Proteins found in any species of virus.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
The type species of GYROVIRUS, a small, non-enveloped DNA virus originally isolated from contaminated vaccines in Japan. It causes chicken infectious anemia and may possibly play a key role in hemorrhagic anemia syndrome, anemia dermatitis, and blue wing disease.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A species of RUBULAVIRUS originally isolated from cultured primary monkey cells. Its natural host is the DOG in which it causes kennel cough, but it can also infect humans.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.
A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Infections with viruses of the genus RUBULAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Four dimers of lambda repressor bound to two suitably spaced pairs of lambda operators form octamers and DNA loops over large distances. (1/26353)

Transcription factors that are bound specifically to DNA often interact with each other over thousands of base pairs [1] [2]. Large DNA loops resulting from such interactions have been observed in Escherichia coli with the transcription factors deoR [3] and NtrC [4], but such interactions are not, as yet, well understood. We propose that unique protein complexes, that are not present in solution, may form specifically on DNA. Their uniqueness would make it possible for them to interact tightly and specifically with each other. We used the repressor and operators of coliphage lambda to construct a model system in which to test our proposition. lambda repressor is a dimer at physiological concentrations, but forms tetramers and octamers at a hundredfold higher concentration. We predict that two lambda repressor dimers form a tetramer in vitro when bound to two lambda operators spaced 24 bp apart and that two such tetramers interact to form an octamer. We examined, in vitro, relaxed circular plasmid DNA in which such operator pairs were separated by 2,850 bp and 2,470 bp. Of these molecules, 29% formed loops as seen by electron microscopy (EM). The loop increased the tightness of binding of lambda repressor to lambda operator. Consequently, repression of the lambda PR promoter in vivo was increased fourfold by the presence of a second pair of lambda operators, separated by a distance of 3,600 bp.  (+info)

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (2/26353)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

The amino-terminal C/H1 domain of CREB binding protein mediates zta transcriptional activation of latent Epstein-Barr virus. (3/26353)

Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is maintained as a nucleosome-covered episome that can be transcriptionally activated by overexpression of the viral immediate-early protein, Zta. We show here that reactivation of latent EBV by Zta can be significantly enhanced by coexpression of the cellular coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. A stable complex containing both Zta and CBP could be isolated from lytically stimulated, but not latently infected RAJI nuclear extracts. Zta-mediated viral reactivation and transcriptional activation were both significantly inhibited by coexpression of the E1A 12S protein but not by an N-terminal deletion mutation of E1A (E1ADelta2-36), which fails to bind CBP. Zta bound directly to two related cysteine- and histidine-rich domains of CBP, referred to as C/H1 and C/H3. These domains both interacted specifically with the transcriptional activation domain of Zta in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Interestingly, we found that the C/H3 domain was a potent dominant negative inhibitor of Zta transcriptional activation function. In contrast, an amino-terminal fragment containing the C/H1 domain was sufficient for coactivation of Zta transcription and viral reactivation function. Thus, CBP can stimulate the transcription of latent EBV in a histone acetyltransferase-independent manner mediated by the CBP amino-terminal C/H1-containing domain. We propose that CBP may regulate aspects of EBV latency and reactivation by integrating cellular signals mediated by competitive interactions between C/H1, C/H3, and the Zta activation domain.  (+info)

Deletion of multiple immediate-early genes from herpes simplex virus reduces cytotoxicity and permits long-term gene expression in neurons. (4/26353)

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has many attractive features that suggest its utility for gene transfer to neurons. However, viral cytotoxicity and transient transgene expression limit practical applications even in the absence of viral replication. Mutant viruses deleted for the immediate early (IE) gene, ICP4, an essential transcriptional transactivator, are toxic to many cell types in culture in which only the remaining IE genes are expressed. In order to test directly the toxicity of other IE gene products in neurons and develop a mutant background capable of longterm transgene expression, we generated mutants deleted for multiple IE genes in various combinations and tested their relative cytotoxicity in 9L rat gliosarcoma cells, Vero monkey kidney cells, and primary rat cortical and dorsal root neurons in culture. Viral mutants deleted simultaneously for the IE genes encoding ICP4, ICP22 and ICP27 showed substantially reduced cytotoxicity compared with viruses deleted for ICP4 alone or ICP4 in combination with either ICP22, ICP27 or ICP47. Infection of neurons in culture with these triple IE deletion mutants substantially enhanced cell survival and permitted transgene expression for over 21 days. Such mutants may prove useful for efficient gene transfer and extended transgene expression in neurons in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

An antiviral mechanism of nitric oxide: inhibition of a viral protease. (5/26353)

Although nitric oxide (NO) kills or inhibits the replication of a variety of intracellular pathogens, the antimicrobial mechanisms of NO are unknown. Here, we identify a viral protease as a target of NO. The life cycle of many viruses depends upon viral proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual polypeptides. NO inactivates the Coxsackievirus protease 3C, an enzyme necessary for the replication of Coxsackievirus. NO S-nitrosylates the cysteine residue in the active site of protease 3C, inhibiting protease activity and interrupting the viral life cycle. Substituting a serine residue for the active site cysteine renders protease 3C resistant to NO inhibition. Since cysteine proteases are critical for virulence or replication of many viruses, bacteria, and parasites, S-nitrosylation of pathogen cysteine proteases may be a general mechanism of antimicrobial host defenses.  (+info)

Interleukin-18 binding protein: a novel modulator of the Th1 cytokine response. (6/26353)

An interleukin-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) was purified from urine by chromatography on IL-18 beads, sequenced, cloned, and expressed in COS7 cells. IL-18BP abolished IL-18 induction of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), IL-8, and activation of NF-kappaB in vitro. Administration of IL-18BP to mice abrogated circulating IFNgamma following LPS. Thus, IL-18BP functions as an inhibitor of the early Th1 cytokine response. IL-18BP is constitutively expressed in the spleen, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and has limited homology to the IL-1 type II receptor. Its gene was localized on human chromosome 11q13, and no exon coding for a transmembrane domain was found in an 8.3 kb genomic sequence. Several Poxviruses encode putative proteins highly homologous to IL-18BP, suggesting that viral products may attenuate IL-18 and interfere with the cytotoxic T cell response.  (+info)

An examination of coaxial stacking of helical stems in a pseudoknot motif: the gene 32 messenger RNA pseudoknot of bacteriophage T2. (7/26353)

The RNA pseudoknot located at the 5' end of the gene 32 messenger RNA of bacteriophage T2 contains two A-form helical stems connected by two loops, in an H-type pseudoknot topology. A combination of multidimensional NMR methods and isotope labeling were used to investigate the pseudoknot structure, resulting in a more detailed structural model than provided by earlier homonuclear NMR studies. Of particular significance, the interface between the stacked helical stems within the pseudoknot motif is described in detail. The two stems are stacked in a coaxial manner, with an approximately 18 degrees rotation of stem1 relative to stem2 about an axis that is parallel to the helical axis. This rotation serves to relieve what would otherwise be a relatively close phosphate-phosphate contact at the junction of the two stems, while preserving the stabilizing effects of base stacking. The ability of the NMR data to determine pseudoknot bending was critically assessed. The data were found to be a modestly precise indicator of pseudoknot bending, with the angle between the helical axes of stem1 and stem2 being in the range of 15+/-15 degrees. Pseudoknot models with bend angles within this range are equally consistent with the data, since they differ by only small amounts in the relatively short-range interproton distances from which the structure was derived. The gene 32 messenger RNA pseudoknot was compared with other RNA structures with coaxial or near-coaxial stacked helical stems.  (+info)

Novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses fatal for Asian and African elephants. (8/26353)

A highly fatal hemorrhagic disease has been identified in 10 young Asian and African elephants at North American zoos. In the affected animals there was ultrastructural evidence for herpesvirus-like particles in endothelial cells of the heart, liver, and tongue. Consensus primer polymerase chain reaction combined with sequencing yielded molecular evidence that confirmed the presence of two novel but related herpesviruses associated with the disease, one in Asian elephants and another in African elephants. Otherwise healthy African elephants with external herpetic lesions yielded herpesvirus sequences identical to that found in Asian elephants with endothelial disease. This finding suggests that the Asian elephant deaths were caused by cross-species infection with a herpesvirus that is naturally latent in, but normally not lethal to, African elephants. A reciprocal relationship may exist for the African elephant disease.  (+info)

