Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Bovine: A species of RESPIROVIRUS, subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE, most often seen in conjunction with a secondary infection of MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA resulting in pneumonic pasteurellosis (PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC).Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Mice, Inbred BALB CMalaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Staphylococcal VaccinesDiphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.West Nile Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Shigella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Herpes Zoster Vaccine: An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Brucella Vaccine: A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.Tetanus ToxoidHerpesvirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Leishmaniasis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with viruses from the genus SIMPLEXVIRUS. This includes vaccines for HSV-1 and HSV-2.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.SqualeneRespiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Vaccines, Edible: Vaccines or candidate vaccines derived from edible plants. Transgenic plants (PLANTS, TRANSGENIC) are used as recombinant protein production systems and the edible plant tissue functions as an oral vaccine.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.

Low temperature and pressure stability of picornaviruses: implications for virus uncoating. (1/3369)

The family Picornaviridae includes several viruses of great economic and medical importance. Poliovirus replicates in the human digestive tract, causing disease that may range in severity from a mild infection to a fatal paralysis. The human rhinovirus is the most important etiologic agent of the common cold in adults and children. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. These viruses have in common a capsid structure composed of 60 copies of four different proteins, VP1 to VP4, and their 3D structures show similar general features. In this study we describe the differences in stability against high pressure and cold denaturation of these viruses. Both poliovirus and rhinovirus are stable to high pressure at room temperature, because pressures up to 2.4 kbar are not enough to promote viral disassembly and inactivation. Within the same pressure range, FMDV particles are dramatically affected by pressure, with a loss of infectivity of more than 4 log units observed. The dissociation of polio and rhino viruses can be observed only under pressure (2.4 kbar) at low temperatures in the presence of subdenaturing concentrations of urea (1-2 M). The pressure and low temperature data reveal clear differences in stability among the three picornaviruses, FMDV being the most sensitive, polio being the most resistant, and rhino having intermediate stability. Whereas rhino and poliovirus differ little in stability (less than 10 kcal/mol at 0 degrees C), the difference in free energy between these two viruses and FMDV was remarkable (more than 200 kcal/mol of particle). These differences are crucial to understanding the different factors that control the assembly and disassembly of the virus particles during their life cycle. The inactivation of these viruses by pressure (combined or not with low temperature) has potential as a method for producing vaccines.  (+info)

Induction of a protective antibody response to foot and mouth disease virus in mice following oral or parenteral immunization with alfalfa transgenic plants expressing the viral structural protein VP1. (2/3369)

The utilization of transgenic plants expressing recombinant antigens to be used in the formulation of experimental immunogens has been recently communicated. We report here the development of transgenic plants of alfalfa expressing the structural protein VP1 of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). The presence of the transgenes in the plants was confirmed by PCR and their specific transcription was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Mice parenterally immunized using leaf extracts or receiving in their diet freshly harvested leaves from the transgenic plants developed a virus-specific immune response. Animals immunized by either method elicited a specific antibody response to a synthetic peptide representing amino acid residues 135-160 of VP1, to the structural protein VP1, and to intact FMDV particles. Additionally, the immunized mice were protected against experimental challenge with the virus. We believe this is the first report demonstrating the induction of a protective systemic antibody response in animals fed transgenic plants expressing a viral antigen. These results support the feasibility of producing edible vaccines in transgenic forage plants, such as alfalfa, commonly used in the diet of domestic animals even for those antigens for which a systemic immune response is required.  (+info)

IL-12 gene as a DNA vaccine adjuvant in a herpes mouse model: IL-12 enhances Th1-type CD4+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against herpes simplex virus-2 challenge. (3/3369)

IL-12 has been shown to enhance cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Recent reports have suggested that combining DNA vaccine approach with immune stimulatory molecules delivered as genes may significantly enhance Ag-specific immune responses in vivo. In particular, IL-12 molecules could constitute an important addition to a herpes vaccine by amplifying specific immune responses. Here we investigate the utility of IL-12 cDNA as an adjuvant for a herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) DNA vaccine in a mouse challenge model. Direct i.m. injection of IL-12 cDNA induced activation of resting immune cells in vivo. Furthermore, coinjection with IL-12 cDNA and gD DNA vaccine inhibited both systemic gD-specific Ab and local Ab levels compared with gD plasmid vaccination alone. In contrast, Th cell proliferative responses and secretion of cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and chemokines (RANTES and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha) were significantly increased by IL-12 coinjection. However, the production of cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) and chemokine (MCP-1) was inhibited by IL-12 coinjection. IL-12 coinjection with a gD DNA vaccine showed significantly better protection from lethal HSV-2 challenge compared with gD DNA vaccination alone in both inbred and outbred mice. This enhanced protection appears to be mediated by CD4+ T cells, as determined by in vivo CD4+ T cell deletion. Thus, IL-12 cDNA as a DNA vaccine adjuvant drives Ag-specific Th1 type CD4+ T cell responses that result in reduced HSV-2-derived morbidity as well as mortality.  (+info)

EBV structural antigens, gp350 and gp85, as targets for ex vivo virus-specific CTL during acute infectious mononucleosis: potential use of gp350/gp85 CTL epitopes for vaccine design. (4/3369)

