlis, Anita R.. AU - Rico, Puerto. AU - Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.. AU - Mayor, Angel M.. AU - ...
Study investigators applied this assay to detect and quantify persistent viremia in 15 pts with HIV-1 RNA suppressed to < 50 copies/ml (as determined by standard methods) for at least 131 days. The single copy assay detected HIV-1 RNA in plasma from 14 of the 15 pts. In one pt, no HIV-1 RNA could be detected in the assay (< 0.25 copies/ml). HIV-1 RNA levels ranged from 1-40 copies/ml with a mean of 9.3 and a median of 3.9 copies/ml. No HIV-1 RNA was detected in plasma from 10 seronegative controls. To investigate whether persistent viremia represented a therapeutic steady-state, we analyzed longitudinal samples from 5 of the pts. HIV-1 RNA levels remained stable (mean cv for pts = 0.34) over the period of observation (up to 7 months). They investigated baseline and on treatment factors for associations with the level of persistent viremia. Higher levels of persistent viremia were associated with higher pre-treatment HIV-1 RNA levels. The lowest levels of persistent viremia were present in ...
Viremia (UK: viraemia) is a medical condition where viruses enter the bloodstream and hence have access to the rest of the body. It is similar to bacteremia, a condition where bacteria enter the bloodstream. The name comes from combining the word virus with the Greek word for blood (haima). It usually lasts for 4 to 5 days in the primary condition. Primary viremia refers to the initial spread of virus in the blood from the first site of infection. Secondary viremia occurs when primary viremia has resulted in infection of additional tissues via bloodstream, in which the virus has replicated and once more entered the circulation. Usually secondary viremia results in higher viral shedding and viral loads within the bloodstream due to the possibility that the virus is able to reach its natural host cell from the bloodstream and replicate more efficiently than the initial site. An excellent example to profile this distinction is the rabies virus. Usually the virus will replicate briefly within the ...
Santeusanio, A. D., Lukens, B. E., & Eun, J. (2017). Antiviral Treatment of BK Virus Viremia After Kidney Transplantation. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 74 (24), 2037-2045 ...
Background: Transmission of human hepegivirus 1 (HHpgV-1), a novel human pegivirus, is closely associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The impact of HHpgV-1 viremia on HCV infection is unknown. This study aimed to (a) evaluate the impact of HHpgV-1 viremia on HCV viral load and liver injury and (b) elucidate the clinical and molecular epidemiology of HHpgV-1 infection. Methods: Individuals with HHpgV-1 viremia (cases) were identified by screening plasma from 655 HCV-infected adults. HHpgV-1 isolates were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis, and viral load was quantified. Cases were age- and sex-matched to HCV-infected individuals without HHpgV-1 viremia (controls) in a 1:3 ratio. A retrospective case-control analysis was performed to identify differences in HCV viral load and parameters of liver injury. Results: Among HCV-infected adults, 16/655 (2.4%) had HHpgV-1 viremia. Risk groups for HHpgV-1 infection included intravenous drug users, blood product recipients, tattoo recipients, and men who ...
0.011) higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors from day 2 after the onset of symptoms. Survivors reached peak viremia levels at an earlier time after symptom onset than nonsurvivors (day 5 versus day 7) and had lower mean peak viremia levels compared with nonsurvivors (7.46 log cp/ml; 95% CI, 7.17-7.76 vs. 8.60 log cp/ml; 95% CI, 8.27-8.93). Before reaching peak values, EBOV viremia similarly increased both in survivors and nonsurvivors; however, the decay of viremia after the peak was much stronger in survivors than in nonsurvivors.. ...
Our study shows that, after accounting for the influence of multiple confounding factors, HIV is associated with dysbiosis in the gastrointestinal microbiome in a dose-dependent manner. This analytic approach may allow for better identification of true microbial associations by limiting the effects …
In the present study, we set out to determine the degrees of residual plasma viremia in a large number of infected individuals receiving ART and to determine immunological or virological parameters that may correlate with residual plasma viremia. Residual plasma viremia was determined in quadruplicate using an automated system to minimize quantitative errors often associated with the detection of extremely low levels of viral RNA. We have demonstrated detectable levels of residual plasma viremia (1-49 copies/mL) in the majority of study participants receiving ART in whom plasma viremia had been suppressed for extended periods of time, as measured by a standard clinical assay (with a limit of detection of 50 copies/mL). Furthermore, we found a correlation between the level of residual plasma viremia and the frequency of CD4+ T cells carrying HIV proviral DNA. Of note, due to the limited amounts of blood obtained from the study subjects, we could not conduct the quantitative coculture assays that ...
A switch from protease inhibitors (PIs) to raltegravir (RAL) will be effective virologically and immunologically. Moreover, it will be associated with significant improvements in the lipid profile in HIV patients with undetectable viremia on PIs. In this setting, RAL once a day (QD) will perform as well as RAL twice a day (BID ...
Selection of T-cell vaccine antigens for chronic persistent viral infections has been largely empirical. To define the relationship, at the population level, between the specificity of the cellular immune response and viral control for a relevant human pathogen, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the 160 dominant CD8(+) T-cell responses in 578 untreated HIV-infected individuals from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Of the HIV proteins targeted, only Gag-specific responses were associated with lowering viremia. Env-specific and Accessory/Regulatory protein-specific responses were associated with higher viremia. Increasing breadth of Gag-specific responses was associated with decreasing viremia and increasing Env breadth with increasing viremia. Association of the specific CD8(+) T-cell response with low viremia was independent of HLA type and unrelated to epitope sequence conservation. These population-based data, suggesting the existence of both effective immune responses and responses lacking
Selection of T-cell vaccine antigens for chronic persistent viral infections has been largely empirical. To define the relationship, at the population level, between the specificity of the cellular immune response and viral control for a relevant human pathogen, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the 160 dominant CD8(+) T-cell responses in 578 untreated HIV-infected individuals from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Of the HIV proteins targeted, only Gag-specific responses were associated with lowering viremia. Env-specific and Accessory/Regulatory protein-specific responses were associated with higher viremia. Increasing breadth of Gag-specific responses was associated with decreasing viremia and increasing Env breadth with increasing viremia. Association of the specific CD8(+) T-cell response with low viremia was independent of HLA type and unrelated to epitope sequence conservation. These population-based data, suggesting the existence of both effective immune responses and responses lacking ...
Next-generation sequencing has critical applications in virus discovery, diagnostics, and environmental surveillance. We used metagenomic sequence libraries for retrospective screening of plasma samples for the recently discovered human hepegivirus 1 (HHpgV-1). From a cohort of 150 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive case-patients, we identified 2 persons with HHpgV-1 viremia and a high frequency of human pegivirus (HPgV) viremia (14%). Detection of HHpgV-1 and HPgV was concordant with parallel PCR-based screening using conserved primers matching groups 1 (HPgV) and 2 (HHPgV-1) nonstructural 3 region sequences. PCR identified 1 HHPgV-1-positive person with viremia from a group of 195 persons with hemophilia who had been exposed to nonvirally inactivated factor VII/IX; 18 (9%) were HPgV-positive. Relative to HCV and HPgV, active infections with HHpgV-1 were infrequently detected in blood, even in groups that had substantial parenteral exposure. Our findings are consistent with lower transmissibility or
The presence of a virus in the blood. Viremia is analogous to bacteremia (the presence of bacteria in the blood) and parasitemia (the presence of a parasite in the blood). Viremia, bacteremia and parasitemia are all forms of sepsis (bloodstream infection). The term viremia was compounded from virus and -emia (in the blood). ...
Background HIV Top notch controllers (EC) suppress HIV viremia without ART yet previous studies demonstrated that EC maintain an activated T cell phenotype. were quantified using ELISA. Results In the EChi group expression of activation exhaustion and immunosensescence markers on T cells were significantly reduced compared to the EClo group and similar to the seronegative controls. The EChi group expressed higher levels of co-stimulatory molecules CD28 and CD73 and had WYE-125132 lower levels of monocyte activation (HLA-DR expression) with a reduced frequency of inflammatory monocyte (CD14++CD16+) subset. Furthermore the EChi group maintained a stable CD4% during a median follow up of six years. Conclusions Elite controllers with preserved CD4 T cells (EChi) have normal T cell and monocyte phenotypes and therefore may have limited benefit from antiretroviral therapy (ART). CD4% can be an important marker WYE-125132 for evaluating future studies aimed at determining the need for ART in this group ...
In the present study we have demonstrated that the defect in proliferation in vitro in response to various stimuli of B cells of HIV-infected patients is directly related to the level of ongoing viral replication in vivo. B cells of patients with high plasma viremia showed consistent functional impairment when compared with B cells of the same patients assayed at times of low plasma viremia. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that viremia induces the appearance of a subpopulation of B cells that express reduced levels of CD21. In several respects, this subpopulation of B cells resembles plasma cells, exhibiting typical morphological features of plasma cells and enhanced levels of Ig secretion when compared with their CD21-enriched counterparts. However, certain features of normal plasma cells, such as reduced expression of CD20 and surface Ig (23), did not segregate with CD21 expression (data not shown), indicating that the CD21low B cells of HIV viremic patients were engaged only partially in ...
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Soluble (s)CD14 was significantly associated with the CD4/CD8 ratio (P , 0.05) and viremia levels (P , 0.0001) during PHI. Plasma zonulin and stool lactoferrin were significantly higher in PHI as compared to CHI-individuals (P , 0.05). Plasma zonulin demonstrated the best accuracy to identify PHI among HIV-infected individuals (AUC = 0.85 [95% CI 0.75-0.94]). Using a cutoff value of plasma zonulin ≥ 8.75 ng/mL the model identified PHI with 87.7% sensitivity (95% CI 76.3-94.9) and 69.2% specificity (95% CI 48.2-85.7). An adjusted multivariate model including age, plasma zonulin and sCD14 further increased the classification performance (AUC = 0.92 [95% CI 0.86-0.99]).. ...