EN] The RNA silencing pathway constitutes a defence mechanism highly conserved in eukaryotes, especially in plants, where the underlying working principle relies on the repressive action triggered by the intracellular presence of double-stranded RNAs. This immune system performs a post-transcriptional suppression of aberrant mRNAs or viral RNAs by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that are directed towards their target in a sequence-specific manner. However, viruses have evolved strategies to escape from silencing surveillance while promoting their own replication. Several viruses encode suppressor proteins that interact with different elements of the RNA silencing pathway and block it. The different suppressors are not phylogenetically nor structurally related and also differ in their mechanism of action. Here, we adopt a model-driven forward-engineering approach to understand the evolution of suppressor proteins and, in particular, why viral suppressors preferentially target some components of ...
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Nuclear mRNA export is a highly complex and regulated process in cells. Cellular transcripts must undergo successful maturation processes, including splicing, 5-, and 3-end processing, which are essential for assembly of an export competent ribonucleoprotein particle. Many viruses replicate in the nucleus of the host cell and require cellular mRNA export factors to efficiently export viral transcripts. However, some viral mRNAs undergo aberrant mRNA processing, thus prompting the viruses to express their own specific mRNA export proteins to facilitate efficient export of viral transcripts and allowing translation in the cytoplasm. This review will focus on the Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 protein, a multifunctional protein involved in all stages of viral mRNA processing and that is essential for virus replication. Using the example of ORF57, we will describe cellular bulk mRNA export pathways and highlight their distinct features, before exploring how the virus has evolved to exploit
TY - JOUR. T1 - Function of herpes simplex virus gene products. AU - Nishiyama, Y.. AU - Murata, Takayuki. AU - Yamauchi, Y.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0035380417&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0035380417&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.2222/jsv.51.29. DO - 10.2222/jsv.51.29. M3 - Review article. C2 - 11565262. AN - SCOPUS:0035380417. VL - 51. SP - 29. EP - 36. JO - Uirusu. Journal of virology. JF - Uirusu. Journal of virology. SN - 0042-6857. IS - 1. ER - ...
Scientific Experts, Publications, Research Topics, Locale, Genomes and Genes, Species about Experts and Doctors on viral proteins in Tianjin, Tianjin Shi, China
1GVP: Analyses of the stability and function of three surface mutants (R82C, K69H, and L32R) of the gene V protein from Ff phage by X-ray crystallography.
1AE3: Analyses of the stability and function of three surface mutants (R82C, K69H, and L32R) of the gene V protein from Ff phage by X-ray crystallography.
When someone is infected with HIV, certain regions of viral proteins are chopped up and displayed by infected cells to their immune system, using platforms known as MHC molecules. These protein fragments are recognized by killer cells, which destroy the virus-infected cells. Viruses have evolved many clever mechanisms to avoid being detected in this way, including altering the protein fragments that our immune system recognizes. This study identifies for the first time, in the course of a natural human infection, HIV mutations outside of the regions that are recognized that actually prevent generation of the protein fragments. HIV can, apparently, alter its sequence so that the human chopping proteins can no longer grab onto the viral protein ...
Lytic cycle is one one of the two alternative life cycles of a virus inside a host cell, whereby the virus that has entered a cell takes over the cells replication mechanism, makes viral DNA and viral proteins, and then lyses (breaks open) the cell, allowing the newly produced viruses to leave the now disintegrated host cell to infect other cells. This method of replication is contrasted with the lysogenic cycle, whereby the virus that has infected a cell attaches itself to the host DNA and, acting like an inert segment of the DNA, replicates when the host cell divides. The lysogenic cycle causes no harm to the host cell, but the lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell ...
Viruses need living cells for replication and production of virus progeny. Thus far, antiviral therapy primarily targets viral factors but often induces therapy resistance. New improved therapies attempt to targets cellular factors that are essential for viral replication.
The study of viral proteins provides functional information that is currently not well represented. In the analysis, we detected 13 different proteins, most of them not previously identified, from clinical samples. One such protein called Orf9b, which suppresses the hosts immune response, had been predicted, but our team provided the first evidence for its expression, said Tatu ...
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면역혈소판감소자색반병으로 진단되면 생명에 위험을 줄 수 있는 출혈이 있을 때 응급으로 혈소판 수혈을 하며 만성면역혈소판감소자색반병에서 혈소판 수가 20,000/uL 이하이거나 출혈이 있으면서 혈소판 수가 50,000/uL 이하인 경우 스테로이드 투여, 비장절제, 면역글로불린 투여, 면역억제제투여 등의 치료를 한다. 20년 전 혈소판감소증으로 내원하여 말초혈액도말 검사, 거대세포바이러스, 엡스타인-바바이러스, 인간 면역결핍 바이러스, 간염 혈청 검사, 항핵항체 검사에서 모두 음성으로 확인되었으며 골수 검사에서 거대핵세포 수가 약간 증가된 것을 포함하여 특이 소견이 없었고 수차례 확인하였으나 가족력도 없어 면역혈소판감소자색반병으로 진단하였고 출혈 소견이 있으며 혈소판 수가 20,000/uL미만이었기 때문에 스테로이드, 면역글로불린, 다나졸을 ...
Genetic information processingProtein synthesisRibosomal proteins: synthesis and modificationribosomal protein uL29 (TIGR00012; HMM-score: 76.9) ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 protein interacts with PYM to enhance translation of viral intronless mRNAs. AU - Boyne, James R.. AU - Jackson, Brian R.. AU - Taylor, Adam. AU - MacNab, Stuart A.. AU - Whitehouse, Adrian. PY - 2010/6/2. Y1 - 2010/6/2. N2 - Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) expresses numerous intronless mRNAs that are unable to access splicing-dependent cellular mRNA nuclear export pathways. To circumvent this problem, KSHV encodes the open reading frame 57 (ORF57) protein, which orchestrates the formation of an export-competent virus ribonucleoprotein particle comprising the nuclear export complex hTREX, but not the exon-junction complex (EJC). Interestingly, EJCs stimulate mRNA translation, which raises the intriguing question of how intronless KSHV transcripts are efficiently translated. Herein, we show that ORF57 associates with components of the 48S pre-initiation complex and co-sediments with the 40S ribosomal subunits. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification and characterization of the virion-induced host shutoff product of herpes simplex virus gene UL41. AU - Smibert, C. A.. AU - Johnson, David. AU - Smiley, J. R.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The virion-induced host shutoff product of the herpes simplex virus UL41 gene is required for shutoff of host translation and degradation of cellular mRNAs. We employed a rabbit antipeptide antiserum to identify a 58K UL41-related phosphoprotein in infected cells. We also provide evidence that this protein is a component of the virus particle, consistent with its role in virion-induced shutoff.. AB - The virion-induced host shutoff product of the herpes simplex virus UL41 gene is required for shutoff of host translation and degradation of cellular mRNAs. We employed a rabbit antipeptide antiserum to identify a 58K UL41-related phosphoprotein in infected cells. We also provide evidence that this protein is a component of the virus particle, consistent with its role in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded protein kinase and its interaction with K-bZIP. AU - Izumiya, Yoshihiro. AU - Izumiya, Chie. AU - Van Geelen, Albert. AU - Wang, Don Hong. AU - Lam, Kit S.. AU - Luciw, Paul A.. AU - Kung, Hsing Jien. PY - 2007/2/1. Y1 - 2007/2/1. N2 - The oncogenic herpesvirus, Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, also identified as human herpesvirus 8, contains genes producing proteins that control transcription and influence cell signaling. Open reading frame 36 (ORF36) of this virus encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase, which is designated the viral protein kinase (vPK). Our recent efforts to elucidate the role of vPK in the viral life cycle have focused on identifying viral protein substrates and determining the effects of vPK-mediated phosphorylation on specific steps in viral replication. The vPK gene was transcribed into 4.2-kb and 3.6-kb mRNAs during the early and late phases of viral reactivation. vPK is colocalized with viral DNA ...
Structure of a trimeric variant of the Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein B. - Marija Backovic, Richard Longnecker, Theodore S Jardetzky
Candidate tegument proteins.The tegument is a complex structure which contains at least 18 different viral proteins (32). The functions of most of these and their structural relationships within the tegument are still poorly defined; however, a number of them have been shown to be nonessential for virus replication and therefore seem unlikely to be candidates to form the major connection between tegument and capsid. Earlier morphological and biochemical studies provide some indications regarding which tegument protein is being resolved in our reconstruction of the intact virion.. Biochemically, the essential tegument protein VP1-3 has been shown to bind very tightly to the capsid. Thus, detergent treatment of virions removes the envelope and solubilizes some tegument proteins but leaves others (notably VP1-3) in an insoluble, capsid/tegument fraction (31, 36), while more vigorous treatment results in the loss of virtually all envelope and tegument proteins except for VP1-3 (14). Since it has ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Measles Large Polymerase protein (ab68490). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Hi! I plan to edit this article by providing an overview of what a viral protein is. The range of discovered viral proteins today is vast, and its very difficult to talk specifically about each and every one of them in a single article. I plan to talk about the four main types of viral proteins, namely viral structural proteins, viral nonstructural proteins, and viral regulatory and accessory proteins. Im certain that there may be other types of viral proteins that Im unaware of (due to limited general information about viral proteins available online) but Ill try my best to expand this article in a way that is helpful to the general audience. Im still working on the article, and I will be making edits to the main article page starting from April 5th.BiochemistrymafiaX (talk) 04:09, 13 April 2016 (UTC). ...
