DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising bird poxviruses. The type species is FOWLPOX VIRUS. Transmission is mechanical by ARTHROPODS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Recombinant antibodies produced in TRANSGENIC PLANTS. The plants serve as BIOREACTORS to produce the antibodies for medical use or industrial processes.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)
A technique which uses synthetic oligonucleotides to direct the cell's inherent DNA repair system to correct a mutation at a specific site in an episome or chromosome.
Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A species of AVIPOXVIRUS, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE. Canarypox virus vectors are used in vaccine and immunotherapy research.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Fenestra of the cochlea, an opening in the basal wall between the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR, leading to the cochlea. It is closed by a secondary tympanic membrane.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An Ig superfamily transmembrane protein that localizes to junctional complexes that occur between ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and EPTHELIAL CELLS. The protein may play a role in cell-cell adhesion and is the primary site for the attachment of ADENOVIRUSES during infection.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The combination of genetic and optical methods in controlling specific events with temporal precision in targeted cells of a functioning intact biological system.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
Genes that are used transgenically, i.e., via GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES to induce CELL DEATH.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
Enzymes that recombine DNA segments by a process which involves the formation of a synapse between two DNA helices, the cleavage of single strands from each DNA helix and the ligation of a DNA strand from one DNA helix to the other. The resulting DNA structure is called a Holliday junction which can be resolved by DNA REPLICATION or by HOLLIDAY JUNCTION RESOLVASES.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.
Bennett J (2003). "Immune response following intraocular delivery of recombinant viral vectors". Gene Therapy. 10 (11): 977-982 ... Rolling, F. (2004). "Recombinant AAV-mediated gene transfer to the retina: gene therapy perspectives". Gene Therapy. 11 (S1): ... "Adeno-associated virus-vectored gene therapy for retinal disease". Human Gene Therapy. 16 (6): 649-663. doi:10.1089/hum.2005.16 ... Curace Enrico M.; Auricchio Alberto (2008). "Versatility of AAV vectors for retinal gene transfer". Vision Research. 48 (3): ...
Robbins, Paul D.; Ghivizzani, Steven C. (1998). "Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 80 (1): 35-47. ... Viral methods use a variety of viral vectors to deliver the DNA, including adenovirus, lentivirus, and herpes simplex virus ... Certain vectors can carry additional regulatory elements based on the expression system involved. The first standardized vector ... nucleotide sequences of the M13mpl8 and pUC19 vectors". Gene. 33 (1): 103-119. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(85)90120-9. ISSN 0378-1119 ...
Virus quantification Viral titer Michael G. Kaplitt; Arthur D. Loewy (August 1, 1995). Viral vectors: gene therapy and ... A viral titer is the lowest concentration of a virus that still infects cells. To determine the titer, several dilutions are ...
This may be used to produce viral vaccines or gene therapy vectors. The term is also used to refer to naturally occurring ... Jeffery Taubenberger on: A Recombinant Virus Viral Genetics Transmission of Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People. ...
Gene therapy is a possible treatment for a variety of disorders and diseases that are genetic in origin. Viral vectors are ... Ghosh, A.; Yue, Y.; Lai, Y. & Duan, D. (2008). "A Hybrid Vector System Expands Adeno-associated Viral Vector Packaging Capacity ... The second gene, rep, can be spliced into four different, nonstructural, regulatory proteins that all aid in the genome ... Work is currently being done to increase the amount of information this vector can deliver. This may be accomplished by the ...
Gray J (2015). "Viral vectors and delivery strategies for CNS gene therapy". Ther Deliv. 10 Suppl1 (4): 517-534. doi:10.4155/ ... Physicians hope to circumvent difficulties in accessing the central nervous system through viral gene therapy. This often ... Brain basics: genes at work in the brain. Date last modified: 2018-12-27. [1] Retrieved Feb. 4, 2019. The United States ... Because of this, only 3.6% of clinical trials in this field have progressed to stage III since the concept of gene therapy was ...
"Gene Therapy for Choroideremia Using an Adeno-Associated Viral (AAV) Vector". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. 5 (3 ...
Vannucci L, Lai M, Chiuppesi F, Ceccherini-Nelli L, Pistello M (January 2013). "Viral vectors: a look back and ahead on gene ... In a pooled screen, cells grown in a single vessel are transduced in bulk with viral vectors collectively containing the entire ... provide an excellent review of viral vectors along with their general advantages and disadvantages. In the specific context of ... 2016), who found that >92% of genes recovered using the standard protocol were also recovered using fewer sgRNAs per gene. They ...
Aronovich, E.L., McIvor, R.S., and Hackett, P.B. (2011). The Sleeping Beauty transposon system - A non-viral vector for gene ... in press)Aronovich EL, McIvor RS, Hackett PB (April 2011). "The Sleeping Beauty transposon system: a non-viral vector for gene ... The SB system is used primarily in vertebrate animals for gene transfer, including gene therapy, and gene discovery. The ... Genes encoding transposases are widespread in the genomes of most organisms and are the most abundant genes known. Transposase ...
Over the past decade, SB transposons have been developed as non-viral vectors for introduction of genes into genomes of ... Aronovich EL, Scott McIvor R, Hackett PB (April 2011). "The Sleeping Beauty transposon system: a non-viral vector for gene ... The use of non-viral vectors avoids many, but not all, of the defenses that cells employ against vectors. Plasmids, the ... implications for non-viral gene therapy of mucopolysaccharidoses". J Gene Med. 9 (5): 403-415. doi:10.1002/jgm.1028. PMC ...
Systems that use viral vectors to deliver the gene are known as VDEPT. VDEPT is the term given to the use of a virus to deliver ... using a gene delivered to it by gene therapy. When an adequate differential exists between the targeted cell and endogenous ... GDEPT is a suicide gene therapy in which the enzyme required for prodrug conversion is produced within the target cell, ... Karjoo, Zahra; Chen, Xuguang; Hatefi, Arash (2015-05-22). "Progress and problems with the use of suicide genes for targeted ...
... and Miniplasmid DNA Vectors: The Future of Nonviral and Viral Gene Transfer. Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. pp. ... These steps are followed by the excision of prokaryotic vector parts via two recombinase-target sequences at both ends of the ... Kay, M.A., He, C.-Y, Chen, Z.-H. (2010). "A robust system for production of minicircle DNA vectors". Nature Biotechnology. 28 ( ... Minicircles are small (~4kb) circular plasmid derivatives that have been freed from all prokaryotic vector parts. They have ...
"Thermo Fisher Takes Deep Dive into Cell and Gene Therapy with Viral Vector Business Buy". BioSpace. "Thermo Fisher Scientific ... a Leader in Viral Vector Manufacturing". MediaRoom. Retrieved 2019-03-27. "Thermo Fisher shoulders into gene therapy ... In January 2021, Thermo Fisher announced it had acquired Belgium-based viral vector manufacturer, Henogen SA, from Groupe ... "Thermo Fisher Scientific Acquires Viral Vector Manufacturing Business from Novasep". BioSpace. " ...
... is a viral vector engineered from the naturally occurring adeno-associated virus (AAV) to be used as a tool for gene therapy. ... scAAV is an attractive vector for use in gene therapy for many reasons. Its parent vector, AAV, is already being used in ... "Self-complementary recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors: packaging capacity and the role of rep proteins in vector purity ... Like all vector-based approaches to gene therapy, one obstacle in translating therapies from pre-clinical trials into a human ...
The sequence is commonly used in molecular biology to increase expression of genes delivered by viral vectors. WPRE is a ... "Optimizing regulatable gene expression using adenoviral vectors". Exp Physiol. 90 (1): 33-7. doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2004.028209 ...
Like HIV-1, FIV has been engineered into a viral vector for gene therapy. Like other lentiviral vectors, FIV vectors integrate ... An additional short ORF termed orfA (also known as orf2) precedes the env gene. The function of OrfA in viral replication is ... Furthermore, the vectors can be used on dividing and non-dividing cells. FIV vectors could potentially be used to treat ... This interaction causes the viral and cellular membranes to fuse, allowing the transfer of the viral RNA into the cytoplasm, ...
Adenoviruses have long been a popular viral vector for gene therapy due to their ability to affect both replicating and non- ... viral gene expression can occur, without integrating the viral genome into host cell chromosomes, and new virus particles can ... Adenovirus has been used for delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing systems, but high immune reactivity to viral infection has ... "In four candidate COVID-19 vaccines... Ad5... serves as the 'vector' to [transport] the surface protein gene of SARS-CoV-2". ...
The SERCA2a gene is delivered to the heart via an adeno-associated viral vector. Using the α-myosin heavy chain gene promoter ... Mydicar delivers the SERCA2a gene to cardiomyocytes using an adeno-associated viral-vector (AAV). In the cardiomyocytes, the ... viral vector can insert itself into the genome and increase expression of the SERCA2a protein. Delivering the gene via an AAV ... AAVs also produce less of an immune response than alternative viral vehicles, such as adenoviruses. AAVs have been studied in ...
Bisafety and viral gene transfer vectors. In Biological safety, principles and practices, 3rd ed. D. O. Fleming and D. L. Hunt ... The level of gene expression can be adjusted by viral dose or chemical additions using histone deacetylase inhibitors. ... US patent #5,871,986 Kost, T; Condreay, JP (2002). "Recombinant baculoviruses as mammalian cell gene-delivery vectors". Trends ... The related genes were mainly those associated with innate immunity, including several of the genes involved in Toll-like ...
... can be facilitated by liposomes, enzymes, plasmid vectors, viral vectors, pronuclear injection, protoplast fusion ... The Desired gene construct is injected in the pronucleus of a reproductive cell using a glass needle around 0.5 to 5 ... The manipulated gene construct is inserted into totipotent stem cells, cells which can develop into any specialized cell. Cells ... Due to this similarity in protein sequence, scientists can cut DNA at these common protein points and add other genes. An ...
The vector may also contain other marker genes or reporter genes to facilitate selection of plasmids with cloned inserts. ... a significantly improved non-viral episomal expression vector for mammalian cells". BMC Biotechnology. 10: 20. doi:10.1186/1472 ... Ehrhardt A, Haase R, Schepers A, Deutsch MJ, Lipps HJ, Baiker A (June 2008). "Episomal vectors for gene therapy". Current Gene ... T. A. Brown (2010). "Chapter 2 - Vectors for Gene Cloning: Plasmids and Bacteriophages". Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis: An ...
They are known to act as viral vectors for movement of the gene between cyanobacterial species. Some evidence suggests that the ... In Chlamydomonas, there are two copies of the gene for the oxidase. PTOX2 significantly contributes to the flux of electrons ... These radical-based mechanisms could explain why over-expression of the PTOX gene causes increased generation of reactive ... Plants deficient in the IMMUTANS gene that encodes the oxidase are especially susceptible to photooxidative stress during early ...
A viral vector is often used to deliver the gene of interest to the chromosomes in the cell nucleus. Every daughter cell will ... Wang, H. J.; Lin, A. X.; Zhang, Z. C.; Chen, Y. F. (2001). "Expression of porcine growth hormone gene in transgenic rabbits as ... In genetic modification, genes are inserted into living cells in order to change how proteins are created. ... One such controversy is the ability to modify the genes of future offspring to decrease the likelihood for certain diseases or ...
... usually viral vectors. In gene therapy, a gene encoding for a certain protein is inserted into a vector. The vector containing ... Gene therapy aims to replace a missing protein in the body through the use of vectors, ... Once inside the body the vector introduces the therapeutic gene into host cells, and the protein encoded by the newly inserted ... Biffi, A (2016). "Gene therapy for lysosomal storage disorders: A good start". Human Molecular Genetics. 25 (R1): R65-75. doi: ...
In others, viral vectors used for gene therapy have been contaminated with infectious virus. Nevertheless, gene therapy is ... Genes cloned into expression vectors for functional cloning provide a means to screen for genes on the basis of the expressed ... followed by subcloning into a specialized vector. Whatever combination of host and vector are used, the vector almost always ... That is, these plasmids could serve as cloning vectors to carry genes. Virtually any DNA sequence can be cloned and amplified, ...
Although advances in gene transfer technology, including viral and non-viral vectors, have been made, an ideal vector system ... viral) vectors and chemical or physical (nonviral) approaches. Although viral vectors are currently the most effective approach ... For example, two monkeys colorblind from birth were given gene therapy treatment in a recent experiment. As a result of gene ... Mehierhumbert, S.; Guy, R. (2005-04-05). "Physical methods for gene transfer: Improving the kinetics of gene delivery into ...
