Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins: Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.FucoseGlucosamineVirion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Galactose Oxidase: An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.PolysaccharidesHemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase: A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Receptors, Concanavalin A: Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Blood Platelet Disorders: Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Herpesvirus 1, Suid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Bunyaviridae: A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Electron Microscope Tomography: A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.Glycoside HydrolasesSolubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Tunicamycin: An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase: An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Isopropyl Thiogalactoside: A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Uukuniemi virus: A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE, infecting vertebrates and vectored by ticks. It has not been associated with human disease though antibodies have been isolated from human sera.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Monensin: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases: A subclass of exopeptidases that includes enzymes which cleave either two or three AMINO ACIDS from the end of a peptide chain.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.TritiumProtein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Protein PrecursorsSialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Vaccinia: The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Ristocetin: An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Receptor, IGF Type 2: A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
... the capsid is contained within a host-derived membrane altered by two viral glycoproteins. The prime method of spread of the ... these genes encode seven nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. The RNA strand is held within a nucleocapsid ... West Nile fever is a viral infection typically spread by mosquitoes. In about 75% of infections people have few or no symptoms ... Vertical transmission, the transmission of a viral or bacterial disease from the female of the species to her offspring, has ...
These glycoproteins allow for attachment and fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Fusion of these membranes allows the viral ... These viruses also contain proteins on the surface of the cell membrane called glycoproteins. Type A and B have two ... effect of influenza virus glycoproteins on the membrane association of M1 protein". J. Virol. 74 (18): 8709-19. PMC 116382 . ... Subtype C has 7 RNA segments and encodes 9 proteins, while types A and B have 8 RNA segments and encode at least 10 proteins. ...
The genome codes for 9 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment to host ... cell surface receptors through HN glycoprotein. Fusion with the plasma membrane; ribonucleocapsid is released in the cytoplasm ... Sequential transcription, viral mRNAs are capped and polyadenylated in the cytoplasm. Replication presumably starts when enough ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 13 August 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 13 August 2015. Viralzone: ...
... integral membrane protein (E1), and large glycoprotein (E2). The N protein encapsulates the genomic RNA, and the S protein ... The remaining part of the genome encodes viral replicase. The three largest gene sequence from 5' to 3' is in the order of E2 ... A 20 residue hydrophobic segment at the C-terminus anchors the protein in the lipid membrane. The rest of the protein is ... The E1 protein is postulated to interact with the lymphocyte membrane, which leads to the induction of IFN-coding genes. The ...
Viral enveloped nucleocapsids utilize membrane glycoproteins on their surface to mediate entry into host cells. Averaging of ... proteins. The M segment encodes the virion surface glycoproteins (Gn, Gc) and non-structural proteins (NSm). The L segment ... they display a locally ordered lattice of glycoprotein spikes. Each spike protrudes 18 nanometers from the viral membrane and ... These newly assembled viral particles will mature over a period of time inside of the hosts cell in the membranes of the Golgi ...
... and the envelope proteins P62 and E1 that associate as a heterodimer. The viral membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins are ... The alphaviral glycoprotein E1 is a class II viral fusion protein, which is structurally different from the class I fusion ... The E1 and E2 viral glycoproteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer. Single E1 and E2 molecules associate to form heterodimers ... The first is non structural and encodes proteins (nsP1-nsP4) necessary for transcription and replication of viral RNA. The ...
There are prominent "spikes" (projections) of 6 nm composed of the viral envelope proteins E1 and E2 embedded in the membrane. ... The E1 glycoprotein is considered immunodominant in the humoral response induced against the structural proteins and contains ... it interacts with the membrane proteins E1 and E2 and binds the human host-protein p32 which is important for replication of ... The sequences for the structural proteins are first replicated by the viral RNA polymerase (Replicase) via a complementary (-) ...
... and the TM glycoprotein mediates fusion with the cell membrane. The entry receptor that triggers viral entry has not been ... Proteins: consisting of gag proteins, protease (PR), pol proteins, and env proteins. Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are ... Pol proteins are responsible for synthesis of viral DNA and integration into host DNA after infection. Env proteins are ... of the Env protein, while the ability of the retrovirus to enter the cell via membrane fusion is imparted by the membrane- ...
F- Fusion protein. Type I glycoprotein that facilitates fusion between the virus and the host cell membrane. SH- Small ... Translation of viral proteins is carried out by host cell ribosomes. Once sufficient P, N, L, and M2 proteins are available to ... N- Nucleocapsid protein. Essential for viral replication and transcription. Plays a major role in forming a capsid around the ... M2-2- Matrix protein. Involved in regulating transcription and replication. When overexpressed, has been shown to inhibit viral ...