Viral proteins are highly antigenic and referred to as potent stimulators of adaptive immune responses. useful tool for the investigation of mucosal immune responses or autoimmune diseases and extends the spectrum of antibodies with specific effector functions. by hybridoma technology occur in a polymeric or dimeric form analogue to produced IgA [4]. The obtained secretory IgA antibodies were used for experimental studies of mucosal surfaces and microfold (M) cells in order to investigate bacterial and viral intestine infections. Additional investigations showed that secretory IgAs appear to have got an increased functional stability and activity than IgG counterparts [5]. For their particular effector features, IgA antibodies are of high scientific interest because they are impressive in recruiting polymorphonuclear cells for antibody reliant mobile cytotoxicity (ADCC) [6] and in improving respiratory system burst and phagocytosis of individual leukocytes [7]. These data reveal that antibodies ...
The virion host shutoff protein (Vhs) is a herpes simplex virus (HSV) protein involved in early shutoff of the host cell. It is a component of the infecting virion, located in the tegument region, that works by rapidly ...
The central focus of our research is the synthesis, folding, processing and function of viral glycoproteins. Previous studies of the synthesis and processing of viral glycoproteins in the secretory pathway have led to fundamental discoveries of basic cellular processes, and our research on the folding and processing of paramyxovirus glycoproteins provides insight into both cellular functions and important viral proteins. Our studies on viral proteins aim to elucidate mechanisms of promotion of membrane fusion, and to provide new targets for antiviral treatments. Many major human pathogenic viruses (including HIV, herpes simplex virus, measles virus and Ebola virus) are packaged in a membrane. In order for these viruses to infect cells, specific viral proteins promote fusion of the viral membrane with the membrane of the host cell. Understanding this process of protein-mediated membrane fusion is the major focus of our work. We study fusion proteins from several different paramyxoviruses. First, ...
In this study, we provide evidence that the UL131-128 locus of the HCMV genome is indispensable for HCMV to productively replicate in HUVECs and to be transmitted to PMN and monocytes. In addition, our data suggest that each of the genes of the locus is individually requested. This is not to imply that UL131-128 are the only virus-encoded proteins specifically required for the HCMV growth in ECs and transfer to leukocytes. Indeed, our study implicates an additional locus, UL146-UL147, as necessary for the efficient transmission to PMN (see below).. These conclusions are supported by experimental conditions leading to either a gain or a loss of function. Loss of function, i.e., the loss of both EC tropism and leukocyte transfer was documented by two experimental findings: (i) the experimental introduction of targeted deletions into the UL131-128 locus and (ii) the identification of spontaneous mutations within the UL131-128 locus of natural viral variants. As for the first finding, generation of ...
Our results lead to three principal conclusions. First, it is possible to complement fully the growth of mutant HCMV in human fibroblasts by using a recombinant retrovirus. Second, UL69 is required for HCMV efficiently to induce a G1 block within infected cells. Third, UL69 protein packaged in virus particles is sufficient to induce a G1 block and to generate a normal yield of virus when cells are infected at a relatively high multiplicity. It is not necessary to express UL69 protein from the infecting viral genome.. TNsubUL69 is profoundly defective when used to infect cells at a low multiplicity of infection in the absence of UL69 protein (Fig. 2B). The defect is not absolute. Given time, the mutant virus produces an infectious yield similar to that of the wild-type virus. It was not practical to generate a derivative of human fibroblasts containing a constitutively expressed UL69 gene, because expression of the gene is toxic and because the primary cells have a limited lifespan. However, ...
Comparative examination of viral and host protein homologs reveals novel mechanisms governing downstream signaling effectors of both cellular and vi- ral origin. The vaccinia virus B1 protein kinase is involved in promoting multiple facets of the virus life cycle and is a homolog of three conserved cellular enzymes called vaccinia virus-related kinases (VRKs). Recent evidence indicates that B1 and VRK2 mediate a com- mon pathway that is largely uncharacterized but appears independent of previous VRK substrates. Interestingly, separate studies described a novel role for B1 in inhibiting vac- cinia virus protein B12, which otherwise impedes an early event in the viral lifecycle. Herein, we characterize the B1/VRK2 signaling axis to better understand their shared functions. First, we demonstrate that vaccinia virus uniquely requires VRK2 for viral repli- cation in the absence of B1, unlike other DNA viruses. Employing loss-of-function analy- sis, we demonstrate that vaccinia viruss dependence on VRK2 is
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes a latent infection in hematopoietic cells, from which it can reactivate to cause significant disease in immunocompromised individuals. HCMV expresses a functional homolog of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (termed cmvIL-10), and alternate splici …
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) induces a profound host shut-off during lytic infection. The virion host shut-off (vhs) protein plays a key role in this process by efficiently cleaving host and viral mRNAs. Furthermore, the onset of viral DNA replication is accompanied by a rapid decline in host transcriptional activity. To dissect relative contributions of both mechanisms and elucidate gene-specific host transcriptional responses throughout the first 8h of lytic HSV-1 infection, we employed RNA-seq of total, newly transcribed (4sU-labelled) and chromatin-associated RNA in wild-type (WT) and Δvhs infection of primary human fibroblasts. Following virus entry, vhs activity rapidly plateaued at an elimination rate of around 30% of cellular mRNAs per hour until 8h p.i. In parallel, host transcriptional activity dropped to 10-20%. While the combined effects of both phenomena dominated infection-induced changes in total RNA, extensive gene-specific transcriptional regulation was observable in ...
Virus infections remain the single most common reason that Canadians seek medical attention. Although impressive progress has been made in developing anti-viral drugs, drug resistant variants often arise and many virus infections remain untreatable. The innate immune system is our first line of defense against virus infection. Unfortunately, most viruses produce proteins that serve as effective countermeasures. My laboratory is focused on how viral regulatory proteins function at the molecular level, and how cellular antiviral responses inhibit viral replication. The hope is that increased understanding of host antiviral defenses and viral immune evasion strategies will open up new approaches to controlling virus infections. Most of our work focuses on herpes simplex virus (HSV), a ubiquitous human pathogen and the prototypical member of the herpesviridae, a large family of enveloped DNA viruses that replicate in the nuclei of host cells. Recently we have also begun similar studies with HIV-1, ...
component of complex A-1, DNA polymerase accessory protein clamp loader, ATP dependent,required to assemble PCNA and polymerase delta on the DNA ...
Accumulation of viral products such as RNA replication intermediates and viral proteins represents a potential stressor for host cells. Rapidly after detection, host cells respond by implementing multiple appropriated defense mechanisms, including innate immune and stress responses. The strongest response to several forms of stress, including viral infections, is a global reduction of protein synthesis which promotes cellular survival. Translation suppression is induced by the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2α), thereby causing stalling of translation initiation and accumulation of stalled pre-initiation complexes in cytosolic stress granules (SGs). Viruses do not package ribosomes and therefore fully rely on the utilization of the host translation machinery to ensure viral protein synthesis, replication and virus progeny production. As a consequence, virus survival depends on the establishment of a delicate and fine-tuned balance ...
To gain preferential access to the protein synthesis machinery and to disrupt induction of antiviral responses by infected cell many viruses block host gene expression. This blockade is called host shutoff and it is mediated by viral factors that either destroy host messenger RNAs (mRNAs) or interfere with their synthesis. Influenza A virus (IAV) encodes…
View Notes - MCDB Christoffersen Lecture#9 from MCDB 1a at UCSB. MCDB Christoffersen Lecture #9 Start of Chapter 16 Virus life cycles o Bacteriophages and HIV retrovirus Regulation of Gene
vaccinia virus nicking-joining enzyme: virus-specific, DNA-dependent & does not require ATP; possesses both endonuclease & ligase activities
In addition, P 0. And Javitt, integrated state to active replication в Inhibiting protease, a viral enzyme responsible for the adherence of viral proteins both before proviral integra- tion and as the viral particles recombine into functional proteins needed kefex viral maturation allergy to cipro and keflex Preventing viral assembly and budding out of the cell For more information, visit the Medscape quick refer- ence guide to antiretrovirals at www.
Go beyond the uncertain HCP data provided by ELISA assays to LC/MS methodologies that enable identification and quantification of host cell protein product impurities down to low ppm levels.