... viral vectors). This genetic technique is called gene targeting. Once NIS is transferred in these cells, the patient is treated ... In contrast, growth factors such as IGF-1 and TGF-β (which is induced by the BRAF-V600E oncogene) suppress NIS gene expression ... Matsuda A, Kosugi S (1998). "A homozygous missense mutation of the sodium/iodide symporter gene causing iodide transport defect ... 1991). "Localization of human thyrotropin receptor gene to chromosome region 14q3 by in situ hybridization". Cytogenet. Cell ...
... consists of a viral vector containing genetically engineered versions of three HIV genes (env, gag and pol). The ALVAC vector ...
DNA is modified through a viral vector, and then cells related to vision cease translating faulty proteins. Gene therapy seems ... However, research indicates gene therapy may worsen symptoms, cause them to last longer or lead to further complications. For ... Gene therapy uses DNA as a delivery system to treat visual impairments. In this approach, ... Strachan, T., & Read, A. P. (1999). Gene therapy and other molecular genetic-based therapeutic approaches. McGrath, C. E.; ...
... and safety have placed viral vector-based therapy at the forefront of modern medicine. Viral vectors have been employed for the ... Several viral vector-based drugs have also been globally approved. ... and is well-suited for delivery by viral vectors. A number of preclinical studies have demonstrated therapeutic and ... Furthermore, gene silencing generating a reversible effect has become an interesting alternative, ...
We are a world leader in novel AAV discovery, vector development, production, preclinical and clinical gene therapy research. ... AAV is the primary gene therapy platform driving the Horae Gene Therapy Center. ... Gene therapy vectors can be categorized into two classes: Artificial non-viral vectors and viral vectors. Artificial vectors ... High-capacity AdV vectors are the exception as they do not carry any viral genes and have been shown to mediate long-term gene ...
... improved lentiviral vector for use in gene therapy for sickle cell disease. ... Gene Expression, Gene Therapy, Gene Transfer, Gene-Editing, Genes, Genetic, Heart, Hemoglobin, I Cell Disease, in vitro, in ... In gene therapy approaches, researchers use viral vectors to deliver therapeutic genes into host bone marrow stem cells that ... Novel viral vector improves gene therapy for sickle cell disease. *Download PDF Copy ...
... David J Fink, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA ... Fink, David J, and Glorioso, Joseph C(Jul 2007) Herpes Simplex Viral Vectors in Gene Therapy. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, ... Gene Therapy 12: 891-901. Glorioso JC and Fink DJ (2004) Herpes vector‐mediated gene transfer in treatment of diseases of the ... 3 expressing vector (lower picture). (From Chattopadhyay M, Wolfe D, Huang S et al. (. ) In vivo gene therapy for pyridoxine‐ ...
Gene Therapy Success Depends On Ability To Advance Viral Delivery Vectors To Commercialization. by Sam Savage ... Many gene therapy strategies designed to deliver a normal copy of a gene to cells carrying a disease-causing genetic mutation ... with gene therapy to treat an inherited liver disorder impaired the activity of certain types of AAV gene delivery vectors but ... "Good Manufacturing Practice Production of Self-Complementary Serotype 8 Adeno-Associated Viral Vector for a Hemophilia B ...
Viral Vaccines and Gene Therapy Vectors Conference is for the researchers, scientists, scholars, engineers, academic, ... Viral Vaccines and Gene Therapy Vectors. International Conference on Viral Vaccines and Gene Therapy Vectors. Viral Vaccines ... experiences and research results on all aspects of Viral Vaccines and Gene Therapy Vectors Conference. It also provides a ... as well as practical challenges encountered and solutions adopted in the fields of Viral Vaccines and Gene Therapy Vectors ...
Patients will have to undergo multiple rounds . of gene therapy . • Immune response • Problems with viral vectors: Problems ... Target cells such as the patients liver or lung cells are infected with the viral vector. The vector then unloads its genetic ... Some recent developments in gene therapy research .FDA has not yet approved any human gene therapy Since the first gene therapy ... An abnormal gene could be swapped for a normal gene through homologous recombination. • The abnormal gene could be repaired ...
BioWorld Online is the news service of record for the biotechnology industry and is updated every business morning. BioWorld Online will keep you up to date on all of the industrys business, science and regulatory news -- mergers and collaborations, FDA hearings and results, breakthroughs in research and much more.
... multiple gene therapies have been approved by regulatory agencies and a bolus of late-stage pipeline assets are approaching... ... Gene therapy vectors, or delivery vehicles, fit within two broad categories: viral and non-viral, with viral vectors the most ... Historically, companies have used adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors and lentiviral vectors. However, each viral platform ... To develop optimal gene therapy products, both public and private gene therapy players are engineering next-generation vector ...
Efficient Gene Transfer to Kidney Mesenchymal Cells Using a Synthetic Adeno-Associated Viral Vector.. Ikeda Y1, Sun Z1, Ru X2, ... Grousbeck Gene Therapy Center, Schepens Eye Research Institute and Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Boston, Massachusetts.. 5. ... These studies establish a novel method for inducible knockout of floxed genes in mouse mesangium, pericytes, and perivascular ... We evaluated the transduction profiles of various pseudotyped AAV vectors expressing either GFP or Cre recombinase reporters in ...
These vectors have been used extensively in gene therapy, enabling the comprehension of, not only the advantages of these ... This review describes recent non-genetic modifications of the surfaces of viral vectors to decrease immune system activation ... allowing researchers to modify the tropism and biodistribution profile of the vector, leading to the production of viral ... such as the activation of the immune system after vector administration. Moreover, the need to control the target of the vector ...
Cancer Gene Therapy by Viral and Non-Viral Vectors (Translational Oncology) at AbeBooks.co.uk - ISBN 10: 1118501624 - ISBN 13: ... Cancer Gene Therapy by Viral and Non-viral Vectors deals with the practice of gene-therapy, with reference to vectors for gene ... Cancer Gene Therapy by Viral and Non-viral Vectors deals with the practice of gene-therapy, with reference to vectors for gene ... Cancer Gene Therapy by Viral and Non-viral Vectors deals with the practice of gene-therapy, with reference to vectors for gene ...
Several impressive successes in viral vector-based gene therapies have been reported in humans, including restoration of vision ... the gene transfer community has been extensively studying the mechanisms of immune responses against viral vectors and has ... adaptive immune responses against viral vectors and therapeutic transgene products pose serious hurdles for successful gene ... often prevents efficient gene transfer. This problem also reduces our ability to use certain vectors for genetic vaccination or ...
Viral vectors are viruses with new or modified genomes that remove the virus pathogenicity. By replacing pieces of a viral ... In order to be successful at transforming the defective genome, viral vectors must overcome physical barriers and immune ... harnessing the viral lifecycle allows the capability to carry the new viral sequence across the cell membrane and bring the ... Gene therapy is the introduction of new genetic material into a cell as a means to correct a known mutation that causes a ...
... vectors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the liver-specific thyroid hormone-binding globulin (TBG) promoter made ... with novel capsids in canine liver-directed gene transfer. Studies i ... This study evaluated six adeno-associated viral (AAV) ... of adeno-associated viral vectors for liver-directed gene ... Gene Transfer Techniques. Genetic Vectors / genetics*. Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics, metabolism. Hepatic Artery / ...
... have developed a new and improved viral vector-a virus-based vehicle that delivers therapeutic genes-for use in gene therapy ... They found that the new vectors could transfer a much higher viral load-up to six times more therapeutic beta-globin genes than ... In contrast to the old vector, the gene sequence, or "message," of the new beta-globin vector is read from left to right-like ... NIH researchers create new viral vector for improved gene therapy in sickle cell disease ...
Dose-Escalation Study Of A Self Complementary Adeno-Associated Viral Vector For Gene Transfer in Hemophilia B. The safety and ... An Open Label Dose-Escalation Study Of A Self Complementary Adeno-Associated Viral Vector (scAAV 2/8-LP1-hFIXco) For Gene ... We will give the normal gene for factor IX by using an inactivated (not able to function) virus called the vector. The vector ... Adenovirus-associated virus vector-mediated gene transfer in hemophilia B. N Engl J Med. 2011 Dec 22;365(25):2357-65. doi: ...
Using this new version of our viral vector we have induced stable p...,Viral,Vector,Delivers,Dystophin,Gene,To,Mouse,Muscle, ... DENVER---University of Michigan scientists have developed a new generation of "gutted" viral vectors that deliver the gene for ... "Removing a reporter gene called LacZ from the vector was the key to reducing the vectors strong immunogenic effect. Although ... Viral proteins may prevent bacterial infections. 3. Viral immunosuppression: Not just a game of hide and go seek. 4. Viral ...
Viral vectors are an important tool for introducing genes into target cells. Many gene therapies have been developed using ... Development of a Scalable Viral Vector Upstream Process for Gene Therapy. Genethon and Pall® Biotech have collaborated to ... fixed-bed bioreactor as a platform for viral vector production. The Problem: Clinical use of gene therapies to treat formerly ... The iCELLis bioreactor enables large-scale viral vector production by providing a 3-dimensional matrix for cell growth in a ...
The first commercial gene therapy products are appearing commercially with over 350 clinical trials taking place in 2019 alone ... There are two main gene therapy variants:. In vitro - where patient cells are taken, and a viral vector used to introduce a ... In vivo - where a viral vector contains the gene of interest is injected into the patient, the virus targets a particular cell ... The main viral vector used for in vivo gene therapy is adeno associated virus (AAV) ...
Dr Philip Probert and Dr Stuart Jamieson discuss the potential of gene therapy and the processes involved in the manufacture of ... and Dr Stuart Jamieson discuss the potential of gene therapy and the processes involved in the manufacture of viral vectors. ... The first gene therapy products are appearing commercially and the field is growing rapidly with over 350 clinical trials ...
... clinical trial databases and more gene therapy information ... Information resource for gene therapy news, clinical trials, ... Pseudotyping of Viral Vectors. Viral vectors have natural host cell populations that they infect most efficiently. Retroviruses ... Viruses can usually infect more than one type of cell. Thus, when viral vectors are used to carry genes into the body, they ... Figure 2. A comparison of different viral vectors in use for gene therapy: overview of their advantages and disadvantages. * ...
... ... Scale up and Risk Mitigation of Therapeutic Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy ... With multiple products on the market, gene therapy has now gone beyond proof of concept and entered mainstream healthcare. This ... success urgently requires work on manufacturing processes to ensure that gene therapies are widely available to all that need ...
In general, viral vectors are more adapted to overcoming these barriers than nonviral gene transfer agents and are, therefore, ... Here, we will review preclinical and clinical research related to viral CF gene therapy.Keywords: cystic fibrosis, gene therapy ... more efficient in transferring genes into recipient cells. Viral vectors derived from adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, and ... Although these vectors transduce airway epithelial cells efficiently, gene expression is transient and repeated administration ...
Mammalian Expression Vectors. Antibiotic Free Vectors. DNA Vaccines. Rig-I Activating Vectors. Recombineering Vectors. pVEX™- E. coli Expression Vector. Anti-Silencing Elements. Gene Silencing. Transient. Retroviral, stable. Cell Lines. Autolytic E. coli Cell Lines. dcm- Strains. ...
Gene delivery by viral vectors in primary cultures of lacrimal gland tissue. - Eyal Banin, Alexey Obolensky, Elena Piontek, ... Gene delivery by viral vectors in primary cultures of lacrimal gland tissue.. Abstract. PURPOSE: To test the feasibility of ... The ability of three different viral vectors to conduct beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) gene delivery was examined: adenovirus ( ... Vector-specific reporter gene expression patterns were observed: With the vaccinia vector, lacrimal duct cells were ...
We demonstrate a method for conditional gene expression or ablation in the mouse... ... Viral vectors allow for targeted gene manipulation. We demonstrate a method for conditional gene expression or ablation in the ... or gene therapy for the prevention or treatment of neurodegeneration 11,12. Viral vectors have been used for gene manipulation ... Comparison of adeno-associated viral vector serotypes for spinal cord and motor neuron gene delivery. Hum. Gene Ther. 22, 1129- ...