... they disabled the virus by deleting the viral gene encoding the membrane protein glycoprotein H (gH). This product is not ... in particular how the viral membrane proteins cooperate to induce fusion, as well as assembly, in particular of the viral ... membrane proteins. Minson has also worked in collaboration with Margaret Stanley on another DNA virus, human papillomavirus, ... His work has contributed to understanding the processes by which HSV fuses with the cell membrane and acquires its envelope. As ...
HIV proteins decrease the amount of CD4 glycoprotein marker present on the cell membrane. Released viral particles and proteins ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein. Some viruses ... The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... to bind strongly to the HIV protein PR55Gag, they were able to suppress viral budding. By suppressing viral budding, the ...
The virion protein and progeny RNA assemble in the cytoplasm and leave the cell, whereas the other copies send translated viral ... The retrovirus begins the journey into a host cell by attaching a surface glycoprotein to the cell's plasma membrane receptor. ... HPV instead degrades p53: the HPV protein E6 binds to a cellular protein called the E6-associated protein (E6-AP, also known as ... DNA oncoviruses typically impair two families of tumor suppressor proteins: tumor proteins p53 and the retinoblastoma proteins ...
... to allow the virus to bind to cellular proteins enabling it to fuse with internal cellular membranes and release the viral ... The virions taken up by the cell then travel to acidic endosomes and lysosomes where the viral envelope glycoprotein GP is ... EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by preventing the STAT1 signaling protein in the ... EBOV proteins blunt the human immune system's response to viral infections by interfering with the cells' ability to produce ...
... so the viral DNA polymerase replicates every base of the genome. Membrane protein E3 RID-alpha and membrane protein E3 RID-beta ... Membrane glycoprotein E3 gp19K inhibits the insertion of class I MHC proteins in the host-cell membrane, thereby preventing T- ... The L3 protease cleaves viral precursor proteins pTP, pVI, pVII, pVIII, and IIIa to produce the mature viral proteins. Control ... and core proteins V, VII, X, and the terminal protein TP. Encapsidation proteins IVa2, 52K, and L1, and hexon assembly protein ...
The viral particle is approximately 90 nanometres (nm) in diameter. The viral glycoproteins are expressed on the membrane as ... the viral genome in complex with viral proteins) surrounded by a lipid bilayer derived from the host cell membrane. The lipid ... viral proteins, peptides, and recombinant vaccinia vectors expressing the Friend virus gene. In a study of vaccinated mice, it ... coding for structural proteins, enzymes including the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase), and coat proteins, ...
These viral inclusion bodies act as the centres of viral replication. The membrane glycoproteins NS3 and NS3a are expressed in ... The outer-capsid proteins are more variable than the core proteins and most of the non-structural proteins and the specificity ... Transcription of the viral genome into mRNA occurs within the core particle and mRNA is translated into proteins using the host ... Viral proteins are synthesized 2-14 days after initial infection. New virons self-assemble within the cytoplasm and are then ...
These three genome segments code for six major proteins: L protein (viral polymerase), the two glycoproteins G(N) and G(C), the ... The virus' G(C) protein has a class II membrane fusion protein architecture similar to that found in flaviviruses and ... Lastly, NSs has also been known to affect regular activity of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase R.. This protein is ... This occurs when an area of NSs interacts with and binds to the host's protein, SAP30 and forms a complex. This complex causes ...
These genes code for nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G) and the viral RNA polymerase ( ... Inside the endosome, the low pH value induces the membrane fusion process, thus enabling the viral genome to reach the cytosol ... Two other viral proteins, the phosphoprotein and the large protein (L-protein or polymerase) are associated with the RNP. The ... The rabies genome encodes five proteins: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G) and ...
The F protein fuses the viral membrane with the host cell membrane, releasing the virion contents into the cell. It also causes ... a highly conserved protein present in many mammals. The structure of the attachment glycoprotein has been determined by X-ray ... They possess a lipid membrane overlying a shell of viral matrix protein. At the core is a single helical strand of genomic RNA ... Embedded within the lipid membrane are spikes of F (fusion) protein trimers and G (attachment) protein tetramers. The function ...
HMPV is thought to attach to the target cell via the glycoprotein (G) protein interactions with heparan sulfate and other ... then mediates fusion of the cell membrane and viral envelope in a pH-independent fashion, likely within endosomes. The ... directed by the viral attachment protein, variously called G, H (hemagglutinin) or HN (hemagglutinin-neuraminidase). Human ... "Prevalence of viral respiratory tract infections in children with asthma". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 119 (2 ...
