A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
... journals from the period of the pandemic found that the viral infection was no more aggressive than previous influenza strains ... promoted bacterial superinfection. This superinfection killed most of the victims, typically after a somewhat prolonged death ... An effort to recreate the Spanish flu strain (a subtype of avian strain H1N1) was a collaboration among the Armed Forces ... In civilian life, natural selection favors a mild strain. Those who get very ill stay home, and those mildly ill continue with ...
Antibiotic resistance Opportunistic infection Coinfection HIV superinfection Viral interference "Superinfection". Merriam- ... "HIV types, subtypes groups and strains: Is it possible to be infected more than once?". www.avert.org. AVERT. Retrieved 2010-11 ... Viral superinfections may be resistant to the antiviral drug or drugs that were being used to treat the original infection. ... Viral superinfections may also be less susceptible to the host's immune response. Recent metagenomic analyses have demonstrated ...
Because of viral recombination, superinfection patients infected with at least one drug-resistant strain are likely to develop ... Superinfection case reports have shown that superinfecting strains generally had different viral epitopes from the initial ... Superinfection is identified by the detection of viral recombinants for phylogenetically distinct parent strains. Multiregion ... 1999 - In pig tailed macaques, a "window of susceptibility" demonstrated by showing that superinfection with a new viral strain ...
... but it does recombine freely and via superinfection HIV can produce recombinant HIV strains that differ significantly from ... Viral Shift. Notes[edit]. *^ Narayan, O; Griffin, DE; Chase, J (1977). "Antigenic shift of visna virus in persistently infected ... Some strains of avian influenza (from which all other strains of influenza A are believed to stem[2]) can infect pigs or other ... Antigenic shift is the process by which two or more different strains of a virus, or strains of two or more different viruses, ...
... viral strains, certain viral strains that cause the common cold, or can be co-infected with bronchitis or pneumonia from ... Infectious disease List of human diseases associated with infectious pathogens Superinfection Syndemic Opportunistic infection ... Poliovirus can undergo genetic recombination when at least two viral genomes are present in the same host cell. Kirkegaard and ... Strength in numbers: Mechanisms of viral co-infection. Virus Res. 2019;265:43-46. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2019.03.003 Drake JW ( ...
The last mechanism focuses on the virus' preference to transmit founding viral strains stored during the early stages of ... HIV superinfection HIV/AIDS research Discovery and development of CCR5 receptor antagonists History of HIV/AIDS Robertson DL, ... Each of these HIV-2 strains, for which humans are probably dead-end hosts, is most closely related to SIVsmm strains from sooty ... Another includes the slow evolution of viral load due to viral load mutations being neutral within the host. ...
... superinfection). The resulting alteration in the genome segments packaged into viral progeny confers new behavior, sometimes ... There are at least two extant strains of this genus. The main hosts appear to be cattle, but the virus has been known to infect ... end and uses this capped fragment as a primer for transcribing the rest of the viral RNA genome in viral mRNA. This is due to ... or transported back into the nucleus to bind vRNA and form new viral genome particles (step 5a). Other viral proteins have ...
This strain caused asymptomatic infections in humans and may have died out, like the 1959 strain, so that its low mortality ... PA genes code for the PA protein, which is a critical component of the viral polymerase. The PB1 gene codes for the PB1 protein ... "is usually mediated by superinfection with bacteria, mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae.", suggesting that lethality may be ... This relatively benign Korean strain of H5N1 has died out, and the remaining strains of H5N1 have a higher case fatality rate ...
Huang IC, Li W, Sui J, Marasco W, Choe H, Farzan M (May 2008). "Influenza A virus neuraminidase limits viral superinfection". J ... As strains of influenza are continuously mutating, it is essential that scientists quickly and efficiently determine the ... Viral neuraminidase is a type of neuraminidase found on the surface of influenza viruses that enables the virus to be released ... Viral neuraminidases are the members of the Glycoside hydrolase family 34 CAZY GH_34 which comprises enzymes with only one ...
... superinfection). HDV and HBV infecting a person simultaneously is considered the most serious type of viral hepatitis due to ... An analysis of 36 strains of genotype 3 estimated that the most recent common ancestor of these strains originated around 1930 ... It has an viral envelope containing host phospholipids and three kinds of HBV envelope protein - large, medium, and small ... It is now known to be a coinfection or superinfection of hepatitis B (HBV) with hepatitis D. Lábrea fever has a sudden onset, ...
ssDNA virus ssRNA-RT virus strain subviral agent superinfection The process by which a cell that has previously been infected ... viral matrix viral particle See virion. viral plaque viral protein viral shedding viral transformation viral vector viremia ... viral culture viral disease Any disease that occurs when an organism's body is invaded by infectious viral particles of one or ... Latency is a defining element of the lysogenic form of viral replication. live virus reference strain (LVRS) lysogenic cycle ...
Similar stringency is required in PAM or the bacterial strain remains phage sensitive. A study of 124 S. thermophilus strains ... Heler R, Samai P, Modell JW, Weiner C, Goldberg GW, Bikard D, Marraffini LA (March 2015). "Cas9 specifies functional viral ... suggesting that mini-CRISPR arrays represent a mechanism of heterotypic superinfection exclusion and participate in interviral ... doi:10.1016/j.str.2009.03.019. PMID 19523907. Beloglazova N, Brown G, Zimmerman MD, Proudfoot M, Makarova KS, Kudritska M, et ...
An effort to recreate the 1918 flu strain (a subtype of avian strain H1N1) was a collaboration among the Armed Forces Institute ... In 2007, analysis of medical journals from the period of the pandemic[17][18] found that the viral infection itself was not ... promoted bacterial superinfection that killed most of the victims, typically after a somewhat prolonged death bed.[19][20] ... In August 1918, a more virulent strain appeared simultaneously in Brest, France; in Freetown, Sierra Leone; and in the U.S. in ...
... superinfection). The resulting alteration in the genome segments packaged into viral progeny confers new behavior, sometimes ... However, when the antigenicities of the seed strains and wild viruses do not match, vaccines fail to protect the vaccinees. In ... end and uses this capped fragment as a primer for transcribing the rest of the viral RNA genome in viral mRNA.[53] This is due ... or transported back into the nucleus to bind vRNA and form new viral genome particles (step 5a). Other viral proteins have ...
Lambda strains, mutated at specific sites, are unable to lysogenize cells; instead, they grow and enter the lytic cycle after ... The presence of cI causes immunity to superinfection by other lambda phages, as it will inhibit their PL and PR promoters. The ... Multiplicity reactivation (MR) is the process by which multiple viral genomes, each containing inactivating genome damage, ... The single-strand viral DNA ends are ligated by host DNA ligase. It is not generally appreciated that the 12 bp lambda cohesive ...
The WO-1 strain is known to switch between white-opaque form with higher frequency while the SC5314 strain is the strain used ... In addition, an overgrowth infection is considered a superinfection, the term usually applied when an infection becomes ... harbors the viral AD VP16. Both plasmids are integrative plasmids since episomal plasmids do not stay stable in C. albicans. ... The heterozygous diploid strain used for this full genome sequence project is the laboratory strain SC5314. The sequencing was ...
Testing for the viral genome (HDV RNA) is limited. In 2013, the 1st World Health Organization International Standard of HDV RNA ... In superinfections, the chronic HBV infection and HBsAg state indefinitely sustains the replication of the HDV, resulting in a ... "Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B and Delta virus strains that spread in the Mediterranean North East Coast of Tunisia". J ... Hassan-Kadle MA, Osman MS, Ogurtsov PP (September 2018). "Epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Somalia: Systematic review and ...
... either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia), laryngotracheobronchitis (croup) (either direct viral ... The World Health Organization recognizes eight clades, named A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H. Twenty-three strains of the measles ... and this can contribute to bacterial superinfections such as otitis media and bacterial pneumonia. Two months after recovery ... After that it is ready to be translated into viral proteins, wrapped in the cell's lipid envelope, and sent out of the cell as ...
... either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia), bronchitis (either direct viral bronchitis or secondary ... 21 strains of the measles virus have been identified.[122] While at Merck, Maurice Hilleman developed the first successful ... and this can contribute to bacterial superinfections like otitis media and bacterial pneumonia.[25][26][27] ... Kaslow, Richard A.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Duc, James W. Le (2014). Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control. ...
According to the researchers, this approach could lead to a dramatic reduction of the viral load in patient cells.[29][30] ... meaning that they are naturally resistant to infection with CCR5 tropic HIV strains (R5 HIV).[20] One study done in 2011 ... HIV superinfection. *History of HIV/AIDS. *Sex education. References[edit]. *^ CDC. "Male Circumcision".. .mw-parser-output ... Complementing efforts to control viral replication, immunotherapies that may assist in the recovery of the immune system have ...
Palm, Fredrik (2019). "Viral Desires: Enjoyment and Death in the Contemporary Discourse on Barebacking". Death Matters: 129-150 ... Human sexuality portal Criminal transmission of HIV HIV superinfection Corona Party. ... invading his DNA to begin reproducing baby strains of death. - Member of a bugchasing community But among bugchasers in ... Tomso, Gregory (1 April 2008). "Viral Sex and the Politics of Life". South Atlantic Quarterly. 107 (2): 265-285. doi:10.1215/ ...
... reverse genetics allows scientists to manipulate the genomes of influenza viruses and to transfer genes between viral strains. ... Anti-viral drugs[edit]. Many nations, as well as the World Health Organization, are working to stockpile anti-viral drugs in ... and the HPAI strain would no longer have any hosts and thus would no longer exist. This current[when?] HPAI H5N1 strain has ... the strains were made extinct.[citation needed] Previous HPAI strains only existed in domesticated birds. A wild bird's LPAI ...