For many years, EBV vaccine development efforts have concentrated on the use of structural Ag, gp350, and have been directed toward Ab-mediated blocking virus attachment to the target cell. There is increasing evidence to suggest that the development of neutralizing Abs in vaccinated animals does not always correlate with protection; nevertheless, it has been postulated that gp350-specific T cell-mediated immune responses may have an effector role in protection. This hypothesis has largely remained untested. In the present study, we demonstrate that CTL from acute infectious mononucleosis patients display strong ex vivo reactivity against the EBV structural Ags, gp85 and gp350. Moreover, long-term follow up studies on infectious mononucleosis-recovered individuals showed that these individuals maintain gp350- and gp85-specific memory CTL, albeit at low levels, in the peripheral blood. These results strongly suggest that CTL specific for EBV structural proteins may play an important role in the control of EBV infection during acute infection. More importantly, we also show that prior immunization of HLA A2/Kb transgenic mice with gp350 and gp85 CTL epitopes induced a strong epitope-specific CTL response and afforded protection against gp85- or gp350-expressing vaccinia virus challenge. These results have important implications for future EBV vaccine design and provides evidence, for the first time, that CTL epitopes from EBV structural proteins may be used for establishing strong antiviral immunity against EBV infection.  (+info)

Detection and induction of equine infectious anemia virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses by use of recombinant retroviral vectors. (5/3369)

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) appear to be critical in resolving or reducing the severity of lentivirus infections. Retroviral vectors expressing the Gag/Pr or SU protein of the lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) were constructed and used to evaluate EIAV-specific CTL responses in horses. Three promoters, cytomegalovirus, simian virus SV40, and Moloney murine sarcoma virus (MoMSV) long terminal repeat (LTR), were used, and there was considerable variation in their ability to direct expression of Gag/Pr and SU. Vectors expressing EIAV proteins under the direction of MoMSV LTR and using the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) Env for internalization were efficient at transducing equine kidney (EK) target cells and were effective targets for EIAV-specific CTL lysis. CTL from EIAV-infected horses caused lysis of retroviral vector-transduced EK cells expressing either Gag/Pr or SU in an ELA-A-restricted manner. In contrast, lysis of recombinant vaccinia virus-infected EK cells expressing Gag/Pr and SU/TM was often non-LA-A restricted. Five horses were immunized by direct intramuscular injection with a mixture of retroviral vectors expressing Gag/Pr or SU, and one responded with EIAV-specific CTL. This result indicates that retroviral vector stimulation of CTL in horses needs to be optimized, perhaps by inclusion of appropriate cytokine genes in the constructs. However, the studies demonstrated that retroviral vector-transduced target cells were very effective for in vitro dissection of EIAV-specific CTL responses.  (+info)

Human antibody responses to mature and immature forms of viral envelope in respiratory syncytial virus infection: significance for subunit vaccines. (6/3369)

A number of antibodies generated during human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been cloned by the phage library approach. Antibodies reactive with an immunodominant epitope on the F glycoprotein of this virus have a high affinity for affinity-purified F antigen. These antibodies, however, have a much lower affinity for mature F glycoprotein on the surface of infected cells and are nonneutralizing. In contrast, a potent neutralizing antibody has a high affinity for mature F protein but a much lower affinity for purified F protein or F protein in viral lysates. The data indicate that at least two F protein immunogens are produced during natural RSV infection: immature F, found in viral lysates, and mature F, found on infected cells or virions. Binding studies with polyclonal human immunoglobulin G suggest that the antibody responses to the two immunogens are of similar magnitudes. Competitive binding studies suggest that overlap between the responses is relatively limited. A mature envelope with an antigenic configuration different from that of the immature envelope has an evolutionary advantage in that the infecting virus is less subject to neutralization by the humoral response to the immature envelope that inevitably arises following lysis of infected cells. Subunit vaccines may be at a disadvantage because they most often resemble immature envelope molecules and ignore this aspect of viral evasion.  (+info)

Protection of macaques against intrarectal infection by a combination immunization regimen with recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmne gp160 vaccines. (7/3369)

We previously reported that immunization with recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmne envelope (gp160) vaccines protected macaques against intravenous challenge by the cloned homologous virus E11S but that this protection was only partially effective against the uncloned virus, SIVmne. In the present study, we examine the protective efficacy of this immunization regimen against infection by a mucosal route. We found that the same gp160-based vaccines were highly effective against intrarectal infection not only with the E11S clone but also with the uncloned SIVmne. Protection against mucosal infection is therefore achievable by parenteral immunization with recombinant envelope vaccines. Protection appears to correlate with high levels of SIV-specific antibodies and, in animals protected against the uncloned virus, the presence of serum-neutralizing activities. To understand the basis for the differential efficacies against the uncloned virus by the intravenous versus the intrarectal routes, we examined viral sequences recovered from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of animals early after infection by both routes. We previously showed that the majority (85%) of the uncloned SIVmne challenge stock contained V1 sequences homologous to the molecular clone from which the vaccines were made (E11S type), with the remainder (15%) containing multiple conserved changes (the variant types). In contrast to intravenously infected animals, from which either E11S-type or the variant type V1 sequences could be recovered in significant proportions, animals infected intrarectally had predominantly E11S-type sequences. Preferential transmission or amplification of the E11S-type viruses may therefore account in part for the enhanced efficacy of the recombinant gp160 vaccines against the uncloned virus challenge by the intrarectal route compared with the intravenous route.  (+info)

Rapid and sensitive detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies against canine distemper virus by a new recombinant nucleocapsid protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (8/3369)

