Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.
The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.
A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.
The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising poxviruses infecting sheep, goats, and cattle. Transmission is usually mechanical by arthropods, but also includes contact, airborne routes, and non-living reservoirs (fomites).
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Diseases of the skin with a genetic component, usually the result of various inborn errors of metabolism.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by ovicylindrical occlusion bodies. The type species is Cydia pomonella granulovirus.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
A tentative species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS infecting primarily young chicks, but also found in turkeys, pheasants, and guinea fowl. It causes a fatal neuronal degeneration and is transmitted by mechanical contact.
A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Post-transcriptional regulatory proteins required for the accumulation of mRNAs that encode the gag and env gene products in HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The rex (regulator x; x is undefined) products act by binding to elements in the LONG TERMINAL REPEAT.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
A caveolin that is expressed exclusively in MUSCLE CELLS and is sufficient to form CAVEOLAE in SARCOLEMMA. Mutations in caveolin 3 are associated with multiple muscle diseases including DISTAL MYOPATHY and LIMB-GIRDLE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
The type species of AQUABIRNAVIRUS, causing infectious pancreatic necrosis in salmonid fish and other freshwater and marine animals including mollusks.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.
A family of insect viruses causing disease in lepidopterous larvae, most commonly from species of the owlet moth family Noctuidae. There is one genus: Ascovirus.
Antibiotic produced by Streptomyces pactum used as an antineoplastic agent. It is also used as a tool in biochemistry because it inhibits certain steps in protein synthesis.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A protein that accounts for more than half of the peripheral nervous system myelin protein. The extracellular domain of this protein is believed to engage in adhesive interactions and thus hold the myelin membrane compact. It can behave as a homophilic adhesion molecule through interactions with its extracellular domains. (From J Cell Biol 1994;126(4):1089-97)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

EBV structural antigens, gp350 and gp85, as targets for ex vivo virus-specific CTL during acute infectious mononucleosis: potential use of gp350/gp85 CTL epitopes for vaccine design. (1/2581)

For many years, EBV vaccine development efforts have concentrated on the use of structural Ag, gp350, and have been directed toward Ab-mediated blocking virus attachment to the target cell. There is increasing evidence to suggest that the development of neutralizing Abs in vaccinated animals does not always correlate with protection; nevertheless, it has been postulated that gp350-specific T cell-mediated immune responses may have an effector role in protection. This hypothesis has largely remained untested. In the present study, we demonstrate that CTL from acute infectious mononucleosis patients display strong ex vivo reactivity against the EBV structural Ags, gp85 and gp350. Moreover, long-term follow up studies on infectious mononucleosis-recovered individuals showed that these individuals maintain gp350- and gp85-specific memory CTL, albeit at low levels, in the peripheral blood. These results strongly suggest that CTL specific for EBV structural proteins may play an important role in the control of EBV infection during acute infection. More importantly, we also show that prior immunization of HLA A2/Kb transgenic mice with gp350 and gp85 CTL epitopes induced a strong epitope-specific CTL response and afforded protection against gp85- or gp350-expressing vaccinia virus challenge. These results have important implications for future EBV vaccine design and provides evidence, for the first time, that CTL epitopes from EBV structural proteins may be used for establishing strong antiviral immunity against EBV infection.  (+info)

Adaptation of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus to chicken embryonic fibroblasts by site-directed mutagenesis of residues 279 and 284 of viral coat protein VP2. (2/2581)

The full-length RNA genomes of a chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF)-nonpermissive, very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) (strain HK46) were amplified into cDNAs by reverse transcription-PCR. The full-length cDNAs were sequenced and subcloned into a eukaryotic expression vector, from which point mutations were introduced into the VP2 region by site-directed mutagenesis. The wild-type and mutated plasmids were transfected directly into CEFs to examine their ability to generate CEF-permissive recombinant viruses. Substitution of amino acid residues 279 (Asp-->Asn) and 284 (Ala-->Thr) of the VP2 protein yielded a recombinant virus which was able to be passaged in CEFs, whereas the wild-type cDNAs and an amino acid substitution at residue 330 (Ser-->Arg) of the VP2 protein alone did not yield viable virus. The results indicated that mutation of other viral proteins, including VP1, VP3, VP4, and VP5, was not required for CEF adaptation of the virus. The same approach may be used to produce CEF-adapted strains from newly evolved IBDVs or to manipulate the antigenicity of the virus.  (+info)

Activation of baculovirus very late promoters by interaction with very late factor 1. (3/2581)

Very late factor 1 (VLF-1) of Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) activates the transcription of two genes, polyhedrin (polh) and p10, during the final, occlusion-specific phase of infection. Using transient expression assays responsive to VLF-1, we identified linker scan mutations in the polh and p10 promoters which abolished or weakened the ability of the promoters to respond to stimulation by VLF-1. These mutations were located between the transcriptional and translational initiation sites, a region previously shown to be essential for the burst of expression during the very late phase. Addition of partially purified, epitope-tagged VLF-1 to DNA encompassing this "burst sequence" resulted in a shift in the gel electrophoretic mobility of the DNA, indicating that VLF-1 forms a complex with DNA. Addition of an antibody specific for the epitope tag of VLF-1 decreased the mobility of the DNA further, confirming the presence of VLF-1 in the complex. DNase I footprint assays revealed that VLF-1 partially purified from either insect cells or bacterial cells interacted with the burst sequences of both the polh and p10 very-late promoters. Linker scan mutations within the burst sequences severely impaired interaction between VLF-1 and the promoters. We propose that VLF-1 transactivates the polh and p10 promoters by interacting with the burst sequences.  (+info)

Critical relationship between glycosylation of recombinant lutropin receptor ectodomain and its secretion from baculovirus-infected insect cells. (4/2581)

The lutropin receptor ectodomain overexpressed under the control of the powerful polyhedrin promoter in baculovirus-infected Sf9 insect cells, is mainly found in an inactive, intracellularly-aggregated form. It is secreted in an active form under the control of the P10 promoter, a somewhat weaker and earlier promoter, at the price of a lower production. The apparent molecular masses of the two species encoded by the same cDNA are 48 kDa and 60-68 kDa, respectively. The relationship between the extent and type of glycosylation and the extracellular targeting for the recombinant lutropin receptor ectodomains was investigated precisely with endoglycosidases, lectins of various specificities, and a glycosylation inhibitor, and tested with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. The results indicate that the strong polyhedrin promoter probably overwhelms the processing capacity of the ER in Sf9 cells, so that only a high-mannose precursor is expressed in large amounts. Only a minute amount of protein is secreted, which has been processed by Sf9 exoglycosidases/glycosyltransferases and bears complex/hybrid oligosaccharides. The weaker P10 promoter allows secretion of a mature and active receptor ectodomain, bearing complex glycosylation. An important O-linked glycosylation is also added post-translationally on this species. In particular, beta-galactose and sialic acid residues were specifically detected in the secreted species, evidence of the induction of the corresponding glycosyltransferases or of their genes. These results suggest that Sf9 cells should eventually be engineered with chaperones and glycosyltransferases in order to improve the production of demanding glycoproteins such as the porcine lutropin ectodomain, so as to open the way to resolution of the three-dimensional structures of these receptors.  (+info)

Live-cell analysis of a green fluorescent protein-tagged herpes simplex virus infection. (5/2581)

Many stages of the herpes simplex virus maturation pathway have not yet been defined. In particular, little is known about the assembly of the virion tegument compartment and its subsequent incorporation into maturing virus particles. Here we describe the construction of a herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) recombinant in which we have replaced the gene encoding a major tegument protein, VP22, with a gene expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-VP22 fusion protein (GFP-22). We show that this virus has growth properties identical to those of the parental virus and that newly synthesized GFP-22 is detectable in live cells as early as 3 h postinfection. Moreover, we show that GFP-22 is incorporated into the HSV-1 virion as efficiently as VP22, resulting in particles which are visible by fluorescence microscopy. Consequently, we have used time lapse confocal microscopy to monitor GFP-22 in live-cell infection, and we present time lapse animations of GFP-22 localization throughout the virus life cycle. These animations demonstrate that GFP-22 is present in a diffuse cytoplasmic location when it is initially expressed but evolves into particulate material which travels through an exclusively cytoplasmic pathway to the cell periphery. In this way, we have for the first time visualized the trafficking of a herpesvirus structural component within live, infected cells.  (+info)

Immunization with potato plants expressing VP60 protein protects against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus. (6/2581)

The major structural protein VP60 of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been produced in transgenic potato plants under the control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter or a modified 35S promoter that included two copies of a strong transcriptional enhancer. Both types of promoters allowed the production of specific mRNAs and detectable levels of recombinant VP60, which were higher for the constructs carrying the modified 35S promoter. Rabbits immunized with leaf extracts from plants carrying this modified 35S promoter showed high anti-VP60 antibody titers and were fully protected against the hemorrhagic disease.  (+info)

Packaging cell lines for simian foamy virus type 1 vectors. (7/2581)

Foamy viruses are nonpathogenic retroviruses that offer several unique opportunities for gene transfer in various cell types from different species. We have previously demonstrated the utility of simian foamy virus type 1 (SFV-1) as a vector system by transient expression assay (M. Wu et al., J. Virol. 72:3451-3454, 1998). In this report, we describe the first stable packaging cell lines for foamy virus vectors based on SFV-1. We developed two packaging cell lines in which the helper DNA is placed under the control of either a constitutive cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early gene or inducible tetracycline promoter for expression. Although the constitutive packaging expressing cell line had a higher copy number of packaging DNA, the inducible packaging cell line produced four times more vector particles. This result suggested that the structural gene products in the constitutively expressing packaging cell line were expressed at a level that is not toxic to the cells, and thus vector production was reduced. The SFV-1 vector in the presence of vesicular stomatitis virus envelope protein G (VSV-G) produced an insignificant level of transduction, indicating that foamy viruses could not be pseudotyped with VSV-G to generate high-titer vectors. The availability of stable packaging cell lines represents a step toward the use of an SFV-1 vector delivery system that will allow scaled-up production of vector stocks for gene therapy.  (+info)

Stable alphavirus packaging cell lines for Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus-derived vectors. (8/2581)

Alphavirus vectors are being developed for possible human vaccine and gene therapy applications. We have sought to advance this field by devising DNA-based vectors and approaches for the production of recombinant vector particles. In this work, we generated a panel of alphavirus vector packaging cell lines (PCLs). These cell lines were stably transformed with expression cassettes that constitutively produced RNA transcripts encoding the Sindbis virus structural proteins under the regulation of their native subgenomic RNA promoter. As such, translation of the structural proteins was highly inducible and was detected only after synthesis of an authentic subgenomic mRNA by the vector-encoded replicase proteins. Efficient production of biologically active vector particles occurred after introduction of Sindbis virus vectors into the PCLs. In one configuration, the capsid and envelope glycoproteins were separated into distinct cassettes, resulting in vector packaging levels of 10(7) infectious units/ml, but reducing the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus below the limit of detection. Vector particle seed stocks could be amplified after low multiplicity of infection of PCLs, again without generating replication-competent virus, suggesting utility for production of large-scale vector preparations. Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, indicating the possibility of developing a single PCL for use with multiple alphavirus-derived vectors.  (+info)