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h2,پاخانے کی ورمی بیماریاں کیا ہیں؟,br,,/h2,,p,پاخانے کی ورمی بیماریاں وہ حالت ہے جب چھوٹی اور بڑی آنت سوجن کا شکار ہو جائے۔,/p,,h2,علامتیں,/h2,,p,آئی۔بی ڈی کی علامتیں، پیچش، معدے کی درد، جوڑوں کا اکڑنا اور وزن کم کرنا ہیں۔ ,/p,,p,آئی بی ڈی دو اقسام کی ہوتی ہے: کروہنز ڈیزیز اور السیریٹیو کالیٹس,/p,,ul,,li,کروہنز ڈیزیز نظام ہضم میں ہونے والی آتش زنی ہوتی ہے جو منہ سے لیکر سندانی ہڈی میں کہیں بھی واقع ہو سکتی ہے۔ ,/li,,li,السیریٹیو کالیٹس بڑی آنت میں ہونے والی آتش زنی ہوتی ہے۔ ,/li,,/ul,,p,پاخانے کی ورمی بیماری خراش آورمعائی علامیہ سے مختلف ہے۔ ,/p,,h2,وجوہات,/h2,,p,آئی بی ڈی کی وجوہات انجان ...
h2,یہ دوا کیا ہے؟,/h2,,p,سیفیکسیم ایک ایسی دوا ہے جسے اینٹی بائیوٹک کہا جاتا ہے۔ اینٹی بائیوٹک کا استعمال ان جراثیم جنھیں بیکٹیریا کہتے ہیں، کی وجہ سے ہونے والی انفیکشن کے علاج اور اس سے بچاو کے لئے کیا جاتا ہے۔ ,/p,,h2,آپکو اپنے بچے کو یہ دوا کس طرح دینی چاہیے؟,/h2,,p,اپنے بچے کو سیفیکسیم دیتے وقت ان ہدایات پر عمل کریں:,/p,,ul,,li,اپنے بچے کو روزانہ سیفیکسیم اسی طرح دیتے رہیں جیسے آپکا ڈاکٹر یا دواساز کہے، چاہے آپکا بچہ بہتر بھی نظر آرہا ہو۔ کسی بھی وجہ سے اس دوا کا استعمال روکنے سے پہلے اپنے ڈاکٹر سے بات کریں۔,/li,,li,اپنے بچے کو سیفیکسیم کھانے کے ساتھ یا کھانے کے بغیر دیں۔ ...
Doublethink Doublecross - The Americas Future Foundation (who recently made me a member as recompense for using my name and a quote from this blog in a fundraising letter without bothering to mention it to me first) purports to be a network of Americas next generation of classical liberal leaders - classical liberal understood as a broad category encompassing both conservatives and libertarians. (Dear AFF, please feel free to use any portion of this post for fundraising purposes) Ive suspected for a while that much of the leadership of AFF wasnt so much classical liberal as plain anti-liberal reactionary.. Why the suspicion? Well, take this anecdote from an AFF happy hour. A friend introduces me to two well-sloshed Irish-looking fellows in suits slouched over the bar. (One guy has something to do with AFF, the other, I think works for Bob Novak.) One guy loudly and drunkenly declares, Catholicism is a philosophy of freedom! I say, Come again!? He replies, Freedom from sin!! Freedom to ...
61840DNAVaccinia virus 1tttttattat ttgtacgatg tccaggataa catttttacg gataaataaa tatgaaggtg 60gagagcgtga cgttcctgac attgttggga ataggatgcg ttctatcatg ctgtactatt 120ccgtcacgac ccattaatat gaaatttaag aatagtgtgg agactgatgc taatgctaat 180tacaacatag gagacactat agaatatcta tgtctacctg gatacagaaa gcaaaaaatg 240ggacctatat atgctaaatg tacaggtact ggatggacac tctttaatca atgtattaaa 300cggagatgcc catcgcctcg agatatcgat aatggccaac ttgatattgg tggagtagac 360tttggctcta gtataacgta ctcttgtaat agcggatatc atttgatcgg tgaatctaaa 420tcgtattgtg aattaggatc tactggatct atggtatgga atcccgaggc acctatttgt 480gaatctgtta aatgccaatc ccctccatct atatccaacg gaagacataa cggatacgag 540gatttttata ccgatgggag cgttgtaact tatagttgca atagtggata ttcgttgatt 600ggtaactctg gtgtcctgtg ttcaggagga gaatggtccg atccacccac gtgtcagatt 660gttaaatgtc cacatcctac aatatcaaac ggatacttgt ctagcgggtt taaaagatca 720tactcataca acgacaatgt agactttaag tgcaagtacg gatataaact atctggttcc 780tcatcatcta cttgctctcc aggaaataca tggaagccgg aacttccaaa atgtgtacgc 8402244PRTVaccinia virus ...
Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a key DNA sensor capable of detecting microbial DNA and activating the adaptor protein stimulator of interferon genes (STING), leading to interferon (IFN) production and host antiviral responses. Cells exhibited reduced type I IFN production in response to cytosolic DNA in the absence of cGAS. Although the cGAS/STING-mediated DNA-sensing signal is crucial for host defense against many viruses, especially for DNA viruses, few viral components have been identified to specifically target this signaling pathway. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a DNA virus that has evolved multiple strategies to evade host immune responses. In the present study, we found that HSV-1 tegument protein UL41 was involved in counteracting the cGAS/STING-mediated DNA-sensing pathway. Our results showed that wild-type (WT) HSV-1 infection could inhibit immunostimulatory DNA-induced activation of the IFN signaling pathway compared with the UL41-null mutant virus (R2621), and ectopic expression of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and Microarray Analysis Suggest Functional Cooperation between Kaposis Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ORF57 and K-bZIP. AU - Hunter, Olga V.. AU - Sei, Emi. AU - Blake Richardson, R.. AU - Conrad, Nicholas K.. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - The Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) open reading frame 57 (ORF57)-encoded protein (Mta) is a multifunctional regulator of viral gene expression. ORF57 is essential for viral replication, so elucidation of its molecular mechanisms is important for understanding KSHV infection. ORF57 has been implicated in nearly every aspect of viral gene expression, including transcription, RNA stability, splicing, export, and translation. Here we demonstrate that ORF57 interacts with the KSHV K-bZIP protein in vitro and in cell extracts from lytically reactivated infected cells. To further test the biological relevance of the interaction, we performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray (ChIP-chip) ...
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Introduction: During productive infection, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genes are expressed in a temporal cascade, with temporal phases designated as immediate-early (IE), early, and late. The major IE (MIE) genes, UL123 and UL122 (IE1/IE2), play a critical role in subsequent viral gene expression and the efficiency of viral replication. The early viral genes encode proteins necessary for viral DNA replication. Following viral DNA replication, delayed-early and late viral genes are expressed which encode structural proteins for the virion. The late genes can be divided into two broad classes. At early times the gamma-1 or leaky-late class are expressed at low levels after infection and are dramatically upregulated at late times. In contrast, the gamma-2 or true late genes are expressed exclusively after viral DNA replication. Expression of true late (gamma-2 class) viral genes is completely prevented by inhibition of viral DNA synthesis. Areas covered: This review addresses the viral genes required
Suramin is a competitive inhibitor of heparin binding to many proteins, including viral envelope proteins, protein tyrosine phosphatases, and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). It has been clinically evaluated as a potential therapeutic in treatment of cancers caused by unregulated angiogenesis, triggered by FGFs. Although it has shown clinical promise in treatment of several cancers, suramin has many undesirable side effects. There is currently no experimental structure that reveals the molecular interactions responsible for suramin inhibition of heparin binding, which could be of potential use in structure-assisted design of improved analogues of suramin. We report the structure of suramin, in complex with the heparin-binding site of vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), which interacts with heparin in a geometrically similar manner to many FGFs. The larger than anticipated flexibility of suramin manifested in this structure, and other details of VCP-suramin interactions, might ...
Expression of the catalytic subunit (UL54) and the accessory protein (UL44) of human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase in a coupled in vitro transcription/translation system.
Human being cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a member of the herpesvirus family and represents a major human pathogen causing severe disease in newborns and immunocompromised patients, e. detected in 80% of the MM patients. While the IgG pattern varied in each patient, the most prominent IgM response was against the tegument protein pp150 and two nonstructural proteins, the processivity factor (pUL44) as well as the single-stranded DNA binding proteins (pUL57). An IgG avidity check exposed that 4 out of 20 MM individuals had a brand new disease and 2 MM individuals had LY310762 a recently available infection. The mix of IgG avidity as well as the IgM design is a useful device for reliable medical diagnostics regarding HCMV as well as for software of early therapy for all those MM individuals suffering from a higher viral load. Intro Human being cytomegalovirus (HCMV), among eight human being herpesviruses, represents a significant human being pathogen causing serious disease in newborns and ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Viral genome replication. AU - Cameron, Craig Eugene. AU - Raney, Kevin D.. AU - Götte, Matthias. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Provides the first comprehensive review of viral genome replication strategies, emphasizing not only pathways and regulation but also the structure-function, mechanism, and inhibition of proteins and enzymes required for this process Currently, there is no single source that permits comparison of the factors, elements, enzymes and/or mechanisms employed by different classes of viruses for genome replication. As a result, we (and our students) often restrict our focus to our particular system, missing out on the opportunity to define unifying themes in viral genome replication or benefit from the advances in other systems. For example, extraordinary biological and experimental paradigms that have been established over the past five years for the DNA replication systems of bacteriophage T4 and T7 will likely be of great value to anyone interested in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human cytomegalovirus UL18 utilizes US6 for evading the NK and T-cell responses. AU - Kim, Youngkyun. AU - Park, Boyoun. AU - Cho, Sunglim. AU - Shin, Jinwook. AU - Cho, Kwangmin. AU - Jun, Youngsoo. AU - Ahn, Kwangseog. PY - 2008/8/1. Y1 - 2008/8/1. N2 - Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US6 glycoprotein inhibits TAP function, resulting in down-regulation of MHC class I molecules at the cell surface. Cells lacking MHC class I molecules are susceptible to NK cell lysis. HCMV expresses UL18, a MHC class I homolog that functions as a surrogate to prevent host cell lysis. Despite a high level of sequence and structural homology between UL18 and MHC class I molecules, surface expression of MHC class I, but not UL18, is down regulated by US6. Here, we describe a mechanism of action by which HCMV UL18 avoids attack by the self-derived TAP inhibitor US6. UL18 abrogates US6 inhibition of ATP binding by TAP and, thereby, restores TAP-mediated peptide translocation. In addition, UL18 together ...