... the proteins rotate to form trimers, and the fusion peptide is directed toward the cell membrane The viral envelope protein E ... In flavivirus virions, the fusion peptide is buried in dimmers of the fusion glycoprotein E. At low pH, the dimmers are ... The mechanism by which the contacts between the viral nucleocapsid and M protein, which forms a shell beneath the lipid bilayer ... These are products of viral transcription. The NS3 protein encodes a RNA triphosphatase within its helicase domain. It uses the ...
Viral fusion is mediated through the TM glycoprotein. The fusion process is imitated when the TM protein is cleaved by the ... The outer membrane of the virus is covered with a variety of glycoproteins which allow it to interact with its surroundings. ... The Gag protein is not always correctly cleaved into the mature form of the viral protein, as seen in other members of ... Inside the matrix lies the capsid, a protein shell that contains viral intigrase, reverse-transcriptase and the nucleocapsid, ...
This RNP structure interacts with the viral envelope via matrix (M) proteins that are evenly distributed around the virion. The ... envelope, a lipid bilayer derived from the host-cell plasma membrane, harbours multiple copies of a number of glycoproteins ... This molecular assembly of protein, RNA, and lipids allows a single virus to bind to and infect specific cells and replicate ... Tardieu M, Weiner HL (January 1982). "Viral receptors on isolated murine and human ependymal cells". Science. 215 (4531): 419- ...
The measles virus has two envelope glycoproteins on the viral surface-hemagglutinin (H) and membrane fusion protein (F). These ... Wertheim, J. O.; Kosakovsky Pond, S. L. (2011). "Purifying Selection Can Obscure the Ancient Age of Viral Lineages". Molecular ... Three receptors for the H protein have been identified to date: complement regulatory molecule CD46, the signaling lymphocyte ... Antibodies to measles bind to the haemagluttinin protein, therefore antibodies against one genotype (such as the vaccine strain ...
The following are some of those functions: Glycoproteins found on the cell surface play a critical role in bacterial and viral ... carbohydrate-binding proteins of all sorts Receptors, circulating or membrane-bound carbohydrate-binding receptors To answer ... They affect the stability and folding of proteins. They affect the pathway and fate of glycoproteins. There are many glycan- ... Add to this the complexity of the numerous proteins involved, not only as carriers of carbohydrate, the glycoproteins, but ...
An increased plasma transferrin level is often seen in patients suffering from iron deficiency anemia, during pregnancy, and with the use of oral contraceptives, reflecting an increase in transferrin protein expression. When plasma transferrin levels rise, there is a reciprocal decrease in percent transferrin iron saturation, and a corresponding increase in total iron binding capacity in iron deficient states[14] A decreased plasma transferrin can occur in iron overload diseases and protein malnutrition. An absence of transferrin results from a rare genetic disorder known as atransferrinemia, a condition characterized by anemia and hemosiderosis in the heart and liver that leads to heart failure and many other complications. Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies.[9] ...
... , also known as AREG, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AREG gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family. It is an autocrine growth factor as well as a mitogen for astrocytes, Schwann cells, fibroblasts. It is related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). This protein interacts with the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to promote the growth of normal epithelial cells. Estradiol and progesterone mostly induce amphiregulin expression to mediate ductal development of the mammary glands. Amphiregulin has been found to be essential for mammary ductal development, as evidenced by absence of ductal growth in amphiregulin knockout mice. This is similar to the phenotypes of EGFR and ERα knockout mice, which also show absence of ductal growth. Mutations in this encoded protein are associated with a psoriasis-like skin phenotype. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000109321 - ...
... (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally produced in gastrointestinal tissue during fetal development, but the production stops before birth. Therefore, CEA is usually present only at very low levels in the blood of healthy adults. However, the serum levels are raised in some types of cancer, which means that it can be used as a tumor marker in clinical tests. Serum levels can also be elevated in heavy smokers. CEA are glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) cell-surface-anchored glycoproteins whose specialized sialofucosylated glycoforms serve as functional colon carcinoma L-selectin and E-selectin ligands, which may be critical to the metastatic dissemination of colon carcinoma cells. Immunologically they are characterized as members of the CD66 cluster of differentiation. The proteins include CD66a, CD66b, CD66c, CD66d, CD66e, CD66f. CEA was first identified in 1965 by Phil Gold and Samuel O. ...