Maringer, Kevin, Julianna Stylianou, and Gillian Elliott. A Network of Protein Interactions around the Herpes Simplex Virus Tegument Protein VP22. Journal of Virology 86.23 (2012): 12971-12982. Web. 06 April. 2020. ...
Herpesvirus maturation requires two different budding steps. First, capsids that were formed in the nucleus bud at the inner leaflet of the nuclear membrane, thereby acquiring a primary envelope which is subsequently lost by fusion with the outer leaflet. In this process, a complex of the UL31 primary tegument and UL34 primary envelope protein, which are conserved throughout the herpesviruses, plays an important role (1, 5, 8, 17, 28, 30, 32). Final maturation of virions then occurs in the cytoplasm by budding of intracytoplasmic capsids into Golgi-derived vesicles (10, 12; reviewed in reference 27). During this maturation process, more than 20 different tegument and envelope proteins are assembled into the mature virion. Recent data indicate that formation of mature virions follows an intricate network of protein-protein interactions with a surprising functional redundancy (reviewed in reference 27). Although the participating tegument and envelope proteins are largely known, knowledge of their ...
Diefenbach, Russel J; Fraefel, Cornel; Cunningham, Anthony L (2014). The interaction of HSV-1 tegument proteins pUL36 and pUL37: a novel target for antivirals that inhibit viral assembly. Future Virology:787-789. ...
4K70: Crystal Structure of the Herpesvirus Inner Tegument Protein UL37 Supports Its Essential Role in Control of Viral Trafficking.
Rabies Virus P Protein Interacts with STAT1 and Inhibits Interferon Signal Transduction Pathways: Rabies virus P protein is a cofactor of RNA polymerase. We inv
Author Summary Bacteriophages are extremely abundant and diverse biological entities. All phage particles are comprised of nucleic acids and structural proteins, with few other packaged proteins. Despite their simplicity and abundance, more than 70% of phage sequences in the viral Reference Sequence database encode proteins with unknown function based on FASTA annotations. As a result, the use of sequence similarity is often insufficient for detecting virus structural proteins among unknown viral sequences. Viral structural protein function is challenging to detect from sequence data because structural proteins possess few known conserved catalytic motifs and sequence domains. To address these issues we investigated the use of Artificial Neural Networks as an alternative means of predicting function. Here, we trained thousands of networks using the amino acid frequency of structural protein sequences and identified the optimal architectures with the highest accuracies. Some hypothetical protein
One amino acid change within a viral structural protein makes the difference between mild cases of brain damage and severe microcephaly in mice.. 0 Comments. ...
One amino acid change within a viral structural protein makes the difference between mild cases of brain damage and severe microcephaly in mice.. 0 Comments. ...
This enabled the expression of a foreign gene in addition to the virus polyhedrin. , 1988). Each foreign sequence was placed under the control of the native or duplicated polyhedrin gene promoter. Similar expression vectors were derived by using a combination of the polyhedrin and p10 gene promoters (Weyer and Possee, 1991). A copy of the p10 gene promoter was inserted upstream of the polyhedrin gene promoter. The influenza virus haernagglutinin o r neuraminidase gene was placed under the control of each promoter and co-synthesis achieved in recombinant virus-infected cells. The influenza virus haernagglutinin o r neuraminidase gene was placed under the control of each promoter and co-synthesis achieved in recombinant virus-infected cells. Baculovirus expression vectors are not limited to the production of two foreign proteins in insect cells. , 1990). Five bluetongue virus structural proteins have been co-expressed within the same cell by coinfection of two dual recombinants and one single ...
Laimbacher, A S; Fraefel, C (2014). HSV-1 Amplicon Vectors as Genetic Vaccines. In: Diefenbach, R J; Fraefel, C. Herpes Simplex Virus. New York: Springer, 99-115.. Melendez, M E; Fraefel, C; Epstein, A L (2014). Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1)-Derived Amplicon Vectors. In: Diefenbach, R J; Fraefel, C. Herpes Simplex Virus. New York: Springer, 81-89.. Kelly, B J; Diefenbach, E; Fraefel, C; Diefenbach, R J (2012). Identification of host cell proteins which interact with herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument protein pUL37. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (BBRC), 417(3):961-965.. Kelly, B J; Mijatov, Branka; Fraefel, C; Cunningham, A L; Diefenbach, R J (2011). Identification of a single amino acid residue which is critical for the interaction between HSV-1 inner tegument proteins pUL36 and pUL37. Virology:1-9.. Kelly, B J; Fraefel, C; Cunningham, A L; Diefenbach, R J (2009). Functional roles of the tegument proteins of herpes simplex virus type 1. Virus Research, ...
Genome map of SSV1. Open reading frames are shown as block arrows and labeled as in Palm et al. (1991). Virus structural protein genes (Reiter et al., 1987a) an
Biochemical properties and processing of the three major structural proteins of PRRS virus expressed by recombinant adenoviruses. Structural, functional and community aspects
Metrick, C.M., Koenigsberg, A.L., Heldwein, E.E. (2020) Conserved outer-tegument component UL11 from herpes simplex virus type 1 is an intrinsically disordered, RNA-binding protein. mBio. ​. Koenigsberg, A.L., Pitts, J.D. and Heldwein, E.E. (2020). Identification of buffer conditions for optimal thermostability and solubility of herpesviral protein UL37 using the Thermofluor assay. Bio-protocol. 10: e3662. doi: 10.21769/BioProtoc.3662. ​. ​​​​. 2019. ​. Hilterbrand, A.T. and Heldwein, E.E. (2019) Go go gadget glycoprotein!: HSV-1 draws on its sizeable glycoprotein tool kit to customize its diverse entry routes. PLoS Pathog. 15(5), e1007660. PMC6508585.. ​. ​. 2018. ​. Koenigsberg, A.L., and Heldwein, E.E. (2018) The dynamic nature of the conserved tegument protein UL37 of herpesviruses. J. Biol Chem. 293(41), 15827-15839. PMC6187633.. ​. Cooper R.S, Georgieva E.R., Borbat P.P., Freed J.H., Heldwein E.E. (2018) Structural basis ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
VP12 sequence 7614 bps atatgccaagtacgccccctattgacgtcaatgacggtaaatggcccgcctggcattatgcccagtacat gaccttatgggactttcctacttggcagtacatctacgtattagtcatcgctattaccatggtgatgcgg ttttggcagtacatcaatgggcgtggatagcggtttgactcacggggatttccaagtctccaccccattg acgtcaatgggagtttgttttggcaccaaaatcaacgggactttccaaaatgtcgtaacaactccgcccc attgacgcaaatgggcggtaggcgtgtacggtgggaggtctatataagcagagctggtttagtgaaccgt cagatccgctagagatccgcggccgctaatacgactcactatagggagagccgccaccatggataaaaag tattctattggtttagacatcggcactaattccgttggatgggctgtcataaccgatgaatacaaagtac cttcaaagaaatttaaggtgttggggaacacagaccgtcattcgattaaaaagaatcttatcggtgccct cctattcgatagtggcgaaacggcagaggcgactcgcctgaaacgaaccgctcggagaaggtatacacgt cgcaagaaccgaatatgttacttacaagaaatttttagcaatgagatggccaaagttgacgattctttct ttcaccgtttggaagagtccttccttgtcgaagaggacaagaaacatgaacggcaccccatctttggaaa catagtagatgaggtggcatatcatgaaaagtacccaacgatttatcacctcagaaaaaagctagttgac tcaactgataaagcggacctgaggttaatctacttggctcttgcccatatgataaagttccgtgggcact ...
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) belongs to the family Caliciviridae and is the etiological agent of the haemorrhagic disease, also known as rabbit plague. Its genome is a linear single-stranded (ss) RNA of 7437 nucleotides and the capsid is built from a single structural protein VP60. In connection with the discovery of new RHDV strains, there is a constant need to investigate the genetic variation of this virus and perform phylogenetic analyses which may show the evolutionary relationships among the RHDV strains. Studies on the divergence of RHDV have shown that it is genetically quite stable, although recent observations indicate that some new RHDV strains, significantly different from the original RHDV subtype and the new RHDVa subtype, are appearing. These latest findings suggest that a new group of RHDV strains has evolved. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the genetic variation and the latest achievements in phylogenetic analyses of RHDV strains isolated in ...
Read Complete genome sequence of two rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant b isolates detected on the Iberian Peninsula, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
A veterinary laboratory confirmed the presence of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease virus type 2 in a wild black-tailed jackrabbit that was among 10 jackrabbits found dead on a property near Palm Springs, according to Californias Fish and Wildlife Department.
3C-like protease processes the polyprotein: 3CLpro-RdRp (p72) is first released by autocleavage, then all other proteins are cleaved.
UNLABELLED: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) replicates in the skin and mucous membranes, and initiates lytic or latent infections in sensory neurons. Assembly of progeny virions depends on the essential large tegument protein pUL36 of 3,164 amino acid residues that links the capsids to the tegument proteins pUL37 and VP16. Of the 32 tryptophans of HSV-1-pUL36, the tryptophan-acidic motifs (1766)WD(1767) and (1862)WE(1863) are conserved in all HSV-1 and HSV-2 isolates. Here, we characterized the role of these motifs in the HSV life cycle since the rare tryptophans often have unique roles in protein function due to their large hydrophobic surface. The infectivity of the mutants HSV-1(17(+))Lox-pUL36-WD/AA-WE/AA and HSV-1(17(+))Lox-CheVP26-pUL36-WD/AA-WE/AA, in which the capsid has been tagged with the fluorescent protein Cherry, was significantly reduced. Quantitative electron microscopy shows that there were a larger number of cytosolic capsids and fewer enveloped virions compared to their respective ...
Genome replication is a critical step in virus life cycles. Here, we analyzed the role of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) VP3, a major component of ...
22] It is, as the appellant agreed at oral proceedings, common general knowledge that structural proteins of a virus, i.e. the proteins involved in formation of the viral capsid, or in the case of enveloped viruses, additionally those situated in the viral envelope, are potential candidates for the inclusion in subunit vaccines. This is so because structural proteins are present at the outside of the virion and are thus exposed to the immune system. Therefore, it is expected that upon infection with ISAV, antibodies are preferably elicited against these structural proteins and that these antibodies may achieve neutralization of the virus. Therefore, vaccine preparations containing, instead of for example the whole inactivated virus, only one (or more) of the structural proteins, i.e. so-called subunit vaccines, would also be expected to have the same effect, i.e. to elicit neutralizing antibodies ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular epidemiology of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus in Australia. T2 - When one became many. AU - Kovaliski, John. AU - Sinclair, Ron. AU - Mutze, Greg. AU - Peacock, David. AU - Strive, Tanja. AU - Abrantes, Joana. AU - Esteves, Pedro. AU - Holmes, Edward. PY - 2014/2. Y1 - 2014/2. N2 - Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16-year period (1995-2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared with those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with the inoculum strains (CAPM V-351 and RHDV351INOC). Strikingly, despite more than 3000 rereleases of RHDV351INOC since 1995, only a single viral lineage has sustained its transmission in the ...
During the past 50 years two readily distinguishable rabbit-specific diseases caused by Myxoma virus (MYXV) and Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) respectively, have decimated wild rabbit populations worldwide. Combined with the use of these viruses as biocontrol agents, the consequences for farming, commercial rabbit breeding and rare habitat conservation dependent on rabbit grazing, have been both positive and negative. Moreover, rare predators that rely on rabbits as a food resource, and even hunters, have suffered the consequences of rabbit populations being affected by one or other of these viruses. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus was first identified after thousands of domestic rabbits died suddenly in China in 1984. Similar epidemics subsequently occurred in other regions of Asia, the Middle East, Europe and North America, suggesting that the virus had dispersed widely following its emergence in China. However, the discovery that RHDV had circulated apparently harmlessly for many ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens. AU - Matthaei, Markus. AU - Kerr, Peter AU - READ, Andrew. AU - Hick, Paul. AU - Haboury, Stephanie. AU - Wright, John. AU - STRIVE, Tanja. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background: Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence ...
Public, hunters and hikers asked to take precautions to avoid spreading deadly illness. East County News Service. Photo: Creative Commons-S.A. via Bing. May 13, 2020 (Palm Springs) - After 10 dead jackrabbits were found dead on a private property near Palm Springs, a carcass has tested positive for Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease virus type 2 (RHDV2) which is highly contagious and often lethal to both wild and domestic rabbits, as well as hares and pikas. The virus has been confirmed in state and federal lab tests. ...
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a birnavirus that infects the B-cells in the bursa of Fabricius of young chickens, causing Gumboro disease. The IBDV 114 kDa polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-VP4-VP3-COOH) is thought to be processed at 512Ala-Ala513 and 755Ala-Ala756 through the proteolytic activity of VP4, a serine protease which uses a Ser/Lys catalytic dyad, to release pVP2, VP4 and VP3. Precursor VP2 (pVP2) is further processed at its C-terminus to generate VP2 and structural peptides through the cleavage of the 441Ala-Phe442, 487Ala-Ala488, 494Ala-Ala495 and 501Ala-Ala502 peptide bonds to release VP2 and four structural peptides, pep46, pep7a, pep7b and pep11. While the processing at the 441Ala-Phe442 site was shown to be mediated by the endopeptidase activity of VP2, the processing at the other two sites is not well understood. The products resulting from the processing of the IBDV polyprotein were previously identified by anti-VP2 and anti-VP3 antibodies. The present study used anti-VP4 ...
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a chicken pathogen that infects the bursa of Fabricius, an organ involved in the development of the immune system in chickens. Infection by the virus leads to destruction of the bursa and immunosuppression. Infection by virulent strains may result in mortality. Current methods to combat the virus involve the use of vaccines. These are usually a mixture of live attenuated and oil inactivated virus. Variant strains of the virus are able to escape the vaccine-generated antibodies. In addition, the vaccines result in damage to the bursa. Identification of a receptor for IBDV could result in the development of either treatment for the virus or superior vaccines by interfering with the attachment of the virus to host cells. Several methods for identifying IBDV binding proteins from the membranes of cells from the bursa of Fabricius were examined. Affinity chromatography of IBDV binding proteins with a matrix consisting of IBDV cross-linked to Sepharose 4B ...
Testing by the egg and poultry industries, Biosecurity New Zealand and a specialist overseas laboratory confirmed the presence of the chicken virus infectious bursal disease virus type 1 (IBDV-1) in layer hens at a South Island egg farm in September 2019.. The likely presence of the disease was first picked up by Mainland Poultry at its Waikouaiti farm in Otago through its regular, voluntary testing routine. No birds at the farm have shown any signs of sickness due to IBDV-1 infection. Results of testing from Mainland Poultrys Hillgrove site returned positive at this location. No other properties appear to be affected.. IBDV-1 was previously discovered in New Zealand in 1993. An industry-led programme has allowed New Zealand to claim absence from the disease. The virus is present in many other countries and they successfully manage it. ...