Canine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) infection causes a frequently fatal systemic disease in a broad range of carnivore species, including domestic dogs. In CDV infection, classical serology provides data of diagnostic and prognostic values (kinetics of seroconversion) and is also used to predict the optimal vaccination age of pups. Routine CDV serology is still based on time- and cost-intensive virus neutralization assays (V-NA). Here, we describe a new capture-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses recombinant baculovirus-expressed nucleocapsid (N) protein of a recent CDV wild-type isolate (2544/Han95) for the detection of CDV-specific antibodies in canine sera. Recombinant antigen was produced with high efficacy in Heliothis virescens larvae. The capture-sandwich ELISA enabled a clear-cut qualitative evaluation of the CDV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM serostatuses of 196 and 35 dog sera, respectively. Inter-rater agreement analysis (kappa = 0.988) indicated that the ELISA can be used unrestrictedly as a substitute for the V-NA for the qualitative determination of CDV-specific IgG serostatus. In an attempt to semiquantify N-specific antibodies, a one-step-dilution (alpha method) IgG-specific ELISA was implemented. Alpha values of >/=50% showed very good inter-rater agreement (kappa = 0.968) with V-NA titers of >/=1/100 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) as measured against the central European CDV wild-type isolate 2544/Han95 in canine sera originating from northern Germany. An ND50 titer of 1/100 is considered a threshold, and titers of >/=1/100 indicate a resilient, protective immunity. CDV N-specific antibodies of the IgM class were detected by the newly developed ELISA in 9 of 15 sera obtained from dogs with symptoms of acute distemper. In leucocytes of 5 of the 15 dogs (all of which were also IgM positive) CDV RNA was detected by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The recombinant capture-sandwich ELISA detecting N-specific antibodies of the IgG class provided superior sensitivity and specificity and thus represents a rapid and cost-effective alternative to classical CDV V-NA. By detection of specific IgM antibodies, the ELISA will be complementary to RT-PCR and V-NA in the diagnosis of acute distemper infections.  (+info)

