A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Disorder characterized by symptoms of CATATONIA; HYPOVENTILATION; DYSKINESIAS; ENCEPHALITIS; and SEIZURES followed by a reduced CONSCIOUSNESS. It is often followed by a viral-like prodrome. Many cases are self-limiting and respond well to IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES against the NMDA RECEPTORS antibodies.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Chemical, biological, or medical measures designed to prevent the spread of ticks or the concomitant infestations which result in tick-borne diseases. It includes the veterinary as well as the public health aspects of tick and mite control.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Paralysis caused by a neurotropic toxin secreted by the salivary glands of ticks.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A species of tick (TICKS) in the family IXODIDAE, distributed throughout the world but abundant in southern Europe. It will feed on a wide variety of MAMMALS, but DOGS are its preferred host. It transmits a large number of diseases including BABESIOSIS; THEILERIASIS; EHRLICHIOSIS; and MEDITERRANEAN SPOTTED FEVER.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.
The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of TICKS.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A family of softbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include ARGAS and ORNITHODOROS among others.
Tick-borne flaviviruses are among the most important viruses in the world, primarily Europe and Asia. Tick-borne encephalitis ... More than 38 viral species are transmitted by ticks. Virus-to-tick host relationships are very specific and less than 10% of ... tick-borne encephalitis virus complex) viruses in the laboratory. It was found that there is no proof of replication of Karshi ... Mammalian Tick-Borne Flavivirus Group) Virus by Ornithodoros Ticks >2,900 Days after Initial Virus Exposure Supports the Role ...
European tick-borne encephalitis virus Far Eastern tick-borne encephalitis virus Russian spring and summer encephalitis virus ... Monkeypox virus Variola major virus* (smallpox virus) Variola minor virus* (Alastrim) Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) viruses: ... Tier 1 BSATs are indicated by an asterisk (*). Botulinum neurotoxin-producing species of Clostridium* Coxiella burnetii ... Encephalitis viruses: Eastern equine encephalitis virus (excluding South American genotypes) Tick-borne encephalitis-complex ...
... is also found in the warm climate across Eurasia, where it is part of the tick-borne encephalitis virus-complex ... the lineages are part of the same viral species. The virus can be transmitted with bites from altogether six known species of ... Powassan Virus (POWV) is the only known tick-borne virus to be endemic in North America. POWV human illnesses have been ... Subbotina EL, Loktev VB (2012). "[Molecular evolution of the tick-borne encephalitis and Powassan viruses]". Molekuliarnaia ...
Viruses carried by arthropods such as mosquitoes or ticks are known collectively as arboviruses. West Nile virus was ... Other viral diseases like epidemic polyarthritis, Rift Valley fever, Ross River fever, St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile fever ... and some bird species. Because of the high mortality rate, EEE and WEE are regarded as two of the most serious mosquito-borne ... Saint Louis encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ross River ...
Louis encephalitis virus. The last finding resolved an important epidemiological question concerning tick involvement in the ... Kaiser's contributions to tick taxonomy were honored by his peers with the naming of the species Ixodes kaiseri Arthur, 1957 ... Born in Aswan on April 6, 1930, Kaiser received his primary and secondary schooling in Egypt. He took his undergraduate ... American viral encephalitides. After completing his undergraduate education at Cairo University, Kaiser joined US Naval Medical ...
Flaviviruses are typically divided into three groups: mosquito borne, tick borne, or non-vector. Yokose virus is classified as ... Currently only species of bats have been identified of carrying Yokose viral strains. The strain Oita-36 was isolated from bat ... West Nile Virus, Zika Virus, and Japanese Encephalitis. Yokose virus is a new member of the Flavivirus family that has only ... Yokose virus has a CS1 motif in the 3' NTR which is conserved in mosquito-borne flaviviruses suggesting ability to infect ...
... species. Known flavivirus vector-borne viruses include Dengue virus, Yellow Fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and ... Viral genome replication in the ER occurs in structures called virus replication organelles. The organelles include two ... the Sal Vieja virus, and the San Perlita virus. Little information is known about these viruses as well. The MODV virus has a ... and tick-borne flaviviruses (Fig.2). Similar to most positive (+) ssRNA viruses, flaviviruses generate organelle-like ...
... a tick borne viral disease, studying its natural cycle Finding of a new genotype of dengue virus First institute to confirm the ... 2 species of sand flies, 14 species of sucking lice, 2 species of fleas, 3 species of bugs, 18 species of ticks and 63 species ... Discovered Chandipura virus involvement in encephalitis outbreaks in children in India. Isolation of several strains of ... viruses First visualization of Hepatitis E virus particles, confirmation of the virus as the causative agent of water bore ...
Colorado tick fever virus (CTF), infects the Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni). This species of tick can be ... and today it is one of the most common tick-borne diseases in the United States. The European Eyach virus and the Colorado tick ... In either case, the infection can lead to encephalitis or meningitis. Coltivirus is a genus of viruses. Viruses are ... Only then can they synthesize their viral proteins and create progeny. There are two types of viruses, distinguished by their ...
... including the TBE viruses. It is transmitted by the bite of several species of infected woodland ticks, including Ixodes ... Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infectious disease involving the central nervous system. The disease most often ... Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus (transmitted by I. persulcatus), and Far-Eastern tick-borne encephalitis virus, formerly ... Three virus sub-types also exist: European or Western tick-borne encephalitis virus (transmitted by Ixodes ricinus), ...
Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis). On the other hand, transverse myelitis or leukomyelitis, or white matter ... myelitis, are often caused by the herpesviruses and influenza virus. It can be due to direct viral invasion or via immune ... Parasitic infections have been reported with Schistosoma species, Toxocara canis, Echinococcus species, Taenia solium, ... Viral myelitis Most viral myelitis is acute, but the retroviruses (such as HIV and HTLV) can cause chronic myelitis. ...
... virus Saumarez Reef virus Sepik virus Tembusu virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Tyuleniy virus Uganda S virus Usutu virus ... In the genus Flavivirus there are 53 defined species: Apoi virus Aroa virus Bamaga virus Bagaza virus Banzi virus Bouboui virus ... Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus appears to have evolved within the last 1000 years. The viral genomes can be divided into 2 ... Royal Farm virus (RFV) Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) Seabird tick-borne virus group Kama virus (KAMV) Meaban virus (MEAV ...
... biological control of ticks using the fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae; and has developed new testing methods for tick-borne ... 1960: R.C. Wallis of the Station and collaborators isolated a virus that causes encephalitis from Aedes vexans, mosquitoes ... Today, the department focuses largely on plant genetics to identify and clone beneficial plant genes to improve crop species. ... and protecting CT vineyards from new viral pathogens. The department also runs a full service Plant Diagnostic Information ...
The genus Flavivirus is one of the largest viral genera and encompasses over 50 viral species, including tick and mosquito ... like neurotropic viruses and hemorrhagic disease viruses. Neurotropic viruses like Japanese encephalitis virus cause ... borne viruses like Yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. Sepik virus is much less well known and has not been as well- ... Sepik virus causes a fever in humans, much like other viruses in the genus Flavivirus like dengue virus and Yellow fever virus ...
... fever virus Tick-borne viruses Mammalian tick-borne virus group Kyasanur forest disease virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus ... If viremia is not achieved in a vertebrate, the species can be called a "dead-end host", as the virus cannot be transmitted ... Rodenhuis-Zybert, I. A.; Wilschut, J.; Smit, J. M. (2010). "Dengue virus life cycle: Viral and host factors modulating ... Louis encephalitis virus West Nile virus Spondweni virus group Spondweni virus Zika virus Yellow fever virus group Yellow ...
West Nile virus, Zika virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Kyasanur ... The viruses are maintained in the forests of Southeast Asia and Africa by transmission from female Aedes mosquitos-of species ... where the cell's protein synthesis apparatus produces new viral proteins that replicate the viral RNA and begin to form viral ... arthropod-borne viruses). The dengue virus genome (genetic material) contains about 11,000 nucleotide bases, which code for the ...
Tick-borne encephalitis West Nile virus Measles Epstein-Barr virus Varicella-zoster virus Enterovirus Herpes simplex virus type ... HSV except other viral encephalitis Antiviral therapy, such as acyclovir and ganciclovir, work best when applied as early as ... Meningoencephalitis may be one of the severe complications of diseases originating from several Rickettsia species, such as ... Meningoencephalitis is a rare, late-stage manifestation of tick-borne ricksettial diseases, such as RMSF and Human ...
... is a tick-borne viral haemorrhagic fever endemic to South-western part of India. The disease is caused by a virus belonging to ... Studies began to look for the possible species that acted as reservoirs for the virus and the agents responsible for ... The similarity with Russian spring-summer encephalitis was noted and the possibility of migratory birds carrying the disease ... "Complete coding sequence of the Alkhurma virus, a tick-borne Flavivirus causing severe hemorrhagic fever in humans in Saudi ...
Louis encephalitis Tick-borne encephalitis West Nile encephalitis Yellow fever Zika fever Simmonds, P; Becher, P; Bukh, J; ... GB virus A), Pegivirus C (GB virus C), and Pegivirus B (GB virus D)) Genus Pestivirus (type species Pestivirus A (bovine viral ... Guaico Culex virus, Jingmen tick virus and Mogiana tick virus. These viruses have a segmented genome of 4 or 5 pieces. Two of ... type species Yellow fever virus, others include West Nile virus, Dengue virus, and Zika virus). Genus Hepacivirus (type species ...
"Ixodid and Argasid Tick Species and West Nile Virus". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (4): 653-657. doi:10.3201/eid1004.030517 ... and Other Emerging Vector-Borne Viral Diseases". Annual Review of Medicine. 69: 395-408. doi:10.1146/annurev-med-050715-105122 ... together with Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus and some other ... dengue virus, and yellow fever virus. West Nile virus is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes, mostly species of Culex. The ...
... cross-reactivity with dengue virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus". J. Med. Virol. 83 (10): 1861-5. doi:10.1002/jmv.22180. ... Vertical transmission, the transmission of a viral or bacterial disease from the female of the species to her offspring, has ... and tick-borne encephalitis virus; this necessitates caution when evaluating serologic results of flaviviral infections. Four ... of West Nile virus encephalitis as well as other viruses. As of 2019, six vaccines had progressed to human trials but none had ...
Vaccination with 64TRP can protect against tick-borne encephalitis virus carried by a different type of tick, the castor bean ... Her early research was on the cattle disease, bovine viral diarrhoea. Nuttall found that the bovine viral diarrhoea virus was ... Her group has also shown that the proteins in saliva differ between individual ticks of the same species and also change over ... "Tick-borne encephalitis virus transmission between ticks cofeeding on specific immune natural rodent hosts", Virology, 235 (1 ...
Viral infection. *Colorado tick fever. *Tick-borne encephalitis. *Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever ... while mites and ticks have lost this feature. Of the 800 species of ticks, 40-64 species (across 10 genera) have been reported ... Viral diseases[edit]. So far, no viruses have been isolated from Ixodes holocyclus.[69] This does not however exclude the ... Other methods of grasping the tick *A specialised tick removal tool. Tools include tick hooks, tick scoops, tick tweezers, and ...
"European subtype tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes persulcatus ticks". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17 (2): 323-325. doi ... Ixodes persulcatus, the taiga tick, is a species of hard-bodied tick distributed from Europe through central and northern Asia ... Viral infection. *Colorado tick fever. *Tick-borne encephalitis. *Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever ... tick-borne encephalitis,[1][4] and probably human granulocytic anaplasmosis as well.[5] A recent study of the northernmost tick ...
The cause of viral encephalitis was discovered in Russia based upon epidemiological clustering of cases. The virus causing this ... The history of infection and disease were observed in the 1800s and related to the one of the tick-borne diseases, Rocky ... Fazeli, Bahare; Ravari, Hassan; Farzadnia, Mahdi (2011). "Does a species of Rickettsia play a role in the pathophysiology of ... "BK Virus, JC Virus and Simian Virus 40 Infection in Humans, and Association with Human Tumors". Polyomaviruses and Human ...
... recombinants and reassortants of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2017 Mar;8(3):385-390 ... California encephalitis virus, La Crosse encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus and Snowshoe hare virus vector: mosquitoes ... The M segment encodes the viral glycoproteins, which project from the viral surface and aid the virus in attaching to and ... There are currently 383 virus species recognised in this order. The phylogenetic tree diagram provides a full list of member ...
Biological vectors are often responsible for serious blood-borne diseases, such as malaria, viral encephalitis, Chagas disease ... Organisms spread by droplet transmission include respiratory viruses such as influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, adenoviruses ... Since it takes many generations for a microbe and a new host species to co-evolve, an emerging pathogen may hit its earliest ... Biological vectors are usually, though not exclusively, arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas and lice. Vectors are ...
Fleas and ticks can carry pathogenic organisms that infect a person with Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis, and Rocky ... The avian flu virus H7N2 has been found in cats in New York City. Though transmission to people is possible, it is thought to ... More than one species of this genus can be acquired by people. Dogs can also transmit this parasite. Another important ... A feline zoonosis is a viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoan, nematode or arthropod infection that can be transmitted to humans ...
Nipah virus Rabies SARS coronavirus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses Other hantaviruses Other ... Powassan virus (Deer Tick virus, category C) Chikungunya virus (category B) Coccidioides species (category C) Human coronavirus ... "Emerging Viruses: The Evolution of Viruses and Viral Diseases" [...] It was convened to consider the mechanisms of viral ... Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV, category B) Tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses (category C) Bunyaviruses: Severe Fever with ...
The type species of the genus Coltivirus, Colorado tick fever virus (CTFV) infects haemopoietic cells, particularly ... Colorado tick fever (CTF) is a viral infection (Coltivirus) transmitted from the bite of an infected Rocky Mountain wood tick ( ... It should not be confused with the bacterial tick-borne infection, Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Colorado tick fever is ... Complications with this disease have included aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever, but these are rare. CTF ...
West nile virus (WNV), Gadgets-Gully-Virus - en. Gadgets Gully virus (GGYV), FSME-Virus - en. Tick-borne encephalitis virus ( ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ... Xin-Cheng Qin et al.: A tick-borne segmented RNA virus contains genome segments derived from unsegmented viral ancestors, in: ... Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie ...
Ticks in certain regions, including the lands along the eastern Baltic Sea, also transmit tick-borne encephalitis.[82] ... Viral infections. *Bhanja virus. *Bourbon virus. *Colorado tick fever. *Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever ... The tendency of this tick species to feed predominantly on host species such as the Western Fence Lizard that are resistant to ... Tick-borne coinfections[edit]. Main article: Tick-borne disease. Ticks that transmit B. burgdorferi to humans can also carry ...
Kyasanur Forest disease virus rodents, shrews, bats, monkeys tick bite La Crosse encephalitis La Crosse virus chipmunks, tree ... Toxocariasis is infection of humans of any of species of roundworm, including species specific to the dog (Toxocara canis) or ... "Haemorrhagic fevers, Viral". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 27 July 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2019.. ... Meerburg BG, Singleton GR, Kijlstra A (2009). "Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health". Crit Rev Microbiol. 35 ...
Banna virus encephalitis. Tick-borne. Bunyavirales. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Bhanja virus. *Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever ( ... Other species potentially able to transmit Chikungunya virus include Ae. furcifer-taylori, Ae. africanus, and Ae. luteocephalus ... It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus. horses, donkeys, ... through body fluids, organs and ticks. Other haemorrhagic fevers (Marburg viral haemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo ... Toxocariasis is infection of humans of any of species of roundworm, including species specific to the dog (Toxocara canis) or ... rodents, pigs, horses, bears, walruses, foxes, crocodiles, birds. eating undercooked meat. Tuberculosis. Mycobacterium bovis. ...
Viral agentsEdit. Pathogen Disease Comments Alphaviruses. Many. Can cause many forms of viral encephalitis; very low dose ... Filoviridae and Arenaviridae viruses. Many. Cause viral hemorrhagic fevers, like Ebola virus and Lassa fever. Can be spread by ... Brucella species. Brucellosis. Brucella suis was the first bio-agent weaponized by the U.S., in 1954;. Brucella species easily ... Plague-infected ticks dropped from airplanes. Japan to attack China during World War II[6]p.56. ...
Viral infection. *Colorado tick fever. *Tick-borne encephalitis. *Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever ... Ticks of domestic animals, especially Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) decoloratus transmit several species of ... Babesiosis is a vector-borne illness usually transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks. B. microti uses the same tick vector as ... Ticks transmit the human strain of babesiosis, so it often presents with other tick-borne illnesses such as Lyme disease.[4] ...