... strain, and older A(H3N2) strain and several lesser strains". "Pandemics are unpredictable and prone to deliver surprises," ... The earliest case found in Mexico was a 39-year-old woman who died April 12 of severe viral pneumonia in San Luis Potosi, a ... Germany First death confirmed, that of a 36-year-old woman who died of a so-called superinfection which included H1N1. United ... strain and not to sundry other strains of H1N1 which are endemic in humans, birds and pigs. Take note that the date of the ...
HIV has a tremendous capacity to destroy the body's immune system and this makes one prone to not only viral infections but ... Because the mortality rate of the H1N1 "swine flu" is lower than common flu strains, this number was actually lower in 2009. ... The associated subtype changes each year, due to development of immunological resistance to a previous year's strain (through ... The dominant strain in January 2006 was H3N2. Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine in ...
Highly pathogenic strains spread quickly among flocks and can destroy a flock within 28 hours; the less pathogenic strains may ... Several domestic species have been infected with and shown symptoms of H5N1 viral infection, including cats, dogs, ferrets, ... died of pneumonia in December 2013 from the H10N8 strain, the first human fatality confirmed to be caused by that strain.[19] ... Avian influenza strains are those well adapted to birds. *^ Chapter Two : Avian Influenza by Timm C. Harder and Ortrud Werner ...
Fujian flu refers to flu caused by either a Fujian human flu strain of the H3N2 subtype or a Fujian bird flu strain of the H5N1 ... H3N2 is a subtype of the viral genus Influenzavirus A, which is an important cause of human influenza. Its name derives from ... "Three strains of Hong Kong influenza virus isolated from humans were compared with a strain isolated from a calf for their ... The Hong Kong Flu was a category 2 flu pandemic caused by a strain of H3N2 descended from H2N2 by antigenic shift, in which ...
... human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine that contains purified and inactivated material from three viral strains. ... Most known strains are extinct strains. For example, the annual flu subtype H3N2 no longer contains the strain that caused the ... These novel strains are unaffected by any immunity people may have to older strains of human influenza and can therefore spread ... "Influenza: Viral Infections".. *^ Eccles, R (2005). "Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza". The Lancet ...
The current strain of H5N1 responsible for the deaths of birds across the world is an HPAI strain; all other current strains of ... and consequently will cause viral pneumonia.[23] There is as yet no human form of H5N1, so all humans who have caught it so far ... but that strain was very different from the current highly pathogenic strain of H5N1. The dominant strain of HPAI A(H5N1) in ... H5N1, including a North American strain that causes no disease at all in any species, are LPAI strains. All HPAI strains ...
The aim of this study was to analyze gut microbiome and clinical outcomes in young children suffering from viral or mixed viral ... We evaluated gut microbiota composition in children suffering from viral or mixed viral-bacterial infection with two major ... Our data demonstrated a significant increase in the severity score in children with viral-bacterial mixed infections compared ... Our results highlight that richness of Bifidobacteriaceae, which acts as probiotics, increased with the severity of the viral- ...
Influenza A viruses.Influenza A viruses A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and Alice strain (H3N2) were purchased from the ATCC. Alice strain is ... Influenza A Virus Neuraminidase Limits Viral Superinfection. I-Chueh Huang, Wenhui Li, Jianhua Sui, Wayne Marasco, Hyeryun Choe ... Influenza A Virus Neuraminidase Limits Viral Superinfection. I-Chueh Huang, Wenhui Li, Jianhua Sui, Wayne Marasco, Hyeryun Choe ... Influenza A Virus Neuraminidase Limits Viral Superinfection. I-Chueh Huang, Wenhui Li, Jianhua Sui, Wayne Marasco, Hyeryun Choe ...
... suggesting that IAV strains may differ in their superinfection potential and thus in their potential for reassortment. This ... We can then assess the effects of specific viral proteins on superinfection susceptibility by comparing superinfection ... Superinfection exclusion is an active virus-controlled function that requires a specific viral protein. J Virol 86:5554-5561. ... Influenza A Virus Superinfection Potential Is Regulated by Viral Genomic Heterogeneity. Jiayi Sun, Christopher B. Brooke ...
... or superinfection, affects treatment, makes recombination possible, and complicates vaccine development., an article published ... HIV-1 sequence evolution in vivo after superinfection with three viral strains. Retrovirology. 2007;4:59. ... Smith DM, Strain MC, Frost SDW, et al. Lack of neutralizing antibody response to HIV-1 predisposes to superinfection. Virology. ... However, after superinfection, there was a poor cytotoxic response to the superinfecting virus, and an associated rise in viral ...
Evasion of superinfection exclusion and elimination of primary viral RNA by an adapted strain of hepatitis C virus. J. Virol. ... Infection with strains of Citrus tristeza virus does not exclude superinfection by other strains of the virus. J. Virol. 84: ... Hepatitis C virus superinfection of liver grafts: a detailed analysis of early exclusion of non-dominant virus strains. J. Gen ... A Viral Protein Mediates Superinfection Exclusion at the Whole-Organism Level but Is Not Required for Exclusion at the Cellular ...
... superinfection,rate,comparable,to,initial,HIV,infection,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news ... We found it remarkable that the rates of superinfection and underlyin... For years there has been great debate regarding the ... Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) superinfection may be as common as ... ... HIV superinfection occurs when an HIV-infected individual acquires a new viral strain that is phylogenetically different from ...
Because of viral recombination, superinfection patients infected with at least one drug-resistant strain are likely to develop ... Superinfection case reports have shown that superinfecting strains generally had different viral epitopes from the initial ... Superinfection is identified by the detection of viral recombinants for phylogenetically distinct parent strains. Multiregion ... 1999 - In pig tailed macaques, a "window of susceptibility" demonstrated by showing that superinfection with a new viral strain ...
... we discovered a group of 240 individuals with consecutively sampled viral strains that were ,0.015 substitutions/site divergent ... In this population, we identified 149 putative instances of superinfection (i.e. an individual sequentially infected with ... for all vaccine strains) and higher proportions with elevated titers ,/=40 (for most vaccine strains). High-dose vaccine ... Patterns of heat strain among a sample of U.S. underground minersexternal icon. Yeoman K, DuBose W, Bauerle T, Victoroff T, ...
Viral. No specific treatments exist for most types of viral pneumonia including SARS coronavirus, adenovirus, hantavirus, and ... Many strains of H5N1 influenza A, also known as avian influenza or bird flu, have shown resistance to rimantadine and ... There is no evidence to support the use of antibiotics in chemical pneumonitis without bacterial superinfection. If infection ... SORRY Gang! I should have added that the doc put me on Azithromycin (antibiotic) and I dunno if it is viral or bacterial. I ...
Antibiotic resistance Opportunistic infection Coinfection HIV superinfection Viral interference "Superinfection". Merriam- ... "HIV types, subtypes groups and strains: Is it possible to be infected more than once?". www.avert.org. AVERT. Retrieved 2010-11 ... Viral superinfections may be resistant to the antiviral drug or drugs that were being used to treat the original infection. ... Viral superinfections may also be less susceptible to the hosts immune response. Recent metagenomic analyses have demonstrated ...
... resulting from superinfection with circulating viral strains. CI-HHV-6A was also found to diverge at a set of genes which have ... As yet, the effects of these integrated viral genomes on health and their relationship to circulating viral strains remain ... Overall, the results identify unique characteristics of the integrated genomes compared to known circulating viral strains. ... This showed specific coding changes and a panel of viral-human chimeric and viral mutant receptor expression vectors were ...
Evidence for natural hybridization and novel Wolbachia strain superinfections in the Anopheles gambiae complex from Guinea ... Viral sequence analysis was conducted on a subset of available specimens. During March 13-April 10, 2020, a total of 451 COVID- ... were carried out to analyse phylogenetic relationships of mosquito hosts and newly discovered Wolbachia strains. Strains were ... BACKGROUND: Severity of viral respiratory illnesses can be increased with bacterial coinfection and can vary by sex, but ...
Id have to think that given that the risk of superinfection appears to be pretty low AND that your... ... Hi doctor, Im am on Atripla for the last 7 months with undetectable viral load. Last night I was having sex with a man with ... Does it make sense to add more medications to my regimen to prevent transmission of a resistant strain? Its possible that he ... Id have to think that given that the risk of superinfection appears to be pretty low AND that your liaison has an unknown ( ...
This strain, USA300 subtype 0114, is a predominant strain responsible for community outbreaks of MRSA skin disease in the ... Currently recommended empiric therapy of CAP in immunocompetent adults with bacterial superinfection following influenza ... which may increase influenza viral replication (18-20). This latter mechanism actually points to a synergistic relationship in ... These community-associated strains of MRSA differ from healthcare-associated strains by having a characteristic methicillin- ...
In addition, each individual harbors her/his "private" virus or even virus strain mixture based on co-infection, super- ... Accordingly, based on MHC/HLA polymorphism, different mouse strains select different viral peptides as epitopes for ... This defines the viral load/genome number present during viral latency after resolution of productive primary infection, which ... Early work comparing these strains with low-passage strain Toledo in SCID-hu mice with human thymus-liver implants revealed the ...