Glycoproteins are proteins which contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains. The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification. This process is known as glycosylation. Secreted extracellular proteins are often glycosylated. In proteins that have segments extending extracellularly, the extracellular segments are also often glycosylated. Glycoproteins are also often important integral membrane proteins, where they play a role in cell-cell interactions. It is important[according to whom?] to distinguish endoplasmic reticulum-based glycosylation of the secretory system from reversible cytosolic-nuclear glycosylation. Glycoproteins of the cytosol and nucleus can be modified through the reversible addition of a single GlcNAc residue that is considered reciprocal to phosphorylation and the ...
... is a protein that in cats is encoded by the CH1 (chain 1/Fel d 1-A) and CH2 (chain 2/Fel d 1-B) genes.[2][3] Fel d 1, produced largely in cat saliva and sebaceous glands, is the primary allergen present on cats and kittens.[1] Fel d 1 is also produced by cat skin itself.[4] The protein is of an unknown function to the animal but causes an IgG or IgE reaction in sensitive humans (either as an allergic or asthmatic response). Kittens produce less Fel d 1 than adult cats. Female cats produce a lower level of Fel d 1 than (unneutered) males.[5], while neutered males produce levels similar to those of females; both intact and spayed females produce similar levels. Even though females and neutered males produce Fel d 1 in lower levels, they still produce enough to cause allergic symptoms in sensitive individuals. Removal of soft surfaces in the home (carpet, furniture), frequent washings of bed linens, HEPA filters and even washing cats has been proven to reduce the amounts of Fel d 1 present ...
... (HRG)is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the HRG gene. The HRG protein is produced in the liver, and it could also be synthesized by monocytes, macrophages, and megakaryocytes. It possesses a multi-domain structure, which makes it capable of binding to numerous ligands and modulating various biological processes including immunity, vascularization and coagulation. The HRG gene lies on location of 3q27 on the chromosome 3, spans approximately 11kb, and consist of 7 exons. Two common isoforms of the HRG gene have been found in humans. These isoforms exist due to a polymorphism occurring in exon 5. HRG is a glycoprotein of 70-75kDa present at a relatively high concentration in the plasma of vertebrates. The primary structure of human HRG is predicted to be a 507 amino acid multidomain polypeptide consisting of two cystatin-like regions at the N-terminus, a histidine-rich region (HRR) flanked by proline-rich regions (PRR), and a C-terminal domain. HRG has an ...
Inhibin, beta B, also known as INHBB, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the INHBB gene. INHBB is a subunit of both activin and inhibin, two closely related glycoproteins with opposing biological effects. Inhibins are heterodimeric glycoproteins composed of an α subunit (INHA) and one of two homologous, but distinct, β subunits (βA or βB, this protein). mRNA for the two subunits has been demonstrated in the testes of adult rats. Inhibin can bind specifically to testicular interstitial cells throughout development and may be an important regulator of Leydig cell testosterone production or interstitial cell function. The inhibin beta B subunit joins the α subunit to form a pituitary FSH secretion inhibitor. Inhibin has been shown to regulate gonadal stromal cell proliferation negatively and to have tumour-suppressor activity. In addition, serum levels of inhibin have been shown to reflect the size of granulosa-cell tumors and can therefore be used as a marker for ...
Even single neurons have complex biophysical characteristics and can perform computations (e.g.[19]). Hodgkin and Huxley's original model only employed two voltage-sensitive currents (Voltage sensitive ion channels are glycoprotein molecules which extend through the lipid bilayer, allowing ions to traverse under certain conditions through the axolemma), the fast-acting sodium and the inward-rectifying potassium. Though successful in predicting the timing and qualitative features of the action potential, it nevertheless failed to predict a number of important features such as adaptation and shunting. Scientists now believe that there are a wide variety of voltage-sensitive currents, and the implications of the differing dynamics, modulations, and sensitivity of these currents is an important topic of computational neuroscience.[20] The computational functions of complex dendrites are also under intense investigation. There is a large body of literature regarding how different currents interact ...
The dental pellicle, or acquired pellicle, is a protein film that forms on the surface enamel by selective binding of glycoproteins from saliva that prevents continuous deposition of salivary calcium phosphate. It forms in seconds after a tooth is cleaned or after chewing. It protects the tooth from the acids produced by oral microorganisms after consuming carbohydrates. Plaque is a biofilm composed of several different kinds of bacteria and their products that develop over the enamel on a layer known as pellicle. The process of plaque formation takes several days to weeks and will cause the surrounding environment to become acidic if not removed. The surface of enamel attracts salivary glycoproteins and bacterial products creating the pellicle layer. This thin layer forms on the surface of the enamel within minutes of its exposure. These glycoproteins include proline rich proteins that allow bacterial adhesion. The first bacteria to attach ...
Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP1A1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+-ATPases. Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The catalytic subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes an alpha 1 subunit. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. In melanocytic cells ATP1A1 gene expression may be regulated by MITF. Mutations in ...
Cell surface glycoprotein CD200 receptor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD200R1 gene. This gene encodes a receptor for the OX-2 membrane glycoprotein. Both the receptor and substrate are cell surface glycoproteins containing two immunoglobulin-like domains. This receptor is restricted to the surfaces of myeloid lineage cells and the receptor-substrate interaction may function as a myeloid downregulatory signal. Mouse studies of a related gene suggest that this interaction may control myeloid function in a tissue-specific manner. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163606 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000022667 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Wright GJ, Puklavec MJ, Willis AC, Hoek RM, Sedgwick JD, Brown MH, Barclay AN (Sep 2000). "Lymphoid/neuronal cell surface OX2 glycoprotein recognizes a novel receptor on ...
In structural biology, a protomer is the structural unit of an oligomeric protein. It is the smallest unit composed of at least two different protein chains that form a larger hetero-oligomer by association of two or more copies of this unit. The term was introduced by Chetverin [1] to make nomenclature in the Na/K-ATPase enzyme unambiguous. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit, alpha and a smaller glycoprotein subunit, beta (plus a proteolipid, called γ-subunit). At the time it was unclear how many of each work together. In addition, when people spoke of a dimer, did they refer to αβ or to (αβ)2? Chetverin suggested to call αβ a protomer and (αβ)2 a diprotomer. Protomers usually arrange in cyclic symmetry to form closed point group symmetries. In chemistry, a so-called protomer is a molecule which displays tautomerism due to position of a proton.[2][3] ...
... (AHSG) also known as fetuin-A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AHSG gene. Fetuin-A belongs to the fetuin class of plasma binding proteins and is more abundant in fetal than adult blood. Alpha2-HS glycoprotein, a glycoprotein present in the serum, is synthesized by hepatocytes. The AHSG molecule consists of two polypeptide chains, which are both cleaved from a proprotein encoded from a single mRNA. It is involved in several functions, such as endocytosis, brain development and the formation of bone tissue. The protein is commonly present in the cortical plate of the immature cerebral cortex and bone marrow hemopoietic matrix, and it has therefore been postulated that it participates in the development of the tissues. However, its exact significance is still obscure. The choroid plexus is an established extrahepatic expression site. The mature circulating AHSG molecule consists of two polypeptide chains, which are both cleaved from a proprotein encoded from a ...
... lateral interactions between the two membrane glycoproteins determine the structure of the viral particles. In the most regular ... This finding is reminiscent of the fusion proteins of alpha-, flavi-, and influenza viruses, in which conformational changes ... These negative-strand RNA viruses possess a membrane envelope covered by glycoproteins. The virions are pleiomorphic and thus ... occur in the low pH of the endosome to facilitate fusion of the viral and host membrane during viral entry. ...
... of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G). The polyclonal antibodies (alpha P4) reacted with epitopes distributed ... G protein, vesicular stomatitis virus * Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments * Membrane Glycoproteins * Viral Envelope Proteins ... Microinjected antibodies against the cytoplasmic domain of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein block its transport to the ... of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G). The polyclonal antibodies (alpha P4) reacted with epitopes distributed ...
... section only exists in viral entries and indicates the host(s) either as a specific organism or taxonomic group of organisms ... Membrane glycoprotein UL9Add BLAST. 213. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Host membrane, Membrane. ,p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href ...
This activity may lead to viral enterotoxic activity.By similarity. Manual assertion inferred from sequence similarity toi ... Viroporin that permeabilizes mammalian cell plasma membranes. It acts by altering permeation of ionic compounds and small ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pre-small/secreted glycoproteinBy similarityAdd BLAST. 333. ChainiPRO_0000037495. 33 - 324. Small/secreted glycoproteinBy ...
To investigate the involvement of specific apically-located secretory membrane transporters, CPT transport studies were ... inhibition was greater in the presence of PGP and of the breast cancer resistant protein inhibitor, GF120918 (52.5%). The ... in order to understand the possible role of membrane transporters on its oral bioavailability and disposition. The intestinal ... MDCKII wild-type cells and MDCKII cells transfected with human P-glycoprotein (PGP) (ABCB1) or human multidrug resistance ...