... the medium in this case being cells grown in culture that the virus can infect, and then alter or kill. In the case of viral ... Vector-borne transmission, transmitted by a vector, which is an organism that does not cause disease itself but that transmits ... Common fecal-oral transmitted pathogens include Vibrio cholerae, Giardia species, rotaviruses, Entameba histolytica, ... Arthropods such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, can also cause human disease, which conceptually are similar to infections, ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis *TBEV. *Powassan encephalitis *POWV. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Omsk ... Genome: The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters. New York: HarperCollins, 1999. Print. ... a type of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), in humans and other primates. Lassa virus is an emerging virus and a select agent, ... The L protein most likely represents the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.[23] When the cell is infected by the virus, L ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis *TBEV. *Powassan encephalitis *POWV. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Omsk ... Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, formerly Zaire Ebola virus).[36] EBOV, species Zaire ... EVD in humans is caused by four of five viruses of the genus Ebolavirus. The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus ( ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ...
"Aedes aegypti salivary gland extracts modulate anti-viral and TH1/TH2 cytokine responses to sindbis virus infection"។ Viral ... អត្ថបទដើមចំបង: Mosquito-borne disease. Mosquitoes can act as vectors for many disease-causing viruses and parasites. Infected ... "Potentiation of West Nile encephalitis by mosquito feeding"។ Viral Immunology 19 (1): 74-82។ 2006។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1089/vim.2006.19. ... Eggs of species of mosquitoes from the temperate zones are more tolerant of cold than the eggs of species indigenous to warmer ...
Bogovic P, Strle F «Tick-borne encephalitis: A review of epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management» (en anglès). ... Schultz MJ, Tan AL, Gray CN, Isern S, et al «Wolbachia wStri Blocks Zika Virus Growth at Two Independent Stages of Viral ... Larvicidal activity of Blumea eriantha essential oil and its components against six mosquito species, including Zika virus ... Virus del Zika. Zika virus Imatge colorejada d'un microscopi electrònic de transmissió. Els virus, colorejats de blau, tenen 40 ...
Tick-borne. Bunyavirales. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever *CCHFV. *Heartland virus ... Species: La Crosse Virus The La Crosse encephalitis virus is a type of arbovirus called a bunyavirus.[3] The Bunyavirales are ... La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or ... La Crosse encephalitis is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector ( ...
Colorado tick fever (CTF) Colorado tick fever virus (CTFV) Common cold (Acute viral rhinopharyngitis; Acute coryza) usually ... Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing ... Borrelia recurrentis (Louse borne relapsing fever). *Borrelia hermsii/Borrelia duttoni/Borrelia parkeri (Tick borne relapsing ... Borrelia hermsii, Borrelia recurrentis, and other Borrelia species Respiratory syncytial virus infection Respiratory syncytial ...
Banna virus encephalitis. Tick-borne. Bunyavirales. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever *CCHFV ... Tick species identified as infected with the virus include Argas reflexus, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma detritum, Hyalomma ... virus in ticks from southeastern Iran". Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. 4 (1-2): 35-38. doi:10.1016/j.ttbdis.2012.06.006. PMID ... Detecting antibodies, the virus's RNA, or the virus itself[1]. Differential diagnosis. Dengue fever, Q fever,[2] Ebola virus ...
Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute ... Borrelia recurrentis (Louse borne relapsing fever). *Borrelia hermsii/Borrelia duttoni/Borrelia parkeri (Tick borne relapsing ... New England (different species have worldwide distribution) tick bites, e.g. Ixodes scapularis ... acute viral nasopharyngitis/. viral pneumonia. DNA virus. *Epstein-Barr virus *EBV infection/Infectious mononucleosis ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis *TBEV. *Powassan encephalitis *POWV. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Omsk ... Genus Marburgvirus: species and its MVD-causing viruses. Species name. Virus name (Abbreviation). ... Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ... Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus". Vaccine. 21 (25-26): 4071-4080. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03 ...
West Nile virus, Zika virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Kyasanur ... Dengue is spread by several species of female mosquitoes of the Aedes type, principally A. aegypti.[2][1] The virus has five ... Detecting antibodies to the virus or its RNA[2]. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, yellow fever, viral hepatitis, leptospirosis[ ... mosquitos or ticks), and are therefore also referred to as arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses).[31] ...
No human vaccine is currently available for any tick-borne disease, except for tick-borne encephalitis. Individuals should ... Viral infections. *Bhanja virus. *Bourbon virus. *Colorado tick fever. *Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever ... It is important to note that, unlike the toxin of other tick species, the toxin of Ixodes holocyclus (Australian paralysis tick ... Tick paralysis is the only tick-borne disease that is not caused by an infectious organism. The illness is caused by a ...
Viral[edit]. *Tick-borne meningoencephalitis *Organism: TBEV (FSME) virus, a flavivirus from family Flaviviridae ... Relapsing fever (tick-borne relapsing fever, different from Lyme disease due to different Borrelia species and ticks) * ... Viral infection. *Colorado tick fever. *Tick-borne encephalitis. *Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever ... Powassan virus/deer tick virus[13][14] *Organism: Powassan virus (POWV), a flavivirus from family Flaviviridae. Lineage 2 POWV ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis *TBEV. *Powassan encephalitis *POWV. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Omsk ... Species: Semliki Forest virus. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of Semliki Forest virus at 9Å resolution (EMDB entry EMD ... Semliki Forest virus has been used extensively in biological research as a model of the viral life cycle and of viral ... The virus is able to cause a lethal encephalitis in rodents,[4] but generally only mild symptoms in humans.[5] Only one lethal ...
"Aedes aegypti salivary gland extracts modulate anti-viral and TH1/TH2 cytokine responses to sindbis virus infection". Viral ... Some species can overwinter as adults in diapause.[21][22] Breeding. In most species, adult females lay their eggs in stagnant ... Even more dramatically, in most of its range in North America, the main vector for the Western equine encephalitis virus is ... Main article: Mosquito-borne disease. Mosquitoes can act as vectors for many disease-causing viruses and parasites. Infected ...
West Nile virus, Zika virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus.[9] Most of these viruses are ... Dengue virus is spread mostly by mosquitoes from the Aedes genus, especially the Aedes aegypti species of mosquito.[2] Aides ... There are no specific treatments for dengue fever.[1] No known anti-viral medications (medicines which kill viruses) will kill ... Dengue virus in the human body[change , change source]. Once a person gets the dengue virus from a mosquito, the virus attaches ...
Tick-borne. Bunyavirales. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever *CCHFV. *Heartland virus ... Species: Japanese encephalitis virus JEV is a virus from the family Flaviviridae, part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex ... The enveloped virus is closely related to the West Nile virus and the St. Louis encephalitis virus. The positive sense single- ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).[3] While most ...
The best-known of these viruses became SV40, a viral contaminant of the polio vaccine, whose discovery led to the recall of ... Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *Zoster vaccine. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ... which were then thought to be caused by a virus. Hilleman showed that these infections were, in fact, caused by a species of ... When he was in the eighth grade, he discovered Charles Darwin, and was caught reading On the Origin of Species in church. Later ...
Banna virus encephalitis. Tick-borne. Bunyavirales. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever *CCHFV ... Middle East respiratory syndrome is caused by the newly identified MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), a species with single-stranded ... the genetic sequence of the virus[97] based on the virus's RNA obtained from the Qatari case.[8][98] ... "Camels in Kenya test positive for MERS virus". Informer East Africa.. *^ "MERS antibody shows promise in rabbits; signs of ...
Biological vectors are often responsible for serious blood-borne diseases, such as malaria, viral encephalitis, Chagas disease ... Organisms spread by droplet transmission include respiratory viruses (e.g., influenza, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, ... Since it takes many generations for a microbe and a new host species to co-evolve, an emerging pathogen may hit its earliest ... Biological vectors are usually, though not exclusively, arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas and lice. Vectors are ...
Four birds, each a different passerine species, carried tickborne encephalitis virus (TBEV)-infected ticks (Ixodes ricinus). ... Migrating birds may play a role in the geographic dispersal of TBEV-infected ticks. ... A nested RT-PCR for detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in ticks in natural foci. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1999;289: ... Tickborne encephalitis is a viral zoonotic disease caused by the tickborne encephalitis flavivirus (TBEV). There are 3 subtypes ...
Several other diseases are caused by tickborne pathogens. Tickborne encephalitis is a viral disease (Flaviviridae virus family ... Tick coloration varies between species, sexes, and different stages of engorgement. Unfed ticks can range from black to a red- ... Ticking all the boxes? A systematic review on education and communication intervention to prevent tick-borne diseases. Vector ... tick removal, tick prevention, tick control, impregnated clothing ticks, repellent ticks, natural repellents ticks, DEET ticks ...
These viruses, which belong to the familiesFlaviviridae,Togaviridae,Bunyaviridae, and Reoviridae, are usually highly adapted to ... Arthropod-borne encephalitis viruses represent a significant public health problem throughout most of the world. ... usually a specific mosquito or tick species (table 1).. This topic will review the major characteristics of most of the ... arthropod-borne viral encephalitides. General issues related to viral encephalitis, including clinical manifestations, ...
Recombinant Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus preM \ 228-10385-1 for more molecular products just contact us ... Target Species. Viral. Application Notes. Additional Application Information. Encephalitis antigen is suitable for ELISA and ... Recombinant Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus preM / Product Detail : 228-10385-1 Recombinant Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus preM. ... Recombinant Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus preM. Related products : Recombinant Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus preM ...
The two calves vaccinated with whole TPE and midgut extract (ME) showed hyperemia on tick bite sites two days post tick ... The two calves vaccinated with whole TPE and midgut extract (ME) showed hyperemia on tick bite sites two days post tick ... In vitro feeding of serum or blood collected from vaccinated animals to ticks did not affect tick feeding, indicating that ... Significantly fewer ticks successfully fed on the three animals vaccinated with TPE, SGE or ME. Adults fed on the TPE and ME ...
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in the Flavivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae can cause fatal encephalitis in humans ... to monitor for the presence of known zoonotic viruses or closely related viral species and to provide a baseline of the viruses ... Tick-borne encephalitis. Lancet 371 1861 1871. 42. MansfieldKLJohnsonNPhippsLPStephensonJRFooksAR 2009 Tick-borne encephalitis ... TonteriEJaaskelainenAETikkakoskiTVoutilainenLNiemimaaJ 2011 Tick-borne encephalitis virus in wild rodents in winter, Finland, ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope Antibody (1004134) [Unconjugated]. Validated: ELISA. Tested ... Viral Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope protein was serially diluted 2-fold and captured by Mouse Anti-Viral Tick-borne ... Test in a species/application not listed above to receive a full credit towards a future purchase.. Learn about the Innovators ... Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope » Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope Research Products » Tick-borne Encephalitis ...
... and of Japanese encephalitis virus. RT-LAMP assay for Sib and for Eu specifically amplified viral genes of IR-99 and ... We also showed that tick or human blood extract did not inhibit the amplification of viral gene during the assay. Furthermore, ... RNA extracted from the mixtures of TBEV and ticks, and of TBEV and human blood, and the mouse tissues infected with TBEV, were ... TBEV RT-LAMP assay offers a sensitive, specific, rapid and easy-to-handle method for the detection of TBEV RNA in tick samples ...
Viruses. Viral species transmitted by ticks include tick-borne encephalitis virus [89], CCHFV [90], KFDV [91], Alkhurma virus, ... Other tick-borne illnesses: tularemia, Colorado tick fever, tick paralysis. Dis Mon. 2012;58:370-6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle ... Coxiella symbiont in the tick Ornithodoros rostratus (Acari: Argasidae). Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3:203-6.PubMedView Article ... The considerable number of known tick-borne viruses and the growing number of discoveries of novel viruses potentially ...
Encephalitis, Tick-borne. Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the ... Encephalitis, St. Louis. A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a ... A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried ... TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and ...
In total, 12 flea, 11 mite and three tick species were detected. Ticks were more prevalent than fleas or mites, with , 80% of ... flea and mite species occurring on small mammals. Season, trapping location, host species and sex of the host species also had ... Regression analyses were conducted on the group (ticks/mites/fleas) and species levels using hurdle models for the abundance of ... Polyparasitism had a statistically significant influence on the prevalence of the investigated tick, mite and flea species, ...
... general Environmental issues Climate change Influence Climatic changes Vector-borne diseases Care and treatment Research ... Potential influence of climate change on vector-borne and zoonotic diseases: a review and proposed research plan.(Review, ... Tick-borne TBE virus Ixodes spp. Rodents encephalitis (tick) (TBE) Rift Valley Rift Valley Aedes and Culex Livestock (b) fever ... Housettus fevers virus aegyptiacus) and likely other bat species Nipah virus Nipah virus None Fruit bats encephalitis (Pteropus ...
Including Bartonella, Anaplasma, etc., vector-borne zoonotic viruses (e.g. tick-borne encephalitis virus): ... bacterial, viral and parasitic zoonoses,. *emerging multi-species infectious animal diseases, particularly vector-borne ... Coordination of epidemiology networks (West Nile virus, other equine viruses, bluetongue virus); ... hepatitis E virus, etc.); *Analysis of the potential public health risks of animal viruses: virus/host interactions, ...
Zika virus), it is important to highlight the risk of infectious encephalitis and their preventive measures. ... With increasing numbers of people travelling worldwide and the international spread of viruses (e.g. ... Tick-borne encephalitis. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a type of infectious encephalitis that is caused by a virus spread by ... Zika virus infection. Zika virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of infected Aedes species mosquitoes which tend to ...
Tick-borne flaviviruses are among the most important viruses in the world, primarily Europe and Asia. Tick-borne encephalitis ... More than 38 viral species are transmitted by ticks. Virus-to-tick host relationships are very specific and less than 10% of ... tick-borne encephalitis virus complex) viruses in the laboratory. It was found that there is no proof of replication of Karshi ... Mammalian Tick-Borne Flavivirus Group) Virus by Ornithodoros Ticks >2,900 Days after Initial Virus Exposure Supports the Role ...
European tick-borne encephalitis virus Far Eastern tick-borne encephalitis virus Russian spring and summer encephalitis virus ... Monkeypox virus Variola major virus* (smallpox virus) Variola minor virus* (Alastrim) Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) viruses: ... Tier 1 BSATs are indicated by an asterisk (*). Botulinum neurotoxin-producing species of Clostridium* Coxiella burnetii ... Encephalitis viruses: Eastern equine encephalitis virus (excluding South American genotypes) Tick-borne encephalitis-complex ...
... and removal of ticks. Ticks are known to transmit Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, ... Powassan encephalitis -- Ixodes species and Dermacentor andersoni (both hard ticks) -- vectors for Powassan encephalitis virus ... The following is a list of all of the major tick-borne diseases, the usual tick vector(s), and the pathogen(s) the tick ... Heartland virus -- a viral disease discovered in 2012 transmitted by Amblyomma americanum or lone star tick ...
... and various forms of viral encephalitis are all in this category. All these diseases are the result of arthropod-borne viruses ... is highly correlated with the prevalence of vector-borne diseases. For example, viruses carried by mosquitoes, ticks, and other ... Each predator species can have more than one prey species and vice versa. Primary producers, which provide 99 percent of all ... Louis encephalitis (SLE) serves as an example. The mosquito Culex tarsalis carries this virus. The percentage of bites that ...
Tick information protect yourself against tick bites.. West Nile virus information (English) Fight the Bite.. Virus del Nilo ... La Crosse Encephalitis (LAC) is a viral infection that can cause inflammation of the brain. ... The virus exists in nature primarily through a transmission cycle involving certain species of mosquitoes and birds. ... Tick-borne illnesses - Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is the most severe tick borne illness in the United States and is ...
... dengue virus 1 and tick-borne encephalitis virus, with a sensitivity limit of 10-100 genome copies/reaction. Also comparatively ... Viral RNA of thirty different flaviviruses was detected, verifying the broad range specificity. The testing of this assay was ... Furthermore, the assay was compared directly to flavivirus species-specific assays for the ability to detect flaviviruses ... To increase the specificity and fluorescence signal of the Pan-Flavi assay for detection of yellow fever virus and dengue virus ...