... new strain of HIV, may occur as often as initial HIV infection in the general population in Uganda, a study suggests. ... HIV superinfection, when a person with HIV could acquire a second, ... The samples were analyzed to find examples where the initial infecting strain did not cluster with viral strains found at a ... HIV superinfection, when a person with HIV could acquire a second, new strain of HIV, may occur as often as initial HIV ...
... but it does recombine freely and via superinfection HIV can produce recombinant HIV strains that differ significantly from ... Viral Shift. Notes[edit]. *^ Narayan, O; Griffin, DE; Chase, J (1977). "Antigenic shift of visna virus in persistently infected ... Some strains of avian influenza (from which all other strains of influenza A are believed to stem[2]) can infect pigs or other ... Antigenic shift is the process by which two or more different strains of a virus, or strains of two or more different viruses, ...
... with two HIV variants are more likely to generate antibody responses capable of neutralizing a broad array of viral strains ( ... The bNAbs are not present at high enough titers to lead to control of HIV viral load or slowed disease progression in chronic ... FHCRC issued a press release to publicize the work entitled "Study finds HIV superinfection boosts immune response." In ... HIV Superinfection in Uganda May Be More Common Than Previously Thought, Study Finds ...
In this study, we illustrate in an HLA-B27^{+} subject that loss of viral control after HIV superinfection coincides with rapid ... These data suggest that the ability of a superinfecting strain of HIV to overcome preexisting immune control may be related to ... Immune-Driven Recombination and Loss of Control after HIV Superinfection. Author: Streeck, Hendrik; Li, Bin; Poon, Art F. Y.; ... After acute HIV infection, CD8^{+} T cells are able to control viral replication to a set point. This control is often lost ...
... we discovered a group of 240 individuals with consecutively sampled viral strains that were >0.015 substitutions/site divergent ... In this population, we identified 149 putative instances of superinfection (i.e. an individual sequentially infected with ... these highly divergent viruses tended to be diagnosed nearly a decade earlier in the epidemic than people with superinfection ...
2), with an average of 67 ± 139 viral particles for the Uju.wAlbA/wAlbB strain and 29 ± 29 viral particles for the UjuT strain. ... Ascoli strain. This result is quite surprising given the relatively high concentrations found in the natural superinfection. ... wAlbB strain and 8.3% for the UjuT strain) (Fig. 2). Mosquito saliva contained numbers of viral particles in the expected range ... The Wolbachia strain used seems to be the critical consideration here. Possible mechanisms for direct viral inhibition by ...
The report this past July at the Barcelona AIDS conference of a re-infection, or "superinfection," in study patient of a ... Viral load once again rebounded, and HAART was restarted. Data from this timepoint indicated that the CD8 T-cell response had ... People With HIV Take Note: This Years Flu Strain Can Be Dangerous, Especially for Elders. More >> ... Series of Superinfection Reports Leave Researchers Debating Not "If" but "How" -- And What It All Means ...
... to differentiate from bacterial conjunctivitis and they can coexist as viral conjunctivitis with bacterial superinfection. The ... RPS Adenodetector can be used to identify some strains of adenvirus responsible for infection. ... Viral conjunctivitis is much more common than bacterial conjunctivitis. It can be difficult ... RPS Adeno Detector: May be used to establish diagnosis of viral conjunctivitis instead of bacterial ...
Superinfection: Infection with a strain of HIV-1 that is genetically distinct from the HIV-1 present in a person with a stable ... Substances common in viral pathogens (substances such as single-stranded RNA [ssRNA] and double-stranded RNA [dsRNA]) or in ... Smith, D.M., Richman, D.D., Little, S.J., HIV superinfection. J. Infect. Dis., 192, 438-444 (2005). ... Pessimism is based in part on the empirical observation that there has never been a confirmed case of viral clearance and ...
... with a new strain of CMV rather than a new infection. Half the animals given the vaccine developed undetectable viral loads ... superinfection ... Eventual AIDS vaccine failure in a rhesus monkey by viral ... Recombinant rabies virus as potential live-viral vaccines for HIV-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97: 3544-3549, 2000 ... Vaccines against viral toxins.. More often than not, studies use a combination of the above types of vaccine in prime and ...
... as superinfection exclusion via CD81 downregulation is thought to make infection of a single cell by multiple HCV strains ... Sample EBW034 had a viral load of 5.2 log IU/ml, while EBW436 had a viral load of 6.6 log IU/ml. ... Viral RNA was extracted from positive samples using the QIAamp viral RNA kit (Qiagen). HCV genotyping was performed on a 382- ... Superinfection exclusion in cells infected with hepatitis C virus. J Virol 81:3693-3703. doi:10.1128/JVI.01748-06. ...
Superinfection: A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization ... response to autologous viruses would modulate viral dynamics in env following superinfection in a limited set of superinfection ... 11/01/1987 - "In a murine transplant model, superinfection of a seropositive recipient with a second strain is unusual. ". ... 12/01/2013 - "Dynamics of viral evolution and neutralizing antibody response after HIV-1 superinfection.". 01/01/2012 - "HIV-1 ...
People living with HIV can be re-infected with a new viral strain resulting in potential ... ... HIV can be re-infected with a new viral strain resulting in potential treatment-resistant recombinant virus known as HIV super-infection ... "Beliefs about HIV super-infection exert significant influence on sexual behaviors of people living with HIV/AIDS and should be ... "In addition, HIV super-infection beliefs predicted protected sexual behavior over and above participant age and alcohol use." " ...
... multiple viral strains can be identified before treatment, a fact that may result from concurrent infection or superinfection ( ... J Viral Hepat 2008;15:773-81. [ Links ]. 43. Grebely J, Pham ST, Matthews GV, et al. Hepatitis C virus reinfection and ... Reinfection, superinfection and coinfection. Reinfection with HCV is common in some populations, particularly in male ... On the other hand, a group in which viral genome sequencing will be essential is that of patients who failed to respond to a ...
  • Infection can be caused by viral, bacterial and/or parasitic microorganisms. (nature.com)
  • The aim of this study was to analyze gut microbiome and clinical outcomes in young children suffering from viral or mixed viral-bacterial infection. (nature.com)
  • Although mixed infection with EAEC resulted in significant microbiota differences compared to viral infection only or mixed infection with EPEC, the clinical condition of the children were worsened with both pathogenic E . coli co-infections. (nature.com)
  • Cells infected with H1N1 or H3N2 influenza A virus were similarly refractory to HA-mediated infection and to superinfection with a second influenza A virus. (asm.org)
  • Superinfection, the sequential infection of a single cell by two or more virions, plays an important role in determining the replicative and evolutionary potential of IAV populations. (asm.org)
  • The prevalence of superinfection during natural infection and the specific mechanisms that regulate it remain poorly understood. (asm.org)
  • Here, we used a novel single virion infection approach to directly assess the effects of individual IAV genes on superinfection efficiency. (asm.org)
  • We further demonstrate that viral replicase activity is responsible for inhibiting subsequent infection. (asm.org)
  • In addition to the yearly burden of seasonal influenza viruses, novel zoonotic IAV strains periodically emerge into humans from swine or birds, triggering unpredictable pandemics that can dramatically increase infection and mortality rates ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Finally, increasing the frequency of coinfection can accelerate viral replication kinetics and virus output by increasing the average multiplicity of infection (MOI) ( 13 - 15 ). (asm.org)
  • One of the primary means by which coinfection can occur is superinfection, the sequential infection of one cell by multiple viral particles. (asm.org)
  • HIV-1 Dual Infection: Are Coinfection and Superinfection Real? (prn.org)
  • Similar to other persistent viral infections, such as cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and hepatitis C virus, infection of an individual with a second viral strain (dual infection) 13-15 may also occur in HIV infection. (prn.org)
  • Dual infection, which can be classified as either coinfection or superinfection, occurs when an individual is infected with strains derived from two different individuals. (prn.org)
  • Coinfection is infection with two separate strains either simultaneously or within a brief period of time before infection with the first strain is established. (prn.org)
  • Superinfection is sequential infection with a heterologous strain after an immune response has been established to the initial strain. (prn.org)
  • Early reports of superinfection occurred in the setting of primary infection. (prn.org)
  • 7, 8, 20-25 Our group evaluated the incidence of HIV-1 superinfection in a small cohort of individuals with primary infection and found a rate of 5% per year. (prn.org)
  • More recently, HIV superinfection has been documented during chronic infection, 26-29 so the hypothesis that a patient's susceptibility to superinfection is limited to the window-period of primary infection may have been biased by the fact that the primary HIV infection cohorts have been more extensively investigated relative to the genetic evolution of HIV 16 than have those with chronic infection. (prn.org)
  • 16, 30-32 Most reported cases of dual infection have shown a decrease in CD4 + counts, an increase in viral load, and a change in drug resistance pattern. (prn.org)
  • Superinfection exclusion (SIE), the ability of an established virus infection to interfere with a secondary infection by the same or a closely related virus, has been described for different viruses, including important pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Many viruses exhibit superinfection exclusion (SIE), the ability of an established virus infection to interfere with a secondary infection by related viruses. (asm.org)
  • Superinfection exclusion (SIE), a phenomenon in which a primary virus infection prevents a secondary infection by the same or a closely related virus, has been reported in a broad range of bacterial, plant, and animal viruses ( 1 - 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) superinfection may be as common as initial HIV infection and is not limited to high risk-populations, according to a new study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Superinfection can have detrimental clinical effects as well as accelerated disease progression, and increased HIV drug resistance even among individuals who were previously controlling their HIV infection. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In addition, the finding that superinfection is common and occurs within and between HIV subtypes suggests that the immune response elicited by primary infection confers limited protection and raises concerns that vaccine strategies designed to replicate the natural anti-HIV immune response may have limited effectiveness. (bio-medicine.org)
  • HIV superinfection (also called HIV reinfection or SuperAIDS) is a condition in which a person with an established human immunodeficiency virus infection acquires a second strain of HIV, often of a different subtype. (wikipedia.org)