... glycoprotein B (gB) ectodomain were expressed in a novel heat-shock expression system. The putative e ... Doms RW, Lamb RA, Rose JK, Helenius A (1993) Folding and assembly of viral membrane proteins. Virology 193: 545-562 ... Sequence of a bovine herpesvirus type-1 glycoprotein gene that is homologous to the herpes simplex gene for glycoprotein B. ... Their production were heat-inducible and the purified proteins were able to elicit antibody responses in mice of a comparable ...
Class III viral membrane fusion proteins. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 19:189-196. [PubMed] ... Fusion of epithelial cells by Epstein-Barr virus proteins is triggered by binding of viral glycoproteins gHgL to integrins { ... Quantitation of membrane glycoprotein IIIa on intact human platelets using the monoclonal antibody, AP-3. Blood 65:227-232. [ ... Glycoproteins gB, gD, and gHgL of herpes simplex virus type 1 are necessary and sufficient to mediate membrane fusion in a Cos ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Spike protein S1: attaches the virion to the cell membrane by interacting with host receptor, initiating the infection. ... Interacts with murine CEACAM1 to mediate viral entry. UniProt Pathway Maps Maps: ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): P11224 - Murine coronavirus (strain A59) 4 * Q2EID8 - Hepatitis B virus 1 ...
The enveloped surface of HNVs displays 2 viral glycoproteins, a receptor binding protein (G) and fusion glycoprotein (F), which ... N-glycans on Nipah virus fusion protein protect against neutralization but reduce membrane fusion and viral entry. J. Virol. 80 ... and PIV5 fusion proteins, specifically group 1 (most distal region from viral membrane [DIII]), group 2 (middle region [DI, DII ... The 2 glycoproteins displayed on the surface of the virus, NiV-G and NiV-F, mediate host-cell attachment and membrane fusion, ...
Effect of expression of other membrane (glyco)proteins on fusion.Studies with viral mutants revealed that in HSV-1 and PrV gB, ... and contain a fusion peptide in a membrane-anchored subunit. Many viral fusion proteins are tight complexes of two glycoprotein ... is one of the most abundant proteins in the viral membrane and exhibits many features described for fusion proteins: it is a ... Deletion mutants of glycoproteins gE, gI, gM, gK, and the putative membrane protein encoded by the UL20 gene exhibit a decrease ...
Viral glycoprotein, central and dimerisation domains. *Root: SCOP 1.71 *. Class f: Membrane and cell surface proteins and ... f.10.1: Viral glycoprotein, central and dimerisation domains [56983] (1 family) More info for Fold f.10: Viral glycoprotein, ... Timeline for Fold f.10: Viral glycoprotein, central and dimerisation domains: *Fold f.10: Viral glycoprotein, central and ... Fold f.10: Viral glycoprotein, central and dimerisation domains appears in SCOP 1.69. *Fold f.10: Viral glycoprotein, central ...
This antiviral activity can be constitutively expressed or induced by interferon-alpha, and it consists of protein … ... and is antagonized by the HIV-1 accessory protein, Vpu. ... Membrane Glycoproteins * Mutant Proteins * Viral Regulatory and ... Using deductive constraints and gene expression analyses, we identify CD317 (also called BST2 or HM1.24), a membrane protein of ... This antiviral activity can be constitutively expressed or induced by interferon-alpha, and it consists of protein-based ...
The HIV envelope glycoprotein is a challenging protein to study by X-ray crystallography as it sits in a membrane, it is ... Gp41 on the other hand drives the huge changes in shape needed to fuse the viral and host membranes. Ebola glycoprotein, a ... Gp160 associates with two other copies of itself to form trimers on the surface of the viral membrane, a location in which it ... Because the envelope glycoprotein is critical for infection, it is an obvious target for HIV therapy and thus the subject of ...
Viral membrane fusion glycoprotein (8 families) 1.G (TCDB). *Family: 1.2.43.02. Alphavirus E1 glycoprotein (5 proteins) 1.G.4 ( ... Comments on 1rer » E1 envelope glycoprotein. E1 is a class II viral fusion protein. This trimeric (low-pH-iduced) form is ... Conformational change and protein-protein interactions of the fusion protein of Semliki Forest virus. Nature. 427: 320-5. ... and promotes release of viral nucleocapsid in cytoplasm after cell and viral membrane fusion. Efficient fusion requires the ...