West Nile virus in Africa, Central Europe, and most recently, North America; tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in the ... Flavivirus infections elicit virus species-specific as well as flavivirus group cross-reactive immune responses. Preexisting ... In mature virus particles, the E glycoprotein forms head-to-tail homodimers that lie flat and form a dense lattice on the viral ... Chimeric tick-borne encephalitis and DEN type 4 viruses: effects of mutations on neurovirulence in mice. J. Virol. 67:4956-4963 ...
Dengue Virus Ebola virus Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne Filoviridae Flaviviridae Hantavirus Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean- ... Marburg Virus Disease Rift Valley Fever Yellow Fever Species. Acari Buffaloes Cattle Cercopithecus aethiops Culicidae Goats ... Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral Lassa Fever ... Lassa virus Marburg-like Viruses Rift Valley fever virus Yellow ... Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management.. Borio L, Inglesby T, Peters CJ, ...
... and removal of ticks. Ticks are known to transmit Lyme disease, Bourbon virus disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, babesiosis ... This rare virus is likely to tick vector-borne (tick species vector unknown but possibly lone star tick). A Missouri state park ... Powassan encephalitis -- Ixodes species and Dermacentor andersoni (both hard ticks) -- vectors for Powassan encephalitis virus ... vectors for Borrelia species of bacteria. *Heartland virus disease -- a viral disease caused by the Heartland virus discovered ...
An immunotherapeutic composition and prophylactic and/or therapeutic methods of treatment are provided for West Nile virus in ... Yellow Fever virus, Japanese Encephalitis virus, Dengue virus, Tick-borne encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, Saint Louis ... which contains 65 or more related viral species. Typically, flaviviruses are small, enveloped RNA viruses (diameter about 45 nm ... For virus stock production, Vero cells were infected with KUN virus (MRM61C strain; 4), WN virus (NY99-4132 strain, obtained ...
The expanding black-legged tick range is also of concern due to this ticks transmission of other pathogens. Powassan virus is ... the main cause of viral encephalitis in children in the US. It is the second most reported mosquito-borne disease in North ... Climate change could lead to the northward expansion of this species into Canada, which could result in local transmission of ... Two well-known vector-borne illnesses in Canada are West Nile virus and Lyme disease. West Nile virus is transmitted by ...
The Flaviviridae family of viruses infects vertebrates and is primarily spread through arthropod vectors. The Greek Goat ... Computer-Aided Drug Design and Biological Evaluation of Novel Anti-Greek Goat Encephalitis Agents: 10.4018/ijsbbt.2013100101: ... Virus name. Abbreviation. Principal tick vector. Geographical distribution. Tick-borne encephalitis virus(European subtype). ... Greek Goat Encephalitis (GGE) virus was discovered as an endemic virus species in Greece. Todate, there are very limited data ...
The report examined encephalitis closely, and noted that the virus, which is spread by ticks, is caused by deer tick virus and ... And to add to the issue, Encephalitis can be transmitted in a matter of minutes, unlike Lyme disease and other tick-borne ... Encephalitis is an inflammation in the brain as a result of viral infections. Powassan is one of the more rare strains of the ... the researchers studied more than 13,500 ticks from seven different species. The report included counties Dutchess, Putnam, ...
4A, the predominant species in peak 1 from the mutant preparation was a spherical particle with a diameter of about 30 nm (n = ... Since both of these forms are assembled in the same cells from the same building blocks in the absence of capsid or other viral ... Incorporation of tick-borne encephalitis virus replicons into virus-like particles by a packaging cell line. 77:8924-8933. ... Oligomeric rearrangement of tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope proteins induced by an acidic pH. J. Virol.69:695-700. ...
Tick-borne diseases (Colorado tick-borne diseases, ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease, relapsing fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ... Arbovirus encephalitis. * Atypical pneumonia caused by viruses, Chlamydia species, or Mycoplasma. * Bacterial and infective ... Consider the possibility of tick-borne illnesses in all patients with febrile illnesses. Also, exposures to animals, animal by- ...
  • They are important vectors of disease pathogens including rickettsiae, spirochaetes, and viruses. (bmj.com)
  • Several other diseases are caused by tickborne pathogens. (bmj.com)
  • Ixodes ricinus is a tick species which is widespread in Europe and can transmit various bacterial, protozoal and viral pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, including the causal agents of Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and babesiosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The tick microbiome consists of communities of viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes [ 4 ], and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) of humans and animals are among the most important microorganisms that have been characterised within these arthropod vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PCR multiplex for simultaneous and rapid identification of 14 pathogens, including 6 bacteria, 7 viruses, and Cryptococcus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel is a multiplex PCR assay which can detect the most commonly identified pathogens in central nervous system infections. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Small mammals are important maintenance hosts of ectoparasites as well as reservoir hosts for many arthropod-borne pathogens. (springer.com)
  • Additionally, small mammals serve as reservoirs for many different arthropod-borne pathogens and may thus play an important role in the maintenance and distribution of these pathogens [ 1 ]. (springer.com)
  • Thus, the distribution and density of small mammal populations may have a direct impact on ectoparasite populations and further on the spread of arthropod-borne pathogens. (springer.com)
  • It develops tools to enable quicker and more reliable detection and characterisation of animal pathogens in domestic and wild species, as well as new typing methods. (anses.fr)
  • It may take hours before a hard tick transmits pathogens. (medicinenet.com)
  • The expanding black-legged tick range is also of concern due to this tick's transmission of other pathogens. (cpha.ca)
  • A broader definition of vector-borne disease recognizes that other animals can serve in the role of infectious disease vector by harboring pathogens that cause disease only in susceptible populations. (cpha.ca)
  • A new blood test called the Tick-Borne Disease Serochip (TBD Serochip) promises to revolutionize the diagnosis of tick-borne disease by offering a single test to identify and distinguish between Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen responsible for Lyme disease, and seven other tick-borne pathogens. (news-medical.net)
  • A single blood test called the Tick-borne Disease Serochip (TBD Serochip) helps in identifying the pathogen that is responsible for causing Lyme disease and seven other tick-borne pathogens. (medindia.net)
  • Currently, there is limited data to indicate which tick-borne pathogens (TBP) can infect coyotes. (medworm.com)
  • Over 100 species comprise the genus Flavivirus , which includes other notable human pathogens, such as dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), Kyasanur Forest disease virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. (asm.org)
  • Tests for a wide variety of wide variety of pathogens during treatment failed to identify the cause of the fever, but a previously unknown species of Thogotovirus was later isolated from his blood serum. (blogspot.com)
  • Seasonal, geographical and immunological factors are all important when differentiating between numerous viral pathogens in the differential diagnosis. (symptoma.com)
  • Blood samples were sent to several reference laboratories to test for vector-borne pathogens, and negative results were obtained for the pathogens causing Lyme disease, typhus, encephalitis, dengue, malaria, and West Nile virus. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Based on elevated titers of IgG and IgM antibodies to both pathogens, physicians concluded the patient had concurrent RMSF and HME, 2 tick-borne rickettsial diseases effectively treated with doxycycline. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Important human pathogens include yellow fever virus, dengue virus, Zika virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • 2007). The relationship between ticks and tick-borne pathogens in this region is largely unknown, even though the presence of these pathogens has been recognized for many years and the number of new pathogens discovered in ticks has increased markedly (Yu et al. (pasteur.la)
  • In order to assess tick-borne diseases in Lao PDR, an in-depth assessment of tick species and their pathogens was carried out. (pasteur.la)
  • Ticks are important vectors for the transmission of pathogens including viruses. (virosin.org)
  • But various tick species carry and transmit a collection of other pathogens, some of which cause serious, even fatal, conditions. (towleroad.com)
  • Researchers continue to discover new pathogens that live in ticks . (towleroad.com)
  • In most tick-borne diseases, the tick needs to feed for some amount of time before any pathogens it's carrying are transmitted to the animal whose blood it's eating. (towleroad.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 11982298 Ticks have evolved to become one of the most important groups of arthropod vectors of human pathogens. (jove.com)
  • Surveillance is conducted to determine the presence of various species and prevalence of these pathogens in our arthropod population and investigate health threats of arthropod-borne diseases to Suffolk County residents. (suffolkcountyny.gov)
  • Vectors are organisms such as mosquitoes, ticks, midges and sandflies which can transmit pathogens to animals or people. (europa.eu)
  • Apart from the more familiar Borrelia burgdorferi, several less common pathogens associated with diseases transmitted by Ixodes ticks include Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia miyamotoi, the Powassan virus, and the tick-borne encephalitis virus. (mdedge.com)
  • Professor Edward Holmes is known for his work on the evolution and emergence of infectious diseases, particularly the mechanisms by which pathogens jump species boundaries to emerge in humans. (edu.au)
  • Currently, he is studying why some pathogens are particularly likely to jump between species and spread, and using metagenomic technology to discover novel viruses and determine the possible microbial cause of disease syndromes (e.g. emerging tick-borne disease in Australia). (edu.au)
  • Biological control using viral pathogens. (edu.au)
  • Bunyaviridae is a large family of mainly arthropod-borne viruses (arborviruses) with several significant veterinary pathogens. (ivis.org)
  • Zika is a member of the Flaviviridae family, which includes medically important pathogens such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Japanese encephalitis , Tick-borne encephalitis , West Nile encephalitis , Dengue virus encephalitis, rabies encephalitis ) and their preventive measures. (encephalitis.info)
  • To increase the specificity and fluorescence signal of the Pan-Flavi assay for detection of yellow fever virus and dengue virus 4, additional primers and probes were included. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The testing of this assay was successful, using standard plasmid and RNA dilutions of yellow fever virus vaccine strain, dengue virus 1 and tick-borne encephalitis virus, with a sensitivity limit of 10-100 genome copies/reaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It contains highly pathogenic agents such as the name-giving member yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and dengue virus (DENV), which can cause encephalitis or hemorrhagic fever and pose some of the most challenging emerging diseases in humans [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The third epitope consists of discontinuous residues that are structurally related to the strictly conserved tryptophan at dengue virus serotype 2 E-glycoprotein position 231. (asm.org)
  • and the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4) in tropical and subtropical regions of the world ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • The lab studies both mosquito and tick-borne agents including the flaviviruses West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Powassan virus, as well as alphaviruses Eastern equine encephalitis virus and Chikungunya virus, among others. (wadsworth.org)
  • Flaviviruses, such as Dengue virus (DENV) [ 2 ] and Yellow fever virus (YFV) [ 3 ], have been a common cause of devastating diseases in tropical and less developed countries, but in recent years the emergence of flaviviral zoonoses was observed worldwide. (hindawi.com)
  • Unlike existing tests, the new diagnostic does not cross-react with Dengue virus, a close relative of the Zika virus that can produce false positives on many Zika tests. (news-medical.net)
  • It is minimally cross-reactive with antibodies to Dengue virus and so can be used to distinguish human anti-Zika antibodies from other flavivirus and infectious disease antibodies. (news-medical.net)
  • Africa is clearly the ancestral home of yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika viruses and likely the dengue virus. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The transmission of Dengue virus (DENV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has increased worldwide, due in part to the lack of a specific antiviral treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other species include dengue virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow Fever Virus. (kenyon.edu)
  • He has studied the emergence and spread of avian influenza virus, dengue virus, HIV, hepatitis C virus, myxoma virus, RHDV and Yersinia pestis . (edu.au)
  • Many flaviviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), or dengue virus are emerging or reemerging diseases threatening humans and/or animals [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A review of current scientific research into Dengue Virus . (caister.com)
  • Dengue disease is caused by the four serotypes of mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV1-4), positive-sense RNA viruses belonging to the genus Flavivirus . (caister.com)
  • Prevention of tick attachment and rapid removal reduce the risk of contracting tickborne diseases, and there are many recommendations on how to achieve this. (bmj.com)
  • What diseases are spread by ticks? (bmj.com)
  • 4 Rickettsioses are another group of emerging tickborne diseases caused by obligate intracellular bacteria. (bmj.com)
  • Potential influence of climate change on vector-borne and zoonotic diseases: a review and proposed research plan. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Because of complex interactions of climate variables at the levels of the pathogen, vector, and host, the potential influence of climate change on vector-borne and zoonotic diseases (VBZDs) is poorly understood and difficult to predict. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Climate effects on the nonvector-borne zoonotic diseases are especially obscure and have received scant treatment. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The nonvector-borne zoonotic diseases have received scant treatment and are emphasized in this paper. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Several other tick-borne flaviviruses have not been known to cause human nor animal diseases, and their potential pathogenicity for humans and animals is unknown/unavailable. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a variety of tick-borne diseases. (medicinenet.com)
  • There are over 800 species of ticks throughout the world, but only two families of ticks, Ixodidae (hard ticks) and Argasidae (soft ticks), are known to transmit diseases or illness to humans. (medicinenet.com)
  • Ticks are transmitters (vectors) of diseases for humans and animals. (medicinenet.com)
  • Ticks were understood to be vectors of disease in the mid-1800s, and as investigative methods improved (microscopes, culture techniques, tissue staining), more information showed the wide variety of diseases that could be transmitted by ticks. (medicinenet.com)
  • Tickborne diseases occur worldwide. (rxlist.com)
  • What is less well known is how changing climate will affect the risk of vector-borne diseases. (cpha.ca)
  • Vector-borne diseases are transmitted among their human or animal hosts by arthropods, usually insects. (cpha.ca)
  • The US data came from a tick-borne diseases study conducted during 1991-2008 ( 14 , 15 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Ticks are the leading carriers of vector-borne diseases to humans in the United States, second only to mosquitoes worldwide. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Two families of ticks, Ixodidae (hard ticks) and Argasidae (soft ticks), are important to humans because of the diseases or illnesses they can transmit or cause. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Infectious pathologies are usually qualified as contagious diseases (also called communicable diseases) due to their potentiality of transmission from one person or species to another. (mcgill.ca)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has released a new report warning people about the myriad of diseases that are transmitted via bites of blood-sucking insects such as ticks, mosquitoes and fleas calling it a "growing health problem" in the United States. (news-medical.net)
  • As tick populations grow and spread across the country, their prevalence is increasing the public's risk for some troubling diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Of these diseases, say dermatologists from the American Academy of Dermatology, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Powassan virus and alpha-gal syndrome- a mysterious red meat allergy- are among the most serious. (news-medical.net)
  • Union Health Minister J.P. Nadda directed health officials to conduct regular supervisory visits to hospitals to check the preparedness against vector-borne diseases, and if needed, provide on the spot technical guidance. (medindia.net)
  • Infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod species, such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomine bugs, sandflies, and blackflies are known as vector-borne diseases. (medindia.net)
  • Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases, 9 (4), 824-833. (touro.edu)
  • Publication date: Available online 18 January 2020Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and WildlifeAuthor(s): Serene Yu, Joseph Modarelli, John M. Tomeček, Justin T. French, Clayton Hilton, Maria D. Esteve-GasentAbstractDetermining which wildlife hosts are involved in the enzootic cycles of tick-borne diseases (TBD) enables enhanced surveillance and risk assessment of potential transmission to humans and domestic species. (medworm.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis refers to such diseases. (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • Most of these diseases are problems only for those individuals traveling to countries where the viruses are endemic, having similar symptoms. (scirp.org)
  • tick fever any of various infectious diseases transmitted by the bite of a tick. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Many species transmit diseases, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In very rare cases, encephalitis can also be caused by bacterial infection, protozoa, or as a complication from other infectious diseases. (adam.com)
  • Mosquito-borne diseases or mosquito-borne illnesses are diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes . (bingj.com)
  • The viral diseases yellow fever , dengue fever , Zika fever and chikungunya are transmitted mostly by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes . (bingj.com)
  • Other viral diseases like epidemic polyarthritis , Rift Valley fever , Ross River fever , St. Louis encephalitis , West Nile fever , Japanese encephalitis , La Crosse encephalitis and several other encephalitic diseases are carried by several different mosquitoes . (bingj.com)
  • Because of the high mortality rate, EEE and WEE are regarded as two of the most serious mosquito-borne diseases in the United States. (bingj.com)
  • Ticks are now recognized to transmit over a dozen diseases that are caused by a variety of pathogenic agents ranging from bacteria and protozoa to viruses [1]. (springer.com)
  • Similarly, the reforestation of suburban neighborhoods has provided ideal habitats for transport and reservoir hosts (e.g., deer, rodents) of ticks and tick-borne diseases, further facilitating transmission to humans. (springer.com)
  • Tick-borne diseases in the United States. (springer.com)
  • As with other bug-borne diseases, good mosquito management to track growth in mosquito populations helps to prevent West Nile infections. (infoplease.com)