Read Efficient rescue of infectious bursal disease virus using a simplified RNA polymerase II-based reverse genetics strategy, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The DNA polymerase genes of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) were inserted separately into the polyhedrin gene of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) by cotransfection of Spodoptera frugiperda (SF9) cells with baculovirus transfer vectors carrying the genes and AcNPV infectious DNA. Infection of SF9 cells with the recombinant viruses resulted in expression from the polyhedrin promoter of proteins of the expected Mrs. These proteins possessed DNA polymerase activities similar to that of the enzymes induced by the respective herpesvirus in infected cells, and were identified as HCMV and VZV DNA polymerase using inhibitors and specific antisera reactive with each enzyme.
But, with this Rabbit assignment, Ive really struggled. Even with my Pollyanna personality, I fear the light here is very faint, and Im not sure theres an end to the tunnel.
Antivector immunity continues to be recognized as a potential caveat of using virus-based vaccines. ability to stimulate humoral, cellular, and mucosal immune responses. Alphaviruses belong to the family and contain a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of approximately 12 kb encoding four nonstructural proteins in the 5 two-thirds of the genome, followed by a strong subgenomic promoter that directs expression of the viral structural proteins in the 3 one-third of the genome. Upon contamination of a cell, the alphavirus nonstructural proteins are translated to create a polymerase complicated instantly, which initiates replication from the viral genome and high-level transcription through the subgenomic promoter and translation from the downstream structural proteins gene products, that leads to set up of progeny viral contaminants. Vaccine delivery vectors predicated on alphaviruses have already been created from Semliki Forest pathogen (SFV) (27), Sindbis (SIN) pathogen (7, 53), ...
Enveloped viruses enter cells by using their fusion proteins to merge the virus lipid envelope and the cell membrane. While crystal structures of the water-soluble ectodomains of many viral fusion proteins have been determined, the structure and assembly of the C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) remains poorly understood. Here we use solid-state NMR to determine the backbone conformation and oligomeric structure of the TMD of the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) fusion protein. 13C chemical shifts indicate that the central leucine-rich segment of the TMD is α-helical in POPC/cholesterol membranes and POPE membranes, while the Ile- and Val-rich termini shift to the β-strand conformation in the POPE membrane ...
ABSTRACT Brachylaima mazzantii (Travassos, 1927) is known only from its original description. Until now, no attempt has been made… Expand ...
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We speculate that during the late stages of the viral life cycle when mostly structural proteins such as Gag are expressed, SDF-1 induced CXCR4 downregulation is attenuated resulting in the accumulation of densensitized CXCR4 within intracellular compartments ...
The structural protein that DNA wraps around - something very important if you are a 10 micrometer cheek cell and you need to package over a meter of DN...
Receptors, located on both the cell surface and within the cell, are the molecular targets through which drugs produce their beneficial effects in various disease states
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of macrophages by infectious bursal disease virus. AU - Khatri, M.. AU - Sharma, J. M.. PY - 2007/7/1. Y1 - 2007/7/1. N2 - Infectious bursal disease is one of the most important naturally occurring viral diseases of chickens worldwide. The causative agent, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), belongs to the family Birnaviridae. This viruscauses an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease in chickens. The virus infects and destroys actively dividing IgM-bearing B cells. Although B cells are the principal targets for IBDV, recent data show that the virus also infects macrophages. IBDV-infected macrophages produce various cytokines and chemokines which may play an important role in the protection and/or pathogenesis of IBDV. In this review, the modulatory effects of IBDV on macrophages will be discussed.. AB - Infectious bursal disease is one of the most important naturally occurring viral diseases of chickens worldwide. The causative agent, infectious ...
Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus Uncharacterized 12.5 kDa protein in VLF1-GP41 intergenic region product for laboratory research available in multiple sizes: 1000ug ; the related gene is: - , please call us for more info about this product catalog number: GEN1174561.Yeast . Gentaur: September 24, 2021, 9:47 pm
The nucleotide sequence of genome segment A cDNA of the STC strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was determined and compared with sequences of the homologous genome segment of the 002-73 strain of IBDV and the Jasper strain of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). The STC-IBDV genome segment A was determined to be 3262 base pairs (bp), which is close to the estimated total length of 3300 bp for genome segment A in IBDV, although there is no proof that it is the real length of this genome segment. The STC-IBDV genome segment A contains two major overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). The large ORF of 3036 bp predicts a polyprotein of M r 109358, whereas the small ORF is 435 bp and predicts a protein of M r 16550 in STC-IBDV. STC-IBDV and 002-73-IBDV polyproteins are closely related (97.4% amino acid homology). Most of the amino acid mismatches are in VP2 sequences, mainly within the area of the conformation-dependent epitope. Comparison with the Jasper-IPNV polyprotein reveals levels
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious disease of young chickens between 3 and 6 weeks of age. It is caused by infectious bursal disease virus(IBDV) which occursworldwide affecting livelihoods of resource - compromised poor communities. In Zambia, there is scantily documented information on the epidemiology of IBD. In-depth knowledge on the epidemiology of IBD is needed for effective control measures. This study aimed at molecular detection of circulating IBDV strains, andknowledge assessment of farmers about the disease in Ndola, Kitwe, Kalulushi, Luanshya and Mufulira districts of the Copperbelt province. A cross-sectional purposive study was carried out in the Copperbelt province from February to March, 2015 to determine the occurrence of IBD. The identification of IBDV was done by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the hypervariable domain (VP2-HVR). A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 77 respondents who presented poultry ...
詹明才。1992。農桿菌轉殖水稻系統的建立。國立台灣大學農藝學研究所博士論文。 Alvarez, M.L., Pinyerd, H.L., Topal, E. and Cardineau, G.A. 2008. P19-dependent and P19-independent reversion of F1-V gene silencing in tomato.Plant Molecular Biology 68:61-79. Angel, C.A., Hsieh, Y.C., Schoelz, J.E. 2011. Comparative analysis of the capacity of tombusvirus P22 and P19 proteins to function as avirulence determinants in Nicotiana species. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 24:91-99. Arnold, M., Durairaj, V., Mundt, E., Schulze, K., Breunig, K.D., Behrens, S.E.2012. Protective vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus with whole recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis yeast expressing the viral VP2 subunit. PLoS ONE 7:e42870. Azad, A. A. Mckern, N. M., Macreadie, I. G., Failla, P., Heine, H. G., Chapman, A., Ward, C. W., Fahey, K. J. 1991. Physicochemical and immunological characterization of recombinant host-protective antigen (VP2) of infectious bursal disease ...
The study aimed to identify putative virulence determinants for the exotic poultry pathogen infectious bursal disease virus. Results suggest that three specific amino acids in viral protein 2 influence viral pathogenicity, and as a consequence these were exploited for the development of two new molecular diagnostic assays that are currently undergoing evaluation ...
Yousif AA, Mohammad WA, Khodeir MH, Zeid AZ, el-Sanousi AA, Saber MS, Reda IM. 2006, Egypt J Immunol. 13(2):85-94.Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is one of the most
The present invention relates to a non pathogenic vaccine comprising a recombinant Infectious Bursal Disease virus that includes a recombinant Segment A, designated as rD78GLSNSΔ, that includes sequences from D78 and GLS strains and wherein the NS protein is not expressed.
Aspartyl-Prolyl bonds in proteins could be selectively hydrolyzed with 75% formic aeid. The in situ aeidie cleavage procedure based on acid lability of Asp-Pro bonds is very important in sequence analysis of proteins and comparative studies of related or similar proteins, Limited cleavage of polyhedrin and virion 31k polypeptide which have the same molecalar weights in SDS-PAGE of Buzura suppresaria nuclear polyhedrosis virus by above method produced 4 and 8 bands, respectively. The results suggest that the...
Discussion. The level of MDA is high for chicks derived from immune hens at an early age, but it decreases rapidly after day 21. It is noteworthy that antibodies were present in the blood of the chicks until the end of the experiment, that is, day 28. Similar observations were reported by Zaheer, Naeem and Malik (2003). Wisniewska and Stosik (1999) demonstrated traces of MDA in the blood of chicks until days 11-19 and later at day 23 after hatching. Other researchers claimed that the antibodies persist up to day 28 (Hitchner 1971), day 29 (Wyeth & Cullen 1979), day 30 (Iordanides, Koumpate & Artopois 1991) and day 20 after hatching (Al Mayah & Al Mayah 2013; Chansiripornchai & Sasipreeyajan 2009). These substantial differences could be ascribed to the amount of antibodies transferred from hen to chick through the egg (Hamal et al. 2006; Rai et al. 2005). Rao et al. (1987) concluded that the MDA depends on the quantity of egg yolk.. Lukert and Saif (1997) noticed that the half-life of MDA to IBDV ...
The invention relates to a modified baculovirus wherein one of the two strong late promoters of the wild baculovirus is inactive, as well as to a method for obtaining such a modified baculovirus and to its application for obtaining vectors for the expression of exogenous genes. Said modified baculovirus is particularly deprived of the polyhedrin gene promoter and contains the protein P10 gene promoter.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease virus type 2 is believed to have spread to the U.S. from Europe, and was first reported to have killed wild rabbits in New Mexico back in March.
WEST SIDE ocelov p v sek AUTO s et zkem pro mu e , WEST SIDE ocelov p v sek AUTO s et zkem pro mu e. Velikost p v sku: 33 x 22 mm. V etn et zku 60 ...
Zlat p v sek ty l stek Fortuna v kombinaci lut ho a r ov ho zlata , Zlat p v sek Fortuna ze lut ho a r ov ho zlata ve tvaru ty l stku. N dhern jemn p v sek ze lut ho a r ov ho zlata obl ben ho ...
Elastin is an important component in our skin, providing it with elasticity. It is a structural protein found throughout our bodies, even in our organs.
면역혈소판감소자색반병으로 진단되면 생명에 위험을 줄 수 있는 출혈이 있을 때 응급으로 혈소판 수혈을 하며 만성면역혈소판감소자색반병에서 혈소판 수가 20,000/uL 이하이거나 출혈이 있으면서 혈소판 수가 50,000/uL 이하인 경우 스테로이드 투여, 비장절제, 면역글로불린 투여, 면역억제제투여 등의 치료를 한다. 20년 전 혈소판감소증으로 내원하여 말초혈액도말 검사, 거대세포바이러스, 엡스타인-바바이러스, 인간 면역결핍 바이러스, 간염 혈청 검사, 항핵항체 검사에서 모두 음성으로 확인되었으며 골수 검사에서 거대핵세포 수가 약간 증가된 것을 포함하여 특이 소견이 없었고 수차례 확인하였으나 가족력도 없어 면역혈소판감소자색반병으로 진단하였고 출혈 소견이 있으며 혈소판 수가 20,000/uL미만이었기 때문에 스테로이드, 면역글로불린, 다나졸을 ...
v t e (Commons category link is on Wikidata, Viral structural proteins, Viral proteins, Structural proteins, All stub articles ... A viral structural protein is a viral protein that is a structural component of the mature virus. Examples include the SARS ... Viral nonstructural protein Viral+Structural+Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... March 2005). "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3a protein is a viral structural protein". J. Virol. 79 (5): 3182-6 ...
... of the circular viral genome. VP1 is the major structural component of the polyomavirus icosahedral capsid, which has T=7 ... Major capsid protein VP1 is a viral protein that is the main component of the polyomavirus capsid. VP1 monomers are generally ... All of the capsid proteins are expressed from the late region of the viral genome, so named because expression occurs only late ... of polyomavirus internal protein VP2 with the major capsid protein VP1 and implications for participation of VP2 in viral entry ...
"Structural Disorder in Viral Proteins". Chemical Reviews. 114 (13): 6880-6911. doi:10.1021/cr4005692. ISSN 0009-2665. PMID ... The p2 protein cleaves the viral strand of the RF DNA, and host DNA polymerase III synthesizes a new viral strand. The old ... When the concentration of phage proteins has increased, new viral strands are coated by the replication/assembly protein p5 ... Phage proteins, Membrane proteins, Membrane biology, Structural biology, Single-stranded DNA viruses). ...
Viral structural proteins, Epstein-Barr virus). ... Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an ... Pratt, Z; Zhang, J; Sugden, B. (2012). "The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) oncogene of Epstein-Barr virus can simultaneously ... Li, H; Chang, Y (2003). "Epstein-barr virus latent membrane protein 1: Structure and functions". J. Biomed. Sci. 10 (5): 490- ... June 2003). "Expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells of classical ...
The genome encodes viral structural proteins. Lipids are not reported. By itself, the genomic nucleic acid is infectious. No ... The 5'-end of the genome has a viral protein genome-linked (VPg). The 3'-terminus has a poly (A) tract. ...
Viral structural protein: Capsid protein has a molar mass of 59000-71000 Da; is the coat protein. Capsid protein has a ... The viral genome encodes viral structural protein. Virions consist of 1 structural protein(s) (major species located in the ... They are sharing some epitopes in the structural proteins. Luque, D.; González, J. M.; Gómez-Blanco, J.; Marabini, R.; Chichón ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment to host receptors, which mediates ...
The viral genome encodes viral structural protein. Virions consist of 1 viral structural protein (major species), or 2 Viral ... Viral structural protein: Capsid protein has a molar mass of 58000-60000 Da; is the coat protein. Capsid protein has a ... and capsid protein precursor and small structural protein genes, complete cds, complete genome". Retrieved 29 October 2016. " ... structural proteins (detected in Norwalk virus, amyelosis chronic stunt virus and porcine enteric calicivirus located in the ...
Proteins constitute around 94% of the virus by weight. The viral genome encodes structural proteins and non-structural proteins ...
There are 4 genes that encode the viral structural proteins. They are "gag" encoding the structural internal virion proteins ... The viral proteins are synthesized initially as large precursors and are later processed into the mature proteins by ... In vitro assays have found that enJSRV does this by blocking various stages of the viral replication cycle. An example of this ... An additional open reading frame (ORF) was observed in the viral genome and has been called orfX and its function is undefined ...
Protein pages needing a picture, Viral structural proteins, Polyomavirus proteins). ... Viral structural protein Chen XS, Stehle T, Harrison SC (June 1998). "Interaction of polyomavirus internal protein VP2 with the ... Minor capsid protein VP2 and minor capsid protein VP3 are viral proteins that are components of the polyomavirus capsid. ... In most studies, viral propagation is either reduced or abrogated in the absence of one or both proteins, but the apparent ...
The first is non-structural and encodes proteins (nsP1-nsP4) necessary for transcription and replication of viral RNA. The ... The four non-structural protein genes are encoded in the 5′ two-thirds of the genome, while the three structural proteins are ... This serves as template for the synthesis of viral structural proteins. Most alphaviruses have conserved domains involved in ... second encodes three structural proteins: the core nucleocapsid protein C, and the envelope proteins P62 and E1, which ...
They usually encode two open reading frames (ORF). The first ORF named gag is related to viral structural proteins. The second ... It is transcribed by RNA polymerase II to give an mRNA that codes for two proteins: ORF1 and ORF2, which are necessary for ... This process ends when the displaced strand is joined by its ends by the same replication protein. The second class of IR ... In addition it has also been shown that mosaic proteins are composed of mobile domains which have spread to different genes ...