1.) Mark Painter, PhD candidate from the Kathleen Collins research group Title of talk: Contributions of the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell HIV reservoir to persistent viremia in treated HIV patients Keywords: RNA virus, HIV, Latency, Viremia, Reverse transcription, RNA secondary structure, tRNA priming (abstract ...
Intermittent viremia during first-line, protease inhibitors-containing therapy: significance and relationship with drug resistance.: The occurrence of IV | 500
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Clinical trial phase I/II, of test of concept, blind double, controlled with placebo, randomized, in which a total of 15 patients will be included In an initial phase, there will be included 5 patients of sequential form, with a minimum of 15 days of safety period between the first infusion of a patient and the first one of the following patient. These first 5 patients will not be randomized, being all of them treated with the medicine in investigation. When the last one of these 5 patients has received the first three foreseen doses, the safety information will be evaluated by an Independent Data Monitoring Committee. If this evaluation is positive, it will be continued by the trial being recruited the rest of patients (n = 10). After randomization, 5 of these patients will receive cellular therapy and the other 5 will receive an infusion of the placebo product ...
Virus can be unequivocally identified through their mass and stiffness. Proof of principle should be provided during the project: Database of biophysics of virions and VLPs as an outcome of the project.. We propose using optomechanical devices to measure mass and stiffness parameters of virions with unique sensitivity. TRL 3-4.. ...
Ce se intampla dupa a 12a injectie? Eu o fac vineri si mi-a zis dr meu ca luni trebuie sa fac analize ptr hemoleucograma si viremia. In cat timp mi se da rezultatul? Nu mai continui tratamentul pana nu primesc rezultatele? Ce fac?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predicting Viral Failure in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Perinatally Infected Youth with Persistent Low-Level Viremia on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. AU - Pereira, Ruth. AU - Ludwig, David A.. AU - Mathew, Sunil. AU - Flores, Claudia. AU - Dominguez, Sady. AU - Gonzalez, Ivan. AU - Rivera-Hernandez, Delia. AU - Scott, Gwendolyn B.. AU - Mitchell, Charles D.. PY - 2019/1/18. Y1 - 2019/1/18. N2 - Background: Less than optimal adherence with antiretroviral therapy occurs commonly among human immunodeficiency virus HIV)-infected youth. In this study, our object was to identify patterns in the prefailure measurement of viral load (VL) that can reliably predict virological failure (VF) in HIV perinatally infected youth on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of HIV-infected youth with low-level viremia (LLV), defined as an HIV VL between the lower limits of detection (20-75 copies/mL) and 1000 copies/mL. All patients ...
In 2 separate experiments the blood-feeding fly Haematobia thirouxi potans (Bezzi) failed to transmit foot and- mouth disease virus when transferred from viraemic (log 2,6 - log 4,3 MLD₅₀ or TCID₅₀/ml) to susceptible cattle. Each experiment involved 2 susceptible and 2 viraemic animals housed in separate stables and 2000 - 4000 flies of which most had fed on viraemic hosts 120 min prior to transfer. Furthermore, only minimal quantities of virus were isolated from free-living flies captured on experimentally infected buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the acute stages of infection ...
EBV viremia occurs frequently after transplantation and can be related to post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). However, the consequences of the majority of viremia are unclear. Barnoulid et al. followed EBV viral loads in 383 kidney transplant patients during the first year post-transplant. 40% of patients had at least one detected viremia; viremia was more common in EBV mismatched patients and those that received ATG. While these risk factors for EBV are well known, the authors also found that EBV infection was associated with opportunistic infection and graft loss. This study adds to our knowledge on EBV although further work is necessary to determine what to do with patients who had chronic low level viremia.. ...
A reliable method for the quantitation of plasma viremia in nonhuman primates infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and related viruses is described. This method is based on an established quantitative-competitive PCR format and includes a truncated control for internal assay calibration. Optimization of assay conditions has significantly improved amplification specificity, and interassay variability is comparable to that of commercially available assays for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) quantitation. This procedure was used to monitor viral loads in a group of Macaca mulatta animals that were infected with SIVsmE660 for over 2 years. Highly diverse profiles of plasma viremia were observed among animals, and high viral loads were associated with more rapid disease progression. Spearman rank correlation analyses were done for survival versus three parameters of viral load: plasma viremia, p27 core antigen, and frequency of infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Plasma ...
This high-throughput screening approach reliably identified HCV RNA extracted from DBSs prepared using whole blood, with a 95% limit of detection of 1196 (95% confidence interval [CI], 866-2280) IU/mL for individual 6-mm punches and 494 (95% CI, 372-1228) IU/mL for larger 12-mm punches. Fifteen infections were identified among samples from the DRC Demographic and Health Survey; the weighted country-wide prevalence of HCV viremia was 0.9% (95% CI, 0.3%-1.6%) among adults ≥40 years of age and 0.7% (95% CI, .6%-.8%) among human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. All successfully genotyped cases were due to genotype 4 infection.. Conclusions ...
Virologic and immunologic studies were performed on five patients presenting with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) precursors specific for cells expressing antigens of HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Env were detected at or within 3 weeks of presentation in four of the five patients and were detected in all five patients by 3 to 6 months after presentation. The one patient with an absent initial CTL response had prolonged symptoms, persistent viremia, and low CD4+ T-cell count. Neutralizing antibody activity was absent at the time of presentation in all five patients. These findings suggest that cellular immunity is involved in the initial control of virus replication in primary HIV-1 infection and indicate a role for CTL in protective immunity to HIV-1 in vivo. ...
We demonstrated that HIV-specific CD8+ T cells exhibit a delay in expansion and differentiation before peak viremia in AHI stages 1 and 2 on the first 18 days of HIV infection. These cells, although generated as early as stage 1, are not expanding fast enough and are not acquiring effector functions to control HIV replication. These results echo the previously reported SIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses characterized in the mucosa early after SIV challenge described as too little, too late to control viral replication in the early stages of infection (48, 49). After this initial lag period, HIV-specific CD8+ T cells expand massively and become fully differentiated in AHI stage 3 corresponding to peak viremia about 19 days after HIV infection, concomitant or just after the systemic proinflammatory cytokine burst (50). This full differentiation allows them to kill effectively HIV-producing cells when ART is initiated shortly after this expansion. However, when treatment is not initiated at that ...
African children diagnosed with HIV infection late in disease have a mortality rate often exceeding 20%, and there is an urgent need for novel strategies to improve their prognosis. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, and plasma CMV viral load are risk factors for accelerated HIV progression. Additionally, CMV reactivation occurs in up to a third of critically ill non-immunosuppressed patients, and is associated with mortality. This study will focus on CMV viremia in a cohort of children diagnosed with HIV infection while critically ill with aims to determine the impact of CMV viremia on mortality and duration of hospitalization (Aim 1), response to antiretroviral therapy initiation (Aim 2), and Immune activation and inflammation (Aim 3).. ...
African children diagnosed with HIV infection late in disease have a mortality rate often exceeding 20%, and there is an urgent need for novel strategies to improve their prognosis. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, and plasma CMV viral load are risk factors for accelerated HIV progression. Additionally, CMV reactivation occurs in up to a third of critically ill non-immunosuppressed patients, and is associated with mortality. This study will focus on CMV viremia in a cohort of children diagnosed with HIV infection while critically ill with aims to determine the impact of CMV viremia on mortality and duration of hospitalization (Aim 1), response to antiretroviral therapy initiation (Aim 2), and Immune activation and inflammation (Aim 3).. ...
The release of liver aminotransferase into blood circulation following liver cell damage or lysis of hepatocytes is believed to be mostly associated with cell mediated immunity rather than the cytopathic effect of the virus [26]. This liver cell death may be either via apoptosis or via necrosis. Apoptosis in infected hepatocytes (orchestrated by T-cytotoxic cells via the perforin/granzyme pathway) is characterized by little or no cell content spillage into the circulation (following death) since the apoptotic bodies are usually phagocytosed and internally destroyed by macrophages unlike in necrosis where the cells experience unfavourable conditions, swell and burst releasing their content into the circulation. [27]. With this in mind, one may expect to find more AST and ALT in circulation following necrosis rather than apoptosis. However, there is still a challenge in determining which modes of cell death predominate in various forms of liver disease and injury. Apoptosis and necrosis frequently ...
Measles viremia is thought to peak at onset of rash and diminish rapidly over the subsequent 2-3 days. The length of viremia and the proportion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected during measles were investigated in 8 adults. Blood was obtained from 7 patients between days 2 and 4 …
Members of the JIKI Study Group reported inconclusive and varied results for use of the antiviral medication favipiravir to treat Ebola virus disease, according to a study yesterday in PLOS Medicine.. The JIKI (hope in the Malinke language) study was a multicenter, nonrandomized trial in which 126 Ebola patients in Guinea received favipiravir and standard care. Because of the perception that randomizing patients to case and control groups was unethical in the situation, data from 99 of the cases were compared with data from historical controls.. Investigators found that administration of favipiravir was ineffective in patients with very high viremia (ie, baseline cycle threshold [Ct] value of less than 20). Among 44 subjects with very high viremia who received favipiravir, the mortality rate was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78.8%-91.1%). The mortality rate for people with very high viremia and high baseline creatinine levels (110 mcmol/L or more) was 97%.. Among 55 subjects with moderate ...