  • WHOPES), established in 1960 by the Director-General, with the approval of the World Health Assembly, to evaluate pesticides for the control of vector-borne diseases and to prepare quality standards for the guidance of Member States. (who.int)
  • Infections may be subclinical or cause enteric, haemorrhagic or wasting diseases, including the economically important bovine viral diarrhoea virus and classical swine fever virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • Ticks, blood-sucking arthropods, serve as vectors for transmission of infectious diseases including Lyme borreliosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tick-borne diseases include viral encephalitis, sever fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, Lyme disease, monocytic human ehrlichiosis, Rocky mountain spotted fever, and babesiosis ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • From a clinical point of view, this acquired protective immunity to tick infestation is very important, because it reduces the chance of pathogen transmission that causes infectious diseases ( 6 , 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Ticks are important hematophagous ectoparasites, which play an important role as pests and vectors of a wide range of viral, bacterial and protozoan diseases of humans, livestock, pets, and wild animals. (pasteur.la)
  • In Southeast Asia, taxonomically accurate knowledge of tick species and the risk distribution of tick-borne diseases are very poorly characterized. (pasteur.la)
  • In Lao PDR, vector borne-diseases are often misdiagnosed and underestimated because of inadequate surveillance networks and laboratory capacity. (pasteur.la)
  • Such practices increase the risk of tick-borne disease transmission and other vector borne diseases. (pasteur.la)
  • Mites and ticks are believed to be the vectors of these diseases and potentially other new emerging infectious diseases such as arboviral diseases. (pasteur.la)
  • To develop vector map for ticks and tick-borne diseases in order to provide information on the diseases surveillance and control. (pasteur.la)
  • We herein review the history of TBVs identification and isolation, classification, geographic distribution, and related diseases and epidemics, and discuss the novel viral sequences discovered in ticks recently. (virosin.org)
  • So people and ticks frequently cross paths, exposing us to their bites and the diseases they carry. (towleroad.com)
  • Certain very small species of bacteria that can cause human diseases, such as rickettsia, ehrlichia and anaplasma, live in ticks. (towleroad.com)
  • There's the unlucky chance that a bite from a deer tick could infect you with both diseases. (towleroad.com)
  • Efficacy of Interferon Alpha-2b and Ribavirin Against West Nile Virus in Vitro Emerging Infectious Diseases. (jove.com)
  • Arthropod-borne Diseases Surveillance - the mission is to prevent the spread of arthropod-borne diseases including viral encephalitis, malaria, and tick-borne diseases including, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Babesiosis, Ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease and Tularemia. (suffolkcountyny.gov)
  • What are emerging/tropical mosquito-borne diseases? (europa.eu)
  • What are the different species of mosquitoes in Europe and the diseases they can carry? (europa.eu)
  • Although Lyme disease is the most prevalent zoonosis transmitted by Ixodes ticks, other less common diseases may be encountered, including human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Powassan virus infection, tick-borne encephalitis, Borrelia miyamotoi disease, and tick paralysis. (mdedge.com)
  • In part 2 of this review, disease presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of these less commonly encountered tick-borne diseases are discussed. (mdedge.com)
  • Diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichioses, and anaplasmosis-United States: a practical guide for physicians and other health-care and public health professionals. (mdedge.com)
  • Tickborne encephalitis is a viral zoonotic disease caused by the tickborne encephalitis flavivirus (TBEV). (cdc.gov)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, is the virus associated with tick-borne encephalitis. (novusbio.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), which belongs to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae , is a causative agent of acute central nervous system (CNS) disease in humans and animals [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the assay was compared directly to flavivirus species-specific assays for the ability to detect flaviviruses sensitively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also comparatively good results were achieved for detecting different flaviviruses by the Pan-Flavi assay when compared to the flavivirus species-specific assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of more than 70 virus species including many arthropod-borne viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human flavivirus infections stimulate virus species-specific as well as flavivirus cross-reactive immune responses. (asm.org)
  • Approximately half of the world's population is at risk of being infected with members of the genus Flavivirus , with 2.5 billion people at risk of infection from the dengue viruses alone ( 8 , 53 ). (asm.org)
  • Human infections by flaviviruses elicit humoral immune responses resulting in the production of virus species-specific as well as flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies ( 9 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • Firstly, serodiagnosis of secondary flavivirus infections, especially in areas with multiple cocirculating flaviviruses, can be particularly difficult due to the inability to differentiate cross-reactive antibodies elicited by primary infections from those elicited by secondary infections, using the currently available viral antigens. (asm.org)
  • 2. The immunotherapeutic composition of claim 1, wherein the first flavivirus is Kunjin virus and the second flavivirus is West Nile virus. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The Greek Goat Encephalitis (GGE) flavivirus belongs to the Flaviviridae family and specifically to the genus Flavivirus. (igi-global.com)
  • To evaluate this, we tested the capacity of four emerging arboviruses [West Nile virus (WNV), Powassan virus (POWV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Mayaro virus (MAYV)] from related (flavivirus) and unrelated (alphavirus) genera to infect the placenta and fetus in immunocompetent, wild-type mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • genus Flavivirus ) are endemic and transmitted by the same tick species. (cdc.gov)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus (genus Flavivirus , family Flaviviridae ) is the etiological agent of TBE, the medically most important member of the tick-borne serocomplex [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genus Flavivirus includes arthropod-borne viruses responsible for a large number of infections in humans and economically important animals. (hindawi.com)
  • While RT-PCR protocols for specific detection of most Flavivirus species are available, there has been also a demand for a broad-range Flavivirus assay covering all members of the genus. (hindawi.com)
  • These PCR products are subjected to hybridization on a microarray carrying 84 different oligonucleotide probes that represent all known Flavivirus species. (hindawi.com)
  • Twenty-six Flavivirus strains were tested with the assay, showing equivalent or superior characteristics compared with the original or even with species-specific RT-PCRs. (hindawi.com)
  • The genus Flavivirus contains nearly 70 recognized viruses, many of which infect humans and economically important animals [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • YFV is the prototype virus of the family Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus ) and the virus for which the family was named ( flavus being Latin for yellow). (asm.org)
  • West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex, which includes St. Louis encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, and Kunjin virus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Powassan virus is a flavivirus that has been found in six different tick species, including the deer tick. (healthmap.org)
  • 1985) Nucleotide sequence of yellow fever virus: implications for flavivirus gene expression and evolution. (els.net)
  • Powassan virus (POWV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus , a member of the Flaviviridae family. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Dengue fever is spread by the Aedes mosquito infected with the Flavivirus virus. (matadornetwork.com)
  • The West Nile Virus is a species of the genus Flavivirus and in the Flavivirdae family. (kenyon.edu)
  • Flavivirus are a group IV virus. (kenyon.edu)
  • West Nile (WN) virus is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus. (springer.com)
  • The flavivirus envelope (E) glycoprotein ectodomain is composed of three domains (D) named DI, DII, and DIII, with EDIII containing virus-specific epitopes. (hindawi.com)
  • TBEV, another encephalitic flavivirus known to cause severe infections in humans and dogs, belongs to the group of mammalian tick-borne viruses [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is not known with certainty when and where the progenitor of the approximately 80 species in the genus Flavivirus first arose, although geographic evidence suggests that this ancestral flavivirus may have first appeared in Africa. (caister.com)
  • Tick-borne flaviviruses are among the most important viruses in the world, primarily Europe and Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alterations in human behavior, land use, or climate may change the actual geographical distribution and transmission intensity so that tick-borne flaviviruses are potentially relevant of the environment and may increase in medical importance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Re-emergence of West Nile virus in Europe and continuous spread of certain flaviviruses such as dengue, yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis viruses represent a global danger to public health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viral RNA of thirty different flaviviruses was detected, verifying the broad range specificity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are no antiviral drug therapies for any of the flaviviruses, and effective human vaccines are in high demand for many of the medically important species. (asm.org)
  • Flaviviruses are small enveloped viruses that are assembled intracellularly, apparently by budding into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Although all four viruses caused placental infection, only infection with the neurotropic flaviviruses (WNV and POWV) resulted in fetal demise. (sciencemag.org)
  • At the same time, structural elements were observed that distinguish members of different serological groups and, in particular, a region of remarkable structural divergence between the tick-borne and mosquito-borne flaviviruses was found. (nih.gov)
  • Like RNA viruses in general, flaviviruses are distinguished by extensive genetic heterogeneity, which implies classification into subunits, for example, genotypes and lineages, each with distinct epidemiological or clinical significance. (hindawi.com)
  • National Institutes of Health scientists have filled a research gap by developing a laboratory model to study ticks that transmit flaviviruses, such as Powassan virus. (news-medical.net)
  • The flaviviruses are enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses, and these are predominantly transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod vectors (arboviruses) such as mosquitoes and ticks ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Arboviral encephalitis is a group of animal and human illness that is mostly caused by several distinct families of viruses including orthobunya virus, phlebovirus, flaviviruses, and the alphaviruses. (scirp.org)
  • Powassan virus (member of tick-borne encephalitis flaviviruses): seen in New England, Upper Midwest U.S., Canada, Asia. (hopkinsguides.com)
  • Other common flaviviruses include the dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile viruses. (healthmap.org)
  • Unlike previous methods, the new assays have little or no cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses, including Dengue, West Nile, Yellow Fever, Japanese Encephalitis, Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Usutu virus. (news-medical.net)
  • The Native Antigen Company Zika Virus NS1 ELISA assay is a highly sensitive and specific assay suitable for the quantitative detection of Zika Virus NS1 in a range of biological samples, with no cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses. (news-medical.net)
  • The flaviviruses are a family of small enveloped viruses with positive-strand RNA genomes of approximately 9.0 to13 kbp. (ictvonline.org)
  • Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the genus, Hepacivirus . (ictvonline.org)
  • We characterized two pet models just like humans within their susceptibility to tick-borne flaviviruses and discovered the most ideal structure for evaluation of effectiveness of precautionary and therapeutic arrangements. (bi-2536.info)
  • POWV is classified as a member of the tick-borne encephalitis sero-complex of flaviviruses . (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) are flaviviruses responsible for severe neuroinvasive infections in humans and horses. (hindawi.com)
  • Most flaviviruses are arboviruses that can be transmitted by ticks, Aedes or Culex mosquitoes, or by unknown vectors [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The remaining flaviviruses are divided into vector-borne viruses of vertebrates, with major groups using ticks and mosquitoes for horizontal transmission, and another group that infects vertebrates without the use of arthropod vectors. (caister.com)
  • General issues related to viral encephalitis, including clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal fluid findings, distinction from postinfectious encephalitis and meningitis, and an approach to the patients with suspected central nervous system infection are discussed separately. (uptodate.com)
  • Development of molecular tools for monitoring tick infection by zoonotic arboviruses. (anses.fr)
  • Rabies is a severe acute viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS) that is transmitted by biting animals. (encephalitis.info)
  • Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain caused by an infection or through the immune system attacking the brain in error. (encephalitis.info)
  • Although infected people suffer with fever-like symptoms, some people in Uzbekistan have reported with severe disease such as encephalitis and other large outbreaks of fever illness connected infection with the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this insight, these ticks may serve as a long-term maintenance mechanism for Royal Farm virus Earlier studies suggest that the infection of a two-day-old white experimental mice with the virus results in deaths occurring 8-12 days after infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection with a bacterium called a spirochete ( Borrelia burgdorferi ) causes Lyme disease, which infected ticks transmit to humans. (medicinenet.com)
  • La Crosse Encephalitis (LAC) is a viral infection that can cause inflammation of the brain. (tn.gov)
  • TBEV, virus-causing infection of the central nervous system, has spread extensively in some European regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ixodes scapularis ticks collected by passive surveillance in Canada: analysis of geographic distribution and infection with Lyme Borreliosis agent Borrelia burgdorferi. (cpha.ca)
  • 14. An immunotherapeutic composition for treating a West Nile virus infection of an equine, said composition comprising a monoclonal antibody selected from the group consisting of mAb 3.91D and mAb 3.67G at a dosage sufficient to neutralize said West Nile virus. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Our findings are consistent with deer tick virus infection rates in people revealed in clinical tests by the New York State Department of Health," said Laura Kramer, coauthor of the study. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • GGE virus, which is endemic in Greece, is the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), an infection of the central nervous system that can be transmitted from animals to humans by ticks. (igi-global.com)
  • Although, there are very limited data regarding the GGE virus and its epidemiology in Greece, there have been few reported cases of GGE viral infection of goats in northern Greece. (igi-global.com)
  • Recently, we discovered B. miyamotoi report 46 cases of B. miyamotoi infection in humans and in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks in the European and compare the frequency and clinical manifestations of this Asian regions of Russia. (cdc.gov)
  • In these areas, human ixodid tick- infection with those caused by B. garinii and B. burgdorferi borne infections, including those caused by B. afzelii , B. infection. (cdc.gov)
  • 9%). In Russia, the rate of B. miyamotoi infection in Ixodes tick species. (cdc.gov)
  • We and Lyme disease-like symptoms throughout the Holarctic previously noted presumptive B. miyamotoi infection in region of the world because of the widespread prevalence residents of central Russia with infl uenza-like illness but of this pathogen in its ixodid tick vectors. (cdc.gov)
  • Author affi liations: Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, through August 25, 2009, for suspected tick-borne infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Although Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnant women can cause placental damage, intrauterine growth restriction, microcephaly, and fetal demise, these disease manifestations only became apparent in the context of a large epidemic in the Americas. (sciencemag.org)
  • Poor performance of two rapid immunochromatographic assays for anti-Japanese encephalitis virus immunoglobulin M detection in cerebrospinal fluid and serum from patients with suspected Japanese encephalitis virus infection in Laos. (bioportfolio.com)
  • At necropsy and accompanying parasitology, the sheep showed a moderate to severe infection with Trichostrongylids, Moniezia and Eimeria species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It highlights the importance of infection prevention practices that comprise particularly well established safety precaution protocols in research laboratories handling this pathogenic virus, because exposure to even a small amount of LCMV can lead to a severe, life-threatening infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LCMV infection is usually asymptomatic or mild and self-limiting, but rarely can manifest itself as severe disease such as meningitis and encephalitis [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A previous case report of lab-acquired LCMV infection was based on indirect evidence by serological tests, not direct detection of viral RNA by PCR [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This highlights the importance of infect prevention strategies that comprise particularly well established safety precaution protocols in research laboratories handling this pathogenic virus, because exposure to LCMV can lead to a life-threatening infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Russia, the rate of B. miyamotoi infection in Ixodes persulcatus ticks was 1%-16%, similar to rates in I. ricinus ticks in western Europe and I. scapularis ticks in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • B. miyamotoi infection may cause relapsing fever and Lyme disease-like symptoms throughout the Holarctic region of the world because of the widespread prevalence of this pathogen in its ixodid tick vectors. (cdc.gov)
  • We previously noted presumptive B. miyamotoi infection in residents of central Russia with influenza-like illness but were uncertain whether their clinical manifestations were caused by co-infecting B. burgdorferi s.l. species ( 11 - 13 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We enrolled patients admitted to Municipal Clinical Hospital No. 33 in Yekaterinburg City, Russia, from May 19 through August 25, 2009, for suspected tick-borne infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The human granulocytic anaplasmosis is the second-most-common tick-borne infection in the United States. (medindia.net)
  • RT-PCR of TBEV RNA in adult ticks collected from vegetation in 1999-2014 revealed average infection rates of 7.9+/-0.7% in I. persulcatus, of 5.6+/-1.0% in H. concinna, of 2.0+/-2.0% in H. japonica, and of 1.3+/-1.3% in D. silvarum. (touro.edu)
  • Both Russian vaccines against TBE based on the FE strains (Sofjin and 205) are similar to the new viral isolates and might protect against infection. (touro.edu)
  • Latent infection in African species that can infect Asian primates and U.S. born African primates. (humanitarian.net)
  • The non-glycosylated WNV-N154I virus replicated less efficiently in mosquito tissues after intrathoracic inoculation, but there was little difference in replication efficiency in the midgut after peroral infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • Toward Climate Change Impact: Vectors carrying viral infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • Yellow fever (YF) is the prototypical hemorrhagic fever and results from infection with yellow fever virus (YFV), which is endemic to regions of Africa and South America. (asm.org)