Gene Therapy ... Adeno-associated viral vectors: ... The viral genes, gag, pol and env, are replaced with the transgene of ... VIRAL VECTORS IN GENE THERAPY. Description:. VIRAL VECTORS IN GENE THERAPY. Gene Therapy ... Adeno-associated viral vectors ... VIRAL VECTORS IN GENE THERAPY. 1. VIRAL VECTORS IN GENE THERAPY Gene Therapy The introduction of nucleic acids into cells for ... Cancer Gene Therapy - Cancer Gene Therapy Using Tumor Suppressor Genes. Overview Gene Therapy p53 Using Gene Therapy to Treat ...
Development of Viral Vectors Based on Citrus leaf blotch virus to Express Foreign Proteins or Analyze Gene Function in Citrus ... Viral vectors have been used to express foreign proteins in plants or to silence endogenous genes. This methodology could be ... pr vector) or at the intergenic region between the movement and coat protein (CP) genes (clbvINpr vector). The duplicated ... We developed viral vectors based on Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV) by duplicating a minimum promoter (92 bp) either at the 3′ ...
Health Problems cell, create, disease, for, gene, Improved, in, New, researchers, sickle, therapy, vector, viral ... Researchers create new viral vector for improved gene therapy in sickle cell disease. 10/02/2019. ... They found that the new vectors could transfer a much higher viral load-up to six times more therapeutic beta-globin genes than ... Home » Health Problems » Researchers create new viral vector for improved gene therapy in sickle cell disease ...
  • The NIH is working to expedite the development of gene therapies, including gene editing, through its Cure Sickle Cell Initiative , which is part of the organization's larger, multi-pronged approach to reducing the burden of blood disorders. (news-medical.net)
  • As these novel therapies move closer to commercialization, so do the methods for large-scale production and efficient delivery of AAV vectors, which are documented in a series of articles published online ahead of print in Human Gene Therapy, a peer-reviewed journal published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. ( www.liebertpub.com ). (redorbit.com)
  • Over the last five years, multiple gene therapies have been approved by regulatory agencies and a bolus of late-stage pipeline assets are approaching the market. (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • As the first few gene therapies realize their potential as transformative treatments for the genetic rare diseases, the space is seen as a crucial part of growth for the biopharmaceutical industry. (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • However, as the first gene therapies began to post early wins, several challenges have emerged. (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • Only after addressing delivery will gene therapies be able to achieve their longstanding potential to transform patient outcomes, expand into larger diseases, and ultimately provide returns for investors. (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • To date, most gene therapies utilize virus to deliver the gene of interest. (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • Lentiviruses are used for ex vivo gene-modified cell therapies (including CAR-T), in which lentiviruses deliver the gene of interest to stem cells collected from the patient outside the body. (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • Lentiglobin, Bluebird bio's gene-modified cell therapy for β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease, is one of several ex vivo gene-modified cell therapies in development. (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • While largely safe and efficacious to date, the use of ex vivo gene-modified cell therapies is limited by manufacturing (e.g., demonstrating product consistency) and administration (e.g., requirement of lymphodepletion), both of which contributed to delays in Lentiglobin 's commercialization in the U.S. 1 Further, the theoretical risk of oncogenesis has repeatedly slowed developers such as Bluebird. (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • Both recently approved FDA gene therapies, Luxturna and Zolgensma, utilize AAV vectors. (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • This book provides a comprehensive overview of the pertinent molecular discoveries in the cancer field and explains how these are being used for gene-based cancer therapies. (abebooks.co.uk)
  • Focusing on speeding the process in clinical cancer care by bringing therapies as quickly as possible from bench to bedside, Cancer Gene Therapy by Viral and Non-viral Vectors is an absolutely vital book for physicians, clinicians, researchers, and students involved in this area of medicine. (abebooks.co.uk)
  • Several impressive successes in viral vector-based gene therapies have been reported in humans, including restoration of vision in patients with Leber's congenital amaurosis by retinal gene transfer and cures for severe immune deficiencies by gene transfer to hematopoietic stem cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Clinical use of gene therapies to treat formerly incurable genetic diseases is advancing rapidly. (pall.com)
  • Many gene therapies have been developed using adherent cells in 2-dimensional flatware or roller bottles but using these technologies to reach commercial-scale production represents a significant challenge. (pall.com)
  • The organisation is in a strong position to support development of AAV therapies and has built an excellent knowledge base from which other viral vector and vaccine processes can be supported. (uk-cpi.com)
  • This success urgently requires work on manufacturing processes to ensure that gene therapies are widely available to all that need them. (pall.com)
  • In parallel, the emergence of adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a clinically important vector raises the possibility of integrating these two technologies towards the development of gene editing therapies. (berkeley.edu)
  • Through its Cure Sickle Cell Initiative, NIH is working to accelerate the development of these and other new genetic therapies, including gene editing, with the goal of finding a cure for the disease. (mlo-online.com)
  • The high cost of gene therapies, on the range of several hundred thousand dollars, is partially due to the highly ineffective production & purification methods used nowadays. (mpg.de)
  • Introduction: Gene therapies are rapidly becoming a critical component of the therapeutic armamentaria for a variety of inherited and acquired human diseases (1). (qub.ac.uk)
  • At their core, cell and gene therapies are comprised of nucleic acids, proteins and lipids that need to be fully characterized and for which precise chemistry, manufacturing and control (CMC) processes must be established to ensure their safety and efficacy. (waters.com)
  • What Factors Help the Viral Vector Production for Gene Therapies? (labiotech.eu)
  • Completion of the plan could lead to greatly improved non-viral DNA vectors that enable gene therapy cures for currently untreatable liver genetic diseases as well as gene therapies to slow cancer progression. (grantome.com)
  • Vertex Pharmaceuticals and Affinia Therapeutics have formed a pact to research engineered adeno-associated virus capsids for delivering gene therapies. (acs.org)
  • Cell and gene therapies are redefining the treatments of rare diseases and cancers. (lab.equipment)
  • Yet, despite their meteoric growth, there are several hurdles to overcome when developing efficacious cell and gene therapies, particularly when it comes to the manufacturing of viral vectors-a significant bottleneck in the overall produc. (lab.equipment)
  • Our goal is to support you at every stage of the gene therapy development process and to provide you with reliable tools, support, and scientific expertise you need to bring therapies to market faster. (thermofisher.com)
  • Milestones on the path towards somatic genetic therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy that rely on viral-based DMD editing. (cdc.gov)
  • Written by the most prominent academic researchers in the field as well as by researchers at one of the world's leading companies in industrial production of minicircle DNA, this practical book is aimed at everyone who is directly or indirectly involved in the development of gene therapies. (pdfchm.net)
  • Cell and gene therapies (CGTs) offer an unprecedented opportunity to treat diseases for which existing interventions are inadequate, potentially offering cures for previously terminal illnesses. (evolution-bio.com)
  • Evolution analysed all 209 active interventional FDA clinical trials involving cell and gene therapies. (evolution-bio.com)
  • The process for cell-based gene therapies is more complex, requiring isolation and ex vivo cultivation of the target cells before they can be genetically modified, expanded and enriched for re-infusion into the patient. (evolution-bio.com)
  • All cell and gene therapies are manufactured from either allogeneic or autologous cells or tissue. (evolution-bio.com)
  • Due to the complexity of their manufacturing process, cell and gene therapies are likely to be significantly more expensive to produce when compared to traditional small molecule therapeutics or biologics. (evolution-bio.com)
  • Developers of cell-based gene therapies require viral vectors capable of infecting both dividing and non-dividing cells, and as such lentiviral vectors are favoured for these approaches. (evolution-bio.com)
  • The growing prominence of vector-based gene therapy products and high funding activities in research for the development of novel therapies, coupled with an increasing prevalence of diseases, such as cancer, genetic diseases, and infectious diseases, is prominently driving the growth of the global viral vector and plasmid manufacturing market. (yahoo.com)
  • Both therapies encompass the use of vector, as gene delivery vehicles, for the introduction of a therapeutic gene into the target cell in order to provide a cure or remedy to disease. (yahoo.com)
  • Extensive progress made in gene and cell therapy research since the early 1970s and 1980s has, therefore, accelerated the adoption rate of plasmids and viral vectors for their use in these modern therapies. (yahoo.com)
  • A large number of preclinical and clinical studies evaluating the potential of vectors in these advanced therapies have further displayed promising results. (yahoo.com)
  • and (4) gene therapies based on the delivery of shortened versions of dystrophin (for example, microdystrophins) to affected tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Gene therapies are transforming the current treatment landscape for various diseases, and this study reveals the possibility of using nonviral vectors for advancing the field. (nature.com)
  • Vectors based on gamma retrovirus, lentivirus, adenovirus (AdV), adeno-associated virus (AAV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) are among the most widely used viral vectors in current gene therapy studies, and are more advanced in clinical translation than other types of viral vectors. (umassmed.edu)
  • After 7 days in culture, successful gene delivery occurred in 77% of vaccinia , 41% of adenovirus, and only 13% of herpesvirus applications. (curehunter.com)
  • Vaccinia and adenovirus are efficient vectors for gene transfer into lacrimal gland tissue in primary culture. (curehunter.com)
  • Replication-deficie nt adenovirus vectors can be generated by replacing the E1 or E3 gene, which is essential for replication. (powershow.com)
  • Cells infected with recombinant adenovirus can express the therapeutic gene, but because essential genes for replication are deleted, the vector cant replicate. (powershow.com)
  • Adeno-associated viral vectors AAV is a simple, non-pathogenic, single stranded DNA virus dependent on the helper virus (usually adenovirus) to replicate. (powershow.com)
  • Viral vectors, particularly those based on adenovirus (Ad) and adeno-associated virus (AAV) have many of the desired features, but transduce vascular cells relatively inefficiently and in a non-selective manner. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The ability of four different viral vectors to conduct ß -galactosidase (ß-gal) reporter gene delivery was examined: adenovirus Ad5CMVLacZ, vaccinia virus VSC9, herpesvirus tkLTRZ1, and lentivirus LentiLacZ. (arvojournals.org)
  • Histological examination revealed different tissue tropism of the viral vectors: with adenovirus, staining was especially prominent in the interacinar areas, mainly in the myoepithelial cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • With improved use of viral vectors (Adeno-associated virus (AAV), adenovirus, lentivirus, retrovirus, HSV) or non-viral vectors, research and clinical trials on the development of therapeutic genes have witnessed great success. (wpiinc.com)
  • Viral vectors such as adenovirus (Ad), adeno-associated virus (AAV), and pseudotyped lentiviral vectors such as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can efficiently transduce airway cells and express CFTR. (uiowa.edu)
  • The present study tested this methodology for both adenovirus (AdV)-mediated and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer to the in vivo murine heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • This short-term study examines whether osmotic disruption with mannitol can result in sufficient opening of the vascular endothelium to allow for passage of replication-defective adenovirus containing the Escherichia coli β-galactosidase gene (lacZ). (elsevier.com)
  • Early applications in this field really developed in the 1980s and 1990s, often using viral vectors such as adenovirus or retrovirus to deliver genes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The first, a teenager being treated for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency at the University of Pennsylvania, died four days after being treated with an adenovirus loaded with a corrected gene after a massive immune response to the virus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In gene therapy approaches, researchers use viral vectors to deliver therapeutic genes into host bone marrow stem cells that are introduced back into the patient's body. (news-medical.net)
  • Scientists have tried to take advantage of this capability and manipulate the virus genome to remove disease-causing genes and insert therapeutic genes. (scribd.com)
  • It covers the history and current and future applications of gene transfer in cancer, and provides expert insight on the progress of viral and non-viral gene therapy with regard to delivery system, vector design, potential therapeutic genes, and principles and regulations for cancer gene therapy. (abebooks.co.uk)
  • Researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have developed a new and improved viral vector-a virus-based vehicle that delivers therapeutic genes-for use in gene therapy for sickle cell disease. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers have used virus-based vehicles for years in gene therapy experiments, where they have been very effective at delivering therapeutic genes to bone marrow stem cells in the lab before returning them to the body. (nih.gov)
  • For the past 30 years, researchers have been designing these beta-globin vectors in a reverse structural orientation, meaning the therapeutic genes incorporated into the virus are translated, or "read," from right to left by the viral vector-making machinery-much like reading an English sentence backwards. (nih.gov)