  • These can form a recombinant strain that co-exists with the strain from the initial infection, as well from reinfection with a new virus strain, and may cause more rapid disease progression or carry multiple resistances to certain HIV medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection with a second strain after seroconversion is known as superinfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study conducted in Kenya in 2007 shows that superinfection tends to occur during the course of the initial infection, that is during acute infection, or 1-5 years after initial infection, but not during the latency period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, superinfection occurs after an immune response to the initial infection has already been established. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune responses to initial infection with a particular strain of HIV do not provide protection against superinfection with a different strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The finding that superinfection occurs within and between HIV subtypes suggests that an immune response to initial HIV infection provide limited protection against infection by a new viral strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Studies indicate that superinfection causes a spike in HIV viral load and a decrease in CD4+ cell count similar to those reported during primary HIV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of superinfection on the progression of HIV infection is unclear because of its ambiguous effects on surrogate markers for the disease, such as an increase in viral load or a decrease in CD4 cell count. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV superinfection is distinct from HIV dual infection, where an individual is simultaneously infected with multiple distinct viral strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early reports of HIV superinfection were observed in cases of co-infection with HIV-1 and HIV-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have shown that a lack of neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 infection predisposes patients to superinfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following initial acute HIV infection, CD8+ T-cells control viral replication and maintain it at a viral set point. (wikipedia.org)
  • I was having really awful pollen sensitivity, then on top of that, picked up a viral infection my son gave me for Mother's Day (lol). (drugs.com)
  • Since it was viral, I was just treating the symptoms, but then, evidence looked like I had developed a bacterial infection on top of it, so I got a Z-pack and it helped right away. (drugs.com)
  • A superinfection is a second infection superimposed on an earlier one, especially by a different microbial agent of exogenous or endogenous origin, that is resistant to the treatment being used against the first infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral superinfections may be resistant to the antiviral drug or drugs that were being used to treat the original infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV superinfection, when a person with HIV could acquire a second, new strain of HIV, may occur as often as initial HIV infection in the general population in Uganda, a study suggests. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In light of the study's findings, the authors say post-test counseling for individuals newly diagnosed with HIV infection should emphasize the risk of HIV superinfection and the possible health implications of continuing practices that put them at risk for HIV. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Studies of the rate of new cases, or annual incidence rates, of HIV superinfection, including those conducted in the United States, estimate 4 percent incidence among highly sexually active people diagnosed with HIV infection. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In addition, they are important because HIV superinfection can accelerate disease progression and the development of drug resistance, even in individuals who were previously controlling their HIV infection. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The bNAbs are not present at high enough titers to lead to control of HIV viral load or slowed disease progression in chronic infection. (thebodypro.com)
  • After acute HIV infection, CD8^{+} T cells are able to control viral replication to a set point. (harvard.edu)
  • The report this past July at the Barcelona AIDS conference of a re-infection, or "superinfection," in study patient of a Harvard cohort was initially greeted with more than a little circumspection. (thebody.com)
  • Patient AC-06, a participant in a small Boston-based study of treating acute HIV infection with antiretroviral drugs, was reported to have been re-infected (or "superinfected") by a second, slightly divergent HIV strain (belonging to the same B subtype, or "clade," as the original infecting virus) during the trial. (thebody.com)
  • The first paper, authored by Thai and U.S. collaborators, was published in the August issue of the Journal of Virology and reports on two individuals in a Thai cohort of intravenous drug users that acquired a second strain of HIV within months of their initial infection. (thebody.com)
  • In terms of vaccine research, the immediate question appears simple: if infection with HIV cannot induce sufficient immunity to protect against other HIV strains -- even those from the same genetic subtype -- how on earth is a vaccine going to achieve broad protection against HIV infection? (thebody.com)
  • Pessimism is based in part on the empirical observation that there has never been a confirmed case of viral clearance and recovery from HIV-1 infection, and from the mounting evidence that HIV-1 superinfection (see Glossary ) is common (in other words, if natural infection does not protect against infection with other HIV strains, why would we expect vaccination to offer protection? (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The authors introduced the current study by noting, "People living with HIV can be re-infected with a new viral strain resulting in potential treatment-resistant recombinant virus known as HIV super-infection," and that patients' beliefs about this risk "may have significant effects" on their sexual behavior. (thebodypro.com)
  • First, its discovery itself, which used a till then unknown strategy searching for a viral infection that had been suspected but hidden from the view of researchers for years. (isciii.es)
  • The strain of HIV can even change over the course of an individual's infection. (actforlibraries.org)
  • In a recent eBioMedicine publication, these scientists analyzed whether the initial infection mobilized components of the immune system to protect against infection with a secondary strain (superinfection). (fredhutch.org)
  • Dr. Ronen had previously found that superinfection occurred at a lower rater than initial infection suggesting a protective feature. (fredhutch.org)
  • Four different measures of antibody-based humoral immune response showed no difference between individuals who did not acquire a second infection and those who did, suggesting an alternative feature of the immune system provides protection against superinfection. (fredhutch.org)
  • The first aspect of immune response measured was the potency of neutralizing antibodies to prevent viral infection in both superinfected and singly infected individuals. (fredhutch.org)
  • Until now, no clear therapeutic effects of CDV have been reported outside of the setting of viral infection, including a potential role for CDV as an antineoplastic agent for the treatment of brain tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The practices can also expose people to other sexually transmitted diseases or put those who are HIV-positive at risk of becoming infected with another strain of the virus, otherwise known as a super-infection. (health.am)
  • Viral hepatitis deaths from acute infection, cirrhosis, and liver cancer have risen from the tenth to the seventh leading cause of death worldwide between 1990 and 2013. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The post-infection viral superinfection treatment (SIT) platform technology has been clinically proven to be safe and effective to resolve acute and persistent viral infections in 42 HBV and HCV patients (20 HBV, 22 HCV), and in 4 decompensated patients (2 HBV, 2 HCV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since R903/78 is easy to stockpile, the post-infection SIT could also alleviate the logistic hurdles of surge capacity in vaccine production during viral pandemics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viral hepatitis deaths from acute infection, cirrhosis, and liver cancer have risen from the tenth to the seventh leading cause of death worldwide between 1990 and 2013, HBV and HCV accounting for 96% of viral hepatitis-related mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The existence of recombinant viruses is an evidence of simultaneous infection of multiple viruses during a single transmission event (co-infection) or from the sequential infection of viruses during multiple transmission events (superinfection). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viral reservoirs established early during the infection remain unaffected by anti-retroviral therapy and are able to replenish systemic infection upon interruption of the treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Surprisingly, only a minority of the cells was able to induce viral gene expression and a spreading infection, eventhough these experiments were performed with the actively dividing SupT1 T cell line. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viral infection of resting and quiescent cells can lead to a pre-integration complex that fails either to complete reverse transcription or to integrate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The phylogenetic analysis of C2V4 suggested viral evolution or co-infection or superinfection in two out of the four patients analysed. (pasteur.fr)
  • Vitamin-D plays a role regulating the immune response against to viral infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Interestingly, viral RNA increased throughout the course of infection in Mo-DC, and the viral non-structural (NS5A) and envelope (E2) proteins were expressed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Keflex antibiotic will not treat a antibiotic viral infection such as keflex the flu or keflex a common cold. (classickicks.com)
  • During viral infection, the numbers of virions infecting individual cells can vary significantly over time and space. (flu.org.cn)
  • Here, we rigorously quantify the phenotypic consequences of cellular MOI during influenza A virus (IAV) infection over a single round of replication in terms of cell death rates, viral output kinetics, interferon and antiviral effector gene transcription, and superinfection potential. (flu.org.cn)
  • Overall, this study suggests that the extent of cellular co-infection by influenza viruses may be a critical determinant of both viral production kinetics and cellular infection outcomes in a host cell type-dependent manner. (flu.org.cn)
  • The Allen laboratory is primarily investigating the impact that viral sequence diversity has on immune control in the setting of HIV-1 infection. (ragoninstitute.org)
  • The laboratory employs full length viral genome sequencing of HIV in acute and chronic HIV infected subjects to identify the extent to which HIV is capable of evading host immune responses over the course of infection, and the degree to which such forces are shaping HIV sequence evolution on the global level. (ragoninstitute.org)
  • He joined the Allen Lab in early 2014 where he studies the early evolution and diversity of viral infection in both acutely infected patients and in the BLT mouse model. (ragoninstitute.org)
  • Lawsuits allege that Merck was aware of the side effects, including viral infection and nervous system complications, but failed to adequately warn patients or the medical community. (yourlawyer.com)
  • For small DNA tumour viruses, the full replication cycle occurs via non-integrated circular viral genomes, whereas viral integration into host DNA usually leads to abortive infection and sometimes to cell transformation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Most models of viral infections use ordinary differential equations (ODE) that reproduce the average behavior of the infection, however, they might be inaccurate in predicting certain events because of the stochastic nature of viral replication cycle. (springer.com)
  • a viral infection caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), a member of the herpesvirus family. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Results may range from spontaneous abortion or fatal neonatal illness to birth of a normal infant, depending on such factors as the virulence of the viral strain, fetal age when infected, and primary or recurrent nature of the mother's infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antiviral drugs such as ganciclovir and acyclovir are used in immunocompromised patients to prevent infection or reduce viral load in infected patients. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A viral infection of newborns and immunocompromised adults. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Also disclosed are methods of treating hypertension or a viral infection using compounds represented by Formulas 1.0. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The flu is a viral infection that is spread from person to person in secretions of the nose and lungs, for example when sneezing. (orlandohealth.com)