  • The purchase falls under the Trump administration's so-called Operation Warp Speed, intended to rush a COVID-19 vaccine to the market by the end of 2020. (news18.com)
  • But there is hope in the fight against the deadly pandemic as well: The first peer-reviewed research into a new vaccine was published in Lancet publication eBioMedicine Thursday, and it shows promise. (ecowatch.com)
  • In any case, as the global community struggles to recover from the COVID-19 pandemic, all eyes are on researchers and potentially life-saving vaccines they're working to develop. (wbrz.com)
  • Thursday's announcement, more than three months into a pandemic that has killed 50,000 people and sickened almost 1 million worldwide, presents an urgent challenge to government regulators, who must weigh how much to speed up the vaccine approval process. (morningsun.net)
  • The subsequent vaccine organism retains the ability to duplicate and produce immunity , but generally does not cause illness. (omicsonline.org)
  • It is too soon to know how long the SARS-COV-2 antibodies will last in mice, but the mice the researchers vaccinated for MERS retained their immunity for at least a year, and the mice injected with the new vaccine seem to be showing similar antibody levels. (ecowatch.com)
  • With the help of the new Oxford and Astra Zeneca developed vaccine, it appears that, these older individuals may be able to build immunity. (wbrz.com)
  • The Pittsburgh vaccine uses lab-made viral protein to build a person's immunity to the virus. (morningsun.net)
  • Two major drug companies will supply the US government with 100 million doses of an experimental coronavirus vaccine, the Trump administration said on Friday, as the nation's top health agency predicted that fatalities would rise in the coming weeks. (news18.com)
  • The agreement calls for the US government to pay French drug maker Sanofi and British pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline up to $2.1 billion to supply it with enough vaccines for 50 million people, with the option to buy another 500 million doses. (news18.com)
  • Today's investment supports our latest vaccine candidate, an adjuvanted product being developed by Sanofi and GSK, all the way through clinical trials and manufacturing, with the potential to bring hundreds of millions of safe and effective doses to the American people," Alex Azar, secretary of the US Department of Health and Human Services, said in announcing the deal. (news18.com)
  • There are many, many vaccine candidates in various stages of testing," said David O'Connor, professor at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, who saw the published paper for the first time Thursday. (morningsun.net)
  • The Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines both need to be stored and transported in a frozen state -- Pfizer/BioNTech around -94 degrees Fahrenheit and Moderna's at -4 degrees Fahrenheit -- which may be problematic in certain parts of the world. (wbrz.com)
  • Yet on March 16, the first four healthy volunteers in Seattle received a different potential COVID-19 vaccine, made by a company called Moderna and administered in a small clinical trial at Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute. (morningsun.net)
  • The University of Pittsburgh researchers said the new vaccine generated enough antibodies in mice to "neutralize" the virus that causes COVID-19 within two weeks of being administered, The Independent reported . (ecowatch.com)
  • Tests in mice found that the vaccine spurred a wave of virus-fighting antibodies within two weeks. (morningsun.net)
  • The good news is that the Oxford group had also put work into developing a MERS vaccine (yet another coronavirus) using this same platform. (sciencemag.org)
  • According to ABC News , Oxford University announced Thursday that results from Phase 2 of its AZD122 vaccine trial indicate the vaccine is just as effective in treating patients aged 56 and older as it is in treating patients of a younger demographic. (wbrz.com)
  • Dr. Maheshi Ramasamy of the University of Oxford and co-author of the study said of the Phase 2 results, "We hope that this means our vaccine will help to protect some of the most vulnerable people in society, but further research will be needed before we can be sure. (wbrz.com)
  • The trial, led by a group of partnering scientists from Astra Zeneca and Oxford University, consisted of 560 participants - 400 of whom were 56 years of age and older- and the vaccine was shown to work just as effectively for them as it did the younger participants. (wbrz.com)
  • These mRNA vaccines can be manufactured quickly but could face more distribution challenges and may be slower to distribute than the Oxford vaccine, ABC News reports. (wbrz.com)
  • The Oxford University vaccine, however would only need standard refrigeration, making it easier to ship and house, should it prove successful. (wbrz.com)
  • O'Connor said showing that a vaccine generates an immune response is "an important first step in determining which vaccines should move forward, but is only the first of many steps along the way to a useful vaccine. (morningsun.net)
  • That's partly because those are some damned hard immunization targets - people have been trying to come up with a decent tuberculosis vaccine since before any of us were alive - but that also tells you how seriously people take this technique. (sciencemag.org)
  • We developed this to build on the original scratch method used to deliver the smallpox vaccine to the skin, but as a high-tech version that is more efficient and reproducible patient to patient," Falo explained in the press release. (ecowatch.com)
  • Google Smallpox Vaccine Mortality (I can't seem to copy the link on my phone) and there is a JAMA article attributing 68 deaths in the US in the 60s. (rocketryforum.com)
  • The US military has been giving smallpox vaccine for 20 years and I doubt there mroe than a small handful of serious reactions. (rocketryforum.com)
  • The official WHO list is here , and at BioCentury they have constantly updated open-access summaries of the vaccines and other therapies that are in the clinic and the ones that are still preclinical . (sciencemag.org)
  • Our ability to rapidly develop this vaccine was a result of scientists with expertise in diverse areas of research working together with a common goal," co-senior author and dermatology chair at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Louis Falo said in a press release . (ecowatch.com)
  • But this is the first of these vaccines to be peer reviewed, which means that the research behind it was published after scientists at other institutions looked it over. (ecowatch.com)
  • Some scientists suggested that a vaccine for one coronavirus would probably have offered at least some protection from all of them. (morningsun.net)
  • The scientists said a single person would be able to make hundreds of vaccine patches a day. (morningsun.net)
  • These much anticipated Phase 3 results are expected within weeks and should conclusively show whether the vaccine is effective and safe across the board. (wbrz.com)
  • Viral vectors cannot cause infection with COVID-19 or with the virus used as the vaccine vector. (cdc.gov)
  • The vaccine does not cause infection with either COVID-19 or the virus that is used as the vector. (cdc.gov)
  • We discuss the different vectored vaccines that have been or are currently in clinical trials, with a forward-looking focus on immunogens that may be protective against seasonal and pandemic influenza infection, in the context of viral-vectored vaccines. (mdpi.com)
  • We're coming into the winter months, when we have an increased viral infection rate,' she says. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Neuraminidase inhibitors act directly on the viral proteins, decreasing the virulence of infection. (medscape.com)