  • A number of diagnostic methods and assays have been described for the detection of YFV infection, including viral culture, molecular testing, serology, and antigen detection. (asm.org)
  • Yellow fever (YF) is a potentially fatal arboviral disease resulting from human infection with yellow fever virus (YFV), which is endemic to regions of Africa and South America ( Fig. 1 ) ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Ixodid ticks are the main guardians and carriers of infection. (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • These insects contain the causative agent of the disease for life, lay infected eggs, from which then infected ticks appear (transovarial transmission of infection). (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • Together with tick saliva, the virus enters the baby's blood (and the likelihood of infection increases when the infectious tick is crushed). (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • Arboviral encephalitis is caused by infection with an arbovirus, which transmitted by a mosquito, tick or another arthropod. (scirp.org)
  • Acute HIV infection: may occasionally present with encephalitis. (hopkinsguides.com)
  • Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain, most commonly caused by a viral infection. (adam.com)
  • The best way to prevent infection with a mosquito-borne virus is to avoid being bitten. (adam.com)
  • The most common cause of encephalitis is infection by a virus. (adam.com)
  • Are the primary cause of acute encephalitis (sudden-onset encephalitis caused by direct infection). (adam.com)
  • Tick-borne viral encephalitis (TBVE), ixodid tick-borne borreliosis (ITBB) and mixed-infection (TBVE and ITBB) are the most prevalent feral herd transmissible infections in Ukraine. (intechopen.com)
  • all previously described species of Thogotovirus have been transmitted by Ticks and the patient was suffering from Tick bites when admitted to hospital making this the most likely cause of infection, but Batken Virus is known to also be carried by Mosquitoes, so a non-Tick vector cannot be ruled out for Bourbon County Virus. (blogspot.com)
  • Viral encephalitis implies infection of the brain parenchyma by a virus . (symptoma.com)
  • Additionally, a skin rash may be present in VZV infection , while mucosal lesions are hallmarks of herpes virus encephalitis [14]. (symptoma.com)
  • Present in human serum during the early stages of infection, the NS1 protein provides an early marker of viral replication following infection. (news-medical.net)
  • Due to the novel assay format, the test may also be used in any species, making it of particular value for studying animal models of Zika infection. (news-medical.net)
  • West Nile encephalitis is another viral infection that is transmitted from mosquitoes to people. (infoplease.com)
  • There is no evidence of the infection being contagious between vertebrate species. (infoplease.com)
  • Concern for Zika virus infection has been increasing as it is suspected of causing brain defects in newborns such as microcephaly and, more recently, potential neurological and autoimmune complications including Guillian-Barré syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • We describe a case of virus infection in a 25-year-old woman during the first trimester of her pregnancy, confirmed by laboratory tests only for the detection of viral particles in maternal urine, with imaging studies demonstrating the progression of cranial and encephalic changes in the fetus and later in the newborn, such as head circumference reduction, cerebral calcifications and ventriculomegaly. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The DENV infection process is initiated through the binding of the virus to receptors on the cell surface via the E protein, followed by endocytosis, in which variations in pH trigger the fusion of this protein with the endosomal membrane, releasing the nucleocapsid (RNA bound to the C protein) into the cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vector Infection Determinants of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Reside Within the E2 Envelope Glycoprotein Journal of Virology. (jove.com)
  • To map mosquito infection determinants, reciprocal chimeric viruses generated from epizootic subtype IAB and enzootic IE VEEV were tested for mosquito infectivity. (jove.com)
  • Introduction of the PE2 gene from an enzootic subtype ID virus into an epizootic IAB or IC genetic backbone resulted in lower infection rates than those of the epizootic parent. (jove.com)
  • An interim case definition for surveillance of Zika virus infection has been discussed with the Health Security Committee during its meeting on 17 March 2016. (europa.eu)
  • Research has also shown that infection of West Nile could involve the fusion of the virus straight to the host cell's plasma membrane (13). (kenyon.edu)
  • In Europe, an enhanced surveillance of WN infection in humans, horses, birds, and vectors may reveal the presence of the virus in different locations. (springer.com)
  • Amplifier hosts increase the weight of infection, as is the case with pigs which act between wild birds and man in Japanese encephalitis. (educate-yourself.org)
  • Zika Virus Zika virus infection has been linked to an increase in microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barre syndrome (a neurodegenerative disease) in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four birds, each a different passerine species, carried tickborne encephalitis virus (TBEV)-infected ticks ( Ixodes ricinus ). (cdc.gov)
  • Migrating birds may play a role in the geographic dispersal of TBEV-infected ticks. (cdc.gov)
  • There are 3 subtypes of TBEV: the European subtype (TBEV-Eu, transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks) and the Siberian and Far-Eastern subtypes (TBEV-Sib and TBEV-FE, transmitted by I. persulcatus ticks) ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In Latvia and Estonia, the distribution of both tick species overlaps, and all 3 TBEV subtypes cocirculate in Latvia ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, a range expansion of a tick species could result in spreading a TBEV subtype to new areas. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to mammals, I. ricinus ticks take blood meals from birds, which has led to speculation that birds could disperse TBEV-infected ticks during migration and start new TBE foci. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, we document the occurrence of TBEV-infected ticks in migrating birds. (cdc.gov)
  • For bird species with TBEV-infected ticks, local banding and recovery records from 1946 to the present were used to determine recruitment and wintering areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Three TBEV sub-types have been described: European or Western tick-borne encephalitis virus, Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Far eastern Tick-borne encephalitis virus (formerly known as Russian Spring Summer encephalitis virus, RSSEV). (novusbio.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a causative agent of acute central nervous system disease in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA extracted from the mixtures of TBEV and ticks, and of TBEV and human blood, and the mouse tissues infected with TBEV, were evaluated in the assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, we confirmed that the TBEV RT-LAMP could detect virus RNA from peripheral and central nervous system tissues of laboratory mice infected with TBEV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TBEV RT-LAMP assay offers a sensitive, specific, rapid and easy-to-handle method for the detection of TBEV RNA in tick samples and this may be applied in the clinical samples collected from TBE-suspected patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This raises concern on the risk of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in each country or endemic area, where different TBEV subtypes may be distributed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By using animal sera as sentinels, natural TBEV foci could be identified and further analyses including investigations of ticks could be initiated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, the cross-reactivity of the applied TBEV serology test systems - enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test (VNT) - as well as the longevity of TBEV antibody titres in sheep and goats were investigated in this study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, the commercial West Nile virus (WNV) competitive ELISA showed a high level of cross-reactivity with TBEV-specific positive sera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cross-reactivity must be taken into consideration, particularly for TBEV serology in regions with a prevalence of Louping ill virus and for serological testing of WNV by cross-reactive ELISAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TBE virus (TBEV) circulates between ticks and hosts in geographically strictly limited natural foci, which can range in size from large to very small. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, a high number of wild and domestic animals have tested positive for the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibody. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At present, three subtypes of TBE virus are recognized: the European (western) subtype (TBEV-EU), the Siberian subtype (TBEV-Sib) and the Far-Eastern subtype (TBEV-FE) [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ixodes persulcatus is the main vector tick species known to transmit TBEV-Sib and TBEV-FE [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Isolates of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) from arthropod vectors (ticks and mosquitoes) in the Amur, the Jewish Autonomous and the Sakhalin regions as well as on the Khabarovsk territory of the Far East of Russia were studied. (touro.edu)
  • Viral loads varied in a range from 10(2) to 10(9) TBEV genome-equivalents per a tick with the maximal values in I. persulcatus and H. japonica. (touro.edu)
  • Fig 1 (A) Engorged and (B) unfed female adult Ixodes ricinus (hard bodied) tick. (bmj.com)
  • The most widespread human tickborne disease is Lyme borreliosis, which is commonly transmitted to humans by Ixodes ricinus , known as the deer/sheep/castor bean tick. (bmj.com)
  • In this study, the efficacy of immunization with recombinant ferritin 2 and native tick protein extracts (TPEs) against Ixodes ricinus infestations in calves was assessed in two immunization experiments. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lichard & Kozuch [ 8 ] were able to show TBE virus persistence and transmission to white mice by Ixodes arboricola , which is considered to be a secondary amplifying vector of TBE virus in wild rodent populations [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence of Borrelia and Bartonella species in Ixodes spp. (lymediseaseassociation.org)
  • Genus PCR amplification and sequence analysis of Bartonella and Borrelia 16SsRNA-23SsRNA intergenic regions were performed on DNA extracted from 929 questing adult ticks (671 Ixodes scapularis, 155 Ixodes affinis, and 103 Ixodes pacificus). (lymediseaseassociation.org)
  • Overall, 129/929 (13.9%) Ixodes ticks were PCR positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, 48/929 for B. bissettiae whereas 23/929 (2.5%) were PCR positive for a Bartonella henselae. (lymediseaseassociation.org)
  • For both bacterial genera, PCR positive rates were highly variable depending on geographic location and tick species, with Ixodes affinis (n = 155) collected from North Carolina, being the tick species with the highest prevalence's for both Borrelia spp. (lymediseaseassociation.org)
  • Based on the results of this and other published studies, improved understanding of the enzootic cycle, transmission dynamics, and vector competence of Ixodes species (especially I. affinis) for transmission of Borrelia spp. (lymediseaseassociation.org)
  • A female Ixodes scapularis tick. (towleroad.com)
  • It's the deer tick Ixodes scapularis - famously also responsible for Lyme disease - that transmits the Anaplasma bacteria to humans. (towleroad.com)
  • The virus is transmitted by the tick Ixodes scapularis , which is also the vector for Lyme disease. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • The Ixodes tick is an important arthropod vector in the transmission of human disease. (mdedge.com)
  • Intoxication with the saliva of some Ixodes species can cause an ascending flaccid tick paralysis. (mdedge.com)
  • Vector competence of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis , for the recently recognized Lyme borreliosis spirochete Candidatus Borrelia mayonii . (mdedge.com)
  • Ticks act as vectors when microbes in their saliva and mouth secretions get into the host's skin and blood. (medicinenet.com)
  • The Flaviviridae family of viruses infects vertebrates and is primarily spread through arthropod vectors. (igi-global.com)
  • Specific studies include understanding WNV microevolution both within and among hosts and vectors, defining how specific interactions between viral and vector genomes influence transmissibility in distinct environments, defining the role of replicase fidelity on viral fitness and evolution, and identifying how unique microbial signatures influence vectorial capacity. (wadsworth.org)
  • Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in Arthropod Vectors in the Far East of " by Natalia M. Pukhovskaya, Olga V. Morozova et al. (touro.edu)
  • One of the more recently reported vectors for the virus, the Dermacentor reticulatus tick species, is rapidly spreading through Europe. (eurekalert.org)
  • Host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States. (ajtmh.org)
  • The potential for West Nile virus to establish outside of its natural range: a consideration of potential mosquito vectors in the United Kingdom. (ajtmh.org)
  • Some ticks are vectors and reservoirs of disease-causing agents. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As an avid gardener and hiker, the woman had been exposed to a number of vectors endemic to her area, such as deer ticks and mosquitos. (healthmap.org)
  • Ticks not only play a role as disease vectors, but also cause direct impact on their hosts, such as blood loss and tick-induced paralysis (Pfaffle et al. (pasteur.la)
  • To describe the ticks and their vector status (putative vectors for viruses, rickettsia and bacteria). (pasteur.la)
  • Herein, we review the current knowledge of TBVs with emphases on the history of virus isolation and identification, tick vectors, and potential pathogenicity to humans and animals, including assigned species as well as the recently discovered and unassigned species. (virosin.org)
  • Tickborne encephalitis is a viral disease (Flaviviridae virus family) that causes 10 000 cases annually across Europe. (bmj.com)
  • These viruses, which belong to the families Flaviviridae , Togaviridae , Bunyaviridae , and Reoviridae, are usually highly adapted to particular reservoir hosts and are spread from animal to animal via the bite of an infected arthropod, usually a specific mosquito or tick species ( table 1 ). (uptodate.com)
  • The Flaviviridae are a diverse family of enveloped viruses that infect both arthropods and vertebrates. (asm.org)
  • WNV belongs to the Flaviviridae family which includes closely viruses such as Dengue fever, Yellow fever and Tick borne encephalitis. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Powassan is a genus of viruses from the family Flaviviridae. (news-medical.net)
  • Rice CM (1996) Flaviviridae: the viruses and their replication. (els.net)
  • It thus includes in addition to the viruses in Bunyaviridae, viruses in the families Arenaviridae, Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae and Rhabdoviridae. (ivis.org)
  • Virus-to-tick host relationships are very specific and less than 10% of all tick species (Argasidae and Ixodidae) are known to be carriers of arboviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Ciota is Deputy Director of the Arbovirus Laboratory, which performs testing, surveillance and research of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). (wadsworth.org)
  • These are the findings of a JRC report that aims to raise awareness about the threat posed by the spread of arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses). (eurekalert.org)
  • Common arboviruses causing encephalitis in the U.S. (hopkinsguides.com)
  • Ddx: among most common--arboviruses (summer-fall), HSV (most common sporadic cause), enterovirus (summer-fall), toxic/metabolic explanations, CNS vasculitis, paraneoplastic syndromes, post-infectious or post-immunization encephalitis/encephalomyelitis (e.g. (hopkinsguides.com)
  • Unfortunately, for most other viruses causing encephalitis, including cases caused by West Nile virus and other arboviruses, antiviral medications are not available or not effective. (adam.com)
  • Arboviruses, one of the most common causes of encephalitis, are transmitted by blood-sucking insects such as mosquitoes and, less commonly, ticks. (adam.com)
  • In the United States, the most common viral causes of encephalitis are arboviruses, herpes viruses, enteroviruses, and coxsackieviruses. (adam.com)
  • Arboviruses, short for "arthropod-borne viruses," are spread by mosquitoes and ticks. (adam.com)
  • There is no treatment for encephalitis caused by arboviruses. (adam.com)
  • Viruses carried by arthropods such as mosquitoes or ticks are known collectively as arboviruses . (bingj.com)
  • On the territory of Ukrainian Polissya there are favourable conditions for the formation of natural foci of mainly those types of arboviruses and bacterial infections, which are transmitted by ticks - tick-borne viral encephalitis, Tribec, Uukuniemi, ixodid tick-borne borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), others. (intechopen.com)
  • Approximately 100 of the more than 520 known arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) cause human disease. (educate-yourself.org)
  • Some rodents live in close association with humans offering numerous opportunities for cross-species viral transmission through their urine, feces, or their arthropod ectoparasites such as ticks, mites, and fleas [2] - [8] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Royal Farm virus, previously known as Karshi virus, was not viewed as pathogenic or harmful to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although some larvae have preferred hosts, most ticks in the nymph or adult phase will attach a get a blood meal from several different kinds of animals, including humans. (medicinenet.com)
  • Ticks feed on blood and can bite humans or animals. (rxlist.com)
  • Ticks are small insects that bite humans and can often transmit disease. (rxlist.com)
  • Many organisms that bite humans for a blood meal are not ticks and should not be confused with ticks. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • In laboratories working with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), the virus can be transmitted to humans through needlestick injury and lead to serious acute illness up to meningitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus is transmitted to humans and animals through tick bites and is thought to circulate in very strictly defined natural environments called natural foci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A group of researchers led by Michael Diamond of Washington University in St. Louis have developed a vaccine that is effective in mice against Powassan virus, an emerging tick-borne virus that can cause life-threatening encephalitis in humans. (news-medical.net)
  • Humans who have to travel all over the world face different climatic change, thus prompting the spread of disease-bearing insects to wider parts of the world. (medindia.net)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infectious disease caused by TBE virus and is transmitted by the bite of an infected tick to humans. (medindia.net)
  • This means that more humans are exposed to viral infections such as Dengue fever, Chikungunya, Zika, West Nile fever, Yellow fever and Tick-borne encephalitis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Humans can be infected by a tick bite or through consuming unpasteurised dairy products that do not meet EU safety standards and have come from infected animals. (eurekalert.org)
  • An acarine of the families Ixodidae (hard ticks) or Argasidae (soft ticks), which contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of humans and domestic birds and mammals, and that probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents that they transmit. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although typical manifestation of WNV is asymptomatical, the virus can cross the blood-brain barrier and cause severe illness, paralysis, and even death in humans and animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, female mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens species are of particular concern, as they live in suburban and urban areas, can survive through the winter, prefer to feed on birds, and frequently bite humans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The herpes virus family includes at least 8 distinct viruses that cause infections in humans. (adam.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Western equine encephalitis (WEE) occur in the United States where they cause disease in humans, horses, and some bird species. (bingj.com)