  • The flu is highly infectious and is a serious viral respiratory infection. (orlandohealth.com)
  • Superinfections are bacterial infections that occur on top of a respiratory infection. (orlandohealth.com)
  • Bacterial respiratory infections also are a serious type of infection, and the simultaneous viral and bacterial infection can overwhelm the function of the lungs and the body. (orlandohealth.com)
  • A methicillin-resistant USA300 clone and several recent clinical strains from patients with necrotizing pneumonia caused high mortality following influenza virus infection in mice. (elsevier.com)
  • The initial infection was found to have a 20 nucleotide deletion in nef (consistent in 28 sequences) and the loss of viral control and immunologic progression from 1995 was associated with detection of subsequent sequential reinfection with two fully competent phylogentically different strains. (i-base.info)
  • The objectives of this project are to define the unique epidemiological, clinical, virologic, and immunologic features of HIV infection in developing countries, to determine the viral kinetics associated with sexual transmission, and to characterize the molecular strains of HIV internationally for infectiousness and progression of disease. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the relevance of replicons to HCV infection is unclear, and they do not permit analysis of the complete viral life cycle. (pnas.org)
  • HIV superinfection describes the sequential infection of an individual with two or more unrelated HIV strains. (elsevier.com)
  • It can be distinguished from a cold cold, common, acute viral infection of the mucous membranes of the nose and throat, often involving the sinuses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The influenza vaccine, which is based on the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins, confers immunity only to the particular strain or set of strains including in the vaccine, and immunity to one strain or subtype, whether acquired through infection or vaccination, does not prevent susceptibility to another. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • More sensitive, deep sequencing techniques were employed in this study based on the hypothesis that reinfection rates following treatment may be overestimated by standard sequencing techniques due to a lack of detection of varying dominance of minority variant strains present at the onset of infection. (amjmed.com)
  • Pre-treatment, all 15 patients had evidence of multiple strain infection with 2-6 variants of genotype 1a. (amjmed.com)
  • Although a dominant HCV variant was present in most samples, mixed infection was present both pre- and post-treatment in the majority of patients, and variation in quasispecies composition was common over time, suggesting that certain strains may have been positively selected during treatment. (amjmed.com)
  • Following superinfection, CD8+ T-cells lose control over replication and it deviates from the set point. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic analyses revealed CI-HHV-6A retains the full HHV-6A gene complement, with no interrupted open reading frames, and important cis acting signals likely required for any viral replication/reactivation mechanism. (bl.uk)
  • The overreplicating w MelPop strain was recently shown to strongly inhibit the replication of dengue virus when introduced into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, as well as to stimulate chronic immune up-regulation. (pnas.org)
  • HIV is so difficult to treat because the virus mutates with nearly every replication due to the viral enzyme responsible for encoding new strands having low fidelity. (actforlibraries.org)
  • HIV-1 superinfection despite broad CD8+ T-cell responses containing replication of the primary virus. (nih.gov)
  • RNAs are formed when the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex switches, mid-replication, from one RNA molecule to another. (biology-online.org)
  • Antiretroviral therapy can halt HIV-1 replication, but fails to target the long-lived latent viral reservoir. (osti.gov)
  • Mo-DC were infected with one of the BVDV strains or BHV-1 and were subsequently examined for virus replication, virus production, and the effect on MHCI, MHCII, and CD86 expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similarly, my lab is exploring issues of viral escape and replication in the setting of hepatitis C virus (HCV), another highly variable virus whose infections are also endemic in the human population. (ragoninstitute.org)
  • Development of a flow-based reporter system to measure replication of primary HIV strains. (ragoninstitute.org)
  • Examining the role of viral replication capacity on immune control of HIV. (ragoninstitute.org)
  • Since the discovery that interferons, a family of multifunctional secreted cytokines, might block viral replication, they have been widely studied for their ability to defend eukaryotic cells against infectious agents or to act themselves as antitumor agents. (asm.org)
  • The resulting acidification of the virus is necessary for viral uncoating, another essential step in viral replication. (cmaj.ca)
  • We have identified viral genome-derived RNA segments that can be expressed in mosquito midguts and salivary glands to ablate homologous virus replication and transmission. (jove.com)
  • HIV superinfection occurs when an HIV-infected individual acquires a new viral strain that is phylogenetically different from all other detectable viral strains. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Since researchers demonstrated more than a decade ago that a person infected with HIV could subsequently acquire a second, new strain of HIV, there has been little agreement in the scientific community as to how often HIV superinfection occurs. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Because various HIV vaccination studies are in progress, it is important to understand how often inter- and intra-subtype co/superinfection occurs in different HIV-infected high-risk groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first, reassortment, occurs only in multipartite viruses and involves swapping one or more of the discrete RNA molecules that make up the segmented viral genome. (biology-online.org)
  • If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken. (classickicks.com)
  • If superinfection occurs, the antibiotic should be discontinued and appropriate specific therapy should be instituted. (drugs.com)
  • Both wild-type and the vaccine strain (vOka) of virus may reactivate, although reactivation occurs far more frequently with wild-type viral strains. (oncohemakey.com)
  • HIV-1 superinfection (SI) occurs when an infected individual acquires a distinct new viral strain. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • The linear double-stranded viral DNA enters the host cell, and circularization occurs, mediated by the phage-encoded protein Erf and the host proteins RecA and gyrase ( 50 , 67 ). (asm.org)
  • In the first large-scale study of HIV superinfection in a general heterosexual population, researchers examined the rate of superinfection among a community of sub-Saharan adults. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The rate of superinfection was then compared to an estimated overall HIV incidence rate for HIV-negative individuals during this same time. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Of the 149 individuals tested, Quinn and colleagues identified seven cases of HIV superinfection during follow-up and all were initially infected with some variant of HIV subtype D. In addition, the rate of superinfection was 1.44 per 100 persons and consisted of both intersubtype and intrasubtype superinfections, comparable to primary HIV incidence in initially HIV-negative individuals in the general population in Rakai. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Previous studies have found HIV superinfection to be relatively frequent among individuals who engaged in high-risk behaviors, but the rate of superinfection in general populations remained unclear. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The rate of superinfection was then compared with an estimated overall HIV incidence rate for the entire population of initially HIV-negative individuals during the same time period. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The rate of superinfection may be reflective of the underlying HIV risk in a population. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Our data demonstrated a significant increase in the severity score in children with viral-bacterial mixed infections compared to those with virus infections alone. (nature.com)
  • Statistical analysis by overall relative abundance denoted lesser proportions of Bacteroides in the infected children, whereas Bifidobacteriaceae richness was more prominent in the bacterial-viral mixed infections. (nature.com)
  • Our results highlight that richness of Bifidobacteriaceae , which acts as probiotics, increased with the severity of the viral-bacterial mixed infections. (nature.com)
  • The latter property of the exclusion phenomenon itself has clear implications for treating viral infections. (asm.org)
  • We found it remarkable that the rates of superinfection and underlying new HIV infections were equivalent. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Further evidence of superinfection stems from the fact that nearly 10% of HIV-1 infections are associated with a transmittable recombinant strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results provide new to have arisen through separate zoonotic infections with insights into the dynamics of HIV infections in a low- chimpanzee simian immunodeficiency virus strains in cen- prevalence area where multiple subtypes cocirculate, early tral Africa (8,9). (cdc.gov)
  • This study indicates that HIV superinfection may be more common than was previously thought," said NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "These findings have implications for public health strategies to prevent new infections and efforts to develop an HIV vaccine. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The theoretical possibility of dual (or even multiple) HIV infections has concerned both people living with HIV and researchers for many years, but convincing evidence that such superinfections can occur in humans has been notoriously hard to come by. (thebody.com)
  • Bacterial and viral respiratory infections are responsible for severe morbidity and mortality in children and adults worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among them, influenza virus is a major source of severe viral respiratory infections in adults, causing annual epidemics that result in significant morbidity and mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Until recently, vaccine development has had a lopsided focus on clade B strains, which dominate the epidemic in industrialized countries but cause only about 12% of infections globally. (iavireport.org)
  • In this context, viral infections and bacterial superinfections can occur, and mixed infections are frequently detected [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The editors of the 10th installment of the Emerging Infections series have compiled the perspectives of leading infectious disease experts into 22 chapters that provide important updates on a broad range of emerging and reemerging bacterial, viral, parasitic, and fungal infectious diseases in the United States and globally. (asmscience.org)
  • The Postmarketing Experience section of the Package Insert was updated to include "infections and infestations: Herpes zoster (vaccine strain). (yourlawyer.com)
  • Respiratory viral infections are a leading cause of mortality worldwide. (springer.com)
  • However, it is not clear whether these infections are more severe than single viral infections. (springer.com)
  • Stochastic simulations of single virus infections have shown that there is an extinction probability that depends on the size of the initial viral inoculum and parameters that describe virus-cell interactions. (springer.com)