  • A permissive vaccine prevents disease in the immunized host, but does not block virus infection. (virology.ws)
  • Vaccines have been used to prevent MDV infection since the early 1970s. (virology.ws)
  • Vaccine to Control the Viral Infection of Fish. (osti.gov)
  • Subunit vaccines and their use for immunizing fish against infection by viruses are disclosed. (osti.gov)
  • We performed computer simulations to study the effects of prior infection on vaccine efficacy. (osti.gov)
  • infection reduced protection by clearing the vaccine before it had the chance to produce protective memory. (osti.gov)
  • During an acute viral infection, virus levels rise, reach a peak and then decline. (osti.gov)
  • WEDNESDAY, March 18 -- Women who were given an experimental vaccine for a viral infection that can cause serious problems in babies, known as cytomegalovirus, reduced their risk of infection by 50 percent for as long as three and half years after vaccination, according to new research. (drugs.com)
  • We thought the best we could hope for was a vaccine for women that would prevent infection in a baby. (drugs.com)
  • Using a statistical model, the researchers estimated that women given the vaccine would be half as likely to develop a CMV infection over a 42-month period as those given a placebo. (drugs.com)
  • It has been shown that FA extensively modifies vaccine antigens and thus affects immunogenicity profiles, sometimes compromising the protective efficacy of the vaccines or even exacerbating the disease upon infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • VZV vaccines elicit active immunization to increase resistance to infection. (medscape.com)
  • Vaccines designed to protect against HIV can backfire and lead to increased rates of infection. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In a nonhuman primate model of HIV transmission, higher levels of viral target cells in gateway mucosal tissues were associated with an increased risk of infection. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • CAMBRIDGE, MA, March 24, 2014: Updated Phase 1/2a results with GEN-003, a vaccine candidate under development by Genocea Biosciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: GNCA) for the treatment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, showed the experimental vaccine to generate highly significant reductions in both the number of clinical lesion days and rate of viral shedding at six months after the final vaccine dose. (eurekalert.org)
  • Results of this initial clinical study of GEN-003, if confirmed by further clinical testing, suggest a compelling best-in-class profile for this therapeutic vaccine against HSV-2 infection, that may lead to reductions in both disease transmission and recurrent disease outbreaks. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, the CTL that come to dominate any immune response to viral infection recognize a very small proportion of all peptides encoded in a viral genome. (fredhutch.org)
  • Human trials of formaldehyde-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccine in 1966-1967 caused disastrous worsening of disease and death in infants during subsequent natural respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. (pnas.org)
  • Between 25% and 40% of previously healthy RSV-infected infants develop signs of lower respiratory tract infection that may develop into viral bronchitis, bronchiolitis, or pneumonia ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Trials of formaldehyde-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccine in 1966-1967 caused disastrous worsening of disease and deaths in infants during subsequent natural RSV infection ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • There is a large unmet need to protect the elderly from the devastating effects of respiratory viral infection. (prnewswire.com)
  • Our universal vaccine technology is designed to protect against any type of viral infection without the requirement to have prior knowledge of the viral structure and is specifically designed to work in the weakened senescent immune systems of the elderly and frail. (prnewswire.com)
  • The mechanism creates conditions for an 'in-situ' vaccine providing viral-specific protection and memory to prevent re-infection from the same virus. (prnewswire.com)
  • In this issue, Hussain and colleagues at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Harvard University report that recipients of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine show no evidence of infection by endogenous avian retroviruses, even though viral genomes and reverse transcriptase activity have been detected in vaccine preparations. (cdc.gov)
  • PerkinElmer life science solutions (For Research Only) have enabled virus studies and continue to support associated workflows from early stages in deciphering the virus infection life cycle through understanding the basis of viral pathogenesis. (perkinelmer.com)
  • To further understand the pathogenesis of viral infection and host immune responses, PerkinElmer's high throughput screening and imaging platforms are designed to enable the detection, characterization, visualization, and quantitation of virus and host biomarkers and associated workflows in therapeutics discovery and development. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Your daughter should get the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for protection against HPV, a sexually transmitted infection that can lead to cervical cancer in females. (sharecare.com)
  • Join Metabolon's Brian Keppler, Ph.D., Director, Discovery & Translational Sciences, for our webinar: Understanding Viral Infection & Optimizing Vaccine Development with Metabolomics. (metabolon.com)
  • During this event, we will discuss virus-mediated infectious disease and how metabolomics can lead to a better understanding of mechanisms underlying vaccine-induced responses and their effects on the prevention of infection or disease. (metabolon.com)
  • The report also finds tantalising signs of long-term improvements in HIV viral load and CD4 count, starting four years after infection, in HIV-positive vaccine recipients. (aidsmap.com)
  • A subsequent hunt for the changes in the immune system that might have protected individuals from infection found very few differences between recipients of vaccine and placebo, but it did find two . (aidsmap.com)
  • The current analysis looked at the course of HIV infection in 114 trial participants who were infected with HIV over a period of 5.5 years, and compared what happened to the 49 vaccine recipients with what happened to the 65 placebo recipients. (aidsmap.com)
  • The Japanese scientists, writing in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, say that the anti-viral drugs zanamivir and oseltamivir reduce risk of flu infection by 8 percent in children who have been exposed to infection, compared with a 50 percent or greater reduction with vitamin D. (ghanaforum.com)
  • Remarkably, the researchers also found that blocking this protein in mice protected them from the lethal effects of dengue virus infection, an important finding given that an effective vaccine against dengue has remained elusive, partly because there are four serotypes of the virus that cause disease. (berkeley.edu)
  • We characterized the biological and structural properties of two CD4-independent Env clones and found that they exhibited significantly greater exposure of a relatively conserved, linear epitope in the second variable loop (V2) that had previously been associated with decreased risk of infection in a clinical HIV-1 vaccine trial. (upenn.edu)
  • Some protection from acute infection with a pathogenic vaginal SHIVSF162P3 challenge was, however, observed with a regimen involving intramuscular DNA vaccine priming followed by either intranasally or intrarectally delivered rFPV boosting. (nih.gov)