1. GalluzziL. BrennerC. MorselliE. TouatZ. KroemerG. 2008 Viral control of mitochondrial apoptosis. PLoS Pathog 4 e1000018. 2. CuconatiA. WhiteE. 2002 Viral homologs of BCL-2: role of apoptosis in the regulation of virus infection. Genes and Development 16 2465 2478. 3. CuconatiA. DegenhardtK. SundararajanR. AnschelA. WhiteE. 2002 Bak and Bax function to limit adenovirus replication through apoptosis induction. J Virol 76 4547 4558. 4. MarchiniA. TomkinsonB. CohenJI. KieffE. 1991 BHRF1, the Epstein-Barr virus gene with homology to Bc12, is dispensable for B-lymphocyte transformation and virus replication. J Virol 65 5991 6000. 5. HendersonS. HuenD. RoweM. DawsonC. JohnsonG. 1993 Epstein-Barr virus-coded BHRF1 protein, a viral homologue of Bcl-2, protects human B cells from programmed cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90 8479 8483. 6. Thorley-LawsonDA. GrossA. 2004 Persistence of the Epstein-Barr virus and the origins of associated lymphomas. N Engl J Med 350 1328 1337. 7. ...
The mechanism of the antiviral activity of 5-trifluoromethyl-2-deoxyuridine (F3TdR) has been studied in vaccinia virus-infected HeLa cells. When normal virions are used to infect the cells in the presence of the analogue, sucrose gradient sedimentation has shown that the early messenger RNA is normal and associates normally with polyribosomes. However, any late mRNA that may be produced under those conditions has abnormal sedimentation properties and does not associate normally with polyribosomes. When the cells are infected with purified virions containing F3TdR in their DNA, they adsorb to the cells and are uncoated normally. However, early mRNA is not transcribed normally. Studies of viral protein synthesis with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate suggest that a major virus-induced protein is not synthesized in the presence of F3TdR, and that another protein is formed instead.. ...
In order to explore the potential of HLA-independent T cell therapy for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, we developed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) directed against the HCMV encoded glycoprotein B (gB), which is expressed at high levels on the surface of infected cells. T cells engineered with this anti-gB CAR recognized HCMV-infected cells and released cytokines and cytotoxic granules. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to analogous approaches for HIV, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C virus, we found that HCMV-infected cells were resistant to killing by the CAR-modified T cells. In order to elucidate whether this phenomenon was restricted to the use of CARs, we extended our experiments to T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated recognition of infected cells. To this end we infected fibroblasts with HCMV-strains deficient in viral inhibitors of antigenic peptide presentation and targeted these HLA-class I expressing peptide-loaded infected cells with peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). Despite strong
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that causes significant human disease, particularly in the congenital setting and in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. A prominent feature of HCMV is the wide range of viral gene products that it encodes wh …
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The picornaviral 3C protease mediates viral polyprotein maturation and multiple cleavages of host proteins to modulate viral translation and transcription. The 3C protease has been regarded as a valid target due to its structural similarity among different picornaviruses and minimal sequence similarity with host proteins; therefore, the development of potent inhibitors against the 3C protease as an antiviral drug is ongoing. Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) belongs to the Picornavidea family and is a major threat to the poultry industry. To date, little is known about the roles of the DHAV 3C protease plays during infection. In this study, we compared the full-length DHAV 3C protein sequence with other 3C sequences to obtain an alignment for the construction of a phylogenetic tree. Then, we expressed and purified recombinant DHAV 3C protease in the BL21 expression system using nickel-NTA affinity chromatography. The optimization of the cleavage assay conditions and the kinetic analysis for DHAV 3C protease
We summarized the most recent findings on the role of autophagy in antiviral immune response. We described how viruses have developed strategies to subvert the autophagic process. A particular attention has been given to Epstein-Barr and Kaposi’s sarcoma associated Herpesvirus, viruses studied for many years in our laboratory. These two viruses belong to |i|γ|/i|-Herpesvirus subfamily and are associated with several human cancers. Besides the effects on the immune response, we have described how autophagy subversion by viruses may also concur to the enhancement of their replication and to viral tumorigenesis.
Axonal localization of viral membrane proteins promoted by Us9 missense mutants correlates with degree of anterograde spread in the rodent nervous system. Neuro
HZI researchers have uncovered how a cancer-causing virus specifically targets a protein of its host to successfully establish infection Humans are constantly exposed to pathogens like bacteria and viruses. In most cases, the immune system successfully detects and eliminates these invaders. However, the herpesvirus family has adapted brilliantly to the immune system: its members manage to stay in the hosts body for life after infection. A research team at the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI) recently discovered that a protein of the carcinogenic Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) commandeers an immune system component for its own benefit. This enables the virus to successfully infect its host. The researchers have published their results in the peer-reviewed journal PLOS Pathogens.. Read more ...
A viral tegument or tegument, more commonly known as a viral matrix, is a cluster of proteins that lines the space between the envelope and nucleocapsid of all herpesviruses. The tegument generally contains proteins that aid in viral DNA replication and evasion of the immune response, typically with inhibition of signalling in the immune system and activation of interferons. The tegument is usually[citation needed] released shortly after infection into the cytoplasm. These proteins are usually[citation needed] formed within the late phase of the viral infectious cycle, after viral genes have been replicated. Much information regarding viral teguments has been gathered from studying Herpes simplex virus. Viral teguments can be symmetrically arranged via structural and scaffolding protein or can also be asymmetrically arranged, depending on the virus.[citation needed] Teguments are rarely[citation needed] haphazardly placed and usually involve scaffolding proteins in their formation around the ...
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Detection and sequence analysis of borna disease virus p24 RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with mood disorders or schizophrenia and of b
In this report, we show that the products of UL47, UL49, and US11 ORFs bind RNA in vitro and in the context of infected cells, and that the packaged RNAs can be expressed in infected cells. We also show that VP22, the product of the UL49 ORF, mediates the transfer of the RNA from cell to cell. Relevant to our results are the following:. (i) The procedure we have used to identify the protein capable of binding RNAs was to electrophoretically separate virion proteins in denaturing gels, renature the proteins in situ, and react them with a labeled riboprobe representing the RNA detected in all virion preparations tested. Using this procedure, we unambiguously demonstrated that three virion protein bands bind RNAs. These proteins were identified as the products of the UL47, UL49, and US11 genes. In these assays, we used as probe the most abundant RNA packaged in virions. Because we used a riboprobe representing a single viral RNA, we cannot exclude the possibility that there exist virion proteins ...
In order to spread throughout the body, viruses hijack normal cell structures and functions to achieve their own ends. This class of virus, for example, always anchors its genome replication process to the membrane surfaces of cell sub-compartments or organelles (in this case, the endoplasmic reticulum). It had been understood this process occurred solely on one side of the membrane, outside of the organelle.. This study reveals the conventional view is incomplete. Nishikiori found that an enzyme called ERO1, which resides exclusively inside the organelle, on the opposite side of the membrane, is crucial to promoting the viral replication process. Reduce ERO1 and viral replication goes down, and vice versa, Nishikiori says.. The surprise was: How could an enzyme that was walled off from the virus by a solid membrane barrier activate viral growth? This was their first clue that something must be bridging the membrane. When combined with other insights, the team discovered that a key viral protein ...
Das Immediate-Early Protein 2 (IE2) des humanen Zytomegalievirus ist ein essentieller Regulationsfaktor des lytischen Infektionszyklus. Es aktiviert verschiedene early Promotoren, autoreprimiert seine eigene Expression und besitzt darüber hinaus auch zellzyklusregulatorische Aktivitäten. Um einzelne Funktionen des IE2 Proteins gezielt analysieren zu können, ist eine genaue Kenntnis seiner regulatorischen Domänen unabdingbar. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde daher eine Struktur-Funktionsanalyse des IE2 Proteins durchgeführt mit dem Ziel, seine funktionellen Domänen genauer zu charakterisieren. Hierfür wurden verschiedene IE2-Mutanten hergestellt und ihre Aktivität im Hinblick auf Transaktivierung, Autorepression und DNA-Bindung sowie Zellzylusarrestinduktion bestimmt. Die Untersuchungen ergaben, dass innerhalb einer Core-Region im C-Terminus des Proteins (AS 450-544) die regulatorischen Domänen der untersuchten Funktionen überlappen und hier schon kleinere Mutationen zu einem ...
Das Immediate-Early Protein 2 (IE2) des humanen Zytomegalievirus ist ein essentieller Regulationsfaktor des lytischen Infektionszyklus. Es aktiviert verschiedene early Promotoren, autoreprimiert seine eigene Expression und besitzt darüber hinaus auch zellzyklusregulatorische Aktivitäten. Um einzelne Funktionen des IE2 Proteins gezielt analysieren zu können, ist eine genaue Kenntnis seiner regulatorischen Domänen unabdingbar. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde daher eine Struktur-Funktionsanalyse des IE2 Proteins durchgeführt mit dem Ziel, seine funktionellen Domänen genauer zu charakterisieren. Hierfür wurden verschiedene IE2-Mutanten hergestellt und ihre Aktivität im Hinblick auf Transaktivierung, Autorepression und DNA-Bindung sowie Zellzylusarrestinduktion bestimmt. Die Untersuchungen ergaben, dass innerhalb einer Core-Region im C-Terminus des Proteins (AS 450-544) die regulatorischen Domänen der untersuchten Funktionen überlappen und hier schon kleinere Mutationen zu einem ...