  • Humans have increasingly come in contact with ticks as they expand their outdoor recreational activities and move their homes to rural environments. (springer.com)
  • Antibodies to this Virus have been isolated from humans from other parts of Africa, Asia and Europe, suggesting that it may be more widespread. (blogspot.com)
  • This comes handy when dealing with situations where not much is known about a given virus, either because it was recently discovered, or because it just recently emerged or reemerged in humans. (bioline.org.br)
  • Their interest was to estimate which polymorphism humans do share with chimpanzees and from it, the amount of polymorphism that was passed along from a putative ancestral species to us. (bioline.org.br)
  • POWV can also be transmitted to humans, which are incidental, dead-end hosts for the virus (Hermance ME, et al ). (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • With no vaccine, "breakbone" fever is considered the most serious mosquito-borne viral disease affecting humans. (matadornetwork.com)
  • Once infected birds can become carriers, while due to the low concentration of the virus in humans almost all can not transfer the viurs to mosquitoes. (kenyon.edu)
  • WN fever was initially considered a minor arbovirosis, usually inducing a nonsymptomatic or a mild flu-like illness in humans, but some cases of encephalitis associated with fatalities were reported in Israel in the 1950s. (springer.com)
  • In Romania, a few cases of WN encephalitis in humans are noticed every year, and in France, recent WN infections have been detected in monitored sentinel birds in 2001 and 2002. (springer.com)
  • WNV and JEV-two major encephalitic viruses in horses and humans [ 8 , 9 ]-belong to the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex which is composed of eight virus species and two subtypes [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Yellow fever virus (YFV) is primarily maintained in a sylvatic cycle involving non-human primates and Aedes mosquitoes, but it has shown the capacity to adapt to transmission in urban areas using Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and humans as its primary reservoir. (caister.com)
  • West Nile encephalitis is a type of infectious encephalitis caused by West Nile virus. (encephalitis.info)
  • Royal Farm virus has a one-way antigenic relationship with West Nile virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar relationship with West Nile virus has been shown in Usutu virus isolated from Coquillettidia aurites in Uganda. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this is a reverse type of relationship as compared with that between Royal Farm and West Nile viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • It cannot be excluded that Royal Farm virus appeared due to antigenic drift in a genetically isolated population of West Nile virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mosquito-borne viruses - West Nile virus (WNV) is one of several viruses in the US that can infect people. (tn.gov)
  • West Nile virus information (English) Fight the Bite. (tn.gov)
  • Two well-known vector-borne illnesses in Canada are West Nile virus and Lyme disease. (cpha.ca)
  • West Nile virus is transmitted by mosquitoes of the Culex genus and was introduced into Canada in 2001. (cpha.ca)
  • It is the second most reported mosquito-borne disease in North America behind West Nile virus. (cpha.ca)
  • Chen CC, Jenkins E, Epp T, Waldner C, Curry PS, Soos C. Climate change and West Nile virus in a highly endemic region of North America. (cpha.ca)
  • 4. The immunotherapeutic composition of claim 4 wherein the monoclonal antibody is capable of binding a conformational epitope of West Nile virus E protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The immunotherapeutic composition of claim 4, wherein the West Nile virus E protein epitope comprises threonine residue 332. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The immunotherapeutic composition of claim 5, wherein the West Nile virus E protein epitope further comprises an amino acid residue selected from the group consisting of Ser 306, Lys 307 and Thr 330. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The immunotherapeutic composition of claim 6, wherein the West Nile virus E protein epitope further comprises an amino acid residue selected from the group consisting of Asn 368 and Gln 391. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Two other flaviruses, West Nile virus and Powassan virus, caused fetal demise. (sciencemag.org)
  • Louping ill virus, West Nile virus) was observed for Louping-ill-positive sera only. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rabbit anti West Nile Virus antibody recognizes the ~14 kDa core protein of West Nile Virus (WNV). (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • West Nile Virus particles consist of a dense core made up of the core/capsid protein encapsulating the RNA genome surrounded by a membrane envelope containing envelope and matrix proteins. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • West Nile Virus is spread by mosquitos and is believed to have originated in the West Nile region of Africa but has now spread to Europe, Asia and America where it has become a significant disease affecting human and domestic animal health. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Antiserum to human West Nile Virus core protein was raised by repeated immunisation of rabbits with highly purified antigen. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • A peptide corresponding to an 15 amino acid sequence from near the carboxy terminus of West Nile Virus core protein. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Sequence-Specific Fidelity Alterations Associated with West Nile Virus Attenuation in Mosquitoes. (wadsworth.org)
  • West Nile virus adaptation to ixodid tick cells is associated with phenotypic trade-offs in primary hosts. (wadsworth.org)
  • The evolution of virulence of West Nile virus in a mosquito vector: implications for arbovirus adaptation and evolution - art. (wadsworth.org)
  • Cooperative interactions in the West Nile virus mutant swarm. (wadsworth.org)
  • As an example, test results on West Nile virus detection in a panel of 340 mosquito pool samples from Greece are presented. (hindawi.com)
  • It could help develop new treatment methods for viruses that target the nervous system such as the Zika or West Nile Encephalitis virus. (news-medical.net)
  • Two viruses closely related to Zika - West Nile and Powassan - can spread from an infected pregnant mouse to her fetuses, causing brain damage and fetal death, according to a new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. (news-medical.net)
  • Most of sequenced West Nile virus (WNV) genomes encode a single N-linked glycosylation site on their envelope (E) proteins. (ajtmh.org)
  • To evaluate the potential for nonviremic transmission (NVT) of West Nile virus (WNV) to occur in nature, we examined the effect of increasing spatial and temporal separation between co-feeding mosquitoes on the efficiency of nonviremic transmission and the potential of a West Nile virus bridge vector species, Aedes albopictus , to be infected via nonviremic transmission. (ajtmh.org)
  • Additionally, nonviremic transmission of West Nile virus from Cx. (ajtmh.org)
  • West Nile fever-a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe. (ajtmh.org)
  • The 2002 introduction of West Nile virus into Harris County, Texas, an area historically endemic for St. Louis encephalitis. (ajtmh.org)
  • Experimental vertical transmission of West Nile virus by Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). (ajtmh.org)
  • Mosquitoes infected with West Nile virus in the Florida Keys, Monroe County, Florida, USA. (ajtmh.org)
  • Ochlerotatus j. japonicus in Frederick County, Maryland: discovery, distribution, and vector competence for West Nile virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • An update on the potential of north American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile Virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Potential for New York mosquitoes to transmit West Nile virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Vector competence of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Vector competence of Culex tarsalis from Orange County, California, for West Nile virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • West Nile virus , Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus , Cryptococcus neoformans (bird droppings), rabies virus . (hopkinsguides.com)
  • In the U.S., West Nile virus is the most common mosquito-borne cause of encephalitis. (adam.com)
  • West Nile virus was accidentally introduced into the United States in 1999 and by 2003 had spread to almost every state with over 3,000 cases in 2006. (bingj.com)
  • West Nile virus expansion in North America. (infoplease.com)
  • 1999) Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. (els.net)
  • Encephalitis is an arthropod-borne disease present in many forms, including St. Louis, equine, La Crosse, and West Nile. (matadornetwork.com)
  • New York experienced outbreaks of both West Nile Virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis in 1999 during its driest and hottest spring and summer in a century. (matadornetwork.com)
  • After genome sequencing, West Nile Virus (lineage II strain 956) was determined to have 10,962 nucleotides with a GC content of 51%, 93% of the RNA is coding, the topology is linear, and it is a ssRNA molecule (2). (kenyon.edu)
  • There have been other cases of West Nile Virus, besides the more recent on in the United States. (kenyon.edu)
  • West Nile Virus was first studied in the West Nile District of Uganda in 1937, but its phylogenetic lineage presents that it became a separate virus about 1000 years ago(6). (kenyon.edu)
  • The onset of West Nile Virus in New York in 1999 raised many health problems for mammals and bird species. (kenyon.edu)
  • The West Nile Virus is transmitted through mosquitoes to either human or bird hosts. (kenyon.edu)
  • Smithburn KC (1942) Differentiation of West Nile virus from the viruses of Saint Louis encephalitis and Japanese B encephalitis. (springer.com)
  • Melnick JL, Paul JR, Riordan JT, Barnett VH, Goldblum N, Zabin E (1951) Isolation from human sera in Egypt of a virus apparently identical to West Nile virus. (springer.com)
  • Work TH, Hurlbut HS, Taylor RM (1955) Indigenous wild birds of the Nile Delta as potential West Nile virus circulating reservoirs. (springer.com)
  • Taylor RM, Work TH, Hurlbut HS, Rizk F (1956) A study of the ecology of West Nile virus in Egypt. (springer.com)
  • George S, Gourie-Devi M, Rao JA, Prasad SR, Pavri KM (1984) Isolation of West Nile virus from the brains of children who had died of encephalitis. (springer.com)
  • Murgue B, Zeller H, Deubel V (2002) The ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in Africa, Europe. (springer.com)
  • In: Mackenzie JS, Barrett ADT, Deubel V (eds) Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses. (springer.com)
  • The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) group, consisting of Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus (WNV) and St Louis encephalitis (SLE), among others , is maintained in a cycle of transmission between passerine birds and Culex mosquitoes. (caister.com)
  • In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. (cdc.gov)
  • The names by which these viruses are known are often place names such as West Nile or Rift Valley, or are based on clinical characteristics like yellow fever. (educate-yourself.org)
  • Zika virus is currently high profile in the news and other media due to the current international spread. (encephalitis.info)
  • We monitor research to ascertain whether there is a heightened risk of developing encephalitis from the Zika Virus. (encephalitis.info)
  • Read more about the virus and its neurological manifestations on our Zika virus page. (encephalitis.info)
  • Zika virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of infected Aedes species mosquitoes which tend to bite mainly during the day. (encephalitis.info)
  • Unfortunately, Zika virus may not be unique in its ability to afflict fetal damage. (sciencemag.org)
  • Effects of Zika Virus Strain and Aedes Mosquito Species on Vector Competence. (wadsworth.org)
  • Recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) also expanded into Southern America, with reports of detection in Europe and USA [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Zika virus has received a lot of media attention due to its association with neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and the development of microcephaly (abnormally small head) in foetuses. (eurekalert.org)
  • July 17, 2018 While first discovered in the African country of Uganda in 1947, Zika virus, carried by mosquitos. (healthmap.org)
  • The Native Antigen Company has launched a series of ground-breaking immunoassays for Zika virus, offering researchers in academia, public health and drug discovery the capability to work with unprecedented levels of specificity and sensitivity. (news-medical.net)
  • The Zika virus poses a significant global risk and there is currently no vaccine or specific treatment available for those infected. (news-medical.net)
  • The Native Antigen Company Zika Virus IgG/IgM/IgA ELISA assay is designed for the detection of Zika-specific antibodies in human serum. (news-medical.net)
  • However, the Zika Virus ELISA has an assay time of only 2 hours, with specificity and sensitivity both in excess of 90%, even in regions endemic with Dengue. (news-medical.net)
  • The launch of these next generation assays represents a significant leap forward for Zika virus detection and monitoring, which to date has always been hampered by Zika's cross-reactivity with dengue. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition to the kits, The Native Antigen Company also offers an extensive range of Zika virus antigens, both expressed as recombinant proteins in a mammalian expression system and as native viral preparations. (news-medical.net)
  • Further products include NS1 proteins (from both the prototypic Uganda strain and from the Suriname strain responsible for the major outbreak in 2016) and Zika Virus-like particles (VLPs). (news-medical.net)
  • Currently Latin America is undergoing a major epidemic of Zika virus, which is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The prevalence of Lyme disease is linked to increased populations of its vector, the black-legged tick (also known as the deer tick). (cpha.ca)
  • Lyme disease blood testing has become a must-have for New Yorkers, as new research revealed that certain areas of the state have high populations of black-legged ticks. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of tick-borne illnesses has risen dramatically in recent years, with 35,000 new cases of Lyme disease reported annually in the U.S. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • A study from the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies shows that black-legged ticks in the Northeast spread more than just Lyme disease - they are also infecting people with other illnesses, such as anaplasmosis, babesiosis and Powassan encephalitis. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • And to add to the issue, Encephalitis can be transmitted in a matter of minutes, unlike Lyme disease and other tick-borne viruses, which are transferred over hours. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • Lyme disease is the most common illness transmitted by ticks, according to the Mayo Clinic. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • A new study published in the journal mBio reports that ticks carry many more disease-causing agents than just those responsible for causing Lyme disease. (news-medical.net)
  • When it comes to problems caused by ticks, Lyme disease hogs a lot of the limelight. (towleroad.com)
  • 50 species of arthropod-borne viruses, with distinct groups infecting mosquitoes or ticks. (ictvonline.org)
  • Powassan virus. (uptodate.com)
  • Powassan virus is endemic to Canada and can cause encephalitis and meningitis as well as permanent neurological damage, but many cases show no symptoms. (cpha.ca)
  • The report examined encephalitis closely, and noted that the virus, which is spread by ticks, is caused by deer tick virus and Powassan virus. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • The report concluded with a call for physicians to look for Powassan encephalitis symptoms. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • Powassan is one of the more rare strains of the virus, but can be life-threatening. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • The Powassan virus was initially discovered in Powassan, Ontario, Canada in 1958. (news-medical.net)
  • Powassan virus was implicated in the death of a New York man earlier this year. (news-medical.net)
  • It was not until after the patient's death that serological testing was able to identify Powassan Virus (POWV) as the disease agent. (healthmap.org)
  • It was first discovered in 1958 in a 5-year-old boy from Powassan, Ontario who had died of severe encephalitis. (healthmap.org)
  • Powassan virus is spread to people by the bite of an infected tick. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Although considered rare, the number of reported cases of people sick from Powassan virus has increased in recent years. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Powassan is an arthropod-borne virus, transmitted by infected ticks to small/medium-sized mammals, which act as reservoirs. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Powassan Virus: An Emerging Arbovirus of Public Health Concern in North America. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • The Native Antigen company now produces Powassan virus NS1 (Non-Structural protein 1) in response to the unmet need for highly purified, concentrated protein for use in serological-based diagnostic assays. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Powassan virus NS1 protein is engineered in human cells using state-of-the-art expression and purification techniques. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • The Native Antigen Company offers a range of monoclonal antibodies that recognise Powassan virus NS1 protein, suitable for the development of specific immunoassays. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Powassan virus: isolation of virus from a fatal case of encephalitis. (mdedge.com)
  • Encephalitis is an inflammation in the brain as a result of viral infections. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • Rapid virus identification and quantification are crucial for accurate diagnosis of ongoing infections, treatment selection, and follow-up, as well as for selection and timely introduction of control measures in outbreaks scenarios. (hindawi.com)
  • The incidence of tickborne infections in the United States has risen significantly within the past decade. (news-medical.net)
  • Viral infections can cause inflammation in multiple areas of the central nervous system, the area of the body that contains the brain and spinal cord. (adam.com)
  • The formation natural foci of tick-borne infections is closely connected to three physically-geographical zones in Ukraine: Ukrainian Polissya (mixed forest zone - (woodlands), Forest-Steppe zone, Steppe zone and two extra-zonal natural areas - Carpathian and Crimean mountains. (intechopen.com)
  • Cable RG, Trouern-Trend J. Tickborne infections. (springer.com)
  • Antibodies to this Virus have also been found in human populations in Europe, Asia and Africa, suggesting that it too may be a more widespread cause of infections than is currently appreciated. (blogspot.com)
  • During the 11-d hospitalization (the first 7 in ICU), doctors ruled out numerous viral infections (e.g., influenza strains, HIV, Epstein-Barr, cytomegalovirus) and blood disorders (e.g., leukemia, lymphoma). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Members are widely distributed in a range of mammalian species, in which they cause persistent infections. (ictvonline.org)
  • His interest in the emergence and spread of novel viral infections began in the late 1980s/early 1990s, as this was a time of the highest rates of HIV-associated deaths and when hepatitis C virus was first identified. (edu.au)
  • The data generated will be used to reveal some of the fundamental roles of virus ecology and evolution, and understand the measurable impact of the novel infections on public and animal health. (edu.au)
  • Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast to the unpredictable epidemics of filoviruses, the Lassa virus is endemic in West Africa with an annual incidence of >300,000 infections, resulting in 5,000-10,000 deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gay and bisexual men bear the greatest burden by risk group, representing nearly 70% of new infections in the U.S. African-Americans also bear a disproportionate burden, representing 43% of people living with HIV, yet representing just 12% of the total population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ticks are arachnids and can be divided into two families known as Ixodidae (hard ticks) and Argasidae (soft ticks). (bmj.com)