  • BOSTON - A prime-boost hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine regimen did not protect against chronic infection, but it did evoke immune responses and differences in viral trajectory, according to investigators in what is believed to be the first randomized, placebo-controlled efficacy trial in this setting. (mdedge.com)
  • A safe and effective vaccine to prevent chronic hepatitis C virus infection is essential to reduce transmission," Dr. Page and coauthors said in a late-breaking abstract of the study results, which will be presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. (mdedge.com)
  • There were 14 chronically infected participants in the vaccine group, as well as 14 in the placebo group, for an overall incidence of infection of 13.0/100 person-years, Dr. Page and coauthors reported in the abstract. (mdedge.com)
  • Similarly, geometric mean fold rise after infection was 0.2 in the vaccine group and 13.5 in the placebo group. (mdedge.com)
  • The only long-term solution to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in the developing world is likely to be a vaccine that either prevents infection or substantially reduces transmission. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The failure of the AIDSVAX HIV vaccine was announced in 2003 ( 25 ), showing that Env-specific vaccine-induced antibodies that do not neutralize primary HIV type 1 will not prevent infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An HIV vaccine that induces cellular immune responses, therefore, should aim to limit peak viremia in acute infection and to reduce chronic-phase plasma viral concentrations from the median level of ~30,000 copies/ml in untreated patients, to levels at which transmission is unlikely. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The production of interferon (IFN)- by an animal in response to a viral infection is known to be a principal determinant of the animal's ability to fight the infection. (pork.org)
  • Given the challenges presented by HIV and TB co-infection, we believe that Xpert HIV-1 Viral Load will be an excellent addition to Xpert MTB/RIF, dramatically improving endemic countries' capacity to diagnose and manage these infections," FIND CEO Dr. Catharina Boehme said. (vaccinenewsdaily.com)
  • Treatment was initiated 8 days after LCMV infection, coinciding with the peak of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, viral elimination and the onset of the contraction phase. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Bernard J, de Kinkelin P, Bearzotti-Le Berre M (1983): Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia of trout: relation between the G polypeptide, antibody production and protection of the fish following infection with the F25 attenuated variant strain. (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • Isshiki T, Nishizawa T, Kobayashi T, Nagano T, Miyazaki T (2001): An outbreak of VHSV (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) infection in farmed Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in Japan. (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • Kang BJ, Kim KJ, Kim TJ (2015): Serodiagnosis of a viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus infection. (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • There are a number of alternate vaccination strategies in current development which may circumvent the need for annual re-vaccination, including new platform technologies such as viral-vectored vaccines. (mdpi.com)
  • National vaccination rates are low,' she says, 'even for vaccines that have been recommended for many years. (baltimoresun.com)
  • In a mouse model, vaccination with GT-inactivated influenza virus (GTi virus) elicited higher levels of viral neutralizing antibodies than FA-inactivated virus (FAi virus). (frontiersin.org)
  • The vaccination completely protected the mice from a lethal challenge and restricted the challenge viral replication in the lungs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Scientists at Yerkes National Primate Research Center at Emory University, have newly published results that support a straightforward explanation for the backfire effect: vaccination may increase the number of immune cells that serve as viral targets. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The vaccines are suitable for repeated use, stable at refrigerator temperatures or lyophilized for non-cold chain needle-free application, and amenable to rapid and affordable scale-up for use in both epidemic response and routine vaccination. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Janssen COVID-19 vaccine vaccination is given as a one-time dose. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In a recent study led by Drs. Adel Benlahrech and Steven Patterson of the Imperial College School of Medicine in London, researchers employed a model vaccine based on structural (Gag) proteins of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to investigate two approaches for potentially broadening the CTL response to vaccination. (fredhutch.org)
  • Immunization (vaccination) can be discrete as active immunity formed by vaccine. (omicsonline.org)
  • Any doctor who fails to inform you about the risks associated with vaccines, or who contends you do not have the right to refuse vaccination is violating their own medical code of ethics. (sanevax.org)
  • Long-term protection following DNA vaccination may require revaccination, higher doses of DNA, or a vaccine that contains additional epitopes or adjuvants. (ajtmh.org)
  • These results indicate that acute viral hepatitis could be successfully prevented in the JOCV with a combination of ISG, hepatitis B vaccination, and health education. (ajtmh.org)
  • The need to develop alternative vaccination strategies to deliver vaccines has resulted in several new techniques (reviewed in Refs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Pigs inoculated with the G16X vaccine exhibited a relatively high systemic IFN- response within 4 days after vaccination. (pork.org)
  • The PRRS virus vaccine G16X, elicits a sizable IFN- response upon vaccination and provides effective cross-protective immunity as against virulent and genetically divergent (heterologous) type 2 (North American-like) PRRS viruses belonging to lineage 1, which is now a predominant lineage in pig farms in the American Midwest. (pork.org)
  • It is a well-established and well-understood vaccination approach, which is utilized in many childhood vaccines. (soligenix.com)
  • The study also explored whether the effects of IL-7 in the LCMV vaccination model are applicable to other vaccines and clinically relevant approaches. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Severity of mumps disease is related to MMR vaccination status and viral shedding. (bvsalud.org)
  • A number of human clinical trials have been conducted for viral vector vaccines against different infectious diseases, including Zika virus, influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), HIV, and malaria. (cdc.gov)
  • The VRBAC, which is a panel of outside experts, is meeting to discuss the contamination in Rotarix and the benefits and drawbacks of using new, more sensitive tests to check for viruses in the human vaccines. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Would a permissive vaccine lead to the emergence of more virulent viruses? (virology.ws)
  • The more serious flaw lies in making anthropomorphic assessments of what we think viruses require, such as concluding that increased viral transmission is a desired trait. (virology.ws)
  • This long preamble is an introduction to a series of findings which are purported to support the idea that permissive vaccines (the authors call them 'leaky' and 'imperfect' vaccines but I dislike both names because they imply defects) can lead to the selection of more virulent viruses. (virology.ws)