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Vaccination with UNISTRAIN® PRRS significantly reduced the viral load in sera, the number of viraemic piglets and the length of the viraemia after a heterologous PRRS challenge with a pathogenic Spanish strain. Moreover, vaccination with UNISTRAIN® PRRS significantly reduced the amount of virus excreted, the number of piglets excreting virus and also the duration of viral excretion in saliva after challenge. Therefore, UNISTRAIN® PRRS is a useful tool to reduce the transmission of PRRS virus within and between pig populations.. ...
Background: Interferon-α (IFN-α) treatment suppresses HIV-1 viremia and reduces the size of the HIV-1 latent reservoir. Therefore, investigation of the molecular and immunologic effects of IFN-α may provide insights that contribute to the development of ...
Background: Interferon-α (IFN-α) treatment suppresses HIV-1 viremia and reduces the size of the HIV-1 latent reservoir. Therefore, investigation of the molecular and immunologic effects of IFN-α may provide insights that contribute to the development of ...
Factors determining the course of BK viral (BKV) infection remain uncertain. We studied the role of BKV subtype distribution in BKV-infected patients after renal transplantation.-. We performed genotyping of BKV subtypes in 180 BKV-infected renal transplant recipients with BKV nephropathy (BKVN, n=69), BKV viremia (n=94), BKV viruria alone (n=17), and in 29 healthy adults and 11 dialysis patients with spontaneous BKV replication in urine. We then tested, if the frquency of certain subtypes corresponded to the severity of the infection: BKV nephropathy, BKV high viremia (,10000 copies/mL), or BKV low viremia (,10000 copies/mL). -. Ib-2 was the most frequent BKV subtype (135/220. 61%) and subtype IV the second in frequency (50/220, 23%); Ib-1 (10%), Ia (5%), II and III (1%) were less frequent. Subtype IV-infected patients had more often BKVN and/or high viremia of ,10000 copies/mL than patients with other subtypes (31/38 versus 78/125, p=0.02). Patients with low viremia of ,10000 copies/mL were ...
A persistent tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in an immune-suppressed patient is presented. Such an unusual clinical case offers the unique chance of detecting persistent viremia associated to the erythrocyte fraction and shedding of the virus in the urine for more than six weeks. The infection occurred in a new area of the Friuli Venezia-Giulia region (North Eastern Italy) where two additional cases are also being reported.. ...
BACKGROUND. Several studies have reported on an association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody status and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the role of HCV viremia and genotype are not well defined.. METHODS. Patients with at least three serum creatinine measurements after 1 January 2004 and known HCV antibody status were included. Baseline was defined as the first eligible estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (Cockcroft-Gault equation), and CKD was either a confirmed (,3 months apart) eGFR of 60 ml/min per 1.73 m or less for patients with a baseline eGFR more than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m or a confirmed 25% decline in eGFR for patients with a baseline eGFR of 60 ml/min per 1.73 m or less. Incidence rates of CKD were compared between HCV groups (anti-HCV-negative, anti-HCV-positive with or without viremia) using Poisson regression.. RESULTS. Of 8235 patients with known anti-HCV status, 2052 (24.9%) were anti-HCV-positive of whom 983 (47.9%) were HCV-RNA-positive, 193 ...
Molecular characterization of the SLA (Swine Leukocyte Antigen) genes is important for understanding the immune responses between swine-donor and human-recipient in course of xenotransplantation. Explanation of association between alleles of SLA class I genes, type of pigs genetic modification, the PERV viral titer, and its subtypes may shed light on the nature of xenograft acceptance or rejection and the safety of xenotransplantation. No significant differences in PERV gag RNA level between transgenic and non-transgenic pigs were noted, likewise the type of applied transgene had no impact on PERV viremia. Type of SLA-1 gene profile may correspond with PERVs level in blood and thereby influence on their infectiveness. Screening tests of pigs should also enable selection of animals with low expression of PERV and exclusion specimens with PERV-C in the genome due to possible recombination between A and C subtypes, which may lead to autoinfection. 31.25% of study specimens shows the presence of ...
Little is known about associations between viral suppression, adherence, and duration of prior viral suppression in sub-Saharan Africa. Study participants were from the UARTO study in Mbarara, Uganda. We fit regression models to characterize relationships between average adherence, treatment interruptions, and rebound viremia (,400 copies/mL) following a previously undetectable result. Our goal was to understand the impact of prior viral suppression on these relationships. 396 participants contributed 2864 quarterly visits. Restricted to periods with average adherence ,50 %, each 10 % increase in adherence reduced the odds of rebound viremia by 74 % [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.26, P = 0.002] and 29 % (AOR = 0.71, P = 0.057) during the first 12 months of suppression and beyond 12 months respectively, interaction term P = 0.018. Among periods with adherence ≥50 %, the risk of rebound viremia decreased with increasing adherence during the first 12 months of viral suppression (AOR = 0.73 for ...
Rajesh Gandhi and colleagues detect no significant reduction in viral load after people with low-level HIV viremia had an integrase inhibitor added to their treatment regimen
FREE FULLTEXT Lester, Richard T; Yao, Xiao-Dan; Ball, T Blake; McKinnon, Lyle R; Kaul, Rupert; Wachihi, Charles; Jaoko, Walter; Plummer, Francis A; Rosenthal, Kenneth L Free Access Article Outline Abstract Objectives: Toll-like receptors (TLR) are important in pathogen recognition and may play a role in HIV disease. We evaluated the effect of chronic untreated and…
It remains controversial whether current antiretroviral therapy (ART) fully suppresses the cycles of HIV replication and viral evolution in vivo. If replication persists in sanctuary sites such as the lymph nodes, a high priority should be placed on improving ART regimes to target these sites. To investigate the question of ongoing viral replication on current ART regimens, we analyzed HIV populations in longitudinal samples from 10 HIV-1-infected children who initiated ART when viral diversity was low. Eight children started ART at less than ten months of age and showed suppression of plasma viremia for seven to nine years. Two children had uncontrolled viremia for fifteen and thirty months, respectively, before viremia suppression, and served as positive controls for HIV replication and evolution. These latter 2 children showed clear evidence of virus evolution, whereas multiple methods of analysis bore no evidence of virus evolution in any of the 8 children with viremia suppression on ART. ...
The evolution of the HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response in patients receiving potent combination therapy has been well documented in adult patients. However, no study reported whether baseline HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response is linked to treatment outcome. The aims of this study were to investigate both the impact of baseline memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) on treatment outcome and the effect of potent therapy on memory HIV-specific CTL in HIV-1-infected pediatric patients. The study group comprised 30 children who started a first-line combination treatment including at least three drugs from two different classes and were longitudinally followed during treatment. Their memory HIV-specific responses were measured at baseline and during treatment, as well as their plasma viremia and CD4+ levels. The intensity of memory Gag-specific CTL and the breadth of the CTL response at the beginning of treatment were significantly correlated with lower plasma viral load during treatment, independently of
In evaluating current combination drug regimens for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, it is important to determine the existence of viral reservoirs. After depletion of CD8 cells from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of both patients and normal donors, activation of patient CD4 lymphocytes with immobilized antibodies to CD3 and CD28 enabled the isolation of virus from PBMCs of six patients despite the suppression of their plasma HIV RNA to fewer than 50 copies per milliliter for up to 2 years. Partial sequencing of HIV pol revealed no new drug resistance mutations or discernible evolution, providing evidence for viral latency rather than drug failure. ...
Despite the combined antiretroviral therapy has improved the length and quality of life of HIV infected patients, the survival of these patients is always decreased compared with the general population. This is the consequence of non-infectious illnesses including cardio vascular diseases. In fact large studies have indicated an increased risk of coronary atherosclerotic disease, myocardial infarction even in HIV patients on cART. In HIV infected patients several factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular problems: life-style, metabolic parameters, genetic predisposition, viral factors, immune activation, chronic inflammation and side effects of antiretroviral therapy. The same factors may also contribute to complicate the clinical management of these patients. Therefore, treatment of these non-infectious illnesses in HIV infected population is an emerging challenge for physicians. The purpose of this review is to focus on the new insights in non AIDS-related cardiovascular diseases in
Nobivac FeLV is a feline leukemia vaccine labeled to prevent persistent viremia for 2 years after vaccination. Also aids in the prevention of lymphoid tumors.
All acute hepatitis infections will have DNA or RNA in the serum. The TMA goes down to 5 copies but is not necessary to make the diagnosis. The viral loads during acute infections are extremely...
Moraka NO, Moyo S, Mayondi G, Leidner J, Ibrahim M, Smith C, Weinberg A, Li S, Thami PK, Kammerer B, Ajibola G, Musonda R, Shapiro R, Gaseitsiwe S, Lockman S. Cytomegalovirus Viremia in HIV-1 Subtype C Positive Women at Delivery in Botswana and Adverse Birth/Infant Health Outcomes. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019 05 01; 81(1):118-124 ...
CMVQN : Detection and quantification of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia   Monitoring CMV disease progression and response to antiviral therapy
2.7 × 10-77) between the initial viremia of survivors (4.02 log10 genome equivalents [GEQ]/ml) and nonsurvivors (6.18 log10 GEQ/ml). At the population level, patient viral loads were higher on average in July than in November, even when accounting for outcome and time since onset of symptoms. This decrease in viral loads temporally correlated with an increase in circulating EBOV-specific IgG antibodies among individuals who were suspected of being infected but shown to be negative for the virus by PCR.. CONCLUSIONS. Our results indicate that initial viremia is associated with outcome of the individual and outbreak duration; therefore, care must be taken in planning clinical trials and interventions. Additional research in virus adaptation and the impacts of host factors on EBOV transmission and pathogenesis is needed.. ...