  • For the past 30 years, researchers have been designing these beta-globin vectors in a reverse structural orientation, meaning the therapeutic genes incorporated into the virus are translated from right to left by the viral vector-making machinery. (mlo-online.com)
  • Viral vectors can be used to modify specific cell type or tissue and can be directed to express therapeutic genes. (medcraveonline.com)
  • These unique abilities made them desirable for engineering viral vectors to deliver the therapeutic genes. (medcraveonline.com)
  • The efficient delivery of therapeutic genes and correct gene expression are important for clinically relevant gene therapy. (medcraveonline.com)
  • One of the main limitations of anti-tumor gene therapy is the lack of an effective way to deliver therapeutic genes to tumor sites. (nih.gov)
  • These molecules can be nanoengineered to pass over several extracellular and intracellular barriers and to transport therapeutic genes into specific organs or cell types, including cells in the central nervous system (CNS), one of the most challenging organs for both viral and non-viral gene delivery systems.Among the wide plethora of non-viral vectors, recently emerged niosomes are biocompatible, synthetic, non-ionic surfactant vesicles with a closed bilayer structure. (ehu.es)
  • in contrast, the adenoviral vector tended to transduce the interacinar areas, with beta-gal expression mainly occurring within the myoepithelial cells. (curehunter.com)
  • After 3 days, ß-gal expression was observed in 33% of tissue bits exposed to the adenoviral vector, and in 62.5% of bits exposed to the vaccinia vector. (arvojournals.org)
  • A conditional replication-competent adenoviral vector, Ad-OC-E1a, to cotarget prostate cancer and bone stroma in an experimental model of androgen-independent prostate cancer bone metastasis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Due to immune responses caused by a high dose of adenoviral vector containing OTC, Gelsinger died four days later because of multi-organ failure [1]. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Using the sparse-fur mouse model of OTC deficiency, an intravenous injection of an adenoviral vector has been shown to produce a high level gene transfer, leading to expression of the functional enzyme. (bmj.com)
  • However artificial vectors remain much less efficient than viral vectors for in vivo or ex vivo gene transfer and transgene expression is generally transient. (umassmed.edu)
  • Once inside a target cell, wild-type viruses eventually deliver their genetic information to the nucleus to start the cycle of viral replication through expression of viral genes. (umassmed.edu)
  • Genomic integration ensures transmission of the vector transgene cassette and its expression in the progeny, but its randomness carries a risk of insertional mutagenesis by potentially disrupting tumor suppressor genes or activating oncogenes. (umassmed.edu)
  • However, in vivo administration of AdV triggers strong immune responses, which preclude their use for gene therapy applications in genetic diseases where long-term gene expression may be necessary. (umassmed.edu)
  • High-capacity AdV vectors are the exception as they do not carry any viral genes and have been shown to mediate long-term gene expression in vivo . (umassmed.edu)
  • Recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors carrying inverted terminal repeats as the only viral component entered the gene therapy arena much later than retroviral and AdV vectors, but have quickly gained popularity due to their broad tissue tropism, exceptional in vivo gene transfer efficiency and sustained transgene expression, as well as a proven safety profile in humans. (umassmed.edu)
  • This reverse orientation is needed due to the sensitive expression of a genetic segment in the vector called intron 2. (news-medical.net)
  • This molecular component is required for high-level beta-globin gene expression, but if it is left-oriented in the natural, left-to-right (forwards) direction, it gets excluded during the usual vector preparation process. (news-medical.net)
  • These vectors can be used to transfer and express genes in the nervous system using natural expression mechanisms already present in the virus genome. (els.net)
  • The number of motor neurons surviving at 2 weeks was substantially and significantly increased by vector‐mediated transgene expression (graph). (els.net)
  • 2002) Herpes vector‐mediated expression of proenkephalin reduces pain‐related behavior in a model of bone cancer pain. (els.net)
  • 3) Targeted inhibition of gene expression Block expression of mutant gene at the levels of DNA, RNA or protein. (scribd.com)
  • However, each viral platform includes drawbacks such as lack of durable gene expression (AAVs), risk of genomic integration leading to oncogenesis (lentivirus), and limited tissue tropism (an issue with both viruses). (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • Designed as a volume in the Translational Oncology book series, Cancer Gene Therapy by Viral and Non-viral Vectors deals with the practice of gene-therapy, with reference to vectors for gene expression and gene transfer, as well as viral therapy. (abebooks.co.uk)
  • The reason for the reverse orientation is the sensitive expression of a key molecular component of the vector called intron 2. (nih.gov)
  • This segment is required for high-level beta-globin gene expression but gets clipped out during the normal vector preparation process if it is left in the natural, forward direction. (nih.gov)
  • At 3 days, beta-gal expression was observed in 33% of tissue fragments exposed to the vaccinia vector and in 18% and 14% of fragments exposed to the adenoviral and herpes vectors, respectively. (curehunter.com)
  • The specific expression pattern obtained by the vaccinia vector probably reflects its characteristic tissue tropism to lacrimal duct cells. (curehunter.com)
  • We demonstrate a method for conditional gene expression or ablation in the mouse spinal cord, using stereotaxic injection of a viral vector into the dorsal horn, a prominent site of synaptic contact between primary somatosensory afferents and neurons of the central nervous system. (jove.com)
  • We demonstrate a stereotaxic injection technique that allows targeted gene expression or silencing in the dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord. (jove.com)
  • To maximise therapeutic gene expression and minimize any potential adverse effects due to unwanted transgene expression in non-target tissues, a gene delivery vector specifically targeted to areas of atherosclerotic vasculature is required. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The vector is also required to efficiently infect cells to produce relatively long term transgene expression, be stable in blood, non-toxic, non-immunogenic and producible at high titres. (gla.ac.uk)
  • With the vaccinia vector, ß-gal expression was clearly seen in lacrimal duct cells and in the acini. (arvojournals.org)
  • Although expression of I-SceI led to a significant increase in gene targeting, it did not augment unspecific integration. (nih.gov)
  • The ultimate goal for CF gene therapy is to design an integrating vector that would lead to persistent and efficient expression of CFTR in the airways. (uiowa.edu)
  • Creating a hybrid nonviral/viral vector in which the integrating nonviral piggyBac transposon system is delivered by an Ad or AAV vector has allowed us to achieve persistent expression in mice. (uiowa.edu)
  • Viral vector delivery in solid-state vehicles: gene expression in a murine prostate cancer model. (semanticscholar.org)
  • They infect both nondividing and dividing cells and show long-term gene expression with low immunological response compared to other viral vectors used for gene therapy. (virginia.edu)
  • A previous study in our lab has shown that serotype AAV9 is particularly effective for cardiac applications because of its uniform gene expression throughout the myocardium as well as its short lag phase, 2-3 weeks, to maximum gene expression. (virginia.edu)
  • I show that a plasmid with a bicistronic expression cassette containing neuregulin-1β (Nrg-1β) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) causes dual overexpression of these genes in vitro. (virginia.edu)
  • Artificial Chromosome Expression System (ACes) is a unique non-integrating, non-viral gene expression system, which functions like a natural chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This technology offers advantages over current expression systems because it allows stable and predictable expression of genes producing single or multiple proteins over long periods of time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, β-galactosidase expression was determined to monitor the expression of the reporter gene in the transfected cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A fragmented adeno-associated viral dual vector strategy for treatment of diseases caused by mutations in large genes leads to expression of hybrid transcripts. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 5kb in size into various AAV serotypes.In vitrotransductions with these fAAV vector preparations were conducted with mRNA and protein expression products assessed by way of RT-PCR, qPCR and western blot techniques. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Since microfluidics generates extremely uniform droplets, they are appropriate for single-cell encapsulation or for in vitro expression of single genes [ 8 ]. (rroij.com)
  • Their results show that blood pressure can be lowered for 3 to 12 weeks with the expression of these genes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Within cell and gene therapy lies a diverse range of therapeutic approaches all aimed at treating or curing disease by either blocking, altering or augmenting the expression of specific genes. (waters.com)
  • ia in encapsulated find the Life and Times of Nelson Mandela, the Practical Molecular Virology: Viral Vectors for Gene Expression of the Iron Curtain, the Spanish Civil War, the Life of Anne Frank, d, and Apartheid in South Africa. (richbauer.net)
  • Recombinant proteins are relatively simple molecules made up of 20 different amino acids linked in chains and expressed by well-characterized cell lines and established expression vectors. (labiotech.eu)
  • The role of viral vectors as carriers, to effect and manipulate expression of certain genes, has done wonders in the realms of medicine and therapy. (evolving-science.com)
  • Among all the currently investigating methods, gene therapy directly correct COL7A1 gene expression in the targeted cells. (ucd.ie)
  • In addition, the silencing effect of the target gene can be decreased with lower immunoreactivity which leads to a long-term expression of type VII collagen. (ucd.ie)
  • Our preliminary results suggested that the minicircle-COL7A1 gene vector significantly increased the transfection efficiency and prolonged the expression of type VII collagen in vitro. (ucd.ie)
  • To further improve the minicircle system, a tissue-specific promoter driving COL7A1 gene expression in Homo sapiens was introduced into the minicircle vector for future systemic delivery study. (ucd.ie)
  • DIRECT INTRACEREBRAL INJECTION of recombinant adenoviral vectors within the brain parenchyma or the ventricular system results in a limited volume of distribution of virus, as demonstrated by transgene expression. (elsevier.com)
  • Histochemical analysis and electron microscopy confirmed expression of the E. coli lacZ gene in the pericapillary astrocytes of the ipsilateral cerebral cortex and deep grey matter. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, the extent of gene transfer and expression correlated with the degree of barrier opening, as measured by Evans blue staining. (elsevier.com)
  • Protein expression of an antiaging gene, Klotho , was depleted in pancreatic islets in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and in db/db mice, an animal model of T2DM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this disease, a defect in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene results in abnormal expression of the LDL receptor and consequent failure of clearance of LDL cholesterol. (bmj.com)
  • Another recent in vivo experiment demonstrated the use of retroviral vectors to produce sustained expression of therapeutic levels of factor VIII in a neonatal mouse model of haemophilia A. 6 As it is desirable to institute gene therapy early in life, the propagation of neonatal hepatocytes represents a promising approach with clinical relevance. (bmj.com)
  • However, the influence of the non-ionic surfactant component also needs to be well characterized in order to optimize the design of niosome formulations for retinal gene delivery and be able to achieve persistent and high levels of transgene expression, necessary for biomedical applications in retinal disorders.Successful gene transfer not only depends on the carrier, but the properties of the vectored genetic material are also important. (ehu.es)
  • In this regard,Development and evaluation of non-viral gene delivery vectors and their combination with hydrogel scaffold technology.2minimized expression units devoid of bacterial backbone and that only contain the gene of interest and regulatory sequences such as minicircle (MC) DNA vectors emerge as an attractive alternative to conventional plasmid DNA vectors. (ehu.es)
  • In fact, MC DNA vectors offer several advantages over their larger parental plasmid DNA vectors, including enhanced transfection efficiency with sustained transgene expression as well as improved immunocompatibility and safety profiles. (ehu.es)
  • The scope for therapeutic strategies has broadened and now encompasses vectors for replacement protein expression, gene therapy and the treatment of cancer [ 2 , 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Objective To investigate the repair effects of co-expression of the VEGF and BMP genes via an adeno-as-sociated viral vector on early steroid -induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head in rabbits . (bvsalud.org)
  • 2) Facilitate the design, construction and propagation of retro/lentiviral vectors for gene over expression in stem cells. (stonybrookmedicine.edu)
  • A number of technical advances have been made to introduce exogenous DNA more effectively into host cells, and in parallel, many efforts have been made to improve and refine various expression vector systems used in gene therapy. (nature.com)
  • However, non-viral and non-integrative episomes are still relatively less efficient systems compared to viral systems and transgene expression is still often transient. (nature.com)
  • Gene delivery must reach the genome of the host cell to induce gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral based vectors emerged in the 1980s as a tool for transgene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1983, Albert Siegel described the use of viral vectors in plant transgene expression although viral manipulation via cDNA cloning was not yet available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the years several viruses that infect mammals have been engineered to become naturally evolved gene delivery vehicles for gene therapy. (umassmed.edu)
  • The process of transforming wild-type viruses into recombinant viral vectors consists in replacing all or most viral genes with a therapeutic gene cassette while retaining signal sequences necessary for replication and packaging. (umassmed.edu)
  • One technology platform that is well suited for in vivo delivery of genes is based on adeno-associated viruses (AAV). (redorbit.com)
  • Viruses have evolved a way of encapsulating and delivering their genes to human cells in a pathogenic manner. (scribd.com)