Vaccinia Virus G1 Protein, a Predicted Metalloprotease, Is Essential for Morphogenesis of Infectious Virions but Not for Cleavage of Major Core Proteins: Genes
Singapore, 10 June 2009 - Researchers at the Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have uncovered genetic differences between 2009 H1N1 flu strain and previously circulating H1N1 strain. In their research, Professor Ram Sasisekharan and his colleagues found the 2009 H1N1 strains distinct from existing strains. This means that individuals are likely not protected from infection due to the presence of any existing cross-reactive antibodies - proteins that protect humans from infections. The 2009 H1N1 is presently vulnerable to antivirals but would only require one key mutation or change to become resistant to viral inhibitors like Tamiflu®. See News Release for more.. ...
What we want to do with personalized care is to give you a cocktail, and then monitor you and discover when the virus becomes resistant to it, explains Benner. Now we dont want to do that too soon - that would waste a lifetime of good viral inhibitors - but not too late, of course. The patient would go in once a month to get their viral load measured. At some point the virus mutates and its viral load goes up. Then you know you better change the cocktail ...
The genotype and phenotype of HSV2-gD27 are stable when the virus is passaged in human epithelial cells in vitro and during acute infection of mice.. HSV2-gD27 was propagated in B78H1-A10 mouse cells, which express human HVEM but not human nectin-1. HSV2-gD27 was not able to infect B78H1-C10 mouse cells, which express human nectin-1 but not HVEM, since the mutation in gD prevents its interaction with nectin-1 (33). To determine the sensitivity of the assay to detect WT virus mixed with HSV2-gD27, we infected B78H1-C10 cells with 400 PFU of WT virus (titrated in ARPE-19 cells) and 106 PFU of HSV2-gD27 (also titrated in ARPE-19 cells), either together or separately, and assayed the number of plaques on B78H1-C10 cells, which support replication of WT virus but not HSV2-gD27. Coinfection of B78H1-C10 cells with the two viruses resulted in a mean of 6.5 plaques, infection with WT virus alone yielded 5.5 plaques, and infection with HSV2-gD27 yielded no plaques. These data indicate that HSV2-gD27 does ...
V dci z P rodov deck fakulty Univerzity Karlovy (P F UK) zjistili, e jeden z velmi b n ch vir sni uje inteligenci naka en ch lid . Protil tky na cytomegalovirus m la v ce ne polovina testovan ch. U star ch lid se podle vedouc ho t mu Jaroslava Flegra vyskytuje virus je t ast ji. Studii zve ejnil na konci b ezna presti n v deck asopis Scientific Reports.
Ackr2 - Ackr2 (untagged) - Mouse chemokine binding protein 2 (Ccbp2), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Complete information for REPS2 gene (Protein Coding), RALBP1 Associated Eps Domain Containing 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Greetings! Long time reader, first time poster here! Just wanted to share a fun story. I was recently cleaning out a friends cupboards (yes, a friends...
This 2011 Methods Mol Biol paper by Banerjee PS, Carrico IS. utilizes the following products and services from Vector Biolabs: Cre Recombinase Adenovirus, eGFP Adenovirus.
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
A library of expression plasmids, recombinant proteins and tools dedicated to the understanding of the viral replication that is made available to the scientific community
The h1n1 meaning can explain a lot about what type of virus h1n1 really is including how it mutates, the h1n1 virus structure and how it...
Time 4 h 1.5 h and 3 h 3 h. Volume 3.0 ml 1.0 ml 0.5 ml. Alcohol none 1 ul/500 ul 2 ul/500 ul. BSA 3.785 mg/500 ul 2.5 mg/500 ul 2.5 mg/500 ul. Radioactivity 0.24 uCi/500 ul 0.58 uCi/500 ul 2 uCi/500 ul. 20. I note that Dr. Adler testified that Dr. Bridges never ...
Not bad. Not to shabby, as a remix not that much different. It is a little bit quieter than the original which is nice. It deserves a 3.5 maybe. So overall not bad. ...
... the core capsid protein, the viral polymerase, surface antigens-preS1, preS2, and S, the X protein and HBeAg. The X protein is ... Envelope Proteins[edit]. The hepatitis envelope proteins are composed of subunits made from the viral preS1, preS2, and S genes ... The "adhesion" step of the dynamic phase-in which an exterior viral protein stably interacts with a host cell protein- ... These envelope proteins can assemble independently of the viral capsid and genome into non-infectious virus-like particles that ...
The genome codes for 4 proteins. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. Replication follows the ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
The genome codes for 7 proteins. Viral replication is nucleo-cytoplasmic. Replication follows the dsDNA(RT) replication model. ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015. Guo, Haitao; Mason, ...
The genome codes for 7 proteins. Viral replication is nucleo-cytoplasmic. Replication follows the dsDNA(RT) replication model. ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
The genome codes for 9 proteins. Below are a few of the essential proteins of Bornaviridae that have been characterized. Viral ... The viral family is named after the city of Borna in Saxony, Germany, which is where a large number of animals were lost to the ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Bào, Yīmíng; Basler, Christopher F.; Bavari, Sina; Beer, ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral GP glycoproteins to host receptors, which mediates clathrin- ...
The genome codes for 40 proteins. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral ... Import of the viral genome into host nucleus mediated by core protein VII. Transcription of early genes (E genes) by host RNA ... Microtubular transport toward nucleus of the viral genome still protected by the core protein VII and a partial capsid mainly ... Host translation shutoff performed by the viral 100K protein. Assembly of new virions in the nucleus. Virions are released by ...
The genome codes for 12 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus ... They were able to identify viral plaques from this and then subsequently sequence their genomes. "ICTV Report Cystoviridae". " ... 14 kb in length and their protein and lipid outer layer. No other bacteriophage has any lipid in its outer coat, though the ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "NCBI Taxonomy Browser: Cystoviridae". NCBI. Retrieved 19 June 2016. Silander OK, ...
The genome codes for 6 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
... glycosylation is often used by viruses to shield the underlying viral protein from immune recognition. A significant example is ... In addition to their function in protein folding and cellular attachment, the N-linked glycans of a protein can modulate a ... Glycans serve a variety of structural and functional roles in membrane and secreted proteins.[1] The majority of proteins ... disorders of protein N-glycosylation, disorders of protein O-glycosylation, disorders of lipid glycosylation and disorders of ...
Lucas, A; McFadden, G (15 October 2004). "Secreted immunomodulatory viral proteins as novel biotherapeutics". Journal of ... A third class of virally encoded immunomodulatory proteins consists of proteins that bind directly to cytokines. Due to the ... The early 1990s saw several reports of virally encoded proteins with sequence homology to immune proteins, followed by reports ... Virokines are proteins encoded by some large DNA viruses that are secreted by the host cell and serve to evade the host's ...
The genome codes for 5 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic, and is lysogenic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by ... The virus exits the host cell by tripartite non-tubule guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
Both proteins are associated with cell membranes.[4] p41 (capsid protein)[edit]. The viral capsid protein CP, or p41, is a ... The p22 protein is a movement protein that is required for the virus to spread from cell to cell. P22 is an RNA-binding protein ... a capsid protein (called CP or p41), and two additional proteins, the RNA silencing suppressor p19 and movement protein p22.[4] ... TBSV is an unenveloped icosahedral virus with a T=3 viral capsid composed of 180 subunits of a single capsid protein. Its ...
During replication of a virus some of the viral proteins are expressed on the cell surface membrane of the infected cell. ... Antibodies can then bind to these viral proteins. Next, the NK cells which have Fc Receptors will bind to that antibody, ... inducing the NK cell to release proteins such as perforin and proteases known as granzymes, which causes the lysis of the ...
The genome codes for 2 to 6 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic, and is lysogenic. Entry into the host cell is achieved ... The virus exits the host cell by tripartite non-tubule guided viral movement, and tubule-guided viral movement. Plants and ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
Multiple necessary viral proteins are located within the envelope. DNA and proteins enter the host cell nucleus and turn-off ... Entrance to host cells begins infection, and is largely controled by the US 2 viral protein. Envelope fusion with the plasma ... L genes are transcribed "after the synthesis of DNA and viral protein onset". Virion DNA maturation occurs as the nucleocapids ... During this phase IE genes are transcribed without other proteins. The E genes are also transcribed before viral DNA ...
"Antiadenovirus activity of milk proteins: lactoferrin prevents viral infection". Antiviral Res. 53 (2): 153-8. doi:10.1016/ ... The fraction of protein extracted from milk, contains 3.3% RNA, but, the protein preferably binds to double-stranded DNA rather ... Occurrence of iron-containing red protein in bovine milk was reported as early as in 1939; however, the protein could not be ... optical absorption spectra and presence of two iron atoms per protein molecule. The protein was extracted from milk, contained ...