Data were presented at the Annual Meeting of the European Society of Gene and Cell Therapy (ESGCT and SETGyC Collaborative Congress) which is being held in Madrid from October 25-28, 2013.. These data demonstrate that sustained functional control of HIV in the absence of ART is possible with a single SB-728-T treatment, stated Geoff Nichol, M.B., Ch.B., Sangamos executive vice president of research and development. Our aim is to provide a population of immune memory cells that are protected from HIV infection and are capable of generating an effective immune response against the virus throughout the body. These data represent a further step toward demonstrating the efficacy and durability of this therapeutic approach.. Dr. Nichol added, We continue to follow these Cohort 5 subjects and look forward to presenting a complete data set from this study, and a second ongoing trial (SB-728-1101), designed to maximize the engraftment of SB-728-T in subjects who are not CCR5 delta-32 heterozygotes, ...
The initial antibody response to HIV-1 is targeted to envelope (Env) gp41, and is nonneutralizing and ineffective in controlling viremia. To understand the origins and characteristics of gp41-binding antibodies produced ...
A few years back, I had it bad. I was clinically depressed, and all of the sorrows and tortured issues of my life came flooding back to me, and I wanted to die. I just wanted everything to be over. I wanted to lose all the pain and heartache and self-pity. And one domino kept knocking down another. A girl rejected me. A friend abandoned me. A test was nearly too hard for me. And things just got worse and worse and worse, till I very sternly questioned what it was that made me get out of bed and bother to be alive ...
BK viremia load > 185 000 copies/ml at the time of first positive BKV diagnosis - to be the strongest predictor for BKVAN (97% ...
Viral Infection is viremia. Malaria and trypanosomiasis are blood-borne parasitic infections. Substances other than oxygen can ...
In 95% of cases only a primary, transient presence of viremia (virus in the bloodstream) occurs, and the poliovirus infection ... All theories require primary viremia. The first hypothesis predicts that virions pass directly from the blood into the central ... The sustained viral replication causes secondary viremia and leads to the development of minor symptoms such as fever, headache ...
In 2002, spring viraemia struck an ornamental koi farm in Kernersville, North Carolina, and required complete depopulation of ... mitchkoi.co.uk Spring Viremia of Carp. Impact Worksheet•17 July 2002 "Blackwater Creek Koi Farms". koisale.com. Lee, Richard (3 ... which causes spring viraemia of carp (SVC). No treatment is known for either disease. Some koi farms in Israel use the KV3 ...
De Harven, E; Friend, C (1966). "Origin of the viremia in murine leukemia". National Cancer Institute Monograph. 22: 79-105. ...
2006). "Vesivirus viremia and seroprevalence in humans". J. Med. Virol. 30 (8): 693-701. doi:10.1002/jmv.20594. PMC 7166889. ...
They develop tremendous viremia and infect the ticks. The vector for disease transmission is Haemaphysalis spinigera, a forest ... Upadhyaya, S.; Narasimha Murthy, D. P.; Yashodhara Murthy, B. K. (July 1975). "Viraemia studies on the Kyasanur Forest Disease ...
Subsequent replication occurs in other organs, leading to viremia. Symptoms in horses occur 1-3 weeks after infection, and ...
Fever occurs with the onset of viremia, and the level of virus in the blood correlates with the intensity of symptoms in the ... When IgM, an antibody that is a response to the initial exposure to an antigen, appears in the blood, viremia begins to ... during which viremia occurs, followed by a convalescent stage lasting approximately ten days, during which symptoms improve and ... Laboratory criteria include a decreased lymphocyte count consistent with viremia. However a definitive laboratory diagnosis can ...
The viremia arises because LDV lyses the cell after replication. The virus is most commonly found in the liver, spleen, lymph ... Because the virus causes persistent viremia, virus in the bloodstream, it can be spread by blood-sucking ectoparasites. This is ... LDV specifically causes lifelong persistent viremia in mice, but doesn't really harm the host and only slightly harms the ...
The virus isolation in cell culture is effective during viremia. RT-PCR helps to identify virus. Serology tests detect ...
Viremia was recorded seven days after the onset of fever; this is a longer period of viremia than what is normally observed in ... With viraemia lasting 1 to 3 days, they are easily able to spread the virus to vectors including Culicoides midges and Aedes, ... There is a quick period of viraemia before seroconversion and the infection is cleared quickly by the animal's immune system. ...
Viremia (the presence of the virus in the blood) is rare. The virus is shed in saliva and eye and nasal secretions, and can ...
"Human Polyomavirus 7-Associated Pruritic Rash and Viremia in Transplant Recipients". Journal of Infectious Diseases. 211 (10): ...
"Chronic Fatigue Syndrome after Human Parvovirus B19 Infection without Persistent Viremia". Dermatology. 216 (4): 341-6. doi: ...
Its first album under the new name was h.IV+ (Hoarse Industrial Viremia), released in 2008. After five years, in 2013 band's ... Hoarse Industrial Viremia) (2007) Loftus, Johnny "...and Oceans Biography", Allmusic, Macrovision Corporation Jeffries, Vincent ...
Driggers, Rita W. (30 March 2016). "Zika Virus Infection with Prolonged Maternal Viremia and Fetal Brain Abnormalities". New ... "Zika Virus Infection with Prolonged Maternal Viremia and Fetal Brain Abnormalities," which documents the destruction of a fetal ...
"Recovery of replication-competent HIV despite prolonged suppression of plasma viremia" (PDF). Science. 278: 1291-95. doi: ...
Experimental infections of cattle produced viremia, but no observable signs of illness. BHV, BAV, SWBV and TIBV were isolated ...
"Absence of Detectable HIV-1 Viremia after Treatment Cessation in an Infant". The New England Journal of Medicine. 369 (19): ...
The antibody reaction plays an important role in decreasing levels of viremia. Bunyavirus morphology is somewhat similar to ...
Antibiotic prophylaxis Dental antibiotic prophylaxis Fungemia Viremia Viscoli, C (2 April 2016). "Bloodstream Infections: The ...
Whatever the route, maternal viremia seems a likely prerequisite for transplacental infection. Neither macroscopic nor ...
2010). "Evaluation of Fluoroquinolones for the Prevention of BK Viremia after Renal Transplantation". Clinical Journal of the ...
... early after primo-infection has been correlated with the control of HIV-1 viremia. The virus which escapes this CTL response ... "Temporal association of cellular immune responses with the initial control of viremia in primary human immunodeficiency virus ... "Virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity associated with control of viremia in primary human immunodeficiency virus ... "Vigorous HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cell responses associated with control of viremia". Science. 278 (5342): 1447-1450. Bibcode: ...
On June 10th, 2020 Galidesivir abrogates viremia in Zika virus-infected rhesus Macaques. [1] Galidesivir is one of several ...
"First report of spring viremia of carp virus in Percocypris pingi in China". Aquaculture. 493: 214-218. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... called viremia. Viremia lasts for 7-10 days, during which MuV spreads throughout the body. In mumps orchitis, infection leads ... or it may occur as a result of inner ear infection via viremia that leads to inflammation in the endolymph. Hearing loss may ...
In late hemorrhagic cases, high and sustained viremia, severe platelet loss and poor immune response were often cited as causes ... Circulating immune complexes, overwhelming viremia, or an uncontrolled immune response may be contributing factors. In early ... a condition known as viremia. This resulted in a second wave of multiplication in the spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. The ... and severe symptoms of viremia. The prodromal symptoms continued even after the onset of rash. The rash on the mucous membranes ...
High viremia is also associated with exacerbated type I INF response and worse prognosis. Diabetes, hypertension, and ...
Primary viremia refers to the initial spread of virus in the blood from the first site of infection. Secondary viremia occurs ... Vaccination must be done before secondary viremia takes place for the individual to avoid brain damage or death. Active viremia ... Viremia is a medical condition where viruses enter the bloodstream and hence have access to the rest of the body. It is similar ... Usually secondary viremia results in higher viral shedding and viral loads within the bloodstream due to the possibility that ...
Viremia occurs when a virus infects the bloodstream. In this article, learn about the types of viruses, symptoms, causes, and ... Primary viremia: This is when the virus enters the bloodstream.. *Secondary viremia: This is when viremia has caused an ... Sometimes the name of the related viral infection is listed to further describe cases of viremia, such as HIV-viremia or West ... Is viremia contagious? What you need to know. Medically reviewed by Jill Seladi-Schulman, Ph.D. - Written by Jennifer Huizen on ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=viraemia&oldid=44456109" ...
h.IV+ (Hoarse Industrial Viremia) is the fifth studio album by Finnish industrial experimental black metal band, Havoc Unit ( ...
A fathead minnow experimentally infected with SVCV by intraperitoneal injection displaying clinical signs of disease. Pop-eye and external hemorrhaging on lower body cavity. ...
Listen to Project Viremia Radio free online. Listen to free internet radio, sports, music, news, talk and podcasts. Stream live ...
Can viremia levels be high in organs like liver or testes and remain undetectable in blood? Are these lower viremia levels ... viremia. Feb 3, 2003 If there is a simultaneous co-infection with more than one pathogen (HIV and HepC for instance), what ... Is it the initial immunincompetence and delayed seroconversion that also keeps viremia low until much later? ... causes lower viremia levels during acute co-infection? ...
Cytomegalovirus-encoded β chemokine promotes monocyte-associated viremia in the host. Noah Saederup, Yu chun Lin, Daniel J. ... Cytomegalovirus-encoded β chemokine promotes monocyte-associated viremia in the host. Noah Saederup, Yu chun Lin, Daniel J. ... C) Levels of viremia after co-infection with K181+ and RM4485. Mice were co-inoculated by the i.p. route with a 1:1 mixture of ... 3B) or lacZ-tagged control RM427+ virus (data not shown). RM4485 peak viremia was similar to that previously reported for RM461 ...