Protein pages needing a picture, Viral structural proteins, Hepatitis B virus). ... HBcAg (core antigen) is a hepatitis B viral protein. It is an indicator of active viral replication; this means the person ... The presence of both HBcAg and HBeAg proteins together act as a marker of viral replication, and antibodies to these antigens ...
E2 is a viral structural protein found in the hepatitis C virus. It is present on the viral envelope and functions as a host ... v t e (Viral structural proteins, Hepatitis C virus, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ... E1 and E2 protein regions that specifically bind to HepG2 cells". Journal of Hepatology. 36 (2): 254-62. doi:10.1016/S0168-8278 ... "Infectious hepatitis C virus pseudo-particles containing functional E1-E2 envelope protein complexes". The Journal of ...
When all of the structural proteins have been produced, viral assembly takes place. The newly formed virus particles can be ... The DNA is encased in the viral core. Two lateral bodies are found outside the viral core, and are believed to hold the enzymes ... The most common medication used to treat camelpox is Cidofovir, a broad spectrum anti-viral that acts by inhibiting the viral ... The viral genetic material is contained in a linear double-stranded DNA consisting of 202,182 tightly packed base pairs. ...
v t e (Viral structural proteins, HIV/AIDS, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ... Fourth-generation HIV immunoassays detect viral p24 protein in the blood (as well as patient antibodies against the virus). ... The p24 protein can be detected in patient blood as early as 2 weeks after HIV infection, further reducing the window period ...
This viral genome codes for seven structural proteins and one non-structural protein. The gene order is 3′ - leader - NP - VP35 ... the mRNA is translated into individual viral proteins. These viral proteins are processed: a glycoprotein precursor (GP0) is ... Viral proteins VP40 and VP24 are located between the envelope and the nucleocapsid (see following), in the matrix space. At the ... Animal viral diseases, Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrhagic fevers, Hemorrhagic fevers, Virus-related cutaneous ...
Retroviral matrix protein Viral tegument (Protein pages needing a picture, Virology, Viral structural proteins). ... Viral matrix proteins are structural proteins linking the viral envelope with the virus core. They play a crucial role in virus ... Viral matrix proteins, like many other viral proteins, can exert different functions during the course of the infection. For ... In herpesviruses, the viral matrix is usually called viral tegument and contains many proteins involved in viral entry, early ...
Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Viral structural proteins, Epstein-Barr virus). ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) are two viral proteins of the Epstein-Barr virus. LMP2A/LMP2B are ... Viral LMP2A mRNA is frequently detected in peripheral blood B lymphocytes and the protein is often present in tumor biopsies ... "The Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 2A PY motif recruits WW domain-containing ubiquitin-protein ligases". Virology. ...
"The non-structural protein μNS of piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) forms viral factory-like structures". Veterinary Research. 47 (1 ... S1-σ3 - Outer Clamp Protein (Capsid protein) & p13 - Cytotoxic Nonstructural Protein S2-σ2 - Core Clamp Protein S3-σNS - ... Outer Clamp Protein). Additionally, the outer layer has fiber proteins (σ1) that mediate viral attachment and entry into the ... Shell Protein (Inner capsid protein) L2-λ2 - Turret protein, guanyltransferase and methyltranferase, genome extrusion. L3-λ1 - ...
... (NP) is a structural protein which encapsidates the negative strand viral RNA. NP is one of the ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR002141 (Protein pages needing a picture, Articles ... needing additional references from June 2022, All articles needing additional references, Structural proteins, Influenza). ...
They can be naturally occurring or synthesized through the individual expression of viral structural proteins, which can then ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Virus-like particle vaccines, Viral structural proteins). ... In some cases a protein of interest can be genetically fused to the viral coat protein. However, this approach sometimes leads ... VLPs contain repetitive, high density displays of viral surface proteins that present conformational viral epitopes that can ...
A PRRSV particle is composed of eight viral structural proteins encoded by ORFs 2-7. They consist of envelope proteins (GP2a, E ... Two large ORFs (1a and 1b) comprise 75% of the viral genome. They are translated and processed into 14 non-structural proteins ... GP3, GP4, GP5, ORF5a and M) and the nucleocapsid (N) protein. The most conserved proteins within the whole family of ... Depending on the viral strain and immune status of the host, PRRSV may cause both subclinical and severe reproductive and/or ...
... and groups of viral proteins include structural proteins, nonstructural proteins, regulatory proteins, and accessory proteins. ... These viral proteins control and influence viral gene expressions in the viral genome, including viral structural gene ... and transactivation of viral structural protein encoding genes. Viral nonstructural proteins interact with host cell proteins ... The viral envelope is made up of a lipid bilayer embedded with viral proteins, including viral glycoproteins. These viral ...
v t e (Protein pages needing a picture, All stub articles, Virus stubs, Viral structural proteins). ... Respiratory syncytial virus G protein is a protein produced by respiratory syncytial virus. Some features of the G protein ... "Respiratory syncytial virus G protein and G protein CX3C motif adversely affect CX3CR1+ T cell responses". Journal of ... Anderson LJ, Jadhao SJ, Paden CR, Tong S (July 2021). "Functional Features of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus G Protein". ...
ORF1 encodes the non-structural protein (NS1) and ORF2 encodes the viral capsid proteins (VP1/VP2). Inverted terminal repeats ... The NS1 protein possesses both helicase and ATPase domains. It has ~652 amino acids residues and a molecular weight of 70-75 ... Jones MS, Kapoor A, Lukashov VV, Simmonds P, Hecht F, et al (2005) New DNA viruses identified in patients with acute viral ... The function of this protein is not known. These viruses have been isolated from blood, liver, spleen, lymph node and bone ...
DIPs are composed of viral structural proteins and sets of DNA or RNA which are incomplete. These DIPs will interfere in ... Alice Huang, 1.[full citation needed] Huang, Alice S.; Baltimore, David (April 1970). "Defective Viral Particles and Viral ... At the time, biologists knew the central dogma to be DNA to RNA to protein, with DNA replication as the way to replicate ones ... Huang directed the Laboratories of Infectious Diseases at Boston Children's Hospital in 1979, where she studied viral diseases ...
Some viral genes contain the code to make the structural proteins that form the virus particle. Other genes make non-structural ... Franklin confirmed that viral proteins formed a spiral hollow tube, wrapped by RNA, and also showed that viral RNA was a single ... virus particles is the stage where a cell uses viral messenger RNA in its protein synthesis systems to produce viral proteins. ... It does this by making the cell copy the virus's DNA or RNA, making viral proteins, which all assemble to form new virus ...
However, Rev is needed to export incompletely spliced mRNAs in order to produce the viral structural proteins.[citation needed ... structural proteins are Rev-dependent. The Rev protein is expressed as an early gene from completely spliced transcripts, so ... HIV-1 regulatory proteins (including Rev) are translated from completely processed mRNA transcripts, while structural proteins ... protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 affects viral mRNA and protein expression via a cis-acting sequence in the env ...
v t e (Protein pages needing a picture, Measles, Viral structural proteins, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ... Nussbaum O, Broder CC, Moss B, Stern LB, Rozenblatt S, Berger EA (June 1995). "Functional and structural interactions between ... August 2008). "Use of Vaxfectin adjuvant with DNA vaccine encoding the measles virus hemagglutinin and fusion proteins protects ... Colf, LA; Juo, ZS; Garcia, KC (December 2007). "Structure of the measles virus hemagglutinin". Nature Structural & Molecular ...
Class 2 systems use a single large Cas protein for the same purpose. Class 1 is divided into types I, III, and IV; class 2 is ... Heler R, Samai P, Modell JW, Weiner C, Goldberg GW, Bikard D, Marraffini LA (March 2015). "Cas9 specifies functional viral ... Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 21 (9): 771-7. doi:10.1038/nsmb.2875. PMC 4156918. PMID 25132177. Gasiunas G, Barrangou ... Class 1 systems use a complex of multiple Cas proteins to degrade foreign nucleic acids. ...
... so that they are displayed on the surface of the viral particle. The protein displayed corresponds to the genetic sequence ... The size restriction seems to have less to do with structural impediment caused by the added section and more to do with the ... Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein-protein, protein-peptide, and protein-DNA interactions that ... a gene encoding a protein of interest is inserted into a phage coat protein gene, causing the phage to "display" the protein on ...
... by the viral 3C-like protease (NS6), a major structural protein (VP1) of about 58~60 kDa and a minor capsid protein (VP2). The ... encoding a large polyprotein which is cleaved into six smaller non-structural proteins (NS1/2 to NS7) ... The protein MDA-5 may be the primary immune sensor that detects the presence of noroviruses in the body. Some people have ... Cao S, Lou Z, Tan M, Chen Y, Liu Y, Zhang Z, Zhang XC, Jiang X, Li X, Rao Z (2007). "Structural Basis for the Recognition of ...
It belongs to a family of Src family kinases and is similar to the v-Src (viral Src) gene of Rous sarcoma virus. It includes an ... Src Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway Archived 2014-12-11 at the Wayback Machine Overview of all the structural ... c-Src can be activated by many transmembrane proteins that include: adhesion receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, G-protein ... Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, also known as proto-oncogene c-Src, or simply c-Src (cellular Src; pronounced "sarc ...
Coronavirus proteins, Viral protein class, Viral structural proteins). ... Like the other structural proteins, the gene encoding the N protein is located toward the 3' end of the genome. N protein is ... N forms protein-protein interactions with the coronavirus membrane protein (M) during the process of viral assembly. N also has ... The N protein is the most highly expressed of the four major coronavirus structural proteins. In addition to its interactions ...
When a sequence motif appears in the exon of a gene, it may encode the "structural motif" of a protein; that is a stereotypical ... Kadaveru K, Vyas J, Schiller MR (May 2008). "Viral infection and human disease--insights from minimotifs". Frontiers in ... Matsuda H, Taniguchi F, Hashimoto A (1997). "An approach to detection of protein structural motifs using an encoding scheme of ... for Motif Elicitation Nucleic acid sequence Protein primary structure Protein I-sites Sequence logo Sequence mining Structural ...
Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. Other proteins have structural or mechanical ... Many viruses have an RNA genome, such as HIV, which uses reverse transcription to create a DNA template from its viral RNA ... The polysaccharides produced can have structural or metabolic functions themselves, or be transferred to lipids and proteins by ... In prokaryotes, these proteins are found in the cell's inner membrane. These proteins use the energy from reduced molecules ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... The CP and RPs pertain distinct structural characteristics and biological functions. In brief, 20S sub complex presents three ... To recognize protein as designated substrate, 19S complex has subunits that are capable to recognize proteins with a special ... Accordingly, misfolded proteins and damaged protein need to be continuously removed to recycle amino acids for new synthesis; ...
As a result, structural proteins, resulting from polypeptide products of gag and gag-pol genes, that are necessary for the HIV ... This fear of viral resistance caused a lot of users to be wary of the drug. The most common side effects of indinavir include: ... Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ... Eventually, the viral load decreases because of the lack of reproduction. The official start to its development started in ...
... to interferon and other anti-viral cytokines that is attributed to a single amino acid change in its Non-Structural Protein 1 ( ... Production of protein kinase R, for example, can be disrupted in cells infected with JEV. Some viruses escape the anti-viral ... Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... Binding of molecules uniquely found in microbes-viral glycoproteins, viral RNA, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), ...
... viral replication, and transcription. The structure of Φ29 is composed of seven main proteins: the terminal protein (p3), the ... 1. Mutants in the Cistrons Coding for the Structural Proteins". European Journal of Biochemistry. 73 (1): 39-55. doi:10.1111/j. ... the portal or connector protein (p10), the tail tube or lower collar proteins (p11), and the tail fibers or appendage proteins ... Both 5' ends of the genome are capped with a covalently bonded terminal protein (p3) that complexes with DNA polymerase during ...
Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P00519 (Human Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1) at the ... "Entrez Gene: ABL1 v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1". Shah NP, Tran C, Lee FY, Chen P, Norris D, Sawyers ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P00520 (Mouse Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1) at the ... Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ...
... which can modulate protein trafficking of viral proteins or protect the proteins from the low pH they would otherwise encounter ... Likely exceptions to this scheme exist, such as the rotavirus protein non-structural protein 4. Most viroporins are not ... "Viral proteins that enhance membrane permeability". In Fischer WB (ed.). Viral membrane proteins : structure, function, and ... Wang K, Xie S, Sun B (February 2011). "Viral proteins function as ion channels". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ...
Blatch GL, Lässle M (November 1999). "The tetratricopeptide repeat: a structural motif mediating protein-protein interactions ... Knockdown of the mouse ortholog TTC39B via a viral vector (50% knockdown) resulted in significantly higher plasma HDL-C levels ... Tetratricopeptide repeat protein 39B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TTC39B gene. TTC39B is also known as C9orf52 ... "Tetratricopeptide repeat protein 39B isoform 1 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". "NCBI". Retrieved 9 May 2013.[permanent dead ...
ORF1 encodes a nonstructural protein (NS1) that is involved in viral genome replication. ORF2 encodes the two capsid proteins- ... the bocaparvoviruses contain a third open reading frame between non-structural and structural coding regions. This gene encodes ... In Canine minute virus NP1 has been shown to be essential for an early step in viral replication and is also required for the ... Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment to host receptors, which mediates clathrin- ...
It is also known that TLR2/6 binds some viral products, among them hepatitis C core and NS3 protein from the hepatitis C virus ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q9Y2C9 (Human Toll-like receptor 6) at the PDBe-KB ... Toll-like receptor 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR6 gene. TLR6 is a transmembrane protein, member of toll- ... TLR6 has also been designated as CD286 (cluster of differentiation 286). The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ...
In its structural role, zinc coordinates with certain protein domains, facilitating protein folding and producing structures ... Changes in intestinal tract absorbability and permeability due, in part, to viral, protozoal, or bacteria pathogens may also ... In 2002 the zinc transporter protein ZIP4 was first identified as the mechanism for absorption of zinc in the gut across the ... Pra1 (pH regulated antigen 1) is a candida albicans protein that scavenges host zinc. Diagnosis is typically made based on ...
The structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 include membrane glycoprotein (M), envelope protein (E), nucleocapsid protein (N), and ... The S-protein, otherwise known as the spike protein, is the viral component that attaches to the host receptor via the ACE2 ... The M protein is the viral protein responsible for the transmembrane transport of nutrients. It is the cause of the bud release ... interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP‑10), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1‑alpha ...
J Exp Med 145: 1-9. Rao A, Ko WW, Faas SJ, Cantor H. Binding of antigen in the absence of histocompatibility proteins by ... 1977;145:1. Dickman, Steven (February 27, 1998). "Viral saboteurs caught in the act". Science. Leavy, Olive (October 2010). " ... Structural and functional studies of the Eta-1 (Early-T-lymphocyte-activation-1; Osteopontin) gene: Definition of a novel T- ... Autoimmune disease after viral infection. Science 279: 1344-1347. Pestano GA, Zhou Y, Trimble LA, Daley J, Weber GF, Cantor H. ...
... producing all viral structural proteins. Assembly of progeny virions begins in cytoplasmic viral factories, producing a ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host ... Fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane releases the viral core into the host cytoplasm. Expression of early- ... The viral core is completely uncoated as early expression ends, releasing the viral genome into the cytoplasm. At this point, ...
Mechanical Behavior of High Temperature Structural Ceramics, Mechanical Testing of Materials, Structural Mechanics, Astronaut ... Well-known examples of polymers include plastics, DNA and proteins. According to the abstract released by the U.S. Patent & ... used worldwide for the management of viral diseases. Ruaño is president and Founder of Genomas, a genetics-related company and ... He is responsible for the engineering services and facilities for environmental, structural, and propulsion testing of NASA ...
... structural protein linking the viral envelope with the virus capsid Coronavirus membrane protein, structural protein expressed ... M protein may refer to: M protein (Streptococcus), a virulence factor of the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes Viral matrix ... a protein composing the M-line of muscle cell sarcomeres Protein M, immunoglobulin-binding protein found on the surface of the ... from the M gene in coronaviruses Myeloma protein, also called paraprotein, an abnormal protein in the urine or blood, often ...
Furthermore, SINEs frequently contain motifs for YY1 polycomb proteins. YY1 is a zinc-finger protein that acts as a ... SINEs can be transferred between individuals or species via horizontal transfer through a viral vector. SINEs are known to ... Rodríguez-Campos A, Azorín F (November 2007). "RNA is an integral component of chromatin that contributes to its structural ... Thereafter, one of the strands is incorporated into a multi-protein RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Among these proteins ...
This protein belongs to the LDLR family and is made up of a number of functionally distinct domains, including 3 EGF-like ... Both the disulfide bonds and calcium coordination are necessary for the structural integrity of the domain during the ... Flaviviridae viruses and bovine viral diarrheal virus could enter cells indirectly via LDLR-mediated endocytosis. LDLR has been ... e.g. a truncation of the receptor protein at residue number 660 leads to domains 3,4 and 5 of the EGF precursor domain being ...
... discovering that aminoglycosides blocked the interaction of HIV-1 Rev protein and its viral RNA-binding site. David Wilson and ... This work combined with advances in structural characterization techniques such as NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography ... As a nucleoside inhibitor, the guanosine analog prodrug is used to stop viral RNA synthesis and viral mRNA capping by ... "Small molecules that selectively block RNA binding of HIV-1 rev protein inhibit rev function and viral production". Cell. 74 (6 ...
... the interaction between the HIV-1 Gag structural polyprotein and the cellular ribosomal protein L7 and its implication in viral ... 60S ribosomal protein L7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPL7 gene. Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze ... The protein belongs to the L30P family of ribosomal proteins. It contains an N-terminal basic region-leucine zipper (BZIP)-like ... "Structural and functional properties of ribosomal protein L7 from humans and rodents". Nucleic Acids Research. 21 (2): 223-31. ...
Le Rouzic E, Benichou S (February 2005). "The Vpr protein from HIV-1: distinct roles along the viral life cycle". Retrovirology ... FactorBook GR Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P04150 (Glucocorticoid receptor) at ... the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and the protein FKBP4 (FK506-binding protein 4). The endogenous glucocorticoid hormone ... Hulkko SM, Wakui H, Zilliacus J (August 2000). "The pro-apoptotic protein death-associated protein 3 (DAP3) interacts with the ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... Nature Structural Biology. 7 (11): 1062-7. doi:10.1038/80992. PMID 11062564. S2CID 27481109. Zong C, Gomes AV, Drews O, Li X, ... The eukaryotic proteasome recognizes degradable proteins, including damaged proteins for protein quality control purpose or key ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ...
... channel and structural protein functions in a cell. For example, paclitaxel (taxol), an organic molecule found in the Pacific ... ISBN 978-0-444-62667-7. Hsu JT, Wang HC, Chen GW, Shih SR (2006). "Antiviral drug discovery targeting to viral proteases". ... which bind to ribonucleases in one of the tightest known protein-protein interactions. A special case of protein enzyme ... For example, some protein kinase inhibitors have chemical structures that are similar to ATP, one of the substrates of these ...
... ... 2021). Structural and molecular basis for Cardiovirus 2A protein as a viral gene expression switch.. Nat Commun ... Together, these results define the structural basis for RNA recognition by 2A, show how 2A-mediated stabilisation of an RNA ... Programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) in cardioviruses is activated by the 2A protein, a multi-functional virulence ...
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral / physiology * Drug Resistance, Viral / physiology* * Phenotype * Viral Structural Proteins / ... Viral adaptation to an antiviral protein enhances the fitness level to above that of the uninhibited wild type J Virol. 2009 ... To obtain the quintuple-mutant resistant strain, the wild-type virus was propagated for approximately 150 viral life cycles in ... The expression of the inhibitory protein elevated the strains fitness significantly above the uninhibited wild-type level. ...
... nonstructural protein; VP, viral structural protein. Sequences obtained from this study are shown in bold. Scale bars indicate ... Djikeng A, Halpin R, Kuzmickas R, Depasse J, Feldblyum J, Sengamalay N, Viral genome sequencing by random priming methods. BMC ... A) Phylogenetic tree based on the viral NS1 gene. B) A phylogenetic tree based on the major capsid VP2. RFAV and other ... Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline ...
CDCs new flavivirus VLPs have structural proteins as the basis to form the viral particles. They do not have a viral genome so ... Viral Infection Diagnostics - Multiplexed Immunoassay for Rapid Serological Diagnosis of a Specific Viral Infection in Clinical ... Therapeutics/Protein Research - Therapeutic, Bifunctional Janus Microparticles with Spatially Segregated Surface Proteins and ... Molecular Detection and Viral-Load Quantification for HIV-1 Groups M, N and O, and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-cpz (SIVcpz) ...
Structural framework for DNA translocation via the viral portal protein.. EMBO J. 2007; 26: 1984-1994. View in Article *Scopus ... Structural rearrangements between portal protein subunits are essential for viral DNA translocation.. J. Biol. Chem. 2007; 282 ... Structural rearrangements between portal protein subunits are essential for viral DNA translocation.. J. Biol. Chem. 2007; 282 ... Structural framework for DNA translocation via the viral portal protein.. EMBO J. 2007; 26: 1984-1994 ...
Categories: Viral Structural Proteins Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Special Issue in Biomolecules: Structural Disorder within Viral Proteins: A Themed Issue Dedicated to Doctor Sonia Longhi. ... protein folding; protein misfolding; partially folded proteins; protein aggregation; protein structure; protein function; ... protein stability; protein biophysics; protein bioinformatics; conformational diseases; protein-ligand interactions; protein- ... Interests: structural bioinformatics; intrinsically disordered proteins; protein function prediction; protein-ligand ...
... the inner structural proteins. The pol gene encodes polymerase; it also contains integrase and protease (the viral enzymes) and ... Viral load in peripheral blood is used as a surrogate marker of viral replication rate; however, quantitative viral-load assays ... The env gene encodes the viral envelope-the outer structural proteins responsible for cell-type specificity. Glycoprotein 120, ... The accessory proteins of HIV-1 and HIV-2 are involved in viral replication and may play a role in the disease process. [37, 38 ...
A novel automated mariPOC SARS-CoV-2 test was developed for the detection of conserved structural viral nucleocapsid proteins. ... COVID-19 diagnostics was quickly ramped up worldwide early 2020 based on the detection of viral RNA. However, based on the ... A novel automated mariPOC SARS-CoV-2 test was developed for the detection of conserved structural viral nucleocapsid proteins. ... The detection of sole viral RNA, especially at low levels without the detectable level of viral N-protein or culture positivity ...
see Online Paclovid test and treat program 2. Host proteins or systems that interact with the virus. 3. Structural RNA elements ... Viral structural or Non structural proteins (NSPs) encoded by the large RNA genome. ... 1. Viral structural or Non structural proteins (NSPs) encoded by the large RNA genome. see Online Paclovid test and treat ... 2. Host proteins or systems that interact with the virus.. 3. Structural RNA elements. ...
most of the structural proteins to build infectious viral particles. (Moss, 2013a). Our study indicates that the resveratrol ... not block synthesis of viral early proteins and the viral genome. uncoating factor D5 is an early protein (Kilcher et al., 2014 ... AraC (40 µg/mL), or resveratrol (50 µM). At 24 hpi, the expression of viral proteins in infected cells was detected by western ... The viral DNA level at 24 hpi was determined as the. fold to the viral DNA level at 1 hpi. (B) HeLa cells were transfected with ...
... as well as structural modeling projects exploring the relationship between the structure and function of viral proteins. Since ... In 2014, she began a postdoctoral fellowship on viral evolution in Adam Laurings lab at University of Michigan and later did a ... Virology, Microbiology, Immunology, Vaccines, Viral Evolution. Biography. Dr. Kari Debbink completed her undergraduate studies ...
... the small E protein is a minor structural protein that is essential for viral infection. The other small protein is hydrophobic ... PRRSV has the GP5 protein and the M protein. Other arteriviruses have the major GP protein instead of the GP5 protein. The GP5 ... However, plasmid DNA and viral vector vaccines that contain PRRSV structural proteins have been developed. But MLV vaccines are ... These proteins are important because they induce host resistance to viral replication through the destruction of viral mRNA and ...
1995). Possible mechanism involving T-lymphocyte response to non-structural protein 3 in viral clearance in acute hepatitis C ... and evidence to support the inclusion of both structural and non-structural proteins (reviewed in Torresi et al., 2011). ... Khu, Y. L., Tan, Y. J., Lim, S. G., Hong, W., and Goh, P. Y. (2004). Hepatitis C virus non-structural protein NS3 interacts ... along sites in the non-structural proteins of HCV vary and supports the observation that there is limited overlap in viral ...
... anti-helicase activity against Non-structural Protein 3 (NS3) decreasing viral RNA replication [14]. The mechanism of antiviral ... transporter protein which decreases translocation of viral nucleocapsid protein (NCP) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. ... Dramatic reduction in viral RNA in both supernatant as well as in cell associated viral RNA was observed [3]. The drug is ... Initial transport of importin mediated viral nucleocapsid protein into the nucleus is followed by a quiescent stage during ...
Mass-spectrometry of purified viral particles identified 12-20 structural proteins per phage. When combined with 3-D structural ... Protein functional predictions revealed mechanisms for hijacking host metabolism and resources. Further, they uncovered a ... In this trait-based framework, sensitive hosts are considered viral niches, while host ranges and infection efficiencies are ... These viruses represent five new genera and inform 498 unaffiliated or unannotated protein clusters (PCs) from global virus ...
Viral proteins and non-structural proteins in the order VP7-VP4-VP6-VP1-VP2-VP3-NSP1-NSP2-NSP3-NSP4-NSP5/6 are represented by ... The mutant GdhR protein expressed by gdhR6 had a reduced ability to bind to its target DNA sequence upstream of lctP. ... The four assays using target cells stably expressing one of the four proteins worked well. In pre- and post-vaccine sera from ... The resulting amino acid change in the GdhR protein resulted in enhanced expression of a virulence gene (lctP) that has been ...
SARS-CoV-2 structural coverage map reveals viral protein assembly, mimicry, and hijacking mechanisms. Mol Syst Biol. 2021 ;17(9 ... an open resource for online prediction of protein structural and functional features. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 ;42(Web Server ... Dark Proteins Important for Cellular Function. Proteomics. 2018 ;18(21-22):e1800227. ... Predicting Protein Structure and Function for 29 Years. Nucleic Acids Res. 2021 ;49(W1):W535-W540. ...
... targeting structural and functional similarities between viral proteins and cancer Low, Zheng Yao; Yip, Ashley Jia Wen; Lal, ... The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) enzyme plays a vital role in viral replication for all RNA viruses, including ...
A lower number of sera reacted with the recombinant ORF2 protein in a Western blotting format (81/111). Using a Latent class ... protein lacking the first 111 amino acids of a swine HEV genotype 3 strain. The ORF2-based ELISA revealed anti-HEV antibodies ... ORF1 encodes non-structural proteins, ORF2 the viral capsid protein, and ORF3 a cytoskeleton-associated phosphoprotein [6]. ... Electrophoretic analysis of expressed HEV rΔ111ORF2 protein. SDS-PAGE (panel A) and Western blotting (panel B) of crude protein ...
... the inner structural proteins. The pol gene encodes polymerase; it also contains integrase and protease (the viral enzymes) and ... Viral load in peripheral blood is used as a surrogate marker of viral replication rate; however, quantitative viral-load assays ... The env gene encodes the viral envelope-the outer structural proteins responsible for cell-type specificity. Glycoprotein 120, ... The accessory proteins of HIV-1 and HIV-2 are involved in viral replication and may play a role in the disease process. [37, 38 ...
Upon protein translation enteroviruses produce a 250 kDa polyprotein that is cleaved into structural and non-structural viral ... Host Cell Calpains Can Cleave Structural Proteins from the Enterovirus Polyprotein  Laajala, Mira; Hankaniemi, Minna M.; ... Enterovirus proteins are translated as a single polyprotein, which is cleaved by viral proteases to release capsid ... ... Detection of Viral −RNA and +RNA Strands in Enterovirus-Infected Cells and Tissues  Salmikangas, Sami; Laiho, Jutta E.; ...
Protein Binding, Protein Domains, Viral Structural Proteins metabolism, Bacteriophage P22 chemistry, Capsid chemistry, Protein ... Viral Tail Proteins genetics, Podoviridae metabolism, Viral Tail Proteins chemistry, Viral Tail Proteins metabolism, and Virus ... Protein Conformation, Recombinant Proteins chemistry, Recombinant Proteins metabolism, Repressor Proteins metabolism, Viral ... Protein Domains, Protein Folding, Protein Multimerization, Protein Stability, Recombinant Proteins chemistry, Recombinant ...