  • Some of the different types of viruses used as gene therapy vectors: Retroviruses - A class of viruses that can create double-stranded DNA copies of their RNA genomes (reverse transcription). (scribd.com)
  • Viral vectors are superior tools for gene therapy and as a genetic vaccine platform because viruses have evolved to efficiently infect and transfer their genomes to cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Viral vectors are viruses with new or modified genomes that remove the virus' pathogenicity. (jyi.org)
  • Combining knowledge of immunological responses to viruses and viral evasion of the immune system has led to the creation of several viral vector models targeted to overcome the normal immune response. (jyi.org)
  • One current gene therapy treatment possibility is utilizing viruses to alter the incorrect genetic sequence in diseased individuals. (jyi.org)
  • A new cell packaging line, also under development at the U-M, will make it possible to produce large amounts of the vector without contamination by other proteins or viruses that could trigger an immune response in humans, according to Salvatori. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Some types of viruses actually physically insert their genes into the host's genome . (genetherapynet.com)
  • Viruses like this could be used as vehicles to carry 'good' genes into a human cell. (genetherapynet.com)
  • Other viruses used as vectors include adeno-associated viruses , lentiviruses , pox viruses , alphaviruses , and herpes viruses . (genetherapynet.com)
  • These viruses differ in how well they transfer genes to the cells they recognize and are able to infect, and whether they alter the cell's DNA permanently or temporarily (see figure 2). (genetherapynet.com)
  • Adenoviral vectors Double-stranded DNA viruses, usually cause benign respiratory disease serotypes 2 and 5 are used as vectors. (powershow.com)
  • The wide range of existing viruses, their production methods, and the emergence of new public health threats make it extremely difficult to homogenize viral vaccine manufacturing. (mpg.de)
  • These challenges are also true for gene therapy, in which huge amounts of viruses are needed to administer a treatment. (mpg.de)
  • Viruses, natural parasites that efficiently enter cellular targets and hijack cellular machinery for propagation, are currently the most effective vectors for gene therapy. (brainkart.com)
  • Many viruses with divergent properties have been devel-oped for gene transfer. (brainkart.com)
  • Pseudotyping," a process in which the SU glyco-proteins are replaced with those from unrelated viruses such as vesicular stomatitis virus or Ebola virus, has significantly expanded the number of cell types capable of being transduced by these vectors (Cronin, 2005). (brainkart.com)
  • Certain viruses work well as vectors to deliver a new gene to the proper location. (isth.org)
  • The most commonly used viral vectors are derived from retroviruses, adenoviruses, and adeno associated viruses (AAV). (medcraveonline.com)
  • Nanotechnology-based non-viral vectors have emerged as promising alternatives to viruses to carry genetic material into target cells due to their ability to overcome many limitations of viral vectors. (ehu.es)
  • The industrial-scale manufacturing of viruses or virus-like particles in cell culture is necessary for gene therapy and the treatment of cancer with oncolytic viruses. (intechopen.com)
  • All viruses provided by the SCGTC will be sequenced for verification of targeting constructs prior to viral production and confirmation of stem cell transduction. (stonybrookmedicine.edu)
  • Vectors utilized as the method for gene delivery can be divided into two categories, recombinant viruses and synthetic vectors (viral and non-viral). (wikipedia.org)
  • The two major classes of methods are those that use recombinant viruses (sometimes called biological nanoparticles or viral vectors) and those that use naked DNA or DNA complexes (non-viral methods). (wikipedia.org)
  • Integration into host genome, the distinctive feature of retroviral vectors, is a double-edged sword when it comes to gene therapy. (umassmed.edu)
  • A normal gene may be inserted into a nonspecific location within the genome to replace a nonfunctional gene. (scribd.com)
  • In this setting, genome integration is advantageous and not an outsized safety risk since the location where the target gene has integrated can be analyzed in the modified cells, thus removing the risk of introducing a transformed cell back into the patient. (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • By replacing pieces of a viral genome with a known genetic sequence, harnessing the viral lifecycle allows the capability to carry the new viral sequence across the cell membrane and bring the modified genome in contact with a defective cellular genome. (jyi.org)
  • In order to be successful at transforming the defective genome, viral vectors must overcome physical barriers and immune responses. (jyi.org)
  • Viral-mediated gene therapy utilizes viral replication in order to correct mutations to genes in the human genome by inserting the corrected gene into the viral genome. (jyi.org)
  • This procedure must be done in such a way that the genes which allow the virus to insert its genome into its host's genome are left intact. (genetherapynet.com)
  • Large-scale mutagenesis projects in North America ( http://www.norcomm.org/index.htm ) and Europe ( http://www.knockoutmouse.org/about/eucomm ) are producing libraries of mouse embryonic stem cell clones with conditional gene targets and traps that will eventually cover the entire mouse genome. (jove.com)
  • In a therapeutic setting, an AAV donor vector will recombine with a mutant target locus in order to correct the mutation directly in the genome. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, our results reveal the side effects associated with rAAV-mediated gene targeting, but also its great potential for precise genome engineering in a therapeutic context. (nih.gov)
  • During replication, RT converts the viral RNA to linear double-stranded DNA that integrates into the host genome with the help of the viral IN. (brainkart.com)
  • Gradinaru has talked about the potential of these systemic vectors in "mapping circuits in the periphery and fast screening of gene regulatory elements" and "genome editing with powerful tools such as CRISPR/Cas9. (evolving-science.com)
  • After several years of it, in 1971, Carl R. Merril experimented on Human Fibroblast cells and concluded that DNA could be inserted in the human genome for fixing the mutant gene. (geneticeducation.co.in)
  • The DMD gene, spanning over 2.4 megabases along the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp21.2), is the largest genetic locus known in the human genome. (cdc.gov)
  • Experiments involving different programmable nuclease platforms and target cell types have established that the application of genome-editing principles to the targeted manipulation of defective DMD loci can result in the rescue of dystrophin protein synthesis in gene-edited cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Successful gene delivery requires the foreign gene delivery to remain stable within the host cell and can either integrate into the genome or replicate independently of it. (wikipedia.org)
  • This requires foreign DNA to be synthesized as part of a vector, which is designed to enter the desired host cell and deliver the transgene to that cell's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract = "This review aims to provide a broad overview of the targets, challenges and potential for gene therapy in the CNS, citing specific examples. (elsevier.com)
  • Next, the NIH-patented vector will need to be tested in clinical trials. (news-medical.net)
  • The first commercial gene therapy products are appearing commercially, and the area is growing rapidly with over 350 clinical trials taking place in 2019 alone. (uk-cpi.com)
  • Many gene therapy clinical trials rely on retroviruses or adenoviruses to deliver the desired gene. (genetherapynet.com)
  • With an estimated $11 billion (USD) market in the next 10 years, both clinical trials and the pharmaceutical industry are expected to benefit immensely from gene therapy. (wpiinc.com)
  • Following a 10-year interval, clinical trials of an aerosolisable non-viral gene transfer agent have recently been initiated by researchers in the United Kingdom. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Dr. van der Loo directs the manufacturing of viral vectors in support of pre-clinical GLP studies and early phase clinical trials. (labroots.com)
  • BACKGROUND Although there are increasingly more clinical trials involving gene therapy, efficient gene transfer remains a major hurdle to success. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Approximately 70% of all gene therapy clinical trials employ viral vectors (Table 4). (brainkart.com)
  • Approximately 23% of the currently active clinical trials employ retroviral vectors for gene transfer (Table 4). (brainkart.com)
  • Currently physicians and researchers are conducting gene therapy clinical trials utilizing vectors with improved safety features such as replication incompetent vectors, self-inactivated vectors, pseudo typed vectors, hybrid vectors, etc. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Despite some problems encountered by viral vectors in gene therapy clinical trials in the past, rationally designed viral vectors will be good delivery vehicles for gene therapy of human genetic diseases and will cure hundreds of thousands of patients world-wide. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Viral vectors have proven efficacious in preclinical models for several disease applications, spurring several clinical trials. (elsevier.com)
  • 2 In clinical trials, five patients homozygous for familial hypercholesterolaemia underwent ex vivo replacement of the faulty gene. (bmj.com)
  • AAV, lentivirus) and non-viral vectors (e.g., lipid nanoparticles, exosomes), including recent innovations such as improved tissue targeting (e.g., novel AAV serotypes) and less oncogenic lentiviral vectors. (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • gag (responsible for production of core pro-teins), pol (responsible for virus replication and integration) and env (responsible for production of envelope proteins), while complex retroviruses like the lentivirus, contain genes for virus replication and evasion of the host immune response (Fig. 5B). (brainkart.com)
  • Viral vectors such as AAV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-based lentivirus, are showing great promise as a gene therapy tool. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Browse our innovative chromatography solutions specifically designed to improve the downstream purification of viral vectors, including the Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV), lentivirus, and AdenovirusType 5 (Adv5), as well as mRNA. (thermofisher.com)
  • Viral Vaccines and Gene Therapy Vectors Conference aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Viral Vaccines and Gene Therapy Vectors Conference. (waset.org)
  • It also provides a premier interdisciplinary platform for researchers, practitioners, and educators to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns as well as practical challenges encountered and solutions adopted in the fields of Viral Vaccines and Gene Therapy Vectors Conference. (waset.org)
  • See how Sartorius' innovative, groundbreaking solutions advance and accelerate your discovery and development of new vaccines against viral infections. (sartorius.com)
  • Much of the technology used for the current manufacturing of viral vaccines has its roots in discoveries from the gene therapy industry. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A second wave of interest came in the development of biodefense vaccines - many of which can be made via viral methods - in the aftermath of 9/11. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The surface proteins on viral particles interact with their natural cell surface receptors, which triggers the cellular uptake process known as endocytosis. (umassmed.edu)
  • Recombinant viral vectors are manufactured in producer cell lines supplemented in trans with viral proteins necessary for replication, capsid and envelope generation. (umassmed.edu)
  • The cap gene encodes viral capsid proteins and the rep gene product is involved in viral replication and integration. (powershow.com)
  • Viral vectors have been used to express foreign proteins in plants or to silence endogenous genes. (apsnet.org)
  • Chao et al have performed extensive studies on gene transfer to increase vasodilator proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chao et al have an extensive series of studies on gene transfer to genes that act to increase vasodilator proteins ( Table 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • The integrated construct, the provirus, will later undergo transcrip-tion and translation as cellular genes do to produce viral genomic RNA and mRNA encoding viral proteins. (brainkart.com)
  • Retroviruses are also rapidly removed from the systemic circulation in response to cellular proteins incorporated in the viral envelope during the budding process. (brainkart.com)
  • Here, we compare the manufacture of viral vectors with that of recombinant proteins and reveal how one company has developed a solution to address the continuing challenges in gene therapy production. (labiotech.eu)
  • Compared with the production of recombinant proteins, for instance, the production of viral vectors is a lot more challenging. (labiotech.eu)
  • "Viral vectors are much more complex than recombinant proteins," said Antti Nieminen, Director of Business Development and Projects at Biovian, Turku, Finland. (labiotech.eu)
  • "While manufacturing of recombinant proteins is a fairly straight-forward process, starting with simple raw materials, manufacturing of viral vectors involves some advanced materials, such as plasmids, which also need to be manufactured according to guidelines," Nieminen said. (labiotech.eu)
  • But the advanced therapy medicinal product guidelines for viral vectors are newer than those for recombinant proteins and there is less experience from their interpretation, so drug developers have less experience in the implementation of these guidelines. (labiotech.eu)
  • We postulate that molecular strategies to deliver nucleic acids by viral membrane fusion proteins can be mimicked using less complex lipids. (grantome.com)
  • Thus, with the help of these viral vectors, particular cells can be identified and labelled due to the coding for fluorescent proteins. (evolving-science.com)
  • Top image: A newly developed viral vector, AAV-PHP.S, was used to label neurons lining the digestive tract with a cocktail of three distinct fluorescent proteins. (evolving-science.com)
  • Despite these shortcomings, retroviral vectors have been used to treat monogenetic hereditary disorders with some success. (brainkart.com)
  • Gene therapy trials using retroviral vectors to treat X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) represent the most successful application of gene therapy to date. (wikipedia.org)
  • AdV is able to transduce a broad range of quiescent and proliferating human cells including tumor cells, making it an attractive vector for the development of anti-tumor gene therapy strategies. (umassmed.edu)
  • Using animal models, the new vector was shown to support the transfer of corrective genes into bone marrow stem cells up to ten times more efficiently than current vectors. (news-medical.net)