Typical clinical signs of SVC disease, exopthalmia and abdominal distension with hemorrhaging seen in a virus-exposed fathead minnow. ...
The source of this viremia is an area of debate: ... ... Residual Viremia in Treated HIV+Individuals. *Conway J. * ... Conway, J. M., & Perelson, A. S. (2016). Residual Viremia in Treated HIV+Individuals. PLoS Computational Biology, 12(1). https ... The source of this viremia is an area of debate: does it derive primarily from activation of infected cells in the latent ... We use simple deterministic and stochastic models to gain insight into residual viremia dynamics in HIV-infected patients. Our ...
... plural viraemias) 1. (medicine) The condition or disease of having a virus in the bloodstream. Origin From Latin virus ( ... "viraemia." YourDictionary, n.d. Web. 06 December 2018. ,https://www.yourdictionary.com/viraemia,. ... viraemia. (n.d.). Retrieved December 06th, 2018, from https://www.yourdictionary.com/viraemia ...
Zika Virus Infection with Prolonged Maternal Viremia and Fetal Brain Abnormalities.. Driggers RW1, Ho CY1, Korhonen EM1, ...
HBV/HCV viremia. Apr 11, 2002 1- In acute HBV/HIV co-infection is HBV DNA always detectable in serum? ...
The length of viremia and the proportion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected during measles were investigated ... Measles viremia is thought to peak at onset of rash and diminish rapidly over the subsequent 2-3 days. ... Measles viremia is thought to peak at onset of rash and diminish rapidly over the subsequent 2-3 days. The length of viremia ... Degree and length of viremia in adults with measles J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):421-4. doi: 10.1093/infdis/166.2.421. ...
Intermittent HIV-1 viremia (Blips) and drug resistance in patients receiving HAART.. Nettles RE1, Kieffer TL, Kwon P, Monie D, ... Patients had suppression of viremia to below 50 copies/mL while receiving a stable antiretroviral regimen for 6 months or ... and receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy experience intermittent episodes of detectable viremia ("blips"), which may ... mean steady-state HIV-1 RNA levels slightly below 50 copies/mL rather than biologically significant elevations in viremia. ...
Induction Related BK Viremia in Renal Transplant Patients. Official Title The Induction Agent Effect on BK Viremia in Renal and ... BK Virus Viremia titer, ,400 copies by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) [ Time Frame: One year ]. BKVV (BK Visus Viremia) titer ... Induction Related BK Viremia in Renal Transplant Patients (BK). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... to Simulect and now patients were enrolled in this observational trial to gather data on their outcomes related to BK viremia ...
The prevalence of enterovirus viraemia detected in this study predicts that at least 1000 enterovirus-contaminated blood ... Detection of enterovirus viraemia in blood donors Vox Sang. 2001 May;80(4):211-5. doi: 10.1046/j.1423-0410.2001.00035.x. ... We have measured the frequency of viraemia of enteroviruses and parechoviruses in 83 600 Scottish blood donors to allow an ... Conclusions: The prevalence of enterovirus viraemia detected in this study predicts that at least 1000 enterovirus-contaminated ...
Comparisons between placebo and vaccination or between viremia or no viremia shown. n = 3. ... Alternatively, data were stratified using outcome post transplant (B, D, F, and H) to assess impact of responses on viremia. ... Protection from cytomegalovirus viremia following glycoprotein B vaccination is not dependent on neutralizing antibodies. Ilona ... Reduced posttransplant viremia was directly correlated with antibody titers against gB consistent with a humoral response ...
BK Virus Infection (Viremia) Natural History in Renal Transplant Recipients. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... BK Virus Infection (Viremia) Natural History in Renal Transplant Recipients Official Title Natural History of Infection Caused ... Incidence of BKV Viremia in the Study Population of Screened Renal or Renal-pancreas Transplant Subjects [ Time Frame: within 4 ... We will measure the number of subjects screened who develops BK viremia within 4 weeks and up to 24 months after renal ...
Background Individuals with HIV infection exhibit high cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG levels, but there are few data regarding the association of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with the immune response against CMV. Methods Associations of HCV with CMV seropositivity and CMV IgG levels were studied in 635 HIV-infected women, 187 of whom were HCV-seropositive, with adjustment in multivariable models for age, race/ethnicity, and HIV disease characteristics. Eighty one percent of the women reported receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) prior to or at CMV testing. Results In adjusted models women with chronic HCV had higher CMV IgG levels than those without HCV RNA (β = 2.86, 95% CI:0.89 - 4.83; P = 0.004). The association of HCV RNA with CMV IgG differed by age (Pinteraction = 0.0007), with a strong association observed among women in the low and middle age tertiles (≤45.3 years of age; β = 6.21, 95% CI:3.30 - 9.11, P|0.0001) but not among women in the high age tertile. CMV IgG levels were not
Correction: Corrigendum: Viraemia suppressed in HIV-1-infected humans by broadly neutralizing antibody 3BNC117. *Marina Caskey ...
Recovery of Replication-Competent HIV Despite Prolonged Suppression of Plasma Viremia. By Joseph K. Wong, Marjan Hezareh, ... Recovery of Replication-Competent HIV Despite Prolonged Suppression of Plasma Viremia. By Joseph K. Wong, Marjan Hezareh, ... Recovery of Replication-Competent HIV Despite Prolonged Suppression of Plasma Viremia Message Subject. (Your Name) has ...
Other: HCV viremia testing approaches Blood draw and HCV viremia testing is done at point of service (Intervention A) Blood ... Other: HCV viremia testing approaches Blood draw and HCV viremia testing is done at point of service (Intervention A) Blood ... Cost of HCV confirmatory viremia testing approach [ Time Frame: 6 months ]. Costs of HCV viremia testing approaches from a ... Evaluation of HCV Viremia Testing Approaches Among PWID in Georgia (HEAD-Start). The safety and scientific validity of this ...
Persistent low-level viremia among people living with HIV who are adhering to treatment is a challenging issue for clinicians, ... Is low-level viremia common? Low level viremia is common enough that every experienced HIV clinician has seen at least one - ... Does low-level viremia in HIV patients put them at greater risk for treatment failure , or does it increase the risk for ... What are the causes of persistent low-level viremia? It is a very complicated topic. There are a variety of risk factors for ...
Rajesh Gandhi and colleagues detect no significant reduction in viral load after people with low-level HIV viremia had an ... These findings suggest that residual viremia might be due to the release of HIV from stable reservoirs. If so, new therapeutic ... Rajesh Gandhi and colleagues detect no significant reduction in viral load after people with low-level HIV viremia had an ... However, despite ART, residual viremia (virus in the blood) still occurs in HIV-positive individuals. The origin of this low- ...
Control of Viremia in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection by CD8+ Lymphocytes. By Jörn E. Schmitz, Marcelo J. Kuroda, Sampa ... Control of Viremia in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection by CD8+ Lymphocytes. By Jörn E. Schmitz, Marcelo J. Kuroda, Sampa ... Control of Viremia in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection by CD8+ Lymphocytes Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Eliminating CD8+ lymphocytes from monkeys during chronic SIV infection resulted in a rapid and marked increase in viremia that ...
Blutt SE, Kirkwood CD, Parreno V, Warfield KL, Ciarlet M, Estes MK, Rotavirus antigenaemia and viraemia: a common event? Lancet ... Blutt SE, Matson DO, Crawford SE, Staat MA, Azimi P, Bennett BL, Rotavirus antigenemia in children is associated with viremia. ... Detection of enterovirus viraemia in blood donors. Vox Sang. 2001;80:211-5. DOIPubMed ... Astrovirus MLB2 Viremia in Febrile Child. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(11):2050-2052. doi:10.3201/eid1711.110496.. ...
viremia answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, ... viremia is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please sign in or purchase a ... "Viremia." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/ ... Tabers-Dictionary/741135/all/viremia. Viremia. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. ...
Viraemia Brain Drill Slaughterbox Burning The Masses Internal Suffering Brazen Bull Reflections King Conquer Desecravity Henker ... People who like Viraemia might also like these artists.. The closer two names are, the greater the probability people will like ...