C12N2760/18122-New viral proteins or individual genes, new structural or functional aspects of known viral proteins or genes ... 102000004169 proteins and genes Human genes 0.000 description 18 * 108090000623 proteins and genes Proteins 0.000 description ... C12N2760/18134-Use of virus or viral component as vaccine, e.g. live-attenuated or inactivated virus, VLP, viral protein ... C12N2710/14043-Use of virus, viral particle or viral elements as a vector viral genome or elements thereof as genetic vectore ...
It is the most abundant structural viral protein. M1 has a key role in viral replication and viral assembly. During all viral ... Influenza matrix protein 1 (M1) is a structural protein that accounts for a number of critical viral events. It displays a ... More interestingly, M1 protein exhibits different structural conformations that correlate with its physiological activity. ... which contributes to vital integrity and provides an intact viral entity. Upon cellular viral entry, the M1 layer dissociates ...
... vector RNA is packaged through specific recognition of the packaging signal on the RNA by the viral structural protein Gag. We ... Our data suggest a structural equilibrium exists in the dimeric viral RNA between a metastable structure that includes a U5-gag ...
... the presence of antibodies to HIV regulatory proteins or may indicate partially processed or degraded viral structural proteins ... The viral proteins are then transferred onto nitrocellulose paper and reacted with the patients serum. Any HIV antibody from ... Table 1 lists the major structural proteins coded for by the HIV genome. Antibodies to the HIV-1 major group-specific antigen ( ... Although the overall sensitivity and specificity of the Western blot for detection of antibodies to the various viral proteins ...
... various structural protein mRNAs, and the replication of viral genomic RNA. In addition, because the recombination rate between ... After entering the host cell, it directly uses the viral genomic RNA as a translation template to express the viral RNA ... Coronavirus Structural Features. Clinical studies have found that there are three glycoproteins on the surface of the envelope ... This structure is very similar to eukaryotic mRNA, and is also an important structural basis for its genomic RNA itself to play ...
For both West Nile virus and HIV-1, I am interested in how viral proteins (structural or nonstructural) produced during ... separately express viral proteins or in specific combinations in order to deduce which viral protein or combination of proteins ... Both direct and indirect mechanisms can determine pathogenic outcome of a viral infection. Viral proteins can be directly ... as well as any synergism between these viral proteins. The particular viral pathogenic mechanisms studied include inflammatory ...
  • Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of 2A and show that it selectively binds to a pseudoknot-like conformation of the PRF stimulatory RNA element in the viral genome. (
  • Djikeng A , Halpin R , Kuzmickas R , Depasse J , Feldblyum J , Sengamalay N , Viral genome sequencing by random priming methods. (
  • The virus, isolated from patients mentioned to be pneumonic, was quickly sequenced to share 79.6% full length genome similarity with the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-1) and 91.2% similarity between its nucleocapsid (N) proteins 1 . (
  • 1. Viral structura l or Non structural proteins (NSP's) encoded by the large RNA genome. (
  • Genetic determinants of spontaneous HCV infection clearance and HIV viral control using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene studies have added crucial insight into the influence of the host immune response on infection outcome. (
  • Here, we introduce genomes, structural proteomes, and quantitative host range data for eight Pseudoalteromonas phages isolated from Helgoland (North Sea, Germany) and use these data to advance a genome-based viral operational taxonomic unit (OTU) definition. (
  • Table 1 lists the major structural proteins coded for by the HIV genome. (
  • Upon cellular viral entry, the M1 layer dissociates to release an RNA genome that migrates to the nucleus to utilize the host's cellular machinery for synthesizing viral proteins. (
  • Of the four structural proteins encoded in the viral genome, the RNA winds around the highly basic nucleocapsid (N) protein. (
  • Genome adaptations may offer insight into a viral epidemic as far back as 25,000 years. (
  • Using a recently published viral genome of the Wuhan coronavirus made available on the National Center for Biotechnology Information website, Dmitry Korkin and a team of graduate students used molecular modeling to reconstruct the 3D structure of major viral proteins and their interactions with human proteins. (
  • These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins ( VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS ). (
  • The genome of the Zika virus has a length of 10.7 kb, divided into structural and non-structural segments. (
  • The 5' methylated cap and 3' polyadenylated tail allows the positive-sense RNA genome to be directly translated by the host cell's ribosome on viral entry . (
  • RT-PCR has been standardized using both structural and nonstructural domains of the Chikungunya virus genome and is available through the CDC. (
  • Viral genome-linked protein is covalently linked to the 5'-end of the positive-strand, negative-strand genomic RNAs and subgenomic RNA. (
  • It is not clear whether the CP in the virus particles, i.e., the exogenous CP, modulate viral genome replication. (
  • In this study, we found that exogenous RuV CP also enhanced viral genome replication, either when used to package replicons or when mixed with RNA during transfection. (
  • These results suggest that the exogenous RuV CP increases efficiency of early viral genome replication by modulating the stage(s) prior to and/or at the initiation of negative-strand RNA synthesis, possibly through a general mechanism such as protecting viral RNA. (
  • An examination of the nucleic acid sequence alignment of 48 full-length rubella virus genomes revealed that the 5' terminus of the genome is more conserved than the commonly used detection windows for rubella virus RNA located in the E1 protein coding region, suggesting that the 5' terminus could be a target for improving detection of all rubella virus genotypes. (
  • We hypothesize that this lack of detectable signs of disease during infection with BA.4 was due to a small (nine nucleotide) deletion (∆686-694) in the viral genome (ORF1ab) responsible for production of non-structural protein 1 which resulted in the loss of three amino acids (aa 141-143). (
  • These structural proteins are important to determine host range and tropism, and they play a crucial role in delivering the RNA genome into the cytoplasm of new host cells. (
  • Research in structural virology aims to provide a molecular description of the dynamics of viral structures at various essential stages of the infectious cycle: assembly of the viral particle, fusion of viral and cell membranes, packaging and ejection of the viral genome. (
  • During this talk, I will tell two such stories: 1) Structural variations in the human genome originate from different mechanisms related to DNA repair, replication, and retro-transposition. (
  • Analyses were performed to understand how chromatin organization and/or epigenome affects origin of structural variations in human genome. (
  • Together, these results define the structural basis for RNA recognition by 2A, show how 2A-mediated stabilisation of an RNA pseudoknot promotes PRF, and reveal how 2A accumulation may shut down translation during virus infection. (
  • Zika virus non-structural protein 4B interacts with DHCR7 to facilitate viral infection. (
  • This study broadens the insights on how viral non-structural proteins antagonize innate immunity to facilitate viral infection via cholesterol metabolic enzymes and intermediates. (
  • Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline kidney cells. (
  • For HIV the strongest genetic determinant of viral load set-point and CD4 + T cell decline following infection, aside from variants in the CCR5 molecule used by HIV for cell entry, are specific HLA class I alleles (e.g. (
  • In this trait-based framework, sensitive hosts are considered viral niches, while host ranges and infection efficiencies are tracked as viral traits. (
  • Antibodies to the HIV-1 major group-specific antigen (GAG) protein p24, and its precursor p55, are the earliest detected after infection by Western blot and tend to decrease or become undetectable with onset or progression of clinical symptoms (4-9). (
  • For both West Nile virus and HIV-1, I am interested in how viral proteins (structural or nonstructural) produced during infection contribute to pathogenesis. (
  • Both direct and indirect mechanisms can determine pathogenic outcome of a viral infection. (
  • The results of comparative analyses demonstrate that Ad5 infection induces reversal of the quiescence program and recapitulation of the core serum response, and that only a small subset of the observed changes in cellular gene expression can be ascribed to well characterized functions of the viral E1A and E1B proteins. (
  • Clinical manifestations of enteroviral infection differ by viral type. (
  • At least three viral membrane proteins (gE, gI, and Us9) are necessary for the spread of infection from presynaptic to postsynaptic neurons (anterograde spread) in infected rodents. (
  • To understand how these proteins effect anterograde spread between neurons, we analyzed the subcellular localization of viral proteins after infection of cultured rat sympathetic neurons with wild-type or mutant viruses. (
  • The AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR [Viral Load] test is not intended to be used as a screening test for HIV or as a diagnostic test to confirm the presence of HIV infection. (
  • Do not use this kit as the sole basis of diagnosis of HIV-1 infection" (Abbott Laboratories HIV Test, Roche Viral Load Test and Epitope, Inc. Western Blot Test. (
  • We defined the protein modulations in the salivary glands of Aedes aegypti that were triggered 3 and 5 days after an oral infection (3 and 5 DPI) with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). (
  • We found that the differentially regulated proteins in response to viral infection include structural proteins and enzymes for several metabolic pathways. (
  • Tetravalent demonstrated a new technique for the and four monovalent dengue viral antigens differentiation of antibody avidity after virus were prepared by the method as previously infection, i.e. rubella, rota and Japanese reported [4,5] . (
  • The cell responds to viral infection/proteins by activating the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. (
  • Activation of p53 could impair a productive viral infection at many levels, including the inhibitio. (
  • We successfully converted DB32-6 to a humanized version that retained potency for the neutralization of DENV-2 and did not enhance the viral infection. (
  • Animals infected with BA.4 had similar viral shedding profiles to that seen with BA.5.2.1 (up to day 6 post infection) but they all failed to lose weight or present with any other significant clinical signs. (
  • genic models are inadequate for number of activated CD8-positive T LMP1 was strongly expressed in the understanding the cancer etiology in cells increased considerably in the lymphoma tissues but was hardly the context of natural viral infection. (
  • LANA, a viral regulatory protein expressed during latent infection). (
  • Arboviral antigen testing detects viral antigen and can be used as an indicator of arboviral infection. (
  • We show that infection of human alveolar epithelial cells and human bronchial epithelial cells with influenza A for 3h resulted in down-regulation of host hsa-miRNA-548an (miRNA-548an) which triggered the overexpression of influenza non-structural-1A binding protein (IVNS1ABP, herein referred to as NS1ABP). (
  • Now they have shown that apelin levels go way down with the viral infection, which has killed 1 million people worldwide, and that CBD quickly helps normalize those levels along with lung function. (
  • we don't know yet about causative, but it is a very good indicator of the disease," Baban says of the bottom line impact of the viral infection on apelin levels. (
  • The Department of Virology at I2BC studies the molecular and cellular mechanisms of viral infection . (
  • They characterize the functions of the host hijacked by the virus, viral remodeling of the cellular organization and the cellular response to infection, including anti-viral immunity. (
  • The viral S gene is important as it codes for the Spike protein which is the molecule that makes contact with, and allows entry of the virus into susceptible host cells, causing infection. (
  • To date, WHO has designated 4 SARS CoV-2 genotypes that meet the working definition of a VOC: i) contain mutations divergent from the Wuhan strain and ii) that the mutations impact one or more of the aspects of viral infection that have public health significance. (
  • The researchers have reported their initial findings in the journal Quarterly Review of Biophysics (QRB) Discovery, and they now hope to begin testing their proteins in human cells and in animal models of cytokine release and coronavirus infection. (
  • Evaluation of the relationship between the 14-3-3ε protein and LvRab11 in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during WSSV infection. (
  • Digging into Microbial Ecosystems Deep Underground JGI users and microbiome researchers at Colorado State University have many questions about the microbial communities deep underground, including the role viral infection may play in other natural ecosystems. (
  • The new evidence shows that protective antibodies generated in response to an mRNA vaccine will target a broader range of SARS-CoV-2 variants carrying "single letter" changes in a key portion of their spike protein compared to antibodies acquired from an infection. (
  • Specifically, antibodies elicited by the mRNA vaccine were more focused to the RBD compared to antibodies elicited by an infection, which more often targeted other portions of the spike protein. (
  • In contrast, antibodies to the envelope (ENV) precursor protein gp160 and the final ENV proteins (gp120 and gp41) can be detected in specimens from virtually all HIV-infected persons regardless of clinical stage (4-9). (
  • Although the overall sensitivity and specificity of the Western blot for detection of antibodies to the various viral proteins are high, there has been substantial debate regarding the interpretive criteria. (
  • In this study, we implemented a reliable ELISA test for detection of anti-HEV antibodies in swine sera, using a genotype 3 swine HEV capsid protein expressed by a recombinant baculovirus in insect cells as coating antigen. (
  • For instance, while some of the inserts may block human antibodies from interacting with the viral surface protein, structural analysis suggests that some antibodies are capable of interacting with it. (
  • Despite no licensed vaccine is yet available for CHIKV, there is strong evidence of effective asymptomatic viral clearance due to neutralising antibodies against the viral structural proteins. (
  • We generated seventeen novel mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with high reactivity against E protein of dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). (
  • Glycoprotein E2 is the Isomalt most immunodominant protein and induces the production of neutralizing antibodies in infected pigs [21]. (
  • A team of MIT researchers has developed specialized proteins, similar in structure to antibodies, that they believe could soak up these excess cytokines. (
  • Exposures to airborne protein antigens, aeroallergens, may cause sensitization with production of Th2-depend- ent antibodies, including IgE. (
  • ZMapp consists of three antibodies, proteins the immune system uses to recognize and attack viruses. (
  • CALIXAR's approach allows to preserve the original structure and function of membrane proteins (GPCRs, Ion Channels, Transporters, Receptors, Anchors and Viral Proteins) providing solutions for pharmaceutical industries, biotechnology companies and academic teams to develop conformational antibodies, formulate new vaccines, carry out Structure Based Drug Discovery and/or HTS assays. (
  • This vaccine works by prompting a person's cells to produce the spike protein, thereby launching an immune response and the production of antibodies. (
  • In both cases, RBD-directed antibodies are acquired from the immune system's recognition and response to viral spike proteins. (