  • It also had a ten-times greater transduction efficiency, which is a measure of the vector's ability to incorporate the corrective genes into the bone marrow cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Many gene therapy strategies designed to deliver a normal copy of a gene to cells carrying a disease-causing genetic mutation rely on a modified virus to transfer the gene product into affected tissues. (redorbit.com)
  • 2) Targeted killing of specific cells Cancer therapy: Direct killing the cells by toxicity or through tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) with TNF gene. (scribd.com)
  • to deliver the therapeutic gene to the patient's target cells. (scribd.com)
  • Target cells such as the patient's liver or lung cells are infected with the viral vector. (scribd.com)
  • Gene therapy vectors, or delivery vehicles, fit within two broad categories: viral and non-viral, with viral vectors the most used due to their ability to naturally infect cells (Figure 2). (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • After target gene integration, the cells are amplified and returned to the patient, usually in an autologous stem cell transplant. (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • Efficient Gene Transfer to Kidney Mesenchymal Cells Using a Synthetic Adeno-Associated Viral Vector. (nih.gov)
  • Gene therapy is the introduction of new genetic material into cells of an individual in order to produce a therapeutic outcome in the diseased individual (Bunnell & Morgan, 1998). (jyi.org)
  • In advanced lab tests using animal models, the new vector was up to 10 times more efficient at incorporating corrective genes into bone marrow stem cells than the conventional vectors currently used, and it had a carrying capacity of up to six times higher, the researchers report. (nih.gov)
  • With gene therapy, doctors modify the patient's bone marrow hematopoietic (blood-producing) stem cells in the lab by adding a normal copy of the beta-globin gene through the use of a viral vector. (nih.gov)
  • This inactivated virus was further altered to carry the factor IX gene and to locate within liver cells where factor IX protein is normally made. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Viral vectors are an important tool for introducing genes into target cells. (pall.com)
  • In gene therapy, a different paradigm is adopted where a virus is used to deliver the genetic material needed to make a particular protein to cells. (uk-cpi.com)
  • In vitro - where patient cells are taken, and a viral vector used to introduce a specific gene to the patient's cells. (uk-cpi.com)
  • In vivo - where a viral vector contains the gene of interest is injected into the patient, the virus targets a particular cell type, is infected by the virus and multiple copies of the protein are produced by the patient's cells. (uk-cpi.com)
  • Thus, when viral vectors are used to carry genes into the body, they might infect healthy cells as well as cancer cells. (genetherapynet.com)
  • Gene Therapy The introduction of nucleic acids into cells for the purpose of altering the course of medical condition or disease. (powershow.com)
  • The recombinant vectors are then replicated in cells that express the products of the E1 or E3 gene and can be generated in very high concentrations. (powershow.com)
  • Adenoviral vectors can infect cells in vivo, causing them to express high levels of the transgene. (powershow.com)
  • They found that the new vectors could transfer a much higher viral load-up to six times more therapeutic beta-globin genes than the conventional vectors-and had four to 10 times higher transduction efficiency, a measure of the ability to incorporate corrective genes into repopulating bone marrow cells. (ehealthweek2010.org)
  • With gene therapy, doctors modify the patient's bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells in the lab by adding a normal copy of the beta-globin gene through the use of a viral vector. (mlo-online.com)
  • Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a nonintegrating, nonenveloped, and replication-deficient parvovirus that has emerged as a powerful tool for gene delivery to mammalian cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • Advantages of AAV-directed gene transfer include stable transduction in nondividing cells, low immune response, and favorable safety profile in humans. (asnjournals.org)
  • Another key factor is to transpose conditions from in vivo gene delivery into cells and tissue to in vitro. (rroij.com)
  • Microenvironment more similar to in vivo opens new approaches in transfection field, like how mechanic stimulus [matrix stiffness] can increase pathway of internalization in order to facilitate non-viral vectors insertion in cells and, consequently, enhance efficiency transfection [ 12 ]. (rroij.com)
  • 1-3 Although cardiomyocytes are good vector targets, efforts have been impeded by low transfection efficiencies and difficulties in culturing and studying mature cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Vectors in gene therapy deliver DNA to the diseased cells using various carriers such as retroviruses and adenoviruses. (isth.org)
  • The resulting NLP will be a non- inflammatory vector in circulation and mediate rapid cytoplasmic transfer of nucleic acids after internalization into cells. (grantome.com)
  • In 2016, the group developed a new virus, AAV-PHP.eB, by altering the capsid of the virus to promote a more advanced and efficient diffusion of genes into cells of the nervous system. (evolving-science.com)
  • On labelling, studying individual cells and pairing with specific agents, it was analyzed that these viral vectors caused an efficient genetic modification in the nervous system of the rodent. (evolving-science.com)
  • Global delivery to the central nervous system may increase the use of these vectors but only if the viral vectors can cross the blood-brain barrier and result in transduction of the underlying cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Here the authors compare vectors and find AAV2.7m8 can infect cells in the inner ear with high efficiency. (nature.com)
  • In 1961, K Lorraine had successfully introduced a functional gene in the mammalian cells. (geneticeducation.co.in)
  • The era for using a non-viral vector in gene therapy was begun when polyethylene glycol was first time used as a vector for the delivery gene into brain cells in 2003. (geneticeducation.co.in)
  • In the future, doctors may treat a disease by inserting a gene into patient's cells instead of using conventional drugs or surgery. (medcraveonline.com)
  • The Viral Vector and Gene Editing Core will develop gene editing tools for manipulating mammalian genomes and deliver these tools into cells using viral vectors. (cityofhope.org)
  • The tools for gene- or cell therapy and DNA vaccination are available in form of pure genetic material (DNA, RNA) or within more complex units (viral vectors, VLP, aggregates containing chemical substances or "simply" cells). (pdfchm.net)
  • Gene recombinant bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as a tumor-targeted suicide gene delivery vehicle in pulmonary metastasis therapy using non-vir. (nih.gov)
  • Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been proposed as cellular delivery vehicles to tumor sites in tumor-targeted cancer gene therapy. (nih.gov)
  • This study investigates the possibility of gene transfer via bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in anti-cancer gene therapy using a metastatic melanoma model and cytomegalovirus-thymidine kinase expressing stem cells, demonstrating clear therapeutic effects. (nih.gov)
  • Direct cell delivery - autologous cells are extracted from the patient, genetically modified using viral transduction and then reinfused into the patient. (evolution-bio.com)
  • Our strategy allows easy and efficient identification of adaptive vectors with high DNA complexation ability, good transfection efficiency, and well tolerated by mammalian cells. (exordo.com)
  • The SCGTC will provide this critical support to assist investigators in the genetic modulation of stem cells as a means of studying gene function. (stonybrookmedicine.edu)
  • Standard retroviral and lentiviral vectors have been successfully used to stably express or suppress genes in stem cells, and will be the primary vehicles for transduction. (stonybrookmedicine.edu)
  • For all studies, the SCGTC will maintain logs for all viral constructs, freeze viral aliquots for future need, and cryopreserve genetically modified cells for storage and distribution to other investigators. (stonybrookmedicine.edu)
  • Non-viral vector based gene transfection with human induced pluripotent stem cells derived cardiomyocytes. (artelis.be)
  • The current study aims to characterize and determine the non-viral vector based gene transfection efficiency with human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). (artelis.be)
  • Gene delivery is the process of introducing foreign genetic material, such as DNA or RNA, into host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many different methods of gene delivery for various types of cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a variety of methods available to deliver genes to host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical based methods of gene delivery can use natural or synthetic compounds to form particles that facilitate the transfer of genes into cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical vectors usually enter cells by endocytosis and can protect genetic material from degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liposomes and polymers can be used as vectors to deliver DNA into cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene therapy utilizes the delivery of DNA into cells, which can be accomplished by several methods, summarized below. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory has a strong track record in the manufacturing of AAV (Serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6, 8 and 9) and lentiviral vector. (labroots.com)
  • However, improvement in vector purification methods have allowed us to validate a lentiviral vector as a viable gene therapy option. (uiowa.edu)
  • A scalable and high-yield lentiviral vector production platform in a chemically defined, serum-free environment. (thermofisher.com)
  • Biosafety Studies of a Clinically Applicable Lentiviral Vector for the Gene Therapy of Artemis-SCID. (artelis.be)
  • Retroviruses have many attributes that make them attractive for gene transfer applications (Table 5). (brainkart.com)
  • Retroviruses, used for this purpose, also integrate their genetic material to include the new gene into the human cell. (isth.org)
  • It's the new kid on the block and represents a substantial improvement in our ability to produce high capacity, high-efficiency vectors for treating this devastating disorder. (news-medical.net)
  • Gene therapy approaches that use these reverse-oriented vectors for sickle cell disease have so far been encouraging, but Tisdale and team say this gene translation process has made vector preparation and the efficiency of gene transfer more challenging. (news-medical.net)
  • In "A Simple Method to Increase the Transduction Efficiency of Single-Stranded Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors In Vitro and In Vivo," Ma and colleagues have further optimized their method for delivering a mixed population of AAV2 vectors to enable high-efficiency transfer of large genes. (redorbit.com)
  • Viral vectors have been extensively studied due to their great transduction efficiency compared to non-viral vectors. (mdpi.com)
  • Gene therapy trials using reverse-oriented vectors for sickle cell disease and beta-thalassemia have largely been encouraging, the researchers said, but this complicated gene translation process has made vector preparation and gene-transfer efficiency more difficult. (nih.gov)
  • Recent efforts to engineer AAV vectors have shown that transduction efficiency can be improved and that tropism can be modified. (asnjournals.org)
  • WPI's versatile UltraMicroPump (UMP3) with SMARTouch™ microprocessor-controlled injector and sub-microliter (Nanofil TM ) injection system that ensures reproducible and precise delivery of microliter to nanoliter volumes with high efficiency have been widely used for transferring viral vectors and have become the standard practice. (wpiinc.com)
  • To enhance the efficiency of delivery of viral vectors in gene therapy protocols, we evaluated the effect of various matrices to act as a vehicle for recombinant virus during intratumoral injection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Completion of these specific aims will result in a 'lipid engineered'synthetic gene carrier with an in vivo gene transfer efficiency approaching that of current viral vectors. (grantome.com)
  • However, the bacterial backbone on the non-viral vector and the relatively large size of COL7A1 limits its transfection efficiency and the protein restoration. (ucd.ie)
  • The reduced vector size can significantly increase the transfection efficiency. (ucd.ie)
  • The gene transfection efficiency and cell viability were quantified by flow cytometry. (artelis.be)
  • , the highest gene transfection efficiency was 55.6 ± 7.8% or 34.1 ± 4%, respectively, for P1C1 or DP3 hiPSC line that was derived from healthy donor (P1C1) or patient with diabetes (DP3). (artelis.be)
  • These may include actions aimed at improving transfection efficiency, vector establishment, and vector maintenance in the host cell nucleus, as well as decreasing plasmid loss, cell toxicity, and production costs. (nature.com)
  • In this study, I describe the engineering and evaluation of plasmids designed for packaging into AAV9 for cardiac-targeted gene therapy. (virginia.edu)
  • While the global gene therapy market grows steadily, companies continue to face bottlenecks in the production of gene therapy's essential building blocks: viral vectors and plasmids. (labiotech.eu)
  • As the global gene therapy market expands, the need for viral vectors and plasmids increases. (labiotech.eu)
  • In the case of adenoviral- (AV), adeno-associated viral (AAV)-, and lentiviral (LV) vector manufacturing, a characterized master cell and respective viral seed stock, and/or transfection plasmids are needed as well. (labiotech.eu)
  • DNA immunization with plasmids encoding the MHV-68 genes M2 or M3 caused a reduction in either acute or early latent viral load, respectively, but neither immunization had an effect at times later than 14 days post-infection. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • After significant improvements in the field of non-viral vector development, we compiled the status of those "new plasmids" within this book. (pdfchm.net)
  • We gave an overview on initial non-viral approaches in 2001 with "Plasmids for Therapy and Vaccination" (edited by M. Schleef, E-Book ISBN 978-3-527-61284-0, Wiley-VCH) summarizing the different types of plasmid vectors to be used, their structure and functionality including regulatory aspects and those of making them. (pdfchm.net)
  • Nowadays, many researchers in the field of gene delivery are focused on develop methods to produce nanoparticles with physicochemical characteristics in reproducible, continuous and scalable process without requiring post processing steps. (rroij.com)
  • Several micro/ nanoparticles used in gene delivery can be produced through dropletbased systems with low polydispersity index, such as liposomes, bio/ polymeric nanoparticles, metal nanoparticles, polymersomes, microgels. (rroij.com)
  • Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarize new trends in microfluidic droplet systems developed to gene delivery studies, since micro/nanoparticles production to transfection in vitro. (rroij.com)
  • In the field of nanoparticles production for gene delivery, many efforts are being made in order to develop scalable processes with reproducible physicochemical characteristics [average diameter, zeta potential and polydispersity index] [ 4 ]. (rroij.com)
  • To date, a wide variety of nanosized non-viral gene delivery vectors have been developed, including cationic lipids, polymers and magnetic nanoparticles. (ehu.es)
  • The use of engineered inorganic and organic nanoparticles is another non-viral approach for gene delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001) Antinociceptive effect of a genomic herpes simplex virus‐based vector expressing human proenkephalin in rat dorsal root ganglion. (els.net)
  • Importantly, the capacity of these nucleases to modify specific genomic loci associated with human disease could render new classes of genetic disease, including autosomal dominant or even idiopathic disease, accessible to gene therapy. (berkeley.edu)
  • 2008). Through the analysis of current research in viral vector mediated gene therapy, it is possible to evaluate the practical and theoretical application of gene therapy through a viral vector as a treatment option for genetic diseases. (jyi.org)
  • Adeno-associated virus-mediated gene therapy is used for the treatment of choroideremia disease, a rare form of the x-linked recessive disorder of vision loss. (geneticeducation.co.in)
  • These studies establish a novel method for inducible knockout of floxed genes in mouse mesangium, pericytes, and perivascular fibroblasts and are the foundation for future gene therapy approaches to treat kidney fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • Combinations of these approaches will likely facilitate clinical applications of gene therapy for many target diseases and also aid in vaccine development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Advanced technologies of conditional gene manipulation in the mouse enable multifaceted approaches to the exploration of synaptic pathways and functional connections in the central nervous system. (jove.com)
  • Through a combination of rational design and directed evolution approaches, we attempt to expand traditional virus targeting methods to create novel AAV gene delivery vectors with enhanced specificity. (confex.com)
  • Kant, R., Dasgupta, I. Gene silencing approaches through virus-based vectors: speeding up functional genomics in monocots. (wpiinc.com)
  • Preclinical studies on gene therapy for hypertension have taken 2 approaches. (ahajournals.org)
  • Also, various approaches to gene therapy are described in this article. (geneticeducation.co.in)
  • Currently researchers and clinicians are testing several approaches of gene therapy of genetic diseases including: replacing a mutated gene that causes disease with a normal copy of the gene, inactivating or "knocking out" a mutated gene that is functioning improperly, and introducing a new normal gene into the body to help fight a disease. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Vectors based on the non-pathogenic AAV human parvovirus are favoured for direct gene therapy approaches. (evolution-bio.com)
  • In vivo approaches to genetic manipulation involve the transfer of genes to target tissue by either systemic administration or direct injection. (bmj.com)
  • According to this report the global viral vector and plasmid manufacturing market was valued at $1.16 billion in 2019 and is expected to be $5.86 billion in 2030. (yahoo.com)
  • Which region is expected to contribute the highest sales to the global viral vector and plasmid manufacturing market during the period between 2019 and 2030? (yahoo.com)
  • We have evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of different viral (e.g. (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • A comparison of different viral vectors in use for gene therapy: overview of their advantages and disadvantages. (genetherapynet.com)
  • To test the feasibility of gene transfer into lacrimal gland tissue in primary culture, using different viral vectors. (curehunter.com)
  • The developments described herein provide opportunities for applications of gene therapy to treat acquired disorders and genetic diseases and to become useful tools in regenerative medicine. (mdpi.com)
  • With the aid of more advanced models and a broader base of immunological knowledge, correction of genetic diseases currently untreatable may someday be achieved through the use of viral vectors. (jyi.org)
  • In time, viral vectors may be utilized as the main source of treatment for genetic diseases. (jyi.org)
  • Research scientists are currently exploring many options to treat genetic diseases at the source through a method called gene therapy. (jyi.org)
  • Although gene therapy is a promising treatment option for a number inherited and genetic diseases, the therapy remains risky and is still under investigation to make sure that it will be safe and effective. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Moreover, the need to control the target of the vector has led to the development of chemical and non-chemical modifications of the vector surface, allowing researchers to modify the tropism and biodistribution profile of the vector, leading to the production of viral vectors able to target different tissues and organs. (mdpi.com)
  • Non-viral vectors in cystic fibrosis gene therapy: recent developments and future prospects. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Bcl‐2 and GDNF delivered by HSV‐mediated gene transfer after spinal root avulsion provide a synergistic effect. (els.net)
  • In vivo gene therapy for pyridoxine‐induced neuropathy by HSV‐mediated gene transfer of neurotrophin‐3. (els.net)
  • 2004) Protective effect of herpes simplex virus‐mediated neurotrophin gene transfer in cisplatin neuropathy. (els.net)
  • 2005a) HSV‐mediated gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor to dorsal root ganglia prevents diabetic neuropathy. (els.net)
  • 2005b) Long‐term neuroprotection achieved with latency‐associated promoter‐driven herpes simplex virus gene transfer to the peripheral nervous system. (els.net)
  • Hao S, Mata M, Wolfe D, Glorioso JC and Fink DJ (2005) Gene transfer of glutamic acid decarboxylase reduces neuropathic pain. (els.net)
  • Pre-existing immunity in humans, resulting from prior exposure to the parent virus that forms the basis for the gene transfer vehicle may be derived from, often prevents efficient gene transfer. (frontiersin.org)
  • For these reasons, the gene transfer community has been extensively studying the mechanisms of immune responses against viral vectors and has started to develop strategies and protocols to block or circumvent such responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Evaluation of adeno-associated viral vectors for liver-directed gene transfer in dogs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A wide range of vectors has been investigated for gene transfer to the cornea. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Douglas G.A. Parker, Helen M. Brereton, Douglas J. Coster and Keryn A. Williams, " The Potential of Viral Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer to Prolong Corneal Allograft Survival", Current Gene Therapy (2009) 9: 33. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Gene transfer into humans - immunotherapy of patients with advancedmelanoma, using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes modified by retroviral gene transduction. (wpiinc.com)
  • Background- Viral gene transfer to the whole heart in vivo has been achieved in several mammalian species but remained difficult to accomplish in murine hearts. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6-11 The addition of total body cooling has facilitated longer cross-clamp times, enhancing gene transfer in smaller animals. (ahajournals.org)
  • Despite these advances, successful translation of gene transfer methods to the murine heart has remained problematic. (ahajournals.org)
  • By contrast, mid-descending aortic occlusion might preserve a perfusion gradient by generating an isolated upper-body circuit and, combined with whole-body cooling, facilitate sustained clamp times to enhance gene transfer. (ahajournals.org)
  • To test the hypothesis that incorporation of an appropriate targeting ligand or membrane destabilizing peptide can further increase gene transfer. (grantome.com)
  • To characterize the extent and duration of gene transfer in liver hepatocytes or in a flank tumor in mice as a function of NLP composition after a low volume intravenous dose of an optimized targeted NLP. (grantome.com)
  • Vectors are used to transfer a gene. (geneticeducation.co.in)
  • In 1989, first patient was recovered through gene transfer technique. (geneticeducation.co.in)
  • The idea of gene transfer in a human was given by Martine Cline, he was one of the pioneer scientists in gene therapy research. (geneticeducation.co.in)
  • To achieve efficient gene transfer by transfection, plasmid DNA can be complexed with lipid reagents to mediate efficient delivery into the cell's nucleus. (thermofisher.com)
  • A unique hyperbranched polymeric system with a linear poly-2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA) block and a hyperbranched polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEMA) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EGDMA) block was designed and synthesized via deactivation enhanced atom transfer radical polymerisation (DE-ATRP) for efficient gene delivery. (edu.au)
  • Safety study of AADC gene transfer (VY-AADC01) in subjects with Parkinson's disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Safety and Tolerability of AADC Gene Transfer assessed by Adverse Events and Serious Adverse Events. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Niosomes have been demonstrated to be effective for retinal gene transfer, an important target organ in many gene therapy strategies due to the existence of several well characterized monogenic retinal disorders. (ehu.es)
  • Gene therapy, or more correctly, gene transfer, is a catch-all phrase for those products which use a viral vector, plasmid, or cell as a delivery vehicle for a gene product. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • DeLuca NA, McCarthy AM and Schaffer PA (1985) Isolation and characterization of deletion mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the gene encoding immediate‐early regulatory protein ICP4. (els.net)
  • The generation of a functional protein product from the therapeutic gene restores the target cell to a normal state. (scribd.com)
  • Hemophilia B is caused by an absence or abnormality in the gene that produces the factor IX protein. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This research study will test the safety of giving an affected individual a normal factor IX gene which can produce factor IX protein in his body. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A reporter gene such as enhanced green fluorescent protein facilitates monitoring spatial distribution of the vector, and the efficacy and cellular specificity of the transfection. (jove.com)
  • We developed viral vectors based on Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV) by duplicating a minimum promoter (92 bp) either at the 3′ untranslated region ( clbv3 ′ pr vector) or at the intergenic region between the movement and coat protein (CP) genes ( clbvINpr vector). (apsnet.org)
  • A clbvINpr vector carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene expressed GFP in citrus plants and triggered gfp silencing in gfp -transgenic citrus plants, and vectors carrying fragments of the phytoene desaturase or the magnesium chelatase genes incited a silencing phenotype in citrus plants. (apsnet.org)
  • En reportergen som förstärkt grönt fluorescerande protein underlättar övervakning rumsliga fördelningen av vektorn, och effekt och cellulära speficity av transfektionen. (jove.com)
  • Vi visar att infektion av dorsala horn neuroner på spinal segmentell nivå L4 med en neurotrop rekombinant adenoassocierat virus (rAAV) som uttrycker förstärkt grönt fluorescerande protein (EGFP) under en konstitutivt aktiv cytomegalovirus-promotorn. (jove.com)
  • RESULTS: Transductions with fAAV vector preparations yieldedABCA4mRNA, but did not generate detectable levels of protein. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, anABCA4overlapping dual vector system (OV) with a defined complementary region generated only full length mRNA transcripts plus detectable ABCA4 protein. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In fact, Biovian has well over a decade of experience in both recombinant protein and viral vector contract development and manufacturing. (labiotech.eu)
  • In gene therapy, the normal functional protein can be revived by replacing a mutant gene with a wild type one. (geneticeducation.co.in)
  • The mouse Klotho (also called α Klotho ) gene contains five exons and encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein with 1,014 amino acids predominantly expressed in the kidney and the brain choroid plexus ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Subsequent identification and characterization of the CHM gene, which encodes Rab escort protein 1 (REP1), has led to better comprehension of the disease and enabled advances in genetic diagnosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Gene therapy is the in vivo delivery of a nucleic acid sequence where multiple modalities exist, but in general, they can be grouped into three categories: 1) gene silencing/modulation 2) gene insertion/replacement and 3) gene editing. (waters.com)
  • Non-covalent intermolecular interactions play a large role in determining the properties of a given system, from segmented copolymers to interactions of functionalized polymers with non-viral nucleic acids delivery vehicles. (vt.edu)
  • In this regard, non-viral vectors present lower immunogenicity, higher nucleic acid packing capacity and ease of fabrication compared to their viral counterparts. (ehu.es)
  • Until recently, most efforts have focused on improving nucleic acid delivery strategies either by modifying non-viral vectors or by employing physical methods such as electroporation. (ehu.es)
  • The vector used in this study was developed from an adeno-associated virus that has been changed so that it is unable to cause a viral infection in humans. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The result is significant, because stability and immune response were two major problems that remained to be solved in mice before the U-M's dystrophin vector could be tested for safety and effectiveness in humans. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The new vector, for which the NIH holds the patent, still needs to undergo clinical testing in humans. (mlo-online.com)
  • China was the pioneer in gene therapy, they had approved first gene therapy in humans. (geneticeducation.co.in)
  • Studies in 1.5-month-old dogs, which were administered vector through a peripheral vein, showed that AAV8 capsid vectors had the most favorable performance profiles. (biomedsearch.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Dual vector AAV systems are being utilised to enable gene therapy for disorders in which the disease gene is too large to fit into a single capsid. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The emerging role of viral vectors as vehicles for DMD gene editing. (cdc.gov)