  • Many cases of viremia are mild or harmless, but if the infection becomes severe or affects the vital organs, it may lead to organ failure or sepsis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The symptoms of viremia often depend on the cause of the infection, but many viral infections cause a similar set of symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This is when viremia has caused an infection in another organ or tissue by spreading through the bloodstream. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sometimes the name of the related viral infection is listed to further describe cases of viremia, such as HIV-viremia or West Nile-viremia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Primary viremia refers to the initial spread of virus in the blood from the first site of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary viremia occurs when primary viremia has resulted in infection of additional tissues via bloodstream, in which the virus has replicated and once more entered the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral replication then leads to viremia and the virus spreads to its secondary site of infection, the central nervous system (CNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon infection of the CNS, secondary viremia results and symptoms usually begin. (wikipedia.org)
  • If there is a simultaneous co-infection with more than one pathogen (HIV and HepC for instance), what causes lower viremia levels during acute co-infection? (thebody.com)
  • Zika Virus Infection with Prolonged Maternal Viremia and Fetal Brain Abnormalities. (nih.gov)
  • Those typically are people who have had very high viral loads before treatment, or have long-term HIV infection with years of uncontrolled viremia - mostly the former. (healio.com)
  • Eliminating CD8 + lymphocytes from monkeys during chronic SIV infection resulted in a rapid and marked increase in viremia that was again suppressed coincident with the reappearance of SIV-specific CD8 + T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • This is a single-arm non-randomized single institution phase 2 trial, designed to evaluate the therapeutic activity of CMVpp65-CTLs generated from seropositive HSCT donors when adoptively transferred into transplant recipients with persistent CMV infection or viremia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients eligible for this trial will be consenting recipients of related or unrelated HSCT who have an active CMV infection or persistent CMV viremia for ≥ 2 weeks despite treatment with anti-viral agents or who cannot be maintained on anti-viral therapy due to treatment related toxicity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The patient must have microbiological evidence of CMV viremia or tissue invasion as attested by viral culture, or detection of levels of CMV DNA in the blood or body fluids consistent with CMV infection. (cancer.gov)
  • The patient's CMV infection is clinically progressing or CMV viremia is persistent or increasing (as evidenced by quantitation of CMV DNA in the blood) despite two weeks induction therapy with antiviral drugs. (cancer.gov)
  • The patient has developed CMV viremia as attested by viral culture, or detection of levels of CMV DNA in blood or body fluids while receiving prophylactic doses of antiviral drugs to prevent CMV infection post transplant. (cancer.gov)
  • To investigate the dynamics of parvovirus viraemia in asymptomatic blood donors, we studied the amounts of parvovirus DNA in pools of donor plasma, the prevalence of parvovirus antibodies among blood donors in relation to age, and the seasonal and year-to-year variation of the incidence of parvovirus infection in The Netherlands. (open.ac.uk)
  • It is unclear how often chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) appears after human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection and whether prolonged B19 viremia or some other factors cause CFS. (karger.com)
  • Viral dynamics of primary viremia and antiretroviral therapy in simian immunodeficiency virus infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The calculated clearance half-life for productively infected cells during resolution of the peak viremia of primary infection was on the order of 1 day, with slightly shorter clearance half-lives calculated during PMPA treatment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Given the limited evidence that resting CD4+ T cell infection (RCI) is affected by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA), we measured the stability of RCI and residual viremia in patients who added VPA with or without raltegravir (RAL), or enfuvirtide (ENF) with or without VPA, to standard ART. (harvard.edu)
  • Mean viremia titers for juvenile, subadult and adult chipmunks responding to LAC infection were 3.0, 2.9 and 3.2 log 10 SMICLD 50 /0.025 ml, respectively. (ajtmh.org)
  • The goal of diagnosing and managing BK viremia early in the course of active infection is to prevent the progressive allograft failure that is highly associated with polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PyVAN). (asnjournals.org)
  • This study therefore aims to describe the clinical characteristics of ZIKV infection and its correlation to viremia and other laboratory investigations, as observed during the ZIKV outbreak in Singapore. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As clinical symptoms such as fever are known to correlate with viremia for other arbovirus infections such as dengue, we hypothesised that a similar correlation might exist for ZIKV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We adapted the Abbott Molecular m2000 instrument for high-throughput HCV viremia testing using DBSs with simple specimen processing and applied these methods to estimate the national burden of infection in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Incidence of persistent viraemia and latent feline leukaemia virus infection in cats with lymphoma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • All sheep vaccinated with the two MLVs mounted an infectious viraemia lasting for a minimum of 9 up to 23 days post vaccination and developed a range of clinical signs associated with BTV infection. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Peak viraemia titres recorded in individual sheep ranged from 3.5 to 6.83 log(10)TCID(50)/ml indicating a high potential for infection of vector insects and onward transmission. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Experimental infection of the langur and the bonnet macaque with early mouse passage KFDV strain P9605 resulted in a viremia of up to 11 days duration, peak viremia titers as high as 10 9, and death in 82 = 100% of the animals. (elsevier.com)
  • Shah, KV, Dandawate, CN & Bhatt, PN 2012, ' Kyasanur forest disease virus: Viremia and challenge studies in monkeys with evidence of cross-protection by Langat virus infection ', F1000Research , vol. 1, 61. (elsevier.com)
  • Infection with HIV-1 variants with attenuated replicative capacity cannot be a general factor accounting for undetectable viraemia in HIV controllers. (pasteur.fr)
  • The consistent relationship between Gag-specific immune responses and viremia control suggests that T cell responses are vital in determining the superior outcome of HIV-2 infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Plasma phase viremia in canine distemper virus infection. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Plasma phase viremia in canine distemper virus infection. (elsevier.com)
  • Recently, multiple reports have demonstrated the evidence of extra-intestinal infection of PAstVs, but little is known about viremia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viremia, bacteremia and parasitemia are all forms of sepsis ( bloodstream infection ). (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is an infectious viral disease of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and other cyprinid fish species. (thefishsite.com)
  • Links== *[http://www.efishbusiness.com/news/040513.pdf Defra ] - Isolation of Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus PDF file. (theaquariumwiki.com)
  • http://www.defra.gov.uk/fish/fishfarm/pdf/keepout-springviraemia.pdf Defra ] - A guide to protecting freshwater fish stocks from spring viraemia of carp. (theaquariumwiki.com)
  • Spring Viraemia of Carp (SVC), also known as catfish infectious ascites, is an acute, hemorrhagic infectious septicaemia. (scirp.org)
  • Postchallenge enzyme-linked immunospot values for Gag and Env as well as gag -specific T-helper responses correlated with control of viremia. (asm.org)
  • Temporal association of cellular immune responses with the initial control of viremia in primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 syndrome. (asm.org)
  • Patients had suppression of viremia to below 50 copies/mL while receiving a stable antiretroviral regimen for 6 months or longer. (nih.gov)
  • If additional studies show that residual viraemia measured by SCA reflects the size of the latent reservoir in patients who have had virological suppression for longer periods of time, this could facilitate testing of potentially curative strategies to reduce this important reservoir. (actgnetwork.org)
  • 50 %, each 10 % increase in adherence reduced the odds of rebound viremia by 74 % [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.26, P = 0.002] and 29 % (AOR = 0.71, P = 0.057) during the first 12 months of suppression and beyond 12 months respectively, interaction term P = 0.018. (msf.org)
  • Among periods with adherence ≥50 %, the risk of rebound viremia decreased with increasing adherence during the first 12 months of viral suppression (AOR = 0.73 for each 10 % increase, P = 0.001), but not thereafter (AOR = 1.09, P = 0.67), interaction term P = 0.027. (msf.org)
  • Completing 12 months of viral suppression decreases the impact of average adherence, but not prolonged treatment interruptions, on risk of rebound viremia. (msf.org)
  • In a 2017 blog post, Paul E. Sax, MD, clinical director of the HIV program and the division of infectious diseases at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, responded to a clinician caring for a patient who was experiencing persistent low-level viremia despite adherence to medication. (healio.com)
  • In 4 of the 6 patients this lack of effect might be attributed to intermittent viremia, low VPA levels, or intermittent study therapy adherence. (harvard.edu)
  • Incomplete adherence to antiretroviral therapy is associated with higher levels of residual HIV-1 viremia. (msf.org)
  • Throwing more drugs at this low-level viremia on treatment doesn't lower the viral load further. (thebodypro.com)
  • In high-income countries, with stricter viral load cut-off (50 copies/mL), detectable viral load below 1000 copies/mL during ART (low-level viraemia) has been linked to treatment failure. (i-base.info)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/741135/all/viremia. (tabers.com)
  • Data are mixed whether this low-level viremia is associated with higher levels of inflammation and immune activation markers, but you can't do much about that even if it's true. (thebodypro.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Low-level viremia and proviral DNA impede immune reconstitution in HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Our data show that the combinations of DNA vaccines producing native and modified forms of antigens elicit more balanced immune responses able to significantly reduce viremia for a long period (8 months) following pathogenic challenge with SIVmac251. (asm.org)
  • Maintaining a low to non-existent PCV2 viremia level can enable the immune system to help fight other diseases more effectively and allow animals to grow more successfully,' explains Neuberger. (pigprogress.net)
  • Triplex elicited and amplified CMV-specific immune responses, and fewer Triplex-vaccinated patients had CMV viremia. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • In contrast, similar maneuvers that deplete the CD20+ cells central to humoral immune responses fail to produce comparable effects on viremia [9] . (prolekare.cz)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first study to prospectively compare multiple measures of innate and adaptive immune responses in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with CMV viremia. (oup.com)
  • The strongest immune correlates with protection against CMV viremia in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are reconstitution of CMV-specific T cell memory responses (LPA) and recovery of natural killer cell function. (oup.com)