  • The authors wonder if the use of permissive Marek's vaccines has lead to the selection of more virulent viruses. (virology.ws)
  • Nor do the results prove in general that leaky vaccines lead to selection of more virulent viruses. (virology.ws)
  • A viral protein known as NS5 is a promising target for vaccines against Zika and related viruses, according to National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists and colleagues at Mount Sinai's Icahn School of Medicine. (news-medical.net)
  • They also have shown with West Nile, yellow fever, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses that NS5 mutations weaken those viruses, which suggests that NS5 could be a vaccine target for those diseases as well. (news-medical.net)
  • However, most licensed viral vaccines have been produced by chemical inactivation of the viruses to eliminate the infectivity and to ensure vaccine safety. (frontiersin.org)
  • Studies in mice, non-human primates, and humans provide evidence that effective prophylactic vaccines against chronic (low level and high level) replicating viruses [i.e., herpesviruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV)] should engage strong cellular T cell immunity ( 3 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Elucidating the mechanisms through which antigen-specific T cell populations mediate long-term protection against viruses at body surfaces and (lymphoid) tissues remains an important goal, and will facilitate the development of more effective and safe prophylactic T cell-eliciting vaccines. (frontiersin.org)
  • In proof-of-concept studies, the researchers tested three independent vaccines against three different families of viruses. (eurekalert.org)
  • This effect may be mediated by viral interference with non-polio viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Recent occurrences of filoviruses and the arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) in overlapping endemic areas of Africa highlight the need for a prophylactic vaccine that would confer protection against all of these viruses that cause lethal hemorrhagic fever (HF). (jci.org)
  • While the immune system can successfully eliminate viral infections in this manner, there are many viruses that escape the immune system altogether. (genscript.com)
  • Inactivated vaccines can be self-possessed either by whole viruses or bacteria, or portions of either. (omicsonline.org)
  • The research solutions we offer include robotic laboratory automation systems that can integrate liquid handling with molecular and biomarker sample preparation from biological sources, including complex matrices, for the detection of viruses, and viral and host markers at both the genomic and proteomic level. (perkinelmer.com)
  • The NIH grant will support further development of a safe and effective mucosal universal influenza vaccine against emerging or re-emerging influenza A viruses using a bacterial spore as a vaccine delivery system. (nybloodcenter.org)
  • The acknowledging that patients DO get ill after flu shots from these other viruses (VIRAL INTERFERENCE) is priceless yet disturbing. (ageofautism.com)
  • Two of the principal challenges facing vaccine design today are how to generate protective antibody responses against viruses that have evolved sophisticated strategies to evade the humoral immune system and how to more rapidly and effectively produce vaccines to address emerging epidemics. (upenn.edu)
  • The wide range of existing viruses, their production methods, and the emergence of new public health threats make it extremely difficult to homogenize viral vaccine manufacturing. (mpg.de)
  • Zymo Research Corp. announced on Monday that it released its DNA/RNA Shield, a viral inactivation solution that can help to transport viruses including Ebola and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). (vaccinenewsdaily.com)
  • However, about 30% of people already have some immunity to the virus, with the vaccine conferring greatest benefit on young people, since many older people are already immune through exposure to similar viruses in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of T cell-eliciting prophylactic vaccines has gained increasing attention, although such vaccines are not always able to provide sterilizing immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genocea is harnessing the power of T cell immunity to develop the next generation of vaccines and immunotherapies. (eurekalert.org)
  • Many researchers believe that if a highly effective HIV vaccine is ever achieved, it too will be one that generates long lasting humoral immunity in the form of BnAbs (Makedonas and Betts, 2011). (fredhutch.org)
  • These factors are, therefore, key to the development of T-cell-based HIV vaccines, because a broad CTL response is needed to reduce the likelihood that HIV can escape cellular immunity via mutation. (fredhutch.org)
  • The subsequent vaccine organism retains the ability to duplicate and produce immunity , but generally does not cause illness. (omicsonline.org)
  • Particularly, we were interested in determining the induction of systemic cellular and humoral immune responses and the potential of the vaccine to confer long-term protective immunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, this substance is also known to play a major role in promoting the development of vaccine-induced adaptive immunity, thus acting akin to a vaccine adjuvant. (pork.org)
  • Accordingly, the ability of a vaccine to stimulate an IFN- response would be expected to have an impact on the strength of the protective immunity elicited by the vaccine. (pork.org)
  • The goal of this project was to determine the strength of cross-protective immunity provided by two different PRRS live virus vaccines that have either a high (vaccine strain G16X) or low (vaccine strain Ingelvac PRRS MLV) capacity to provoke an IFN- response in swine following their administration. (pork.org)
  • The level of protective immunity elicited in grower pigs by either of these two vaccines was determined by challenging vaccinated animals with a genetically divergent (heterologous) and highly virulent PRRS virus, termed LTX1. (pork.org)
  • By augmenting and sustaining the vaccine-induced anti-tumor response described in this paper, IL-7 enhances tumor-specific immunity and harnesses the response to directly target spontaneously arising tumors. (technologynetworks.com)
  • According to Dr. Carolyn Bridges, associate director for adult immunization at the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, numerous screening procedures and vaccines are available to adults, but they are often underused. (baltimoresun.com)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - HIV-infected patients have greater viral rebound and reduced time to resumption of antiretroviral therapy after therapeutic immunization with the ALVAC-HIV vaccine, according to a report in the July 11th AIDS. (massagemag.com)
  • He attended a workshop at the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine on "Neo-Natal Death and the Hepatitis B Vaccine" and an Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices meeting on the safety of the hepatitis B vaccine. (sanevax.org)
  • AlloStim ® is an off-the-shelf, non-genetically manipulated, patented living immune cell with multiple immunodulatory properties, currently being tested under a separate IND as a therapeutic vaccine for chemotherapy-refractory metastatic cancers. (prnewswire.com)