  • While mathematical modeling of single virus infections at the cellular level has proven crucial for finding answers where laboratory experiments are impossible, impractical or expensive [ 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 ], little has been done in viral coinfection modeling. (springer.com)
  • They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). (drugs.com)
  • Whereas with other viral respiratory infections the symptoms usually are mild and most people can continue working or going to school. (orlandohealth.com)
  • Both viral and bacterial lung titers were enhanced during coinfections compared with single infections. (elsevier.com)
  • Despite its apparent blandness for the collective mindset of an important portion of the society, the intrinsic morbidity and mortality as well as the related deaths because of bacterial superinfections or exacerbation of chronic illnesses, make of influenza infections a major and recurrent global public health concern. (frontiersin.org)
  • Vaccination is one of the most effective methods to prevent morbidity and mortality related to infectious diseases, yet there are many viral infections for which durable, broadly cross-protective vaccines remain desperately needed. (stanford.edu)
  • Among these complications, cytomegalovirus (CMV) still remains one of the most important and frequent infections in renal transplant recipient with great impact on morbidity, mortality and graft survival since its various direct and indirect effects: increased risk for other bacterial, fungal and viral infections, and for post-transplant lymphoproliferaive disorders, graft dysfunction, acute and chronic rejection, histological changes, and vascular disease. (scholarlypages.org)
  • It can be caused by viral or bacterial infections or by allergic reactions to irritants such as tobacco smoke. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Indications AND usage Ampicillin for generic Injection, USP is indicated in the treatment ampicillin of generic infections caused generic by generic susceptible strains of generic the designated organisms in the following conditions: Respiratory Tract Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase and nonpenicillinase-producing. (epicureanpiranha.com)
  • Our data indicate that NA alone among viral proteins limits influenza A virus superinfection. (asm.org)
  • We intranasally infected BALB/c mice with a strain of influenza A virus (IAV) H3N2 that was first adapted to mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When a single cell is infected by two HIV-1 subtypes, they recombine, forming a new, transmittable recombinant strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • From two or three short gene regions, 37% of ital of Zaire, was the largest urban area in central Africa, the strains represented recombinant viruses, multiple infec- with a population estimated at 2.5 million (10). (cdc.gov)
  • Due to the structure of its genome, HIV does not undergo reassortment, but it does recombine freely and via superinfection HIV can produce recombinant HIV strains that differ significantly from their ancestors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, HIV-1 recombinants often have multiple breakpoints, and secondary recombination between HIV-1 recombinant strains has led to increasingly complex patterns of genome inheritance ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • 34 This evidence supports the notion that superinfection increases disease progression. (prn.org)
  • The potential of superinfection to cause rapid disease progression depends on viral and host factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-1 virions are divided into nine subtypes, all of which are characterized by different rates of disease progression, viral load and sensitivity to assays used in detection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identifying the role of HIV superinfection in loss of immune control and disease progression. (ragoninstitute.org)
  • Of the samples tested from 149 HIV-infected people, the scientists found seven cases of HIV superinfection, all detected in the gp41 region of the virus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • These mechanisms may be of particular importance for the evolution of segmented viruses, because superinfection exclusion may limit the frequency of reassortment of viral genes. (asm.org)
  • Notably, cell-expressed HA-neuraminidases of several paramyxoviruses mediate such superinfection exclusion by removing the SA receptor from the cell surface ( 15 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • Other mechanisms of superinfection exclusion have also been described. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, a diverse range of viruses actively inhibit superinfection through a variety of mechanisms, a phenomenon known as superinfection exclusion (SIE) ( 18 - 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Finally, we show that higher cellular MOI is associated with more potent superinfection exclusion, thus limiting the total number of virions capable of infecting a cell. (flu.org.cn)
  • These are immunity conferred by the prophage repressor ( c2 ), superinfection exclusion mediated by the sieA and sieB genes, and serotype conversion. (asm.org)
  • Recent metagenomic analyses have demonstrated that the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 can be associated with superinfection and colonization of other pathogens, such as rhinovirus species and Moraxella spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigenic shift is important for the emergence of new viral pathogens as it is a pathway that viruses may follow to enter a new niche . (wikipedia.org)
  • On March 29th, PLoS Pathogens published a paper reporting that women superinfected with two HIV variants are more likely to generate antibody responses capable of neutralizing a broad array of viral strains (known as broadly neutralizing antibodies or bNAbs). (thebodypro.com)
  • In addition, HIV-1 glycoprotein (gp)160 can directly cause dysfunction of antigenpresenting cells, and HIV-1 can infect CD4 + T cells, which cripples the key elements required to initiate the adaptive immune response to viral pathogens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Puppies are susceptible to several viral and bacterial pathogens owing to the incomplete ability of their immature immune system [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Other examples of beneficial viral interactions followed, including ones that involved the pathogens responsible for diseases such as hepatitis, polio, measles and influenza. (sott.net)
  • This is a function of both the segmented nature of the viral genome and the enormous amount of genomic heterogeneity present within IAV populations ( 3 , 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Coinfection allows reassortment, i.e., the production of novel viral genotypes through the intermixing of the individual IAV genome segments ( 5 , 6 ). (asm.org)
  • From 1984 tions, or both, which suggests that if whole genome through 1991, the Zaire Department of Public Health con- sequences were available, most of these strains would ducted a long-term collaborative HIV research and surveil- have mosaic genomes. (cdc.gov)
  • This was first tested to derive the complete genome sequence of a third HHV-6A strain, AJ. (bl.uk)
  • While breakpoints for intragenotypic recombinants are seen throughout the viral genome, the breakpoints of intergenotypic recombinants are seen only in the nonstructural 2 (NS2) gene or near the NS2/NS3 boundary ( Table 1 ). (asm.org)
  • D-HIT, transcribed from a GC-rich repetitive region (IR4) of the viral genome, is highly structured, responding to RNase digestion in a manner akin to double-stranded RNA. (asm.org)
  • Rather than implicating a specific viral gene, this approach revealed that superinfection susceptibility is determined by the total number of viral gene segments expressed within a cell. (asm.org)
  • Here, we show that superinfection susceptibility is determined by the total number of viral genes expressed within a cell and is independent of their specific identity. (asm.org)
  • Additionally, the tendency of HIV-1 virions to recombine when two subtypes infect a single cell increases its susceptibility to HIV superinfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell lines that spontaneously produced IFN-α were refractory to superinfection with EBV, suggesting that this protein blocked cellular susceptibility to the virus ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • A major focus of the laboratory is to define the immune mechanisms that contribute to viral susceptibility in pregnant women. (stanford.edu)
  • These phylogenetic clusterings of HIV strains, subtypes, provide insight into how HIV evolved and assist vaccine and CRFs are important records of the epidemic histories design and intervention efforts. (cdc.gov)
  • METHODS: We updated an existing poliovirus transmission and Sabin-strain oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) evolution model for Pakistan and Afghanistan to characterize the impacts of immunization disruptions and restrictions on human interactions (i.e., population mixing) due to the COVID-19 pandemic. (cdc.gov)
  • Antigenic shift is contrasted with antigenic drift , which is the natural mutation over time of known strains of influenza (or other things, in a more general sense) which may lead to a loss of immunity, or in vaccine mismatch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar confusion occurred with the prior studies reporting bNAb isolation, and it is clearly exacerbated by the adoption among vaccine researchers of the term "elite neutralizer" to describe the individuals bNAbs can be sampled from, which is easily mixed up with "elite controller," the designation given to a different subset of individuals with HIV who maintain undetectable viral loads in the absence of treatment. (thebodypro.com)
  • The findings may offer encouragement to the researcher Julie Hurwitz, who has long been working to develop an antibody-based HIV vaccine that comprises a cocktail of multiple different Env proteins derived from a variety of strains. (thebodypro.com)
  • The importance of this analysis being that if a unique immune feature prevents superinfection then a potent vaccine should elicit a similar immune response. (fredhutch.org)
  • That, plus the uneven global distribution of its nine genetic subtypes, or clades, poses one of the biggest scientific unknowns facing AIDS vaccine developers: is a single, "universal" vaccine against all strains possible? (iavireport.org)
  • Or will it be necessary to make a slew of different vaccine formulations, each tailored to the most common strains in a given region? (iavireport.org)
  • But it also helped create a political logjam: Fears that testing vaccines based on "unmatched" strains exploits trial volunteers in developing countries sometimes engendered resistance even to early-stage trials of non-local clades, and raised pressures to tailor vaccine candidates to ever-finer, single-country levels. (iavireport.org)
  • The lack of cross-protective immunity for closely related HIV-1 strains, despite persistent recognition of multiple CD8 epitopes, has important implications for public health and vaccine development. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, the development of universal vaccine strategies is essential in order to anticipate the constant risk of emergence of a viral strain with pandemic potential. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ability of HIV to rapidly evolve and escape from these responses within a host, combined with the enormous sequence diversity of HIV strains worldwide, is one of the largest hurdles facing an AIDS vaccine. (ragoninstitute.org)
  • The vaccine is only effective against the strains of the virus that match the vaccine. (orlandohealth.com)
  • This is the reason that revaccination is required annually with the vaccine that matches the strains of influenza that are currently prevalent. (orlandohealth.com)
  • These findings identify both a major determinant of IAV superinfection potential and a prominent role for SIPs in promoting viral coinfection. (asm.org)
  • Thus, to better understand how IAV populations transmit and evolve, we must identify the specific host and viral factors that govern coinfection. (asm.org)
  • What is the Difference Between HIV Coinfection and Superinfection? (prn.org)