  • Soft ticks lack a scutum and their mouthparts are located on the underside and are therefore not visible. (bmj.com)
  • Hard ticks have a three stage life cycle, comprising larval, nymph, and adult stages, whereas soft ticks have two or more additional nymph stages. (bmj.com)
  • The soft ticks feed for up to several hours, whereas adult hard ticks, if left undisturbed, can feed for up to one week until engorgement is reached. (bmj.com)
  • Hard ticks have a scutum, or hard plate, on their back while soft ticks do not. (medicinenet.com)
  • Soft ticks usually feed for less than one hour. (medicinenet.com)
  • Disease transmission can occur in less than a minute with soft ticks. (medicinenet.com)
  • The bite of some of these soft ticks produces intensely painful reactions. (medicinenet.com)
  • They are classified in two families, Ixodidae (hard ticks) and Argasidae (soft ticks), each containing different genera and species of ticks. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Soft ticks have more rounded bodies and do not have the hard scutum found in hard ticks. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The adult soft ticks are about the same size as adult hard ticks (see Figures 1 and 2). (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Soft ticks (family Argasidae) lack this shield. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Soft ticks do not bore into the skin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Of these only one has previously been isolated in North America, Aransas Bay Virus, which was isolated from Soft Ticks ( Ornithodoros spp. (blogspot.com)
  • The tick microbiome comprises communities of microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes, and is being elucidated through modern molecular techniques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain area where it was first identified.Ehrlichiosis is a disease caused by bacteria that are transmitted by the bite of an infected tick. (tn.gov)
  • Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF) is a recurring fever caused due to Borrelia bacteria exposure. (medindia.net)
  • It can be caused by viruses and bacteria, including those transmitted to people by mosquitoes. (infoplease.com)
  • Ticks are blood-feeding ectoparasites that transmit a variety of pathogenic organisms, such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths, many of which can cause various infectious disorders in human and animal hosts ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • There's a short window between when a tick bites and when it passes on bacteria or virus. (towleroad.com)
  • Ticks ingest these bacteria when they drink animals' blood. (towleroad.com)
  • Then when the ticks take a subsequent blood meal, they pass the bacteria along to the next animal or person they feed on. (towleroad.com)
  • Not all tick species are effective transmitters of the rickettsia bacteria. (towleroad.com)
  • So getting bitten by a tick that passes rickettsia bacteria on to you is like getting stuck with a needle in a haystack. (towleroad.com)
  • In the U.S. it's most commonly caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis bacteria, carried by lone star ticks which are common in the eastern U.S. Ehrlichia bacteria infect a type of blood cell called leukocytes. (towleroad.com)
  • It also provides novel discoveries on the ecology, biochemistry and genetics of pathogenic bacteria , viruses, fungus and other infectious parasites. (infectiousconferences.com)
  • Not enough information about the development of the virus in rodent hosts is available, so many researchers have had to infect mice by needle or by allowing an infected tick to feed on them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The needle stuck on a syringe that was used to infect mice with Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) variant clone-13. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ticks in the wild infect rodents, hedgehogs, chipmunks and other animals and birds. (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis can infect pets. (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • These viruses infect pigs and ruminants, including cattle, sheep, goats and wild ruminants, and are transmitted through contact with infected secretions (respiratory droplets, urine or faeces). (ictvonline.org)
  • This genus includes HCV, a major human pathogen causing chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and cancer, and several other viruses of unknown pathogenicity that infect horses, rodents, bats, cows and primates. (ictvonline.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 12021373 Epizootic subtype IAB and IC Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV) readily infect the epizootic mosquito vector Aedes taeniorhynchus. (jove.com)
  • The inability of enzootic subtype IE viruses to infect this mosquito species provides a model system for the identification of natural viral determinants of vector infectivity. (jove.com)
  • To infect the host cell the virus envelop must attach and fuse to the host cell. (kenyon.edu)
  • shows that the basal-most lineages are viruses that have only been isolated from mosquitoes and are not known to infect vertebrates at all. (caister.com)
  • This suggests that the ancestor of the genus may have been a 'mosquito-only' virus that later acquired the ability to infect vertebrates. (caister.com)
  • Tick-borne illnesses - Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is the most severe tick borne illness in the United States and is spread by the bite of infected ticks. (tn.gov)
  • A new segmented RNA virus discovered by researchers in northeastern China is linked to febrile illness in dozens of patients. (medindia.net)
  • When the insect feeds on another animal or human, the virus can be transmitted through the bite and cause serious illness. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Others may experience a mild transient illness, but do not develop full-blown encephalitis. (adam.com)
  • Nearly 700 million people get a mosquito-borne illness each year resulting in over one million deaths. (bingj.com)
  • Symptoms range from mild flu-like illness to encephalitis, coma and death. (bingj.com)
  • Thogoto Virus was found in two patients in Nigeria in 1966, an adult male with a febrile illness who later developed neuromyelitis optica (expand) and a fourteen-year-old boy who developed meningitis and died of complications of Sickle Cell Anemia. (blogspot.com)
  • Alerted to the possibility of a tick-borne illness, physicians started the patient on intravenous doxycycline, a broad spectrum tetracycline antibiotic. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • State vector-borne disease watchers said there have been no reports of the Seoul virus causing illness in California except among people who already were sick when they entered the state. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Most tick bites do not transmit harmful microbes. (medicinenet.com)
  • It has been shown in Austria for the first time, a sub-tropical tick species that can transmit the life-threatening Crimean-Congo fever Virus. (ehealthweek2010.org)
  • Different tick species transmit POWV including hard ticks, of the family Ixodidae , though species vary according to the geographical region. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • This diverse genus includes approximately 70 distinct virus species ( 8 , 33 , 49 ). (asm.org)
  • Most common names represent a genus of ticks. (rxlist.com)
  • It is particularly challenging to balance specificity at genus level with equal sensitivity towards each target species. (hindawi.com)
  • The genus Thogotovirus is a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae, which also includes Influenza Viruses. (blogspot.com)
  • Ixodid Ticks of the genus Amblyomma are parasites of Mammals found on all continents except Europe and Antarctica, but at their most diverse in South America, with 31 species described from Brazil alone (46% of all known Tick species from Brazil). (blogspot.com)
  • Several species of mosquitoes, primarily in the genus Aedes , have been transmitting these viruses and their direct ancestors among African primates for millennia allowing for coadaptation among viruses, mosquitoes, and primates. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • About 104 species of ticks from 12 genera have been known in Southeast Asia, and the most species-rich genus is Haemaphysalis, with about 52 species or 30% of the world fauna (Petney et al. (pasteur.la)
  • Bunyavirus - This genus consists of a large number of serologically grouped and ungrouped viruses. (ivis.org)
  • Between autumn 2016 and spring 2018 ticks were collected by the flagging method in a new TBE focus in the district of northern Saxony, Germany, outside the known risk areas as defined by the national Robert Koch Institute. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2018 was a record year for tick - 2019 could be worse In the year 2018, the highest number of ticks was seen, which was ever documented in Germany - a record-breaking year for ticks. (ehealthweek2010.org)
  • Many other antibody-mediated causes of encephalitis exist, reviewed by Dalmau NEJM 2018 [5] . (hopkinsguides.com)
  • Todate, there are very limited data regarding GGE virus and its epidemiology. (igi-global.com)
  • Other areas of interest included host factors that influence virus replication, in-depth analysis of virus transcription and its effect on host gene expression, and multiple discussions of virus pathology, epidemiology as well as new avenues of diagnosis and treatment. (mdpi.com)
  • Small rodents are thought to be the main amplifying hosts, although wild ungulates contribute indirectly by providing blood meals for adult ticks, thereby maintaining the vector populations necessary for virus transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat) collected in California and Virginia. (prolekare.cz)
  • This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in mammals. (prolekare.cz)
  • The transmission cycle of members of the M-TBFV complex involves ixodid ticks and rodents. (wikipedia.org)
  • This virus has also been isolated in various rodents, wild animals, and pets. (healthmap.org)
  • Seoul virus in patients and rodents from Beijing, China. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Borrelia miyamotoi is distantly related to B. burgdorferi transovarially and transstadially by ticks and coexists with and transmitted by the same hard-body tick species. (cdc.gov)
  • Metoder för snabb överföring och lokalisering av Borrelia Patogener Inom Tick Gut Toru Kariu 1 , Adam S. Coleman 1 , John F. Anderson 2 , Utpal Pal 1 1 Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, 2 Department of Entomology, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Borrelia studier kräver ofta generering av fästingar infekterade med patogenen Borrelia burgdorferi, en process som normalt tar flera veckor. (jove.com)
  • Another tick-borne bacterial disease to worry about is human granulocytic anaplasmosis . (towleroad.com)
  • Hosts were infested with up to six species of ectoparasites simultaneously. (springer.com)
  • 80% of the hosts in urban and forest areas hosting ticks and around 60% of hosts presenting fleas, and only 20-40% of hosts presenting mites. (springer.com)
  • Its territory hosts 301 vertebral species, among them 183 species of nesting and non-migrating birds, 64 species of mammals. (intechopen.com)
  • During blood feeding and salivation, pathogenic microorganisms are delivered from infected ticks to hosts. (frontiersin.org)
  • All these will promote our understanding of the diversity of TBVs, and will facilitate the further investigation of TBVs in association with both ticks and vertebrate hosts. (virosin.org)
  • The virus has a variety of different hosts to choose from with dozens of bird species and more than 100 mosquito species in the United States. (kenyon.edu)
  • His work has helped define the barriers faced by viruses as they emerge in new hosts, determine the range of transmission patterns exhibited by emerging viruses, and establish genetic models for host switching. (edu.au)
  • Bornaviridae has only one species and horses and sheep appear to be the principal natural hosts. (ivis.org)
  • The most frequent factor in emergence is human behaviour that increases the probability of transfer of viruses from their endogenous animal hosts to man. (educate-yourself.org)
  • Maintenance hosts are essential for the continued existence of the virus, usually living in symbiosis with the viruses, without actual disease, but they do develop antibodies. (educate-yourself.org)
  • Link hosts bridge a gap between maintenance hosts and man, for example, between small mammals and man by goats (via milk) in tick-borne encephalitis. (educate-yourself.org)
  • Our ultimate goal is to design a series of novel anti-helicase compounds as drug candidates against the endemic GGE virus while the inhibitory activity of our novel compounds will be evaluated biologically. (igi-global.com)
  • Greek Goat Encephalitis (GGE) virus was discovered as an endemic virus species in Greece. (igi-global.com)
  • Viral tick-borne encephalitis and acute borreliosis are highly endemic to this region. (cdc.gov)
  • The term arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) is often used to refer to any virus of vertebrates transmitted by an arthropod. (ivis.org)
  • Here, we provide a review of NGS strategies for tick microbiome studies and discuss the recent findings from tick NGS investigations, including the bacterial diversity and composition, influential factors, and implications of the tick microbiome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Ehrlichiosis is another bacterial disease transmitted from ticks to people. (towleroad.com)
  • Hard ticks have a shield-like scutum on their dorsal side and visible mouthparts that protrude forward. (bmj.com)
  • Larval hard ticks are typically 0.5 mm long (the size of a poppy seed) and have six legs. (bmj.com)
  • The hard ticks tend to attach and feed for hours to days. (medicinenet.com)
  • Hard ticks have a tough back plate or scutum that defines their appearance. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Figure 1 shows several hard ticks and the various stages in their life cycle. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Hard ticks (family Ixodidae) have a smooth, hard cover that shields the entire back of the male but only the anterior portion of the back in the female. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Moreover, CGs were reported to be effective against several DNA and RNA viral species such as influenza, human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, coronavirus, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and Ebola virus. (cdc.gov)
  • In December 2013 cases of the haemorrhagic Virus Ebola began to be reported from the village of. (blogspot.com)
  • In the first of a two-part series, we discuss the history of the Ebola virus up to the ongoing outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and why this disease has been so challenging to fight. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Airlines have cancelled more than a third of international flights to three west African countries over fears that an outbreak of the Ebola virus could spread, as more African countries introduce measures to block visitors from affected areas. (thechristianobserver.net)
  • These airlines banned flights because the British, French and other countries resorted to common sense to contain the spread of the Ebola virus. (thechristianobserver.net)
  • The CDC actually owns a patent on one strain of the Ebola virus. (thechristianobserver.net)
  • This virus continues to spread at an exponential rate, and now we have learned that there are confirmed cases of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo. (thechristianobserver.net)
  • Ebola and Other Filoviruses Ebola, Sudan, and Marburg viruses are the most virulent species of the Filoviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lassa Fever Lassa fever virus, a member of the Arenaviridae family, causes severe and often fatal hemorrhagic illnesses in an overlapping region with Ebola. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in the incidence is observed in spring and summer, as It is at these times of the year that ixodid ticks are most active. (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis is an infectious encephalitis caused by Japanese encephalitis virus transmitted by mosquitoes, called 'Culex' mosquitoes. (encephalitis.info)
  • Although numerous viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes, four have caused the most human suffering over the centuries and continuing today. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Malaria and other disease can be transmitted by mosquitoes (most commonly), flies, and ticks. (adam.com)
  • In vitro feeding of serum or blood collected from vaccinated animals to ticks did not affect tick feeding, indicating that antibodies alone were not responsible for the observed vaccine immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plasmid DNA launches live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus and elicits virus-neutralizing antibodies in BALB/c mice. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Antibodies to PUUV, Tula virus (TULV), and Seoul virus (SEOV) have been found in rodent populations in the Netherlands, and TULV has been isolated from common voles (Microtus arvalis) (5,6). (freethesaurus.com)
  • Abcam's anti-Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus IgG Human in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the accurate quantitative measurement of IgG class antibodies against Tick-borne encephalitis virus in Human serum and plasma. (abcam.com)
  • A 96-well plate has been precoated with Tick-borne encephalitis antigens to bind cognate antibodies. (abcam.com)
  • Following washing, a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labelled anti-Human IgG conjugate is added to the wells, which binds to the immobilized Tick-borne encephalitis-specific antibodies. (abcam.com)
  • They include Rocky Mountain spotted fever ( Rickettsia rickettsii found in the US), Mediterranean spotted fever ( R conorii found in the Mediterranean), and African tick bite fever ( R africae found in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean). (bmj.com)
  • Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management. (canarydatabase.org)
  • According to the Mayo Clinic, signs of the virus include headache, fatigue, fever and aches - basic flu-like symptoms. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • Others seen with fluctuating frequencies: St. Louis encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, La Crosse encephalitis virus, Colorado tick fever. (hopkinsguides.com)
  • Transmission of Colorado tick fever virus by blood transfusion - Montana. (springer.com)
  • In late spring 2014 a previously healthy man in his 50s was admitted to a hospital in Bourbon County, Kansas, suffering from Tick bites and a fever. (blogspot.com)
  • The clinical presentation of patients suffering from encephalitis encompasses the triad of headaches , altered level of consciousness and fever . (symptoma.com)
  • These symptoms are used to distinguish encephalitis from other similar conditions such as ADEM , in which visual disturbances and signs of spinal cord involvement are frequent, and encephalopathy , where fever and focal neurological deficits are rarely present [5]. (symptoma.com)
  • Mountain tick fever 52. (symptoma.com)
  • The initial manifestations of this virus are sudden onset high fever, headache, chills, rashes, myalgia and intense joint pain. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • When people get sick with Rocky Mountain spotted fever, they usually come to a clinic with three things: fever, rash and history of tick bite. (towleroad.com)
  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever organisms generally take between one and three hours for transmission to occur, so attached ticks need to be removed quickly. (towleroad.com)
  • The range where various species of ticks live in North America may be expanding due to climate change . (towleroad.com)
  • The Natural History of Ticks The Medical Clinics of North America. (jove.com)
  • Consider the possibility of tick-borne illnesses in all patients with febrile illnesses. (medscape.com)
  • What Are the Different Types of Tick-Borne Illnesses? (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Outbreaks of tick-related illnesses follow seasonal patterns (about April to September in the U.S.) as ticks evolve from larvae to adults. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • This past summer, The Disease Daily reported on emerging and re-emerging tick-borne illnesses in the United States. (healthmap.org)
  • While media coverage tends to concentrate on these more prominent illnesses, a recent report released by the CDC focuses its attention on a lesser known, but very real, threat presented by ticks. (healthmap.org)
  • POW encephalitis mirrors signs of similar arthropod-borne illnesses, such as eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) or La Crosse encephalitis (LAC). (healthmap.org)
  • The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. (prolekare.cz)
  • Natural foci of some viral zoonoses in Croatia. (canarydatabase.org)