Polarized distribution of viral envelope proteins in the plasma membrane of infected epithelial cells.Cell 20 1980 45 54 ... A membrane-proximal tyrosine-based signal mediates internalization of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein via interaction with the ... The targeting of membrane proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane or to compartments of the endosomal system ... Endocytosis of membrane proteins gives rise to the formation of similar transport vesicles at the plasma membrane. Selection of ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... The viral membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins are responsible for receptor recognition and entry into target cells through ... Alphaviruses consist of three structural proteins: the core nucleocapsid protein C, and the envelope proteins P62 and E1 ( ...
... a virus-specified membrane glycoprotein. In view of the inhibitory functions of other C3b-binding proteins, we studied the ... Glycoprotein C was purified from HSV-1-infected cells by immunoaffinity chromatography. Glycoprotein C, but not a control viral ... Mammalian cells in culture express membrane receptors for C3b when infected with HSV-1. C3b binding is mediated by glycoprotein ... Glycoprotein C of herpes simplex virus 1 is an inhibitor of the complement cascade.. L F Fries, H M Friedman, G H Cohen, R J ...
Mouse monoclonal Dengue Virus NS1 glycoprotein antibody [DN1]. Validated in WB, IP, ICC/IF and tested in Dengue virus 2. Cited ... NS1 is one of 7 Dengue Virus non-structural proteins which are thought to be involved in viral replication. NS1 exists as a ... The rest of NS1 is found either associated with the plasma membrane or secreted as a soluble hexadimer. NS1 is essential for ... Dengue virus nonstructural protein 3 redistributes fatty acid synthase to sites of viral replication and increases cellular ...
Membrane receptors for murine leukemia viruses: characterization using the purified viral envelope glycoprotein, gp71. DeLarco ... Membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is a widely distributed C3b/C4b-binding cell surface glycoprotein which serves as an ... The amyloid beta-protein is a small fragment of a membrane-associated glycoprotein, encoded by a gene on human chromosome 21 ... These properties suggest that the 140 kd glycoprotein is a membrane-embedded cell surface protein directly involved in the ...
... and clinical studies on viruses and viral diseases. Articles on viral structure, function, and genetics will be considered, as ... well as articles focusing on virus-host interactions, viral disease outbreaks, and antiviral therapeutics. ... the F glycoprotein was involved in the localization of the glycoproteins with the other viral proteins at the plasma membrane. ... must associate with the viral matrix protein and glycoproteins to form newly infectious particles prior to budding. The viral ...
... the capsid is contained within a host-derived membrane altered by two viral glycoproteins. The prime method of spread of the ... these genes encode seven nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. The RNA strand is held within a nucleocapsid ... West Nile fever is a viral infection typically spread by mosquitoes. In about 75% of infections people have few or no symptoms ... Vertical transmission, the transmission of a viral or bacterial disease from the female of the species to her offspring, has ...
These glycoproteins allow for attachment and fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Fusion of these membranes allows the viral ... These viruses also contain proteins on the surface of the cell membrane called glycoproteins. Type A and B have two ... effect of influenza virus glycoproteins on the membrane association of M1 protein". J. Virol. 74 (18): 8709-19. PMC 116382 . ... Subtype C has 7 RNA segments and encodes 9 proteins, while types A and B have 8 RNA segments and encode at least 10 proteins. ...
Membrane and envelope proteins. Rottier, P. J. M. 1995. The coronavirus membrane glycoprotein. In S. G. Siddell, Ed. The ... Nucleocapsid-independent assembly of coronavirus-like particles by co-expression of viral envelope protein genes. EMBO J. 15: ... Spike protein. Cavanagh, D. 1995. The coronavirus surface 1995. glycoprotein." In S. G. Siddell, Ed. The Coronaviridae. Plenum ... Of particular interest is determining the roles these proteins play in viral replication and assembly, and how they interact ...
... the viral envelope also contains membrane protein 2 (M2) (20). In addition to the envelope glycoproteins, the genome of ... Additionally, the viral particle contains an internal core, composed of the viral genome associated with specific proteins (20 ... viral polymerase proteins, the nucleoprotein (NP), and a number of non-structural proteins (20). ... is composed of an external envelope derived from plasma membrane of the infected cell that contains viral surface glycoproteins ...
For pH-sensitive viral fusion proteins, histidine protonation in the endosome leads to the activation of their membrane fusion ... The HCV (hepatitis C virus) glycoprotein E1-E2 heterodimer mediates membrane fusion within the endosome, but the roles of ... CD81 receptor binding and viral entry for conserved histidine residues of hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E1 and E2 Irene Boo ... CD81 receptor binding and viral entry for conserved histidine residues of hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E1 and E2. Biochem J 1 ...