  • The magnitude of the IFN-γ immune response to the HIV-2 proteome was inversely correlated with HIV-2 viremia, and this relationship was specifically due to the targeting of Gag. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Absence of reproducibly detectable low-level HIV viremia in highly exposed seronegative men and women. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Richard Nettles and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University and the Howard Hughes Medical centre, Maryland, USA, conclude from a study of 21 patients who had persistent, detectable, low level viraemia while on highly active antiretroviral therapy, that there is a need to improve the sensitivity of clinical assays for the detection of drug resistance. (i-base.info)
  • They performed ultra sensitive HIV-1 genotyping for 21 patients with persistent plasma virus loads of 50-400 copies/mL to better define the prevalence of drug resistance and the most common resistance mutations during persistently detectable low-level viraemia. (i-base.info)
  • The authors conclude: "Because persistent, detectable, low-level viraemia has been associated with the development of resistance and the failure of HAART regimens, and because of the technological limitations of commercial genotyping laboratories, clinicians currently have to make educated guesses as to the presence of resistance in HIV-1 isolates from patients with low-level viraemia. (i-base.info)
  • This study used novel ultra sensitive genotype assays at the clonal level to confirm that detectable, low-level viraemia is frequently, but not always, associated with resistance. (i-base.info)
  • Genotypic resistance in HIV-1-infected patients with persistently detectable low-level viraemia while receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. (i-base.info)
  • Furthermore, patients with undetectable viremia had greater Gag-specific responses compared with patients with high viral replication. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Vaccination must be done before secondary viremia takes place for the individual to avoid brain damage or death. (wikipedia.org)
  • So now the debate centers on the importance of the PCV2 viraemia levels, as these are still apparent under field conditions after vaccination. (pigprogress.net)
  • The debate will center on the influence of Maternally Derived Antibodies (MDA) at the time of vaccination, on the efficiency of vaccination, and on the impact of PCV2 viraemia on performance. (pigprogress.net)
  • Vaccination was accompanied by prolonged viraemia with the varicella vaccine strain - also, we believe, the first report of this in an immunocompetent patient. (mja.com.au)
  • Vaccination significantly reduced PCV2d viremia (VAC + CHAL) at dpc 14 and 21, PCV2d faecal shedding at dpc 14 and 21 and PCV2d nasal shedding at dpc 7, 14 and 21 compared to CHAL pigs. (thepigsite.com)
  • Other studies, using DNA vaccination followed by SIVmne challenge in cynomolgus macaques, identified some animals capable of controlling viremia ( 21 , 42 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Reduction of simian-human immunodeficiency virus 89.6P viremia in rhesus monkeys by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccination. (harvard.edu)
  • The primary outcomes were CMV events (CMV DNA level ≥1250 IU/mL, CMV viremia requiring antiviral treatment, or end-organ disease), nonrelapse mortality, and severe (grade 3 or 4) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), all evaluated through 100 days after HCT, and grade 3 or 4 adverse events (AEs) within 2 weeks after vaccination that were probably or definitely attributable to injection. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Viraemia and clinical disease in Dorset Poll sheep following vaccination with live attenuated bluetongue virus vaccines serotypes 16 and 4. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The objectives of this study is to establish the natural history of BK virus viremia and other possible opportunistic viral pathogens in renal transplants recipients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Poxvirus Vectored Cytomegalovirus Vaccine to Prevent Cytomegalovirus Viremia in Transplant Recipients: A Phase 2, Randomized Clinical Trial. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Thirty-nine kidney transplant recipients with BK viremia were randomly assigned to receive levofloxacin, 500 mg daily, or placebo for 30 days. (asnjournals.org)
  • BK viremia and BK nephropathy develop in about 11%-13% and 8% of kidney transplant recipients, respectively ( 7 , 8 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Among CMV-seropositive recipients, positive CMV-LPA before transplantation correlated with higher risk of developing viremia after transplantation (P=.02). (oup.com)
  • There is a need for multidirectional molecular characterization ( SLA typing, viremia estimation and PERV subtypes screening) of animals intended for xenotransplant research in the interest of xeno-recipients safety. (vetsci.org)
  • Until now, it has been unclear how many patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies have viremia and are thus infectious and how frequently spontaneous HCV elimination occurs [1-3]. (annals.org)
  • Feucht H, Zollner B, Laufs R. Correlation of Hepatitis C Virus Antibodies with Viremia. (annals.org)
  • An Efficient, Large-Scale Survey of Hepatitis C Viremia in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Using Dried Blood Spots. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • peak viremia titers in monkeys decreased by 2.5 to 4.0 log LD 50 (p= 0.001), and the mortality decreased to 10% (p= 0.001). (elsevier.com)
  • Examples include the measles, in which primary viremia occurs in the epithelial lining of the respiratory tract before replicating and budding out of the cell basal layer (viral shedding), resulting in viruses budding into capillaries and blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Predictors of residual viraemia in patients on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy. (harvard.edu)
  • In HIV-1-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), the relationship between residual viraemia and ex vivo recovery of infectious virus from latently infected CD4 cells is uncertain. (actgnetwork.org)
  • We measured residual viraemia (HIV-1 RNA copies/ml) by single-copy assay (SCA) and the latent reservoir by infectious virus recovery from resting memory CD4 cells (infectious units per million cells [IUPM]) in patients who initiated ART. (actgnetwork.org)
  • 200 copies/ml had residual viraemia and IUPM measured every 24 weeks. (actgnetwork.org)
  • Residual viraemia level was positively associated with CD38 density and percentage on CD8+ T-cells in concurrent samples and with pre-ART HIV-1 RNA levels. (actgnetwork.org)
  • Infectious Disease News spoke with Sax about the causes of low-level viremia, the risk for treatment failure or transmission and the impact on long-term outcomes. (healio.com)
  • Residual plasma viraemia and infectious HIV-1 recovery from resting memory CD4 cells in patients on antiretroviral therapy: results from ACTG A5173. (actgnetwork.org)
  • 200 copies/ml 24-96 weeks after initiating ART, the level of viraemia is positively associated with infectious virus recovery from resting memory CD4 cells. (actgnetwork.org)
  • Results Higher viral loads for EBV were significantly associated with high HIV viraemia, a greater number of circulating T CD8+ cells and lack of virological response to the antiretroviral treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Mean viremia titers and durations did not differ significantly among chipmunk age-classes. (ajtmh.org)
  • NS1 positivity was associated with the underlying viraemia as NS1-positive samples had a significantly higher viraemia than NS1-negative samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, after transplantation, reconstitution of CMV-LPA was significantly associated with absence of CMV viremia over 360 days of follow-up (P=.04) and with faster clearance of viremia during individual episodes of CMV reactivation (P=.03). (oup.com)
  • Conclusions: The prospective addition of VPA and RAL, VPA and ENF, or ENF failed to progressively reduce the frequency of RCI, or ablate intermittent and low-level viremia. (harvard.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest HSV viremia is common in ICU patients, potentially favored by immunocompromised status and mechanical ventilation. (inserm.fr)
  • Viremia is a term that describes the presence of viruses in the blood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Viremia is the medical term for when viruses enter the bloodstream. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some viruses can enter the bloodstream, leading to viremia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most viruses can potentially cause viremia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Viremia is a medical condition where viruses enter the bloodstream and hence have access to the rest of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Active viremia is caused by the replication of viruses which results in viruses being introduced into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Passive viremia is the introduction of viruses in the bloodstream without the need of active viral replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this prediction, MCK-1/MCK-2 mutant viruses exhibit dramatically reduced peak levels of monocyte-associated viremia in experimentally infected mice. (pnas.org)
  • Koi and Pond Fish Viruses Koi Herpes Virus, Carp Pox and Spring Viremia of Carp. (koivet.com)
  • Viremia and serological responses in adult chickens infected with western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. (elsevier.com)
  • Adult hens, similar to those used for arbovirus surveillance, were experimentally infected with western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses to describe the viremia response, to compare serological testing methods, and to evaluate a new method of collecting whole blood onto filter paper strips from lancet pricks of the chicken comb. (elsevier.com)
  • Reduced posttransplant viremia was directly correlated with antibody titers against gB consistent with a humoral response against gB being important. (pnas.org)
  • Although no viremia was ever detected in these animals, they showed significant increases in anti-gp140 Ab titers after they had encountered live SHIVs. (harvard.edu)
  • Remarkably, these titers kept rising during the repeated virus challenges, although no viremia resulted. (harvard.edu)
  • Viral blips during suppressive ART are not associated with increased CD8+ T cell activation, suggesting that transient low-level viremia is unlikely to worsen heightened level of CD8+ T cell activation. (natap.org)
  • This finding suggests that transient low-level viremia is unlikely to worsen the heightened level of CD8 cell activation found in HIV+ patients on suppressive ART. (natap.org)
  • Here, we evaluate orally administered selective tolllike receptor 7 agonists GS-986 and GS-9620 for their ability to induce transient viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus monkeys on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. (osti.gov)
  • Young (19 weeks), but not old (38 weeks), hens developed a low-titer, transient viremia for a 1-day period. (elsevier.com)
  • To test the hypothesis that blips represent random biological and statistical variation around mean steady-state HIV-1 RNA levels slightly below 50 copies/mL rather than biologically significant elevations in viremia. (nih.gov)
  • Most blips in this population appear to represent random biological and statistical variation around mean HIV-1 levels below 50 copies/mL rather than clinically significant elevations in viremia. (nih.gov)
  • If patients are truly faithful in taking their treatment and they have no history of resistance, we now know they do not develop resistance to their treatment, especially among those with between 50 and 100 copies/mL - those with really low-level viremia. (healio.com)
  • 10 9 copies parvovirus DNA/ml), followed by viraemia below 10 6 copies/ml for about 2 weeks. (open.ac.uk)
  • Current WHO ART recommendations define failure as viraemia above 1000 copies/mL during treatment. (i-base.info)
  • Low level viraemia was defined as 50-1000 copies/mL and stratified by level: 51-199, 200-399 and 400-999 copies/mL, and duration. (i-base.info)
  • Dr Hermans noted that despite these risks, WHO guidelines do not recommend clinical intervention in cases of repeated low-level viraemia below the cut-off of 1000 copies/mL. (i-base.info)
  • Quantification of human cytomegalovirus viremia by using monoclonal antibodies to different viral proteins. (asm.org)
  • The prevalence of enterovirus viraemia detected in this study predicts that at least 1000 enterovirus-contaminated blood components are transfused per year in the UK. (nih.gov)