  • There are several types of viral vectors available for gene therapy drug developers, each with its own set of strengths and weaknesses. (evolution-bio.com)
  • Dr Philip Probert and Dr Stuart Jamieson discuss the potential of gene therapy and the processes involved in the manufacture of viral vectors. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • In addition replication-conditional HSV vectors have proven to be exceptionally efficient oncolytic agents. (umassmed.edu)
  • Genetically modified recombinant HSV vectors have been constructed that are incapable of replication, but nonetheless efficiently infect and establish a latent‐like state in neurons in vitro and in vivo without the ability to reactivate. (els.net)
  • In order to utilize the viral replication cycle to treat diseases, it is necessary to understand the viral replication cycle. (jyi.org)
  • When genes are delivered to bacteria or plants the process is called transformation and when it is used to deliver genes to animals it is called transfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also had a carrying capacity that was ten times greater than conventional vectors. (news-medical.net)
  • This has simplified the gene translation process and when the new vector was tested in mice and monkeys, it delivered up to six times more therapeutic beta-globin genes than conventional vectors. (news-medical.net)
  • An estimated 27 sickle-cell patients have already undergone experimental gene therapy that uses conventional vectors. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers also found that they could be produced in much higher amounts than the conventional vectors, potentially saving time and lowering costs associated with large-scale vector production. (ehealthweek2010.org)
  • We are developing ex vivo gene therapy using a murine artificial chromosome containing a reporter gene (LacZ) for local delivery of genes in rats with adjuvant arthritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These data suggest that artificial chromosomes may have potential in ex vivo gene therapy applications using non-viral delivery techniques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we succinctly review these fast-paced developments and technologies, highlighting their relative merits and potential bottlenecks, when used as part of in vivo and ex vivo gene-editing strategies. (cdc.gov)
  • Genethon and Pall® Biotech have collaborated to demonstrate the benefits of the iCELLis® fixed-bed bioreactor as a platform for viral vector production. (pall.com)
  • Agroinoculation with these vectors resulted in systemic infection of Nicotiana benthamiana and the resulting virions systemically infected citrus plants. (apsnet.org)
  • Finally, the partial sequestration of the eye from the systemic circulation decreases the likelihood of spillover of vector and transgene, and the immune privileged nature of the cornea and anterior segment affords a degree of protection from immune responses directed against the vector. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Journal Article] Systemic delivery of tyrosine-mutant AAV vectors results in robust transduction of neurons in adult mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The gene recombinant BMSCs migrated to the pulmonary area and were found to have the tendency to target tumor nodules after systemic delivery. (nih.gov)
  • When manufacturing viral products by mammalian cell culture, the two essential components are the cell line and the source virus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Non-viral transfection of mammalian cardiomyocytes (CMs) is challenging. (artelis.be)
  • Artificial vectors possess several theoretical advantages over viral vectors, such as simple production methods that are easily scalable, and amenable to carrying large genes, and have low immunogenicity potential. (umassmed.edu)
  • The focus is now on issues related to commercialization including methods for large scale and high quality production of vectors," says James M. Wilson, MD, PhD, Editor-in-Chief, and Director of the Gene Therapy Program, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia. (redorbit.com)
  • Methods of altering their tropism have been established and could be utilised to develop vectors with a high degree of selectivity for atherosclerotic plaques. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Methods We evaluated the transduction profiles of various pseudotyped AAV vectors expressing either GFP or Cre recombinase reporters in mouse kidney and human kidney organoids. (asnjournals.org)
  • Methods: ND-DOTMA vectors were obtained by an o/w emulsification method. (qub.ac.uk)
  • There have been 2 methods of delivering antisense: one is by oligodeoxynucleotides, and the other is with full-length DNA in viral vectors. (ahajournals.org)
  • But when the download non viral gene delivery vectors methods and protocols of kind has attached not, its return must not be warranted consequently. (northgeorgialivesteamers.org)
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  • This work brought together investigators from across the globe in a joint effort to use new databases and methods to better understand the trends of the gene therapy field in respect to nonviral vectors. (nature.com)
  • For some bacteria no external methods are need to introduce genes as they are naturally able to take up foreign DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial gene delivery can be mediated by physical methods which uses force to introduce genetic material through the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have developed a unique, improved viral vector to use in gene therapy for sickle cell disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder caused by a mutation in the beta-globin gene that results in hemoglobin having an abnormal structure. (news-medical.net)
  • Our new vector is an important breakthrough in the field of gene therapy for sickle cell disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Diagram shows steps involved in conducting gene therapy for sickle cell disease. (nih.gov)
  • The development of the vector could make gene therapy for sickle cell disease much more effective and pave the way for wider use of it as a curative approach for the painful, life-threatening blood disorder. (nih.gov)
  • Our new vector is an important breakthrough in the field of gene therapy for sickle cell disease," said study senior author John Tisdale, M.D., chief of the Cellular and Molecular Therapeutic Branch at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). (nih.gov)
  • Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder caused by a mutation, or misspelling, in the beta-globin gene (or β-globin gene). (nih.gov)
  • Our analysis provides a holistic view of the rapidly evolving cell and gene therapy industry, offering bioproduction companies and contract development and manufacturing organisations an insight into the future requirements of their customers. (evolution-bio.com)
  • The advent of cell and gene therapy has offered the high potential to treat diseases that are otherwise incurable by conventional treatment modalities. (yahoo.com)
  • Reproducible and efficient murine CNS gene delivery using a microprocessor-controlled injector. (wpiinc.com)
  • Conclusions- The new simplified approach for murine whole-heart viral transfection should assist molecular physiology studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although we still see a small immune response, it peaks after 30 days and does not appear to adversely affect the ability of mouse muscle to take up the vector and produce dystrophin. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The iQue ® Advanced Flow Cytometry Platform can be used for viral research activities such as monitoring host-pathogen interactions, antibody library screening, immune response assessment, epitope mapping, and antibody neutralization studies. (sartorius.com)
  • However, they also have several limitations, such as: i) risk of insertional mutagenesis, ii) risk of an immune response and increased inflammation, and iii) viral DNA is prone to silencing, and last but not least iv) the substantially high costs of viral production, which hinders more widespread clinical applications. (nature.com)
  • Viral vector production, on the other hand, can utilize various different cell lines, each with unique growth and transfection characteristics. (labiotech.eu)
  • In order to provide a patent landscape and to identify technologies that utilize non-viral vectors, search queries using Derwent Innovation and PatSnap platform were performed to assess the annual patenting trend in the technology field for non-viral vectors. (nature.com)
  • the global viral vector and plasmid manufacturing market was worth $368M (€308M). (labiotech.eu)
  • The "Global Viral Vector and Plasmid Manufacturing Market: Focus on Vector Type, Application, Disease, 5 Region's Data, 15 Countries' Data, Patent Landscape and Competitive Insights - Analysis and Forecast, 2020-2030" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. (yahoo.com)
  • The viral vector and plasmid manufacturing market is expected to grow at a lower double-digit compound annual growth rate in the forecast period 2020-2030. (yahoo.com)
  • This, in turn, has attracted the attention of investors, making viral vector and plasmid manufacturing market an active area of investment as well as encouraging favorable funding activities from both the private and public sectors. (yahoo.com)
  • Currently, the global viral vector and plasmid manufacturing market is witnessing the entry of several contract development and manufacturing organizations (CDMOs) and contract manufacturing organizations (CMOs) that are striving hard to sustain the competition with the main goal to increase the production of vectors that would be both cost-effective and of superior quality. (yahoo.com)
  • What are the key trends of the global viral vector and plasmid manufacturing market? (yahoo.com)
  • What are the major drivers, challenges, and opportunities of the global viral vector and plasmid manufacturing market? (yahoo.com)
  • What are the key developmental strategies implemented by the key players of the global viral vector and plasmid manufacturing market to sustain the competition of the market? (yahoo.com)
  • What is the regulatory scenario of the global viral vector and plasmid manufacturing market? (yahoo.com)
  • What are the major milestones in patenting activity in the global viral vector and plasmid manufacturing market? (yahoo.com)
  • Which region and country carry the potential for significant expansion of key companies in the viral vector and plasmid manufacturing market? (yahoo.com)
  • Which are the key players of the global viral vector and plasmid manufacturing market, and what are their roles in the market? (yahoo.com)
  • Our lab has been working on improving beta-globin vectors for almost a decade…and finally decided to try something radically different-and it worked. (news-medical.net)
  • A modified retrovirus for gene therapy contains psi sequence, a gene of interest at a multiple cloning site (MCS), neomycin resistance gene with promoter or using an internal ribosome entry element (IRES). (scribd.com)
  • Four of the treated patients developed T cell leukemia because the gamma retrovirus integrated in/near the proto-oncogenes that turned the gene on. (medcraveonline.com)
  • 3 This was achieved by segmental hepatic resection, preparation of hepatocyte cultures, and transduction of these cultures with a recombinant retrovirus encoding the gene for the human LDL receptor. (bmj.com)
  • In the second incident, a group of French children with severe combined immunodeficiency, or 'bubble boy' disease, were cured but developed leukemia after the retrovirus vector integrated itself preferentially into certain sites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Sometimes the genes of the retrovirus do not express their information immediately. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though clear challenges exist, numerous proof-of-concept studies in preclinical models offer exciting promise for the future of gene therapy. (berkeley.edu)
  • We conclude that there is sufficient preclinical data to give serious consideration to phase I trials for testing some of the antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, although testing the viral vectors needs much more work. (ahajournals.org)
  • From 30 years of groundbreaking work with HIV to supporting the latest gene therapy technologies, ABL offers a comprehensive portfolio of services for the effective design, development, manufacturing and analytical testing of vaccine and virus vector products. (ablinc.com)
  • This is the first time that immunization with a non-replicating vaccine has lead to a significantly reduced viral load at time points beyond 14 days post-infection, and thus demonstrates that a non-replicating vaccine may successfully be employed to reduce the viral burden during chronic gammaherpesvirus infection. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • MiniTEM allows a user-friendly electron microscopy technology for viral characterization to be put in the hands of any process developer in the gene therapy or vaccine field. (vironova.com)
  • The first virus to be used as a vaccine vector was the vaccinia virus in 1984 as a way to protect chimpanzees against hepatitis B. Non-viral gene delivery was first reported on in 1943 by Avery et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral vectors have been employed for the treatment of various diseases such as metabolic, cardiovascular, muscular, hematologic, ophthalmologic, and infectious diseases and different types of cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Clinical proof of concept of AAV gene therapy has been realized in several diseases. (redorbit.com)
  • Currently, AAV-based gene therapy trials are ongoing for a range of monogenic diseases, including neuromuscular disease, hemophilia, and inherited forms of blindness. (asnjournals.org)
  • Gene therapy has been proposed for a wide range of human diseases but few have received the level of attention over such a prolonged period as cystic fibrosis (CF) with over 20 clinical studies undertaken. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Gene therapy for neurodegenerative diseases using adeno-associated viral vectors that can cross the blood-brain barriers. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Using these AAV vectors, we have shown beneficial effects in mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Success in this research will enable safe and effective gene therapy for a variety of currently untreatable genetic disorders and neoplastic diseases. (grantome.com)
  • Gene therapy is a treatment method that uses therapeutic gene(s) to treat or prevent diseases. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Gene therapy is currently only being tested for treating the diseases that have no other treatments. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Recombinant vectors based on adeno-associated virus (rAAV) are promising tools to specifically alter complex genomes through homologous recombination (HR)-based gene targeting. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we have scrutinized the fate of rAAV vector genomes during DSB-induced gene targeting and assessed the targeting frequency and the targeting ratio as a risk-benefit indicator. (nih.gov)
  • In the same year, sickle cell anemia mice were treated by introducing the artificial therapeutics gene. (geneticeducation.co.in)