The viral replication, protein synthesis and assembly require a considerable amount of energy, provided by large clusters of ... Szajner; Weisberg, AS; Wolffe, EJ; Moss, B (2001). "Vaccinia virus A30L protein is required for association of viral membranes ... Viral evolution Viral replication Novoa, R. R.; Calderita, G.; Arranz, R.; Fontana, J.; Granzow, H.; Risco, C. (Feb 2005). " ... A viroplasm is an inclusion body in a cell where viral replication and assembly occurs. They may be thought of as viral ...
proteins. na. involved in. replicación. viral. replication has been proposed. .,ref name=Rozanov1992,Rozanov MN, Koonin EV, ...
It has about 46k nucleotides, with 60 proteins. The complete genome is available here Viral replication is cytoplasmic. The ... Once the viral genes have been replicated, the procapsid is assembled and packed. The tail is then assembled and the mature ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. NCBI (February 2015 ... virus attaches to the host cell's adhesion receptors using its terminal fiber, and ejects the viral DNA into the host cytoplasm ...
Synthesis of proteins and nucleic acid[edit]. Within minutes, bacterial ribosomes start translating viral mRNA into protein. ... Proteins modify the bacterial RNA polymerase so it preferentially transcribes viral mRNA. The host's normal synthesis of ... Of the viral families with DNA genomes, only two have single-stranded genomes. Eight of the viral families with DNA genomes ... Several attempts have been made to map Protein-protein interactions among phage and their host. For instance, bacteriophage ...
The outer layer is a protein structure of 240 capsid proteins trimers, and the inner one is a proteinaceous lipid membrane ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. After adsorption to ... It encodes about 30 proteins that are transcribed in operons. At least 9 structural proteins are present in the viron. The ... Capsid proteins polymerize around a lipoprotein vesicle translocated in the cytoplasm by virion assembly factors. Mature virons ...
... presenting the first described case of exaptation of an enzyme for a virus capsid protein function. Viral replication is ... The TTV1 virion contains four virus-encoded proteins, TP1-4. The proteins do not display any sequence similarity to structural ... Interestingly, nucleocapsid protein TP1 has apparently evolved from a Cas4 endonuclease, a conserved component of the adaptive ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015. Janekovic, D.; ...
On the other hand, an increase in N (viral protein) was observed. Infected alfalfa was also not seen to be harmful for domestic ... Beside encapsidation and its role in movement the viral coat protein also plays a role in the initiation of RNA replication. ... Tenllado F.; Bol J. (2000). "Genetic dissection of the multiple functions of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein in viral RNA ... The capsid protein remains attached to the coat protein binding site (CPB) at the 3'- end of the RNAs. The initiation factors ...
The genome codes for 5 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the ... The virus exits the host cell by budding, and tubule-guided viral movement. Fish serve as the natural host. "Viral Zone". ... viral G glycoproteins to host receptors, which mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Replication follows the negative ...
The first of these proteins to be studied were the viral fusion proteins, which allow an enveloped virus to insert its genetic ... there are two classes of viral fusion proteins: acidic and pH-independent. pH independent fusion proteins can function under ... White, J M (1990). "Viral and Cellular Membrane Fusion Proteins". Annual Review of Physiology. 52: 675-97. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... Even once the role of SNAREs or other specific proteins is illuminated, a unified understanding of fusion proteins is unlikely ...
The genome codes for 8 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by virus attaches to ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 13 August 2015. ICTV Report: Paramyxoviridae Viralzone: Ferlavirus. ...
The genome codes for 12 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into ... The virus exits the host cell by monopartite non-tubule guided viral movement. The virus is transmitted via a vector (delphacid ... The genus has two species: Echinochloa ragged stunt virus Rice ragged stunt virus "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015 ...
Each subunit consists of 180 proteins. By weight, the viron is 80% protein and 20% nucleic acids. Viral replication is ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". ... The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ... Recombination occurs by a mechanism in which the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase switches templates during RNA synthesis ( ...
The genome codes for 30 proteins. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". ...
Xin-Cheng Qin et al.: A tick-borne segmented RNA virus contains genome segments derived from unsegmented viral ancestors, in: ... Orsay virus utilizes ribosomal frameshifting to express a novel protein that is incorporated into virions, in: Virology 450-451 ... Henxia Xia et al.: A dsRNA virus with filamentous viral particled, in: Nature Communicationsvolume 8, Nr. 168 (2017), [[doi: ...
Viral resistance[edit]. Many people were skeptical of being too hopeful with indinavir due to previous events that occurred ... As a result, structural proteins, resulting from polypeptide products of gag and gag-pol genes, that are necessary for the HIV ... Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ... This fear of viral resistance caused a lot of users to be wary of the drug.[5] ...
... detecting the viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)[6][23] and detecting proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ... which code for proteins with antiviral properties.[51] EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by ... meningitis and other viral haemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD.[1] Blood samples are tested for viral RNA, viral antibodies or ... EBOV proteins blunt the human immune system's response to viral infections by interfering with the cells' ability to produce ...
... protein.[45] PPARα increases the activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and NF-κB, thereby leading to the recruitment of ... These free radicals likely interfere with the bacterium's metabolism and ability to make proteins.[79][80] Additionally, ... Squalene oxidation activates NF-κB (a protein complex) and consequently increases IL-1α levels.[45] Additionally, squalene ... excessive deposition of the protein keratin leading to comedo formation, colonization of the follicle by Cutibacterium acnes (C ...
The CD20 proteins are sticking out of the cell membrane, and rituximab, the Y-shaped antibody, is binding to the CD20 proteins. ... Other viral infections. *Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). *Immune toxicity, with depletion of B cells in 70% ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... In contrast, when the B cell lacked this asymmetric protein cluster, it was killed only 40% of the time.[36][37] ...
The CD20 proteins are sticking out of the cell membrane, and rituximab, the Y-shaped antibody, is binding to the CD20 proteins. ... Other viral infections. *Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by JC virus reactivation[30] ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... In contrast, when the B cell lacked this asymmetric protein cluster, it was killed only 40% of the time.[37][38] ...
Unlike viral meningitis, Lyme lymphocytic meningitis tends to not cause fever, last longer, and recur.[33][30] Lymphocytic ... A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... A recombinant vaccine against Lyme disease, based on the outer surface protein A (ospA) of B. burgdorferi, was developed by ...
... protein itself is not lost).[16] Lentils have the second-highest ratio of protein per calorie of any legume, after soybeans. ... Viral diseases[edit]. Viral diseases. Bean (pea) leaf roll virus Beet western yellows virus ... Raw lentils are 8% water, 63% carbohydrates including 11% dietary fiber, 25% protein, and 1% fat (table). Lentils are a rich ... protein content declines to 9% of total composition, and B vitamins and minerals decrease due to the overall water content ...
"Dopamine-dependent neurodegeneration in rats induced by viral vector-mediated overexpression of the parkin target protein, ... protein ligase and promotes the degradation of the synaptic vesicle-associated protein, CDCrel-1". Proceedings of the National ... Caltagarone J، Rhodes J، Honer WG، Bowser R (August 1998). "Localization of a novel septin protein, hCDCrel-1, in neurons of ... Hsu SC، Hazuka CD، Roth R، Foletti DL، Heuser J، Scheller RH (June 1998). "Subunit composition, protein interactions, and ...
Figueiredo LT (2009). "Viral pneumonia: epidemiological, clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects". J Bras Pneumol ... 2003). "Decline in invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine". N. Engl. ... Ruuskanen, O; Lahti, E, Jennings, LC, Murdoch, DR (2011-04-09). "Viral pneumonia". Lancet. 377 (9773): 1264-75. doi:10.1016/ ...
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
The sfRNAs are a result of incomplete degradation of the viral genome by the exonuclease and are important for viral ... and forms a complex with protein E. The immature particles are processed in the Golgi apparatus by the host protein furin, ... Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ... Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.[3] In most cases, symptoms include fever, chills, loss of appetite ...
"Human TYK2 deficiency: Mycobacterial and viral infections without hyper-IgE syndrome". The Journal of Experimental Medicine ... Genetic disorder, protein biosynthesis: Transcription factor/coregulator deficiencies. (1) Basic domains. 1.2. *Feingold ...
VPg may also play an important role in specific recognition of viral genome by movement protein (MP). Movement proteins are non ... It has both icosahedral virus particles, viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and protease and viral replication proteins. But ... Picornaviruses have a viral protein (VPg) covalently linked to 5' end of their genomes instead of 7-methylguanosine cap like ... Over the next 1-2 hours there is a loss of margination of chromatin and homogeneity in the nucleus, before the viral proteins ...