  • the weighted country-wide prevalence of HCV viremia was 0.9% (95% CI, 0.3%-1.6%) among adults ≥40 years of age and 0.7% (95% CI, .6%-.8%) among human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The prevalence of PAstVs in most pig herds of China is still poorly documented, especially as little is known about viremia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background: Transiently detectable viremia (viral blip) is common during otherwise suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the immunologic predictors and consequences are incompletely characterized. (natap.org)
  • The average duration of viremia with LAC virus was 2.4, 2.3 and 2.4 days for juveniles, subadults and adults, respectively. (ajtmh.org)
  • The median duration of viremia was 3.5 days (IQR: 3-5 days). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although fever correlated with duration of viremia, 30% of patients remained viremic despite defervescence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The investigators saw a further increase in risk of failure with higher ranges and duration of low-level viraemia. (i-base.info)
  • Viremia is classified into types depending on how the virus infected the bloodstream. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Usually secondary viremia results in higher viral shedding and viral loads within the bloodstream due to the possibility that the virus is able to reach its natural host cell from the bloodstream and replicate more efficiently than the initial site. (wikipedia.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical relevance of herpes simplex virus (HSV) viremia episodes in critically ill adult patients. (inserm.fr)
  • We report an analysis of the correlation of clinical illness with viremia and laboratory parameters in this Asian cohort. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Patients with viremia of ≥ 4 days were more likely to have prolonged fever compared to those with viremia of less than 4 days (95% versus 63%, p = 0.01), but had no significant correlation with other clinical signs and symptoms, or laboratory investigations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, little is known about the correlation between clinical symptoms and signs, as well as laboratory parameters, with viremia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the effect of CPLJ treatment on other parameters that could contribute to dengue pathogenesis such as nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) production and viremia level have never been highlighted in any clinical and in vivo studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Population sequencing was performed for persons identified with persistent low-level viremia in 2 clinical trials. (actgnetwork.org)
  • Clinical signs and viraemia in Dorset Poll sheep vaccinated with BTV-4 and BTV-16 MLVs or inoculated with homogenates of midges (C. sonorensis and C. nubeculosus) previously infected with BTV-4 MLV are presented. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Intermittent HIV-1 viremia (Blips) and drug resistance in patients receiving HAART. (nih.gov)
  • Many patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy experience intermittent episodes of detectable viremia ("blips"), which may raise concerns about drug resistance, lead to costly repeat measurements of viral RNA, and sometimes trigger alterations in therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Intermittent viremia during first-line, protease inhibitors-co. (mysciencework.com)
  • Intermittent viremia during first-line, protease inhibitors-containing therapy: significance and relationship with drug resistance. (mysciencework.com)
  • When piglet vaccines for PCV2 entered the market, first of all in Canada, it was quickly recognised that the level of PCV2 viraemia can be reduced. (pigprogress.net)
  • It also became clear that different vaccines vary in their efficiency of reducing PCV2 viraemia. (pigprogress.net)
  • It is well accepted by all stakeholders in the industry that viraemia can still occur when vaccinated animals are challenged in the field with PCV2 virus. (pigprogress.net)
  • What has become clearer, however, is that controlling PCV2 viraemia in piglets is key in optimising their performance. (pigprogress.net)
  • Veterinarians and pork producers in the United States can now help prevent Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) viraemia with the convenience of a single dose using new Fostera PCV from Pfizer Animal Health. (pigprogress.net)
  • PCV2 viraemia can compromise herd health, performance and kg per pig at market. (pigprogress.net)
  • Are these lower viremia levels below the level of detection for commercially available assays? (thebody.com)
  • Persistent low-level viremia among people living with HIV who are adhering to treatment is a challenging issue for clinicians, and there is not much guidance available. (healio.com)
  • However, some patients have persistent low-level viremia even when the assay has not changed. (healio.com)
  • According to Sax, it can be tough to address concerns about "Undetectable = Untransmittable" because it is not clear if patients with low-level viremia are more likely to transmit HIV compared with people who are undetectable. (healio.com)
  • However, he noted that major HIV studies set the viral threshold higher than levels seen in most patients with low-level viremia, which is "at least somewhat reassuring," Sax wrote. (healio.com)
  • What are the causes of persistent low-level viremia? (healio.com)
  • There are a variety of risk factors for people who have [low-level viremia]. (healio.com)
  • One is that it seems people who have very large HIV reservoirs are more likely to have persistent low-level viremia. (healio.com)
  • In addition, several studies have found that people who were on protease inhibitor-based regimens are more likely to have low-level viremia than people receiving regimens based on integrase inhibitors or on non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). (healio.com)
  • Low level viremia is common enough that every experienced HIV clinician has seen at least one - and usually more than one - patient with this condition, and sometimes a bunch of them. (healio.com)
  • One large study from Spain found that around 4% had low-level viremia. (healio.com)
  • The origin of this low-level residual viremia, and whether intensification of treatment can affect it, is controversial. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers found that the addition of raltegravir to ART for 12 weeks did not demonstrably reduce low-level residual viremia in HIV-positive individuals receiving standard ART. (medindia.net)
  • What Should We Do About Persistent Low-Level Viremia? (thebodypro.com)
  • Because when it comes to persistent low-level viremia in treated HIV patients, there's much agony, gnashing of teeth, and confusion. (thebodypro.com)
  • So here, in a lazy bulleted list, are a bunch of things we know -- and mostly don't know -- about this tricky situation of persistent low-level viremia. (thebodypro.com)
  • There are at least two types of low-level viremia patients. (thebodypro.com)
  • Some studies show low-level viremia is more likely to happen on boosted PI-containing regimens. (thebodypro.com)
  • A piglet with an antibody titre below that level will experience viraemia when challenged, both under laboratory and field conditions. (pigprogress.net)
  • Immunological and virological consequences of low-level viremia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remain to be determined. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These findings indicate that low-level viremia and proviral DNA are intimately associated with the immunological and virological equilibrium in patients receiving HAART. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Low-level viremia was quantitated by single-copy plasma HIV RNA assay (SCA). (harvard.edu)
  • Overall, there was no effect of the addition of RAL or ENF on low-level viremia measured by SCA. (harvard.edu)
  • Antiretroviral drug resistance in HIV-1-infected patients experiencing persistent low-level viremia during first-line therapy. (actgnetwork.org)
  • New resistance mutations were detected during persistent low-level viremia in 37% of the 54 evaluable cases. (actgnetwork.org)
  • Detection of new mutations was associated with higher HIV-1 RNA levels during persistent low-level viremia. (actgnetwork.org)
  • Oral brincidofovir cut the rate of high level HHV-6 viremia by 80%, suggesting that IV brincidofovir may have potential to prevent HHV-6 encephalitis. (hhv-6foundation.org)
  • This study was conducted among individuals taking first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) for at least 12 months under programme conditions in Maputo, Mozambique in order to report on the level of detectable viraemia and the proportion and types of drug resistance mutations among those with detectable viral loads. (msf.org)
  • In Maputo, the level of detectable viraemia is reassuringly low. (msf.org)
  • The researchers were concerned that technical limitations in the sensitivity of commercial genotyping methods might prevent clinicians from determining whether drug-resistant HIV-1 was present in patients with low-level viraemia. (i-base.info)
  • In certain cases, the resistance mutations appeared to have been selected for by the study regimen and may have arisen during the period of low-level viraemia. (i-base.info)
  • The availability of genotypic information at this level of viraemia has the clear potential to guide the choice of an alternative regimen before overt failure occurs. (i-base.info)
  • No significant differences in PERV gag RNA level between transgenic and non-transgenic pigs were noted, likewise the type of applied transgene had no impact on PERV viremia. (vetsci.org)
  • Lucas Hermans presented findings from an evaluation of low-level viraemia and its impact on ART failure in a large South African cohort managed according to WHO guidelines. (i-base.info)
  • The investigators used Cox proportional hazard models corrected for sex, age and baseline CD4, to estimate the association between low-level viraemia and subsequent viral failure in the subset of participants with 52 weeks or more of first-line ART without failure. (i-base.info)
  • 23.1% of participants had low-level viraemia at any time during follow up and this was persistent in 21.3% of cases. (i-base.info)
  • And lower baseline CD4 was independently associated with low-level viraemia. (i-base.info)
  • Increased risk of treatment failure after low-level viraemia in a large cohort of South African HIV positive patients treated according to under WHO guidelines. (i-base.info)
  • Increased risk of cART failure after low-level viremia under WHO guidelines. (i-base.info)
  • What happens to cardiovascular system behind the undetectable level of HIV viremia? (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, despite ART, residual viremia (virus in the blood) still occurs in HIV-positive individuals. (medindia.net)
  • The basics of Koi Herpes Virus with a little discussion of Spring Viremia of Carp, thrown in. (koivet.com)
  • Several groups have reported evidence of protection, by measuring reduced levels of chronic viremia, using the simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) macaque challenge model (reviewed in reference 54 ). (asm.org)
  • Oral treatment of 500 mg/kg/day and 1000 mg/kg/day of freeze-dried CPLJ at the onset of viremia did not affect the plasma NS1 and viral RNA levels in AG129 mice infected with non-mouse adapted New Guinea C strain dengue virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All samples have being tested for the presence of anti-BTV antibodies and for virus (RT-qPCR).ResultsAll inoculated animals developed viremia. (dtu.dk)
  • Virus VIH-2, second virus du sida isolé en 1985 par l'équipe du Pr. (pasteur.fr)
  • The term "viremia" was compounded from "virus" and "-emia" (in the blood). (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • We use simple deterministic and stochastic models to gain insight into residual viremia dynamics in HIV-infected patients. (mendeley.com)
  • Thus, our simple models reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations on residual viremia and, with relatively few parameters, recapitulates HIV viral dynamics observed in patients on suppressive therapy. (mendeley.com)
  • Moreover, recently isolated WNV strains generate higher peak viremias and mortality in contemporary HOSPs compared to NY99. (nih.gov)
  • Among these genotypes, based on partial ORF2 genes sequencing 23 strains were grouped as PAstV1, including 6 serum-derived strains, and were regarded as the causative agents of viremia in pigs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viraemia and HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among patients receiving antiretroviral treatment in Mozambique. (msf.org)
  • DBS-based HCV testing represents a useful tool for the diagnosis and surveillance of HCV viremia and can easily be incorporated into specimen referral systems. (physiciansweekly.com)