  • When combined with 3-D structural predictions, these data led to the functional characterization of five previously unidentified major capsid proteins. (
  • Such enhancement can occur by viral capsid proteins (CP) alone in trans. (
  • The sensitivity of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is more than 1000 times greater than that of standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and approximately 10-fold greater than reverse-transcription PCR in detection of norovirus capsid proteins in stool and food samples. (
  • Tian P, Mandrell R. Detection of norovirus capsid proteins in faecal and food samples by a real time immuno-PCR method. (
  • Due to its genetic properties, IAV generates new viral particles that resist the body's immune defense and antiviral drug therapy. (
  • Host factors like the immune system and antiviral therapies can direct viral evolution in the direction of increased virulence. (
  • Also, the CoV-VIP proteins demonstrate antiviral and proviral effects and variations that affect SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 severity in the current British population . (
  • Antiviral proteins engaged in virus-host interactions are often locked in evolutionary "arms-races", which have been referred to as "Red Queen" conflicts. (
  • Viral infections continuously exert immense selective pressures on the host antiviral proteins to evolve adaptively. (
  • The signatures of these evolutionary conflicts can be inferred by observing signals of adaptive evolution (also called positive selection) in antiviral genes that result from repeated episodes of Darwinian selection due to past viral infections [ 1 ]. (
  • Thus, a detailed look at the evolutionary trajectory of an antiviral gene can provide valuable information about the viral pressures that shaped host evolution. (
  • A. Côt, N. Aschman, J. Mercier, W. Weissenhorn and E. A. Cohen (2015) Human Immunodeficiency Virus Accessory Protein Vpu Inhibits the Antiviral Response of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells for Innate Immune Evasion. (
  • Currently, there are no appropriate these compounds can prevent the completion of the viral vaccines or antiviral agents available that can effectively cycle6. (
  • NaSCN did not affect the reactions between anti-human IgM and patients' IgM, and between dengue viral antigens and detecting antibody, peroxidase-conjugated flavivirus-specific monoclonal antibody D1-4G2 IgG. (
  • Work on viral detection, presentation of antigens and bioengineering of viral-type particles aim at the development of approaches for vaccinology, for vectorization and for nanoreactors. (
  • The antigens (either dietary related or microbial or viral) pass through the weakened junctional complex(JC), they are presented by an antigen-presenting cell (APC) to the T-cells (a lymphocyte produced by the Thymus gland). (
  • M1 protein forms a layer underneath the lipid bilayer membrane, which contributes to vital integrity and provides an intact viral entity. (
  • Three distinct classes of viral membrane fusion proteins have been identified based on structural criteria. (
  • Despite the rich diversity of existent fusion proteins, all characterized viral fusion proteins convert from a fusion-competent state (dimers or trimers) to a membrane-embedded homotrimeric prehairpin, to a trimer-of-hairpins that brings the fusion peptide, attached to the target membrane, and the transmembrane domain, attached to the viral membrane, into close proximity, thereby facilitating the union of viral and target membranes. (
  • The three other structural proteins, envelope (E), membrane (M) and spike (S), are transmembrane proteins. (
  • 2008) Structures and Mechanisms of Viral Membrane Fusion Proteins. (
  • Surprisingly, capsid and tegument proteins but not viral membrane proteins were detected in axons. (
  • The spread of Us9 missense mutants in the rodent nervous system correlated with the amount of viral membrane proteins localized to axons. (
  • We conclude that the Us9 membrane protein controls axonal localization of diverse viral membrane proteins but not that of capsid or tegument proteins. (
  • Decades of intense studies have provided crucial insight into the structural reorganisation of the flavivirus particle required for fusing the viral membrane with a cellular membrane for entry [3] . (
  • They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). (
  • 1] The prM and E proteins facilitate viral attachment to the host cell membrane AXL receptor, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase protein. (
  • 99. De Franceschi N, Alqabandi M, Miguet N, Caillat C, Mangenot S, Weissenhorn W and Bassereau P. (2018) The ESCRT protein CHMP2B acts as a diffusion barrier on reconstituted membrane necks. (
  • Protein p48 may play a role in viral replication by interacting with host VAPA, a vesicle-associated membrane protein that plays a role in SNARE-mediated vesicle fusion. (
  • The researchers' work on blocking cytokine storms grew out of a project that Zhang began 10 years ago to develop modified versions of membrane-embedded proteins. (
  • These proteins are usually difficult to study because once they are extracted from the cell membrane, they only maintain their structure if they are suspended in special types of detergents. (
  • Starting from native material or recombinant systems, we succeed with all types of membrane proteins: GPCRs, Ions Channels, Transporters, Receptors and Viral Proteins. (
  • For specific HEV antibody detection in swine, we developed ELISA and Western blotting methods, using a truncated capsid (ORF2) protein lacking the first 111 amino acids of a swine HEV genotype 3 strain. (
  • The two most abundant E1A proteins, which are produced by translation of alternatively spliced mRNAs, differ only in the presence in the larger of an internal sequence of 43 amino acids. (
  • Low protein stores can be countered by increasing the intake of amino acids, specifically threonine and methionine. (
  • Others change single building blocks (amino acids) in the Purα protein or lead to production of an abnormally short protein. (
  • In this strain, 1 putative cleavage site of the viral polyprotein responsible for processing of structural proteins was changed. (
  • Upon protein translation enteroviruses produce a 250 kDa polyprotein that is cleaved into structural and non-structural viral proteins. (
  • A viral polyprotein is produced and modified by the endoplasmic reticulum. (
  • 3C-like protease processes the polyprotein: 3CLpro-RdRp is first released by autocleavage, then all other proteins are cleaved. (
  • This RNA is approximately 7.5 kilobase (kb) long and contains an RNA replicase, viral-coded proteases, a single polyprotein that is responsible for forming structural polypeptides, and other proteins necessary for cellular replication. (
  • 2020) showed that the detection of N-protein by an antigen test correlates with SARS-CoV-2 viral culture more accurately than qRT-PCR 13 . (
  • However, in a recent study, the protein with a mobility of 160 kilodaltons (kd) present in commercially available Western blots and in viral lysate antigen preparations was identified as a multimer of the gp41 protein (10,11). (
  • They estimated the The IgM capture ELISA was carried out antibody avidity to viral antigen using a low according to the method described concentration of a protein-denaturing agent, previously [3-5] . (
  • Module A contained serum samples spiked with cultured dengue virus (DENV) or chikungunya virus (CHIKV) for the detection of nucleic acid and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen. (
  • Evaluation of on-line high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, differential refractometry, and multi-angle laser light scattering analysis for the monitoring of the oligomeric state of human immunodeficiency virus vaccine protein antigen. (
  • Using an inhibitory scaffolding protein that specifically blocks phiX174 capsid assembly, we demonstrate that such mechanisms are possible. (
  • However, the vital non-structural protein and mechanisms involved in DHCR7-mediated viral evasion are not well elucidated. (
  • Protein functional predictions revealed mechanisms for hijacking host metabolism and resources. (
  • SARS-CoV-2 structural coverage map reveals viral protein assembly, mimicry, and hijacking mechanisms. (
  • As molecular virologist, I am interested in the molecular mechanisms underlying viral pathogenesis, and thereby increasing the understanding of the host-pathogen interface. (
  • The particular viral pathogenic mechanisms studied include inflammatory responses, chemokine and cytokine deregulation, cell death, and the associated cell signaling cascades. (
  • Human adenoviruses, such as serotype 5 (Ad5), encode several proteins that can perturb cellular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis, as well as those that mediate mRNA production and translation. (
  • Investigation into the mechanisms by which the E1A and E1B gene products transform cells has yielded important insights into the cellular pathways that control cell cycle progression and programmed cell death, in particular the roles of the tumor suppressor proteins Rb (retinoblastoma protein) and p53 [ 3 - 7 ]. (
  • The common origin of several anti-viral defense mechanisms and of viral families of prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses adds to the strength of studying both types of viral systems in the Department. (
  • A therapeutic antibody against the viral envelope (E) protein represents a promising immunotherapy for disease control. (
  • The researchers also attached an antibody segment called the Fc region to their water-soluble receptor proteins. (
  • Renowned as the #1 antibody event in the industry, this year's agenda boasts 15 dedicated topic streams, 3 unmissable training course add-on options and will bring together more than 700 of the antibody and protein community. (
  • The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) enzyme plays a vital role in viral replication for all RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, thereby making. (
  • M1 has a key role in viral replication and viral assembly. (
  • In March, when evidence began to suggest that the SARS-CoV-2 virus was inducing cytokine storms in some patients, the researchers realized that the receptor proteins they had designed might be able to help. (
  • Probably catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. (
  • In an earlier study, this same team focused on the receptor binding domain (RBD ), a key region of the spike protein that studs SARS-CoV-2's outer surface. (
  • Structural and molecular basis for Cardiovirus 2A protein as a viral gene expression switch. (
  • The translocation machinery that pushes the DNA in the viral capsid is one of the most powerful molecular motors known. (
  • Furthermore, they provide a new framework for investigating the molecular functions of viral early proteins and information relevant to the design of conditionally replicating adenoviral vectors. (
  • After microinjection of Xenopus laevis oocytes with RNA from avian myeloblastosis virus, viral structural proteins p27, p19, p15, and p12 are formed by a sequence of posttranslational cleavages of a high-molecular-weight precursor polypeptide. (
  • Yet understanding at the molecular level how this essential viral function is controlled and activated during virus assembly and particle release has remained elusive. (
  • The molecular assay detects viral RNA during the first 7 to 8 days of the illness. (
  • We identified neutralizing epitopes of DENV located at residues K310 and E311 of viral envelope protein domain III (E-DIII) through the combination of biological and molecular strategies. (
  • The PURA gene provides instructions for making a protein called Pur-alpha (Purα), which is able to attach (bind) to DNA and RNA (a molecular cousin of DNA). (
  • Members of the Department are very actively involved in teaching virology, cell biology, molecular biology, anti-viral immunity, infectious diseases, vaccination and computer certification (PIX). (
  • The paper ' Rift Valley fever phlebovirus NSs protein core domain structure suggests molecular basis for nuclear filaments ' by Barski, Brennan et al, published on 15 September 2017 by eLife. (
  • Proteins are separated in the first dimension based on their isoelectric point, and then in the second dimension by molecular weight. (
  • In the case of HLA class I presentation of viral peptides to CD8 + cytotoxic T cells (CTL), the process requires correct folding of the HLA class I molecules with b2-microglobulin in the endoplasmic reticulum. (
  • Viral fusion proteins also contain different types of fusion peptides and vary in their reliance on accessory proteins. (
  • Mass-spectrometry of purified viral particles identified 12-20 structural proteins per phage. (
  • Recently, the Desai's group has identified through computer-based drug design a promising anti-IAV drug candidate, called PHE that interferes with M1 layer formation leading to defects in cellular production of new viral particles. (
  • Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES . (
  • Coronaviruses earn their name from the characteristic crown-like viral particles (virions) that dot their surface. (
  • During these conformational conversions, the fusion proteins induce membranes to progress through stages of close apposition, hemifusion, and then the formation of small, and finally large, fusion pores. (
  • 87. J. Radzimanowski, G. Effantin and W. Weissenhorn (2014) Conformational plasticity of the Ebola virus matrix protein VP40. (
  • A novel automated mariPOC SARS-CoV-2 test was developed for the detection of conserved structural viral nucleocapsid proteins. (
  • The unique synonymous mutations detected in the E and Non-structural 2a genes of Usutu-BONN strains may suggest an adaptive evolution. (
  • The viral E1A and E1B early genes are necessary and sufficient for transformation, and E1A can also transform normal cells in cooperation with other oncogenes, such as activated RAS [ 2 ]. (
  • Viral protein encoding genes are transcribed by the RNA polymerase II transcriptional apparatus of the host, but viral proteins or processes orchestrate the strict temporal sequence in which viral genes are expressed [ 2 ]. (
  • Several of the recombinants have crossovers within 3' end genes which encode viral structural proteins, N and E1. (
  • Inoculation with a high dose strains of LMP1 transgenic mice vide a powerful tool in mechanistic of EBV caused a B-cell lymphopro- were established that express LMP1 studies on the role of individual viral liferative disorder in these mice, under the control of the immunoglob- genes in cancer. (
  • This protein has multiple roles in cells, including controlling the activity of genes (gene transcription) and aiding in the copying (replication) of DNA. (
  • The S gene is one of the structural genes of the virus which encodes for a protein that sits on the surface of the SARS CoV-2 virus. (
  • Streamlining Regulon Identification in Bacteria Regulons are a group of genes that can be turned on or off by the same regulatory protein. (
  • Virus invasion to the host begins with the interaction between virus surface proteins and specific receptors on the host cell surface. (
  • In MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, spike proteins on the virus envelope are responsible for binding to receptors, determining the ability of the virus to invade the host, and tissue specificity, and are also important targets for the development of drugs or vaccines to prevent and treat coronavirus-induced diseases. (
  • At least 2 cellular receptors for EV have been identified: a subunit of the integrin molecule VLA-2 that binds types 1 and 8, and a complement regulatory protein (ie, a decay accelerating factor) that binds types 6, 7, 12, and 21. (
  • Following the development of the QTY code, Jin approached Zhang's lab with the idea of designing water-soluble versions of proteins known as cytokine receptors. (
  • These receptors are found on the surface of immune cells, where they bind to cytokines -- signaling proteins that stimulate inflammation and other immune responses. (
  • Jin believed that proteins that mimic these cytokine receptors could help combat cytokine storms, which can be produced by viral or bacterial infections, including HIV and hepatitis. (
  • The researchers designed proteins that mimic six different cytokine receptors, which can bind to cytokines such as interferon and interleukin, as well as a class of cytokines called chemokines. (
  • In laboratory tests of the proteins' binding strength, the researchers found that their modified proteins were able to bind to cytokines with similar strength as naturally occurring cytokine receptors. (
  • The spike proteins have just the right docking mechanism," says coauthor Yu. (
  • Programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) in cardioviruses is activated by the 2A protein, a multi-functional virulence factor that also inhibits cap-dependent translational initiation. (
  • PredictProtein--an open resource for online prediction of protein structural and functional features. (
  • They also took this approach because VIPs tend to exert a greater functional influence on viruses compared with other proteins. (
  • These mutations are thought to reduce the amount of functional Purα protein. (
  • During all viral steps of cellular invasion, not a single step appears to occur without the contribution of M1 in one way or another. (
  • In the case of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Viperin has been reported not only to inhibit the expression of late viral gene products [ 14 ] but also to enhance HCMV infectivity by remodeling the cellular actin cytoskeleton [ 15 ]. (
  • 88. M.V. Hamann, E. Müllers, J. Reh, N. Stanke, G. Effantin, W. Weissenhorn and D. Lindemann (2014) The cooperative function of arginine residues in the Prototype Foamy Virus Gag C-terminus mediates viral and cellular RNA encapsidation. (
  • Viral and cellular oncogenes converge in targeting critical protein interaction networks to reprogram the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery for pathological replication. (
  • Adenovirus overrides cellular checkpoints for protein translation. (
  • mTOR is a critical regulator of protein translation, and plays an important role in controlling cellular replication. (
  • May cleave polyadenylate-binding protein thereby inhibiting cellular translation. (
  • Teams working on host-virus interactions aim to dissect the cellular factors targeted by viral proteins and to study their interactions. (
  • After entering the host cell, it directly uses the viral genomic RNA as a translation template to express the viral RNA polymerase. (
  • I am using various technologies, such as viral expression vectors to separately express viral proteins or in specific combinations in order to deduce which viral protein or combination of proteins is responsible for a particular pathogenic phenomenon, as well as any synergism between these viral proteins. (
  • The common property of vector-transmission of flaviviruses makes them prone to becoming an increasing threat because of global warming and the spread of viral vectors, especially by mosquitoes, to new and yet more temperate regions. (
  • In order to determine if parkin is necessary and sufficient in the recovery of TIDA neurons following MPTP, recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors containing parkin shRNA or a scrambled shRNA were created. (
  • Understanding how the host response (i.e. the immune system), the host-genetic susceptibility and therapy impact on viral evolution and pathogenesis will be important when developing therapeutic approaches for viral infections. (
  • After Us9-null mutant infections but not gE-null mutant infections, only a subset of the viral structural proteins had entered axons. (
  • Arthropod-borne viral infections cause several emerging and resurging infectious diseases. (
  • This family of viruses infects a wide range of vertebrates, most notably mammals and birds, and are considered to be a major cause of viral respiratory infections worldwide. (
  • The technology could help quickly detect viral or bacterial infections during major outbreaks. (
  • The genomic RNA is enclosed within a nucleocapsid formed by the capsid (C) protein that constitutes the core of the virion and is enveloped by a lipid bilayer derived from the host cell. (
  • Frog oocytes synthesize and completely process the precursor polypeptide to virion structural proteins after microinjection of avian myeloblastosis virus RNA. (
  • A lower number of sera reacted with the recombinant ORF2 protein in a Western blotting format (81/111). (
  • 90. Bittame A, Effantin G, Pètre G, Ruffiot P, Travier L, Schoehn G, Weissenhorn W, Cesbron-Delauw MF, Gagnon J, Mercier C. (2015) Toxoplasma gondii : Biochemical and biophysical characterization of recombinant soluble dense granule proteins GRA2 and GRA6. (
  • The data also show that the replacement of A59 genetic sequences at the 5' end of gene C, which encodes the peplomer protein, with the fusion-negative MHV-2 sequences do not affect the fusion ability of the recombinant viruses. (
  • The mAbs were further dissected using recombinant E protein domain I-II (E-DI-II) and III (E-DIII) of DENV-2. (
  • The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has exposed the critical need for compounds that can be rapidly mobilised for the treatment of re-emerging or emerging viral diseases, while vaccine development is underway. (
  • Here we show that hamsters inoculated via the intranasal route with the same infectious virus dose of prototypical SARS-CoV-2 administered in a different volume present with different clinical signs, weight loss and viral shedding, with a reduced volume resulting in reduced severity of disease similar to that obtained by a 500-fold reduction in challenge dose. (
  • Here, we evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the intradermal delivery of INO-4800, a synthetic DNA vaccine candidate encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the rhesus macaque model. (
  • These findings suggest that natural immunity and vaccine-generated immunity to SARS-CoV-2 will differ in how they recognize new viral variants. (
  • A few species also have hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HE protein). (
  • Here we described generation and characterization of seventeen mAbs with high reactivity for E protein of DENV. (
  • These cleavages are performed by viral proteases. (
  • The small DNA tumor viruses encode proteins that subvert many of the pivotal growth regulatory pathways within the cell to facilitate their own replication. (
  • Viral Fusion Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Viral Fusion Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Viral Fusion Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Viral Fusion Proteins" by people in Profiles. (
  • Specifically, they identified a structural element in the viral fusion protein (the 150 loop) that acts as a pH-dependent snap lock and controls the structural and oligomeric rearrangements during the pathways of viral assembly and maturation ( Figure 2 ). (
  • We have designed viral-vectored vaccines to express the structural proteins of CHIKV, using the replication-deficient chimpanzee adenoviral platform, ChAdOx1. (
  • We undertook a proteomic approach to characterize the key virus/vector interactions and host protein modifications that occur in the salivary glands that could be responsible for viral transmission by using quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis. (
  • This process involves complex RNA-RNA and protein-RNA interactions, which are often obscured by non-specific binding at concentrations approaching in vivo assembly conditions. (
  • Here, we present direct experimental evidence of sequence-specific inter-segment interactions between rotavirus RNAs, taking place in a complex RNA- and protein-rich milieu. (
  • Structural studies of viral proteins most often use high-resolution techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance, single particle negative stain, or cryo-electron microscopy (EM) to reveal atomic interactions of soluble, homogeneous viral proteins or viral protein complexes. (
  • Its teams have a strong research record in host-virus interactions and in structural virology , which form the mainstay of our research. (
  • These viruses represent five new genera and inform 498 unaffiliated or unannotated protein clusters (PCs) from global virus metagenomes. (
  • Viperin, also known as RSAD2 , is an interferon-inducible protein that potently restricts a broad range of different viruses such as influenza, hepatitis C virus, human cytomegalovirus and West Nile virus. (
  • Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. (
  • The viruses studied at the Department are either major pathogens ( rabies virus, herpesvirus, rotavirus and human immunodeficiency virus ) or excellent models for the precise dissection of the different stages of the viral cycle ( bacteriophages SPP1 and T5, virus of vesicular stomatitis ). (
  • Respokare® Anti-Viral Mask is highly effective against 18 common Seasonal & Pandemic Influenza Viruses, as well as a wide range of other pathogens, bacteria and fungi. (
  • Zika virus ( ZIKV ) evolves non-structural proteins to evade immune response and ensure efficient replication in the host cells . (
  • RSV non-structural protein NS1 is a known cytosolic immune antagonist, but how NS1 modulates host responses remains poorly defined. (
  • Zika virus is able to evade the immune response with the help of NS proteins inhibiting the signaling pathway responsible for activation of IFN and ISG. (
  • 2 doses of INO-4800 is associated with more robust vaccine-induced immune responses and improved viral protection. (
  • The S protein, due to its exposure on the outside of the virus is also one of the parts of the virus that is recognised as foreign by the immune system. (
  • This region helps to further stabilize the proteins in the bloodstream, and makes them less likely to be attacked by the immune system. (
  • After working on the problem for several years, Zhang and Qing developed a method for modifying the hydrophobic regions of these proteins, making them soluble in water and much easier to study. (
  • When proteins are soluble in water, they can travel efficiently through the human bloodstream, while the original, hydrophobic versions of the proteins would likely stick to cells that they encountered. (
  • Quick suppression of the viral load with highly active ART (HAART) substantially slows viral replication and prevents resistant mutations. (
  • Some mutations in the S gene may lead to changes in the spike protein which result in inhibition of contact and entry of the virus into human cells, however in the case of the VOC, they contain mutations in the S gene that enhance the process of contact and entry into human cells, increasing transmissibility of the virus. (
  • Protein P22 may play a role in targeting replication complex to intracellular membranes. (
  • We demonstrated that CP does not affect the translation efficiency from genomic (gRNA) or subgenomic RNA (sgRNA), the intracellular distribution of the non-structural proteins (NSP), or sgRNA synthesis. (
  • Our study identifies another layer of regulation by virally encoded proteins that shapes host response and impacts immunity to RSV. (
  • These proteins were implicated in blood-feeding or in immunity, but many have no known function. (
  • Adenoviral proteins mimic nutrient/growth signals to activate the mTOR pathway for viral replication. (
  • Reduced NS1ABP mRNA and NS1ABP protein expression after transfection of miRNA-548an mimic or increased NS1ABP mRNA and NS1ABP protein expression after transfection of miRNA-548an inhibitor provided evidence that miRNA-548an is involved in the regulation of NS1ABP. (
  • Transfection of cells with inhibitor led to reduced apoptosis of infected cells while transfection of mimic led to increased apoptosis and reduced influenza copy number suggesting that NS1ABP has a role in viral maintenance. (
  • At Bowie, Dr. Debbink's research program includes a collaborative project with UMD focused on developing a therapeutic vector to combat citrus greening disease, as well as structural modeling projects exploring the relationship between the structure and function of viral proteins. (
  • M1 is an attractive a therapeutic target protein. (
  • The research developed within the department is key for identifying new targets and implementing new therapeutic strategies against viral diseases. (
  • Throughout human history, positive natural selection has often targeted virus-interacting proteins (VIPs). (
  • In fact, one of the isolates shares between 95 to 100% of its protein sequences. (
  • Viral proteins can be directly cytotoxic, or indirectly deregulate host gene expression, which in turn may set of the production of pathogenic host molecules. (
  • The infectious cycle of subgroup C human adenovirus, such as adenovirus type 5 (Ad5), in permissive cells in culture is characterized by a strict temporal program of viral gene expression that culminates in production of large quantities of viral DNA and structural proteins. (
  • It is the longest RNA nucleic acid strand in RNA viruses3and has important structural features unique to positive-strand RNA: that is, a methylated "cap" on the 5 'end of the RNA strand and a PolyA "tail" structure on the 3' end. (
  • Dengue is the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in humans and an increasing public health concern in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. (
  • These processes include oligomeric reorganisations of the two envelope proteins E and prM as well as a proteolytic activation cleavage of prM into pr and M ( Figure 1 , top panels). (
  • Maturation process of flavivirus envelope proteins. (
  • Coronavirus envelope (CoV E) proteins are ~100-residue polypeptides with at least one channel-forming α-helical transmembrane (TM) domain. (
  • A Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) bioinformatics researcher has created and unveiled a structural 3D roadmap of the new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), a major development that potentially holds the key to understanding the spread and treatment of the deadly virus. (
  • In effect, Korkin said, he and his team have created a structural genomics map of the coronavirus that will be made available to researchers and anyone worldwide. (
  • First, WPI identified where on its protein structures this coronavirus differs from SARS. (
  • RÉSUMÉ Une analyse documentaire des informations publiques disponibles a été entreprise afin de passer en revue les connaissances et les lacunes actuelles sur le coronavirus du syndrome respiratoire du Moyen-Orient (MERS-CoV), notamment sur son origine, la transmission, les mesures de lutte efficaces et la prise en charge. (
  • For the nsp2 proteins, nsp2TF consists of an alternative transmembrane protein that is involved in the exocytosis and the nsp2N is truncated and lacks a hydrophobic domain. (
  • In cells that are infected with PRRSV, scientists have found additional nsp2 and nsp2TF proteins. (
  • In addition, the nsp2 protein has a hyper-variable region, where deletions and insertions have been found for PRRSV and EAV. (
  • We show that binding of the rotavirus-encoded non-structural protein NSP2 to viral ssRNAs results in the remodeling of RNA, which is conducive to formation of stable inter-segment contacts. (
  • They are composed of a naked protein capsid, constituting about 75% of the particle and enclosing a dense central core of single-stranded RNA. (
  • The small intestines allows properly digested fats, proteins and starches to pass through the cells in order to be used by the body while providing a barrier to keep out foreign substances, large undigested molecules and bacterial products. (
  • This structure is very similar to eukaryotic mRNA, and is also an important structural basis for its genomic RNA itself to play the role of a translation template, eliminating the RNA-DNA-RNA transcription process. (
  • 10] Studies have demonstrated inhibition of stress granule formation and modulation of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay machinery by Zika virus, enhancing its viral replication. (
  • A structural component of brain cells, tau has also been linked to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. (
  • The recent, sudden epidemics of Ebola virus and Zika virus have highlighted the need to understand dangerous tropical viral diseases which could quickly spread to far away places. (
  • Aquaria: simplifying discovery and insight from protein structures. (
  • Liver function enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities including total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and globulin were not changed by BV supplementation. (
  • however, quantitative viral-load assays should not be used as a diagnostic tool. (
  • The E protein is a small (9-12 kDa) single transmembrane domain protein, which enables virus assembly with the M protein, a larger (23-35 kDa) 3TM protein. (
  • Late viral RNA export, rather than p53 inactivation, determines ONYX-015 tumor selectivity. (
  • it has also demonstrated anti-tumor, anti-viral, anti-allergy, and anti-diabetic activities. (
  • After the cleavage of pp1a and pp1b, the non-structural protein products assemble to an enzyme complex that directs replication and transcription. (
  • A technique for separating proteins to further identify and characterize them. (