  • This is in fact higher than 90% in virtually all clinical trials regardless of viral load, IL28B haplotype, genotype or sub-genotype, presence of cirrhosis, absence of response to a previous IFN-based regimen, coinfection with HIV, or presence of advanced kidney failure. (isciii.es)
  • We assessed several laboratory and clinical strains in a mouse coinfection model with influenza virus. (elsevier.com)
  • HIV-infected patients with acute HCV (HIV HCV coinfection) are likely to be at high risk of reexposure and therefore the presence of switching genotype or viral rebound following HCV therapy, indicating treatment failure, is often assumed to be secondary to reinfection. (amjmed.com)
  • Enveloped viruses can prevent the entry of additional virions into infected cells, usually by expressing proteins that interfere with expression of the viral receptor. (asm.org)
  • For some viruses, superinfection appears to occur freely ( 16 , 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Antigenic shift is the process by which two or more different strains of a virus , or strains of two or more different viruses, combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two or more original strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of virology , the marine ecosystem has been largely unstudied, but due to its extraordinary volume, high viral density (100 million viruses per mL in coastal waters, 3 million per mL in the deep sea) [8] and high cell lysing rate (as high as 20% on average), marine viruses' antigenic shift and genetic recombination rates must be quite high. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with the studies reported by other investigators, it appears that interaction between the DNA and RNA viruses may play an important role in the natural occurrence of viral oncogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The inability of enzootic subtype IE viruses to infect this mosquito species provides a model system for the identification of natural viral determinants of vector infectivity. (jove.com)
  • Scientists first spied viruses mingling in the 1940s, when separate experiments by biophysicist Max Delbrück and bacteriologist Alfred Hershey showed that two viral particles could simultaneously invade the same cell and swap genes. (sott.net)
  • Owing to viral reassortment, the genetic baggage of progeny viruses does not exactly match that of one of the "parental" strains but a combination of both. (frontiersin.org)
  • Research from Uganda published in 2012 indicates that HIV superinfection among HIV-infected individuals within a general population remains unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, it has been demonstrated that superinfection can occur in individuals that demonstrate a robust anti-HIV antibody response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our data show that HIV-1 superinfection can occur in the setting of a strong and broadly directed virus-specific CD8+ T-cell response. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, superinfections may occur. (orlandohealth.com)
  • Chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus-6A (CI-HHV-6A) and -6B (CI-HHV-6B) genomes are inherited in a Mendelian manner, leading to the potential for viral gene expression and/or reactivation in every cell of the body. (bl.uk)
  • Deep sequencing with minority variant analysis suggested a potential reactivation mechanism, resulting from superinfection with circulating viral strains. (bl.uk)
  • Stimulating the RIG-I pathway to kill cells in the latent HIV reservoir following viral reactivation. (ucsf.edu)
  • in the second case there can be the risk for both reactivation or superinfection with new viral strain [ 2 - 4 ]. (scholarlypages.org)
  • The first investigators of chronically infected individuals were unable to detect HIV superinfection in more than 1072 18 and 215 19 person-years of observation, but these were retrospective studies of cohorts of individuals, most of whom were receiving antiretroviral therapy. (prn.org)
  • High viral loads are more likely in someone recently infected with HIV (during seroconversion) or in someone with advanced HIV disease not on antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (sexualhealthkingston.co.uk)
  • Several pharmacological compounds have been evaluated for their ability to reverse HIV-1 latency, but none have demonstrably reduced the latent HIV-1 reservoir, or impacted viral rebound following the interruption of antiretroviral therapy. (osti.gov)
  • Additionally, superinfection of PI animals with an antigenically homologous cp strain of BVDV typically results in fatal mucosal disease [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the lysogenic state, P22 expresses three different systems that may interfere with superinfection by homologous phages. (asm.org)
  • M2 had been on HAART for five years with detectable viral load (range 3 4 log) and documented triple class resistance. (i-base.info)
  • Hi doctor, I'm am on Atripla for the last 7 months with undetectable viral load . (thebody.com)
  • The virus is now becoming resistant to the popular HAART treatment that was heralded as the end of AIDS so few years ago, even when the patient has an undetectable viral load (i.e. very few HIV particles in the blood). (actforlibraries.org)
  • Ninety-five per cent are currently on treatment and 86.5% of all those diagnosed have an undetectable viral load. (aidsmap.com)
  • As a result, virus populations that contain more SIPs undergo more-frequent superinfection. (asm.org)
  • As a result, viral populations with more SIPs undergo more-frequent superinfection. (asm.org)
  • A better understanding of this phenomenon may lead to the development of new strategies for controlling viral diseases in human populations and agroecosystems. (asm.org)
  • For years there has been great debate regarding the rate of HIV superinfection among populations, and previous studies have focused on individuals exposed to the virus through high-risk sexual activity or intravenous drug use," said Andrew Redd, PhD, lead author of the study and a postdoctoral fellow at the Laboratory of Immunoregulation at NIAID. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Viral vector-based vaccines can efficiently prime CD8 + T cells, but Ag expression is typically short-lived and the specific T cell populations contract to low levels late after vaccination ( 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • HIV superinfection has been described in a number of populations, but its frequency and its clinical relevance remain unknown. (nih.gov)
  • As yet, the effects of these integrated viral genomes on health and their relationship to circulating viral strains remain unclear. (bl.uk)
  • Subsequently, using this defined NGS methodology, supplemented by Sanger sequencing, integrated viral genomes were characterised. (bl.uk)
  • Overall, the results identify unique characteristics of the integrated genomes compared to known circulating viral strains. (bl.uk)
  • Within this group there were 21 cases of superinfection, where two distinct viral genomes were sequenced. (fredhutch.org)
  • With complete host genomes available for analysis, we can now see the great extent of viral invasion into the genomes of numerous vertebrate species, including humans. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Nowadays, the notion that viral genetic sequences are present in host genomes is commonplace [ 1 , 2 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Further research from The Journal of Infectious Diseases indicates that there have been 16 documented cases of superinfection since 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early studies of HIV superinfection analysed these spikes to diagnose cases of superinfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cases of superinfection are yet to be identified in sufficient numbers to conduct detailed studies on the effect of superinfection on the host immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • These community-associated strains of MRSA differ from healthcare-associated strains by having a characteristic methicillin-resistant gene cassette (staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec [SCC mec ] type IV) that elicits certain toxins, notably Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), resistance generally limited to the β-lactams and macrolides, and specific molecular typing patterns ( 8 - 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Daudi cells especially proved to be remarkably sensitive to IFN-α, 5 to 10 U/ml being sufficient to reduce viral gene expression by 50% (as measured by endogenous early antigen expression). (asm.org)
  • I should have added that the doc put me on Azithromycin (antibiotic) and I dunno if it is viral or bacterial. (drugs.com)
  • The principle of antibiotic treatment should therefore be high-dosage combined therapy for short periods during exacerbations, irrespective of whether these are primarily of viral or bacterial origin. (xhbv.com)
  • Because the clinical consequences of superinfection are weakly characterized, there have been frequent debates concerning how to best counsel patients already infected with HIV about ongoing safer sex and injection drug use practices. (prn.org)
  • When we examine sustained viral response (SVR) rates in the real world, not even results differ much from those obtained in clinical trials, with effectiveness rates oscillating between 82% and 93% (3). (isciii.es)
  • Comprehensive analysis of the kinetics of CD8 responses and viral evolution indicated that the recombination events quickly facilitated viral escape from both dominant WT- and variant-specific responses. (harvard.edu)
  • The effect of neutralizing antibodies (NAb) is also unknown, but it has been shown that individuals with HIV tend not to have a NAb response prior to superinfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • To develop HIV immunity these circulating antibodies would latch onto the virus either preventing it from infecting new cells, and/or recruiting other immune cells to destroy the viral particles. (fredhutch.org)
  • And studies in infected people are revealing that a few antibodies which neutralize primary HIV strains also work against other clades, findings that are renewing hopes of designing immunogens able to elicit NAbs, a task that has long seemed intractable. (iavireport.org)
  • Of these cases, four individuals were initially infected and then later superinfected with different strains of HIV subtype D, the most common viral subtype found in Rakai. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Virus sequencing by a team at the University of Edinburgh has established that 119 people diagnosed with HIV in Scotland were infected with a subtype C strain of HIV that had two mutations conferring resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. (aidsmap.com)
  • Here we show that CRF02-AG intrasubtype superinfection can induce a cross-subtype neutralizing antibody response, and our data suggest timing and/or superinfecting viral envelope characteristics as contributing factors. (elsevier.com)
  • The anti-HIV antibody response broadens and strengthens in individuals post-superinfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • NYU6564, who became superinfected at an early time point, exhibited greater changes in antibody binding profiles and generated a more potent neutralizing antibody response post-superinfection compared to NYU6501. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, we illustrate in an HLA-B27^{+} subject that loss of viral control after HIV superinfection coincides with rapid recombination events within two narrow regions of Gag and Env. (harvard.edu)
  • Bacterial and viral RNA are potent stimulators of the innate immune system, leading to immune cell activation and type I IFN production ( Takeuchi and Akira, 2010 ). (rupress.org)
  • Intersubtype superinfection has been shown to cause a broader and more potent heterologous neutralizing antibody response when compared to singly infected controls, yet the effects of intrasubtype superinfection remain controversial. (elsevier.com)
  • IAV particles that express a complete set of viral genes potently inhibit superinfection, while semi-infectious particles (SIPs) that express incomplete subsets of viral genes do not. (asm.org)
  • This group also recently reported that Huh-7 cells transfected with in vitro transcribed JFH-1 genomic RNA can secrete infectious viral particles. (pnas.org)
  • a kidney disease usually caused by streptococcal nephritogenic strains and may present with sudden onset of gross hematuria, hypertension, edema and, occasionally, acute renal [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Twenty-seven other cases of cutaneous alternariosis have been described so far in renal transplant recipients. (symptoma.com)