  • This article aims to review the evidence base for tick bite prevention and tick removal strategies. (bmj.com)
  • The two calves vaccinated with whole TPE and midgut extract (ME) showed hyperemia on tick bite sites 2 days post tick infestation and exudative blisters were observed in the ME-vaccinated animal, signs that were suggestive of a delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • People get infected following a tick bite from on infected tick. (encephalitis.info)
  • When injected with Royal Farm virus, 90% of Ornithodoros ticks (44/49) transmitted this virus by bite to suckling mice, and transmission continued to occur for at least 1 year "ICTV Taxonomy history: Karshi virus" (html). (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a wide range of symptoms that usually develop days to weeks after the tick bite. (medicinenet.com)
  • Except for a few species of larval ticks, the immature phases (larvae, nymphs) usually are even less selective about where they get a blood meal and are known to bite snakes, amphibians, birds, and mammals. (medicinenet.com)
  • In most circumstances, it is not the tick bite but the toxins, secretions, or organisms in the tick's saliva transmitted through the bite that cause disease. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The virus can be brought from the bite to the mucosa. (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • This skin appearance must occur after a tick bite, however, is mandatory. (ehealthweek2010.org)
  • Transmission of the virus occurs from the bite of an infected arthropod (i.e. a mosquito)(7). (kenyon.edu)
  • Pathogenic microorganisms transmitted by ticks have taken on expanded public health significance during the last several decades. (springer.com)
  • Ticks are small bloodsucking arthropods. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • These viruses are usually spread by the bites of arthropods, but some can also be transmitted by other means, for example through milk, excreta or aerosols. (educate-yourself.org)
  • FE-specific RT-LAMP assay amplified viral genes of Oshima and Sofjin strains but not of IR-99 and Hochosterwitz strains, and of Japanese encephalitis virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RT-LAMP assay for Sib and for Eu specifically amplified viral genes of IR-99 and Hochosterwitz strains, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also showed that tick or human blood extract did not inhibit the amplification of viral gene during the assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As microbiomes are typically composed of hundreds of microbial species [ 11 , 12 ], laboratory methods that are capable of identifying multiple species simultaneously in a single assay offer great advantages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Evaluation of the Biofire FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis assay for the detection of Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Development of an improved RT-qPCR Assay for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) RNA including a systematic review and comprehensive comparison with published methods. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A blood specimen tested positive for Seoul virus immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Seoul virus RNA was detected by reverse transcription--polymerase chain reaction testing. (freethesaurus.com)
  • The order Rodentia is the single largest group of mammalian species accounting for 40% of all mammal species [1] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Earlier studies showed that when the prM and E proteins of tick-borne encephalitis virus are expressed together in mammalian cells, they assemble into membrane-containing, icosahedrally symmetrical recombinant subviral particles (RSPs), which are smaller than whole virions but retain functional properties and undergo cleavage maturation, yielding a mature form in which the E proteins are arranged in a regular T = 1 icosahedral lattice. (asm.org)
  • Attempt to detect evidence for tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks and mammalian wildlife in The Netherlands. (canarydatabase.org)
  • Encephalitis antigen is suitable for ELISA and Western blots, excellent antigen for detection of Tick-borne encephalitis virus with minimal specificity problems. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • We report of well-documented LCMV-meningitis of a laboratory worker after needlestick injury confirmed by serological tests and direct detection of viral RNA in blood by PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, it is too difficult to distinguish the various etiologic agents based on clinical signs and symptoms, which makes the accurate and timely laboratory detection of viruses important in early diagnosis of arboviral encephalitis. (scirp.org)
  • Hemocytic rickettsia-like organisms in ticks: serologic reactivity with antisera to Ehrlichiae and detection of DNA of agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by PCR. (mdedge.com)
  • Detection and genetic characterization of Seoul virus from commensal brown rats in France. (freethesaurus.com)
  • This study will determine whether it is safe and effective to administer Japanese encephalitis (JE) live attenuated SA 14-14-2 vaccine at the same time as measles vaccine. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a leading identified cause of encephalitis in Asia, often occurring in rural areas with poor access to laboratory diagnostics. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a major cause of encephalitis in Asia, and the commonest cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis worldwide. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We describe novel plasmid DNA that encodes the full-length Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genomic cDNA and launches live-attenuated JEV vaccine in vitro and in vivo. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Updated estimation of the impact of a Japanese encephalitis immunization program with live, attenuated SA 14-14-2 vaccine in Nepal. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne disease that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in many Asian countries. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Tsai TF, Chang G‐JJ and Yu YX (1998) Japanese encephalitis vaccines. (els.net)
  • The Japanese encephalitis virus is present in Asia, from Japan to India and Pakistan, and outbreaks are erratic and spatially and temporally limited phenomena, occurring quite unpredictably, even if all conditions appear to be present in a definite place. (europa.eu)
  • The spread of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) lead to the first reports of the virus in the United States in 1999. (kenyon.edu)
  • Mosquito-borne viruses are grouped into serocomplexes such as the dengue or Japanese encephalitis serocomplexes on the basis of their antigenic relationships [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • There are many common names for various ticks (for example, dog tick, deer tick, and African tick), and these names appear in the scientific literature, too. (rxlist.com)
  • And we suspected it was tied to an increase in black-legged ticks carrying deer tick virus, particularly on the east side of the Hudson River. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • Of fourteen individuals testing seropositive for deer tick virus, 10 were residents of Westchester, Putnam, or Dutchess counties. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • POWV is assigned to lineage I and Deer tick virus (DTV), to lineage II. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Babesiosis in Washington State: A new species of Babesia ? (springer.com)
  • Human babesiosis: an emerging tick-borne disease. (springer.com)
  • In order to treat severe cases of encephalitis, it's important to detect it early on. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • Development of new diagnostic and prevention methods for major animal viruses (foot and mouth disease, bluetongue, equine viruses, etc. (anses.fr)
  • Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is an autoimmune disease that causes psychiatric features, confusion, memory loss and seizures followed by a movement disorder, loss of consciousness and changes in blood pressure, heart rate and temperature. (encephalitis.info)
  • Disease transmission usually occurs near the end of a meal, as the tick becomes full of blood. (medicinenet.com)
  • Disease transmission from these ticks can occur in less than a minute. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Heartland viral disease -- Amblyomma americanum or lone star tick (hard tick) -- new viral disease discovered in 2012 in South/Central U.S. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Despite the presence of B. miyamotoi in vector ticks, to our knowledge, human disease caused by this spirochete has not been definitively established. (cdc.gov)
  • A research team has discovered a protein without which cells infected by viruses cannot trigger an immune response, leading to 100% mortality with even non-disease-producing strains. (news-medical.net)
  • A recent report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that warns of a recent surge of tick-borne disease incidence in the United States was no surprise to Massachusetts State Public Health Veterinarian Dr. Catherine Brown and microbiology professor Stephen Rich, director of the Laboratory of Medical Zoology at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. (news-medical.net)
  • Spurred on by climate change, international travel and international trade, disease-bearing insects are spreading to ever-wider parts of the world. (eurekalert.org)
  • Global warming has allowed mosquitoes, ticks and other disease-bearing insects to proliferate, adapt to different seasons, migrate and spread to new niche areas that have become warmer. (eurekalert.org)
  • 4 Department of Plant Sciences and Entomology, Center for Vecto-Borne Disease, College of the Environment and Life Sciences, University of Rhode Island, 231 Woodward Hall, Kingston, RI 02881. (lymediseaseassociation.org)
  • This is a natural focal viral disease (the causative agent of which circulates among animals), in which there is a defeat of the central nervous system, and in which cerebral, meningeal and focal symptoms are manifested. (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • In some parts of the disease, other tick species can cause the disease. (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that ticks be removed intact with fine-tip tweezers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other species of Aedes as well as Culex and Culiseta are also involved in the transmission of disease. (bingj.com)
  • The disease usually progresses to viral encephalitis , or inflammation of the brain, which can cause severe brain damage. (healthmap.org)
  • During the same period, new etiologic agents of disease transmitted by ticks have emerged, while the geographic distribution of existing agents has expanded. (springer.com)
  • Transmission of tick-borne agents of disease by blood transfusion: a review of known and potential risks in the United States. (springer.com)
  • In: 2000 Annual Report, Vector-Borne Disease Section, California Department of Health Services:20-22. (springer.com)
  • To develop local capacity building and competencies on ticks systematics/bionomics and tick-borne disease identification. (pasteur.la)
  • The optimal conditions for estimation from the viral titers in CNS had been BIIB-024 thought as 8C16 times post disease. (bi-2536.info)
  • In fact, the number of tick-borne disease cases is on the rise in the United States. (towleroad.com)
  • Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. (bioline.org.br)
  • Although not all viral agents cause disease and some may in fact be considered beneficial, the present situation of overpopulation, poverty and ecological inbalance may have devastating effets on human progress. (bioline.org.br)
  • If IG needs to be administered because of imminent exposure to disease, live virus vaccines may be administered simultaneously with IG recognizing that vaccine-induced immunity may be compromised. (cdc.gov)
  • Akabane, Peaton and Aino viruses (members of the Simbu serogroup), which cause disease in sheep and cattle (described below under Akabane Disease). (ivis.org)
  • Even more measures were taken to keep doctors and nurses from getting the disease, but now just a couple of weeks later we have learned that a total of 240 health workers have contracted the virus and more than 120 of them have died. (thechristianobserver.net)
  • Because arthropod transmission plays a very large part in infectious animal disease, specifically potential emergent virus epidemics, I will dedicate the next part of this essay to a discussion of them. (educate-yourself.org)
  • First isolation of La Crosse virus from naturally infected Aedes albopictus . (cpha.ca)
  • Sequence comparison of the entire E gene of the isolated virus strains resembled each other with only 3 nucleotide differences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most closely related viral sequences belong to TBE virus strains from Poland and Neustadt an der Waldnaab (county of Neustadt an der Waldnaab, Bavaria), approximately 200 km east and 200 km south-west of the new focus, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been shown that several animal species, including mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, and bovines, can develop resistance to tick feeding after single or repeated tick infestation, even though the expression of acquired resistance varies, depending the combination of different tick species and animal species/strains ( 4 , 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • If the symptoms become apparent after being bitten by a tick or having spent time in a wooded area, one should see a physician immediately. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • Symptoms of viral encephalitis appear within several days to weeks of exposure to the virus. (adam.com)
  • Many people exposed to encephalitis-causing viruses have no symptoms. (adam.com)
  • In 1998, a virulent WN strain from lineage I was identified in dying migrating storks and domestic geese showing clinical symptoms of encephalitis and paralysis in Israel. (springer.com)
  • 2001), the main cause of viral encephalitis in children in the US. (cpha.ca)
  • It is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with 30-50,000 cases reported annually. (europa.eu)
  • The report included counties Dutchess, Putnam, Westchester, Sullivan, Ulster, Orange and Rockland - areas east of the Hudson that had the highest concentrations of adult ticks carrying viruses. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • It was found that there is no proof of replication of Karshi virus in the mosquito species that were tested, however, Karshi virus replication was seen in three species of Ornithodoros ticks tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that RNA helicases, which are involved in duplex unwinding during viral RNA replication, represent promising antiviral targets. (igi-global.com)
  • Each of these proteins fulfills important functions during entry and viral replication in the host cell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The family Flavivirdae has at least 68 viruses that have similar replication processes and are morphologically, morphogenetically, and biochemically similar (4). (kenyon.edu)
  • Since the virus is so small it can not carry all the necessary enzymes and proteins to complete its replication processes. (kenyon.edu)
  • transmitted by the Lone Star tick ( Amblyomma americanum ). (hopkinsguides.com)
  • By the next day, they were identified as nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum L. (Acari: Ixodidae) (Fig. 1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Positively Charged Amino Acid Substitutions in the E2 Envelope Glycoprotein Are Associated with the Emergence of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Journal of Virology. (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 11799167 Epidemic-epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses (VEEV) have emerged repeatedly via convergent evolution from enzootic predecessors. (jove.com)
  • Such severe encephalitis can be fatal. (adam.com)
  • Many survivors of severe encephalitis have long-term mental or physical problems, depending on the specific areas of the brain affected. (adam.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus causes 13,000 cases of human meningitis and encephalitis annually. (novusbio.com)
  • Diagnostic test accuracy of the BioFire® FilmArray® meningitis/encephalitis panel: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A review of a 13-month period of FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis panel implementation as a first-line diagnosis tool at a university hospital. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of meningitis and encephalitis is essential for reducing both their morbidity and mortality. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis (FA-M/E) panel is a recently availabl. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Meningitis and encephalitis management in the ICU. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Management of patients with meningitis and encephalitis oftentimes requires ICU level of care. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This article is an update on management for meningitis and encephalitis with focus on clinical care in th. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel (hereinafter referred to as FilmArray ME Panel) is a qualitative multiplexed nucleic acid-based in vitro diagnostic test intended for use w. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Etiology of Orphan Community-based Meningitis and Meningo-encephalitis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The primary purpose of this study is to assess the contribution of a non-invasive sampling (pharyngeal swab) in the diagnosis of community based meningitis or meningo-encephalitis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It is likely that other cases of suspected encephalitis or meningitis were caused by this virus, but were not reported as POWV. (healthmap.org)
  • Some patients develop neurological complications, which include encephalitis, aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • This mosquito also carries La Crosse virus (Gerhardt R.R., Gottfried K.L., Apperson C.S., Davis B.S., Erwin P.C., Smith A.B., et al. (cpha.ca)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a type of infectious encephalitis that is caused by a virus spread by ticks. (encephalitis.info)
  • Usually mosquitoes or ticks. (tn.gov)
  • During spring and autumn 2001, we screened 13,260 migrating birds at Ottenby Bird Observatory, Sweden, and found 3.4% were infested with ticks. (cdc.gov)
  • Research indicates that the viral core protein contributes to the WNV-associated inflammation via apoptosis induced though the caspase-9 pathway. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Encephalitis (2013 International Encephalitis Consortium): defined as brain inflammation associated with neurologic dysfunction ( see Diagnostic Criteria for Encephalitis and Encephalopathy of Presumed Infectious or Autoimmune Etiology table ) [1] . (hopkinsguides.com)
  • Encephalitis is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening inflammation of the brain that can occur in people of all ages. (adam.com)
  • These types of viruses cause encephalitis, which is an inflammation of the brain and spinal chord (myelitis). (kenyon.edu)
  • Encephalopathy: this is not encephalitis, rather altered mental status or other cognitive impairments with or without brain inflammation. (hopkinsguides.com)
  • A strong correlation between Dermacentor reticulatus ticks and M. glareolus , in comparison to that between D. reticulatus and A. flavicollis , has been reported [ 7 ]. (springer.com)
  • it is rarely found in other tick species and in Dermacentor reticulatus it has, so far, only been reported in Poland. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2. Any of various usually wingless insects that resemble a tick, such as a sheep ked. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The aim of this study was to assess the species diversity and parameters influencing the mean intensity and prevalence of macroscopically visible ectoparasites, such as fleas, predatory mites and ticks. (springer.com)
  • Polyparasitism was a key influencing factor and had a positive effect on the prevalence and/or abundance of the predominant tick, flea and mite species occurring on small mammals. (springer.com)
  • Season, trapping location, host species and sex of the host species also had an influence on the prevalence and mean intensity of certain, but not all, ectoparasite species. (springer.com)
  • Epidemiological studies aimed at better understanding circulation and prevalence among certain wild and domestic animal species (e.g. (anses.fr)
  • Therefore rapid immunologic and molecular tools for differential diagnosis of arboviral encephalitis viruses are important for effective case management and control of the spread of encephalitis. (scirp.org)
  • An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of viral encephalitis. (adam.com)
  • Robust diagnosis therefore needs to be validated through virus neutralisation tests (VNTs) which are time-consuming and require BSL3 facilities. (hindawi.com)