  • For the Zika vaccine, a single inoculation of MVA-Zika vaccine in normal (immunocompetent) mice provided 100% protection against a lethal challenge dose of a neurovirulent ZIKV delivered directly into the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • A single inoculation of MVA-VLP-LASV vaccine protected mice against a lethal challenge delivered directly into the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • We report in this study that a stable, lyophilized, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine can be directly applied to the nostrils of mice without previous reconstitution. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mice were immunized with DNA vaccines encoding A/California/04/2009 (2009 CA) or A/South Carolina/1/1918 (1918 SC) as described ( 5 ), and the specificity of the resulting immune response was initially assessed with a previously described H1N1-pseudotyped lentiviral reporter assay ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • For comparison, an H7N9 DNA vaccine based on HA was also generated and tested in mice and guinea pigs. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The results demonstrated that both AdC68-H7HA and the DNA vaccine prime-adenovirus boost regimen induced potent immune responses in animals and completely protected mice from lethal H7N9 influenza viral challenge. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We have also recently initiated a COVID-19 vaccine effort for which preliminary data in mice looks very promising. (soligenix.com)
  • Much of the technology used for the current manufacturing of viral vaccines has its roots in discoveries from the gene therapy industry. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We have a reputation as a leader in process development and manufacturing services for virus-based therapeutic products e.g. gene therapy and viral vaccines. (bioreliance.com)
  • BioReliance offers world-class process development and manufacturing capabilities for virus based therapeutic products (e.g. gene therapy and viral vaccines). (bioreliance.com)
  • Dr. Mark Snyder will discuss the difficulties when developing purification strategies for vaccine production and gene therapy. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • Drug Development & Delivery recently interviewed Dave Backer, Head of Virus & Gene Therapy Strategic Initiatives at MilliporeSigma, to discuss its expanding GMP capacity to speed development and manufacture of gene therapies, immunotherapies, and viral vaccines. (drug-dev.com)
  • The Carlsbad campus features segregated fill/finish capacity for gene therapy, viral vaccine, and immunotherapy products. (drug-dev.com)
  • The findings, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, suggest that vaccine researchers, when evaluating potential HIV/AIDS vaccines, may need to steer away from those that activate too many viral target cells in mucosal tissues. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • A large part of the HIV/AIDS vaccine effort has been focused on developing vaccines that stimulate antiviral T cells. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • History Vaccine types How they work Recommended Schedule Specific Vaccines Flu HIV/AIDS Human Papillomavirus (HPV) To stick or not to stick? (slideserve.com)
  • This study is encouraging because it revives the idea that a vaccine or other biomedical prevention technique could 'work' even in people who become infected, by slowing down or stopping progression to AIDS and/or by permanently reducing their viral load so they are less infectious. (aidsmap.com)
  • An inexpensive prophylactic vaccine offers the best hope to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic gripping sub-Saharan Africa. (springer.com)
  • Recent CDC data indicate that only 8 percent of adults have received a pertussis booster vaccine. (baltimoresun.com)
  • A previously completed study in healthy adults and non-susceptible older children demonstrated that this RSV/PIV-3 vaccine candidate had an acceptable safety profile and was well tolerated. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The pain associated with and anticipated for needle injections is a source of great anxiety and distress, not only for children but also for adults, and severely affects the broader acceptance of conventional vaccines. (jimmunol.org)
  • RSV MEDI ΔM2-2 was therefore evaluated as a live intranasal vaccine in adults, RSV-seropositive children, and RSV-seronegative children. (sciencemag.org)
  • Unlike live vaccines, which are available in the market, this inactivated vaccine does not reduce the birds' egg production. (org.in)
  • Knowledge of these factors will lead to the development of more effective, rationally attenuated, live vaccines and reduction of the mortality and morbidity caused by this pathogen. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Cytheris SA has announced publication of data showing that following a vaccine-induced immune response, adjuvant interleukin-7 (IL-7) improves anti-tumor responses and survival in an animal model. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In some versions of the vaccine used in Europe and Canada, such as Arepanrix and Fluad, an adjuvant is also added, this contains a fish oil called squalene, vitamin E and an emulsifier called polysorbate 80. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clients will benefit from a fully comprehensive range of validated biosafety methods to support cell bank and viral vaccine manufacturing and lot release of drug product, as well as new technologies for pathogen detection, including next-generation nucleic acid sequencing and new cell based viral detection systems. (sgs.com)
  • In 2010 EMA became aware of some scientific publications which presented new information regarding the possible presence of nucleic acid sequences from endogenous2 and adventitious3 viral agents in a few batches of different live attenuated viral vaccines tested by a new analytical technique. (gmp-compliance.org)
  • Specifically, the Committee is asked to indicate if the new test method described above applied to identify viral genomic nucleic acid fragments should be considered, if validated, for the development/qualification and/or routine testing of biological medicinal products, and particularly live attenuated vaccines. (gmp-compliance.org)
  • DNA/RNA Shield viral transport solution provides healthcare professionals additional safeguards when handling infectious agents and samples from patients in outbreaks across the world," Ryan Kemp, the director of nucleic acid solutions at Zymo Research, said. (vaccinenewsdaily.com)
  • David Nickle et al present here an efficient algorithm to develop vaccines that cope with the diversity of HIV or other variable pathogens. (bio-medicine.org)
  • and this is the genome most commonly found in MMR and other vaccines (Hussain et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Xpert HIV-1 Viral Load is the first commercially available test designed around exclusive targeting of the most conserved element of the HIV viral genome, the Long Terminal Repeat," Cepheid Chief Medical and Technology Officer Dr. David Persing said. (vaccinenewsdaily.com)
  • A significant unmet medical need exists for vaccine platform technologies to respond rapidly and effectively against biological threats," said Mr. Basu, "Preferably, such platforms should deliver vaccines that are safe and confer full protection after a single dose. (eurekalert.org)
  • Xpert HIV-1 Viral Load, our eighth product release in 2014, marks Cepheid's entry into the foundational elements of the virology market and extends our menu of Xpert tests to 20 outside of the U.S.," Cepheid Chairman and CEO John Bishop said. (vaccinenewsdaily.com)
  • In this study, we identified another mechanism, viral mimicry, which refers to the 'unsilencing' of epigenetically repressed viral genes present in the tumor that provokes an immune response and may contribute to the anti-cancer activity of RRx-001. (aacrjournals.org)