  • The detection of multiple viral strains at a single pretreatment time-point in patients with acute HCV could be the result of simultaneous transmission, or superinfection within a short timeframe. (amjmed.com)
  • But studies have shown that even when the viral load is undetectable in blood it can still be detected in semen and infect a partner. (sexualhealthkingston.co.uk)
  • So it is important to continue to use a condom even if your viral load is undetectable. (sexualhealthkingston.co.uk)
  • Recent research has shown that you cannot transmit the virus to your partner, if you are taking HIV drugs and your viral load is undetectable (not enough HIV in your blood for a test to measure). (thewellproject.org)
  • Neuraminidase is a viral enzyme that cleaves the neuraminic acid component of sialic acid in the respiratory epithelial cell hemagglutinin receptors. (cmaj.ca)
  • Mathematical models can be used to help us understand the dynamics of respiratory viral coinfections and their impact on the severity of the illness. (springer.com)
  • In parasitology, superinfection is reinfection of the same genus of parasite, as a person infected by Fasciola hepatica again infected by Fasciola gigantica. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is unclear whether or not all superinfections do so. (prn.org)
  • It is unclear whether superinfection causes a sustained increase in viral load. (wikipedia.org)
  • This control is often lost after superinfection, although the mechanism behind this remains unclear. (harvard.edu)
  • More signs: Pneumonia of viral or parasitic origin is often accompanied by difficult expectoration of mucus and an irritable cough that lasts for a long time. (imedicalsociety.org)
  • It is characterized by malaise, fever, lymphadenopathy, pneumonia, hepatosplenomegaly, and superinfection with various bacteria and fungi as a result of the depression of immune response characteristic of herpesviruses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Both capsulated and non-capsulated or non-typeable strains of H. influenzae (NTHi) can cause pneumonia. (springer.com)
  • It is unknown what aspects of the natural immune response to HIV may protect someone from superinfection, but it has been shown that cytotoxic lymphocyte responses do not seem to be protective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral superinfections may also be less susceptible to the host's immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • FHCRC issued a press release to publicize the work entitled " Study finds HIV 'superinfection' boosts immune response . (thebodypro.com)
  • Much of the viral biology has been characterized safely in cell culture models, but these systems cannot recreate an organism's immune response. (fredhutch.org)
  • For this study she and colleagues, including co-first author, Adam Dingens, compared the 21 superinfected individuals with 63 matched singly infected individuals from the same cohort looking for differences in the immune response between women who acquired superinfection and those who remained singly infected despite ongoing risk behavior. (fredhutch.org)
  • [1] Antigenic shift is a specific case of reassortment or viral shift that confers a phenotypic change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the specific combination of genetic segments, and notably in the case of a human influenza strain acquiring the Hemagglutinin (HA) and/or Neuraminidase (NA) major surface antigens from animal origin, reassortment events can result in an antigenic shift , defined as the generation of a new virus with antigenic properties drastically different from those of the circulating strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • To cope with the emergence of new circulating strains, but also the emergence of resistant strains to classic antivirals, it is necessary to develop new antiviral approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • If the time of treatment is limited, fewer pure cultures and resistant strains will develop and superinfection with fungi is reduced. (xhbv.com)
  • One of the key viral immunomodulatory genes, the chemokine receptor U51, was investigated further. (bl.uk)
  • The data lead to a model wherein the D-HIT viral RNA also serves as a possible transcriptional activator of IFN-α or cellular genes regulated by this cytokine. (asm.org)
  • Interferons exert their activities by binding to cell receptors, triggering signals that result in the altered expression of numerous cellular (or viral) genes (reviewed in reference 39 ). (asm.org)
  • Should this new variant be sufficiently antigenically different to escape the repertoire of pre-existing immunity in the population, it might rapidly disseminate and replace the circulating strains, hence triggering a global influenza pandemic. (frontiersin.org)
  • We are currently examining how this diversity is regulated and its implications for viral immunity in both healthy and diseased states. (stanford.edu)
  • Defining the role of NK cells in viral immunity. (stanford.edu)
  • Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a positive-sense RNA virus, represents a valuable model system for studying SIE due to the existence of several phylogenetically distinct strains. (asm.org)
  • HIV superinfection may be interclade, where the second infecting virus is phylogenetically distinct from the initial virus, or intraclade, where the two strains are monophyletic. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV superinfection involves an individual with HIV being infected by a new, phylogenetically distinct HIV strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distinctions in the biological features of human herpesvirus-6A (HHV-6A) and -6B (HHV-6B) have recently led to their reclassification from variants to distinct viral species. (bl.uk)
  • This showed close conservation with a recent North American isolate despite distinct geographic origins, which may reflect highly evolved viral status or recent emergence. (bl.uk)
  • Here we show that sudden breakthrough of plasma viraemia occurred after prolonged immune containment in an individual infected with HIV-1 at a time when 25 distinct CD8+ T-cell epitopes in the viral proteins Gag, RT, Integrase, Env, Nef, Vpr, Vif and Rev were being targeted. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the generality of these functional forms, we compare two distinct cell lines (MDCK cells and A549 cells), both infected with the H1N1 strain A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8). (flu.org.cn)
  • abstract = "Superinfections from Staphylococcus aureus following influenza are an increasing concern. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, the ability of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to replicate and produce infectious virus in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC) and monocytes was studied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These drugs may be of great value in the event of a major viral antigenic shift that causes pandemic influenza, if an adequate supply can be sustained. (cmaj.ca)
  • A key determinant for viral transcription after proviral DNA integration is the status of cellular transcription factors that activate the basal LTR promoter to express the viral Tat protein that induces an autoregulatory expression loop. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 36 Perhaps previous instances of superinfection were identified because the superinfecting virus emerged as the predominant strain, induced a change in disease status, or changed the genotypic resistance pattern. (prn.org)
  • 16, 37 Future studies are needed to identify instances of superinfection in which the second virus does not become the predominant strain. (prn.org)
  • Previously, we demonstrated that SIE by CTV is a virus-controlled function that requires the viral protein p33. (asm.org)
  • This novel aspect of viral SIE highlights the intriguing complexity of this phenomenon, further understanding of which may open up new avenues to manage virus diseases. (asm.org)
  • From the standpoint of virus evolution, SIE has been suggested to be a mechanism to reduce competition for resources ( 15 , 16 ) and to maintain the stability of viral sequences due to the prevention of recombination events between related strains coinfecting the same cell ( 17 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Superinfection is the process by which a cell that has previously been infected by one virus gets co-infected with a different strain of the virus, or another virus, at a later point in time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies of HIV superinfection have focused on individuals exposed to the virus through high-risk sexual activity or intravenous drug use," said lead author Dr. Redd. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Here we show that stable introduction of the w Mel strain of Drosophila melanogaster into Aedes albopictus , a vector of dengue and other arboviruses, abolished the transmission capacity of dengue virus-challenged mosquitoes. (pnas.org)
  • Studies of the role played by these two virus types in the development of neoplastic disease in guinea pigs revealed that, in the presence of the endogenous oncornavirus, a superinfection with herpesvirus led to the development of self-limited lymphoproliferative changes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sequencing of the virus in plasma and cells showed that superinfection with a second clade-B virus was coincident with the loss of immune control. (nih.gov)
  • The disease is caused by certain strains of the influenza virus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A report published in early 2003 noted that Type A influenza virus has a high potential for use as such an agent because of the virulence of the Type A strain that broke out in Hong Kong in 1997 and the development of laboratory methods for generating large quantities of the virus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Virus VIH-2, second virus du sida isolé en 1985 par l'équipe du Pr. (pasteur.fr)
  • A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively. (bioportfolio.com)
  • For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The Cooper strain of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) was used as the control virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important disease of the cattle industry in the USA and worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sustained transmission of dengue virus type 1 in the Pacific due to repeated introductions of different Asian strains. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Integration of viral DNA into host DNA was first discerned for the prophage of the temperate bacteriophage lambda by Andre Lwoff in 1950 and for the simian DNA virus SV40 in cultured mammalian cells in 1968 [ 8 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A few studies [ 24 , 25 , 26 ] have used within host models considering interactions of two different strains of the same virus. (springer.com)
  • We compared two cases of CRF02-AG intrasubtype superinfection that revealed complete replacement of the initial virus by superinfecting CRF02-AG variants with signs of recombination. (elsevier.com)
  • Because the human immune system has difficulty recognizing the new influenza strain, it may be highly dangerous, and result in a new pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both HA-mediated entry and viral superinfection were rescued by the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir carboxylate and zanamivir. (asm.org)
  • The second class of agents consists of the viral neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), zanamivir (Relenza) and oseltamivir (Tamiflu). (cmaj.ca)
  • Oncology patients and transplant recipients are at risk for more severe and prolonged symptoms with each of these diseases and are at greater risk for viral dissemination compared with immunocompetent hosts. (oncohemakey.com)
  • The impact of CRF02-AG intrasubtype superinfection was assessed for heterologous neutralization and antibody binding responses. (elsevier.com)
  • These results highlight differential outcomes in intrasubtype superinfection and provide the first insight into cases with CRF02-AG, the fourth most prevalent HIV-1 strain worldwide. (elsevier.com)
  • Ownerless dogs showed over a three-fold higher predisposition to viral coinfections than owned dogs. (hindawi.com)