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • Using deductive constraints and gene expression analyses, we identify CD317 (also called BST2 or HM1.24), a membrane protein of previously unknown function, as a tetherin. (nih.gov)
  • Sequestration of a transcription factor in a cellular membrane and releasing it on demand is an additional layer of gene regulation that is considered a rapid mode to reprogram a gene expression casca. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Miami Winter Symposia, Volume 16: From Gene to Protein: Information Transfer in Normal and Abnormal Cells presents the expression and processing of genetic information at the levels of both proteins and nucleic acids. (elsevier.com)
  • TMPRSS2 (Transmembrane Protease, Serine 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • All viral gene expression, as well as production of full length RNA genomes for new virus particle assembly, occurs from this integrated viral DNA. (lehigh.edu)
  • Until now, no viral gene expression has occurred in this infected cell. (lehigh.edu)
  • spike proteins are synthesized and maintained in precursor intermediate folding states and proteolysis permits the refolding and energy release required to create stable virus-cell linkages and membrane coalescence. (genecards.org)
  • Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles that mediate intercellular transfer of cellular contents and are attractive vehicles for therapeutic delivery of bimolecular cargo such as nucleic acids, proteins, and even drugs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Two other non-enveloped picornaviruses, Coxsackievirus B and poliovirus , are also released from cells within membrane vesicles. (virology.ws)
  • It is not clear, for example, exactly how cargo-enriched transport intermediates bud off from donor membranes (i.e., as vesicles or tubules), how they translocate through the cytoplasm (i.e., by diffusion or along microtubules), how long cargo resides in a particular compartment, and the rate of cargo influx and efflux out of a given compartment. (rupress.org)
  • In a previous study we demonstrated that vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can be used as a vector to express a soluble protein in mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
  • Quantitative time-lapse imaging data of single cells expressing the transmembrane protein, vesicular stomatitis virus ts045 G protein fused to green fluorescent protein (VSVG-GFP), were used for kinetic modeling of protein traffic through the various compartments of the secretory pathway. (rupress.org)
  • This antiviral activity can be constitutively expressed or induced by interferon-alpha, and it consists of protein-based tethers, which we term 'tetherins', that cause retention of fully formed virions on infected cell surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • Biochemical analyses showed that deletion of the F and G proteins affected incorporation of the other viral proteins into budded virions. (hindawi.com)
  • Electron microscopy of virions containing CD4 revealed that the CD4 molecules were dispersed throughout the virion envelope among the trimeric viral spike glycoproteins. (pnas.org)
  • Rabies virions are bullet-shaped with 10-nm spike-like glycoprotein peplomers covering the surface. (cdc.gov)
  • Virions are covered with glycoprotein spikes, which project outward 5-10 nm from the particle surface. (britannica.com)
  • Within virions, the genomic RNAs of hantaviruses are thought to complex with the N protein to form helical nucleocapsids, which circularize due to sequence complementarity between the 5′ and 3′ terminal sequences of each genomic segment. (cdc.gov)
  • Domain Structure of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B: Neutralizing Epitopes Map in Regions of Continuous and Discontinuous Residues," Virology (1989) 172:11-24. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Mutations in Conformation-Dependent Domains of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B Affect the Antigenic Properties, Dimerization, and Transport of the Molecule," Virology (1991) 180:135-152. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Some basic knowledge of rabies virology and of viral pseudotyping is helpful in understanding the concepts that allow for monosynaptic tracing from selected cells and in guiding the design and interpretation of experiments that use these tools. (jneurosci.org)
  • Findings from the new study were published recently in the Journal of Virology " Nipah and Hendra Virus Glycoproteins Induce Comparable Homologous but Distinct Heterologous Fusion Phenotypes . (genengnews.com)
  • To investigate the involvement of specific apically-located secretory membrane transporters, CPT transport studies were conducted using MDCKII/PGP cells and MDCKII/MRP2 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • gM is defined as a non-essential glycoprotein in alphaherpesviruses and has been proposed as playing a role in controlling final envelopment in a late secretory-pathway compartment such as the trans-Golgi network (TGN). (nih.gov)
  • T he secretory membrane system synthesizes and secretes highly processed and complex molecules, allowing eukaryotic cells to modify their outer surfaces and surroundings and to control growth and homeostasis. (rupress.org)
  • Answers to these questions are fundamental to understanding how the molecular machinery for secretory protein traffic functions in living cells. (rupress.org)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • Protein Feature View is not available: No corresponding UniProt sequence found. (rcsb.org)
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of one of these viral isolates (WN-NY99, from the dead Chilean flamingo) has now been determined. (sciencemag.org)