Proteins related to the cytoskeleton components of other organisms exist in archaea,[89] and filaments form within their cells, ... the impact of viral infection is higher on archaea than on bacteria and virus-induced lysis of archaea accounts for up to one- ... January 2002). "Introns in protein-coding genes in Archaea". FEBS Lett. 510 (1-2): 27-30. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)03219-7. ... The proteins that archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes share form a common core of cell function, relating mostly to transcription ...
If you go into a hospital and have a blood test which measures viral proteins, cancer proteins, hormones, vitamins, bacterial ... proteins, drugs, it will almost certainly use this technique".[8] The structure of photophores, the light producing organs in ...
The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription.[6] ... and viral genes.[8][2] The TATA box was found in protein coding genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II.[2] ... TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ... "TATA-binding protein recognition and bending of a consensus promoter are protein species dependent". Biochemistry. 47 (27): ...
Others may not have symptoms and may be picked up on screening or urinalysis as having high amounts of protein loss in the ... Within membranous glomerulonephritis, especially in cases caused by viral hepatitis, serum C3 levels are low.[7] ...
A.D. Hershey and Martha Chase, "Independent Functions of Viral Protein and Nucleic Acid in Growth of Bacteriophage," J. General ... the adenovirus E1A proteins bind to the retinoblastoma gene product". Nature. 334 (6178): 124-9. Bibcode:1988Natur.334..124W. ... a highly conserved protein complex that recognizes and binds to specific DNA sequences, marking starting points for replication ... the small subset of protein-coding genes within the much larger genome-now a mainstay of identifying genetic mutations in ...
... is an HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitor which blocks the functioning of HIV integrase which is needed for viral ... Protein binding. ≥98.9%. Metabolism. UGT1A1 and CYP3A. Elimination half-life. ~14 hours. ...
The Spi-B factor was shown to be crucial in initiating viral replication in certain strains of transgenic mice.[10] The protein ... A map of the genome of JC virus, indicating the position of the tumor antigen genes (red), the three capsid protein genes ( ... performing a transcriptional switch to allow for the formation of the various capsid and regulatory proteins needed for viral ... Immunohistochemical detection of JC virus protein (stained brown) in a brain biopsy (glial cells demonstrating progressive ...
The N protein contributes to viral replication, and coats the genomic RNA within the virion. Presently the soybean thrips ( ... The NSm protein is a non-structural protein (not present in mature virion) and is critical to cell-to-cell movement within ... This virus codes proteins from the M and S segments in an ambisense manner, meaning that proteins are translated from both ... The M segment is 4955 nt and to encode for NSm and GN/GC proteins. The S segment is 2603 nt and encodes the N and NSs proteins ...
Wilson J (December 2005). "Milk Intolerance: Lactose Intolerance and Cow's Milk Protein Allergy". Newborn and Infant Nursing ... Lactose intolerance is distinct from milk allergy, an immune response to cow's milk proteins. They may be distinguished in ... protein supplements (powders and bars), and even beers in the milk stout style. Some barbecue sauces and liquid cheeses used in ... "Gene-culture coevolution between cattle milk protein genes and human lactase genes". Nature Genetics. 35 (4): 311-3. doi: ...
... even death from this procedure because the human body sometimes recognizes antibodies from other animals as foreign proteins.[ ...
... viral burden - viral core - viral culture - viral envelope - viral load - viremia - viricide - virion - virology - virus - ... proteins - protocol - protozoa - provirus - pruritus - pseudo-Cushing's syndrome - pseudovirion - PUBMED - pulmonary - purified ... core protein - correlates of immunity/correlates of protection - creatinine - cross-resistance - cryotherapy - cryptococcal ...
Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... It also makes blood vessels more permeable so neutrophils and clotting proteins can get into connective tissue more easily. ...
2006). «Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions.». Cell Res. 15 (11-12): 923-34 ... protein stabilization. • protein homooligomerization. • regulation of cell cycle. • positive regulation of protein localization ... protein oligomerization. • negative regulation of protein kinase activity by regulation of protein phosphorylation. • ... protein kinase inhibitor activity. • histone binding. • Tat protein binding. • NF-kappaB binding. • ligação a proteínas ...
These proteins, generated by plasma cells, normally bind to pathogens, targeting them for destruction. Absent B cells with a ... It is a treatment that has been effective in preventing and treating viral infections after HSCT. VST therapy uses active donor ... Complement deficiencies are the result of a lack of any of these proteins. They may predispose to infections but also to ... VSTs have been produced primarily by ex-vivo cultures and by the expansion of T-lymphocytes after stimulation with viral ...
I plan to talk about the four main types of viral proteins, namely viral structural proteins, viral nonstructural proteins, and ... Hi! I plan to edit this article by providing an overview of what a viral protein is. The range of discovered viral proteins ... Im certain that there may be other types of viral proteins that Im unaware of (due to limited general information about viral ... The mention to Viral Protein Structural Database (VPDB) have been removed because this resource displays data of poor quality: ...
In herpesviruses, the viral matrix is usually called viral tegument and contains many proteins involved in viral entry, early ... Viral matrix proteins, like many other viral proteins, can exert different functions during the course of the infection. For ... Structural proteins linking the viral envelope with the virus core. They play a crucial role in virus assembly, and interact ... An example is the M1 protein of the influenza virus, showing affinity to the glycoproteins inserted in the host cell membrane ...
So much has been learnt about the proteins of influenza virus during the last three years that most of the gene products can ... Maizel, J. V.: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of viral proteins. In: Methods in virology, vol. V (eds. K. Maramorosch and H ... White D.O. (1974) Influenza Viral Proteins: Identification and Synthesis. In: Arber W. et al. (eds) Current Topics in ... Krug, R. M.: Influenza viral RNPs newly synthesized during the latent period of viral growth in MDCK cells. Virology 44, 125- ...
Structural proteins in marine viral communities. Jennifer R. Brum, J. Cesar Ignacio-Espinoza, Eun-Hae Kim, Gareth Trubl, Robert ... Structural proteins in marine viral communities. Jennifer R. Brum, J. Cesar Ignacio-Espinoza, Eun-Hae Kim, Gareth Trubl, Robert ... half of these proteins were newly functionally annotated and represent abundant and widespread viral metagenome-derived protein ... Illuminating structural proteins in viral "dark matter" with metaproteomics Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
By fusing a bait protein to the HIV-1 GAG protein, we show that interaction partners become trapped within virus-like particles ... lysis-free approach for the isolation and identification of biologically relevant protein-protein and small molecule-protein ... a viral particle sorting approach that obviates the need for cell homogenization and preserves the protein complexes during ... Virotrap constitutes an elegant complementary approach to the arsenal of methods to study protein complexes. A large portion of ...
... a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral ... a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral ... acid sequence that enhance the stability of the complex formed between the viral surface protein and transmembrane protein. ... acid sequence that enhance the stability of the complex formed between the viral surface protein and transmembrane protein. ...
Nonstructural Protein NS1: Giving a New Structure to Dengue Diagnosis Mini P. Singh, Kapil Goyal, R. K. Ratho ... Serotype 1-Specific Monoclonal Antibody-Based Antigen Capture Immunoassay for Detection of Circulating Nonstructural Protein ...
Viral FLICE-inhibitory proteins (FLIPs) prevent apoptosis induced by death receptors.. Thome M1, Schneider P, Hofmann K, ... v-FLIPs contain two death-effector domains which interact with the adaptor protein FADD, and this inhibits the recruitment and ... Here we describe a new family of viral inhibitors (v-FLIPs) which interfere with apoptosis signalled through death receptors ... The herpesvirus saimiri FLIP is detected late during the lytic viral replication cycle, at a time when host cells are partially ...
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... Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Feb 18;117(7):3704-3710. doi: 10.1073/pnas. ... Likewise, the viral proteins coded in the defective proviruses may form extracellular virus-like particles and may trigger ... The persistent production of HIV-1 proteins in the absence of viral replication helps explain persistent immune activation ... in HIV-infected individuals during suppressive cART are translationally competent and produce the HIV-1 Gag and Nef proteins. ...
Color denotes structural compartment of the virion for each protein; grey denotes non-structural viral proteins. (B) Schematic ... We identified interactions among viral capsid and tegument proteins, detecting phosphorylation of the capsid protein VP26 at ... DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A associates with viral proteins and impacts HSV-1 infection.. Rowles DL1, Tsai YC1, Greco TM1, Lin ... Interestingly, we found a nuclear association between viral capsid proteins and the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNA (cytosine ...
... a protein called MARCH8 tags the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) for destruction while it merely holds HIV hostage, a new ... Protein uses two different mechanisms to inhibit viral infections. *Download PDF Copy ... Previous studies have shown that MARCH8 stops HIV and VSV from entering human cells by targeting the viral proteins that are ... The findings reveal how a single protein can use multiple strategies to defend cells against viral infection. They could also ...
The discovery of the new Z-DNA binding protein, or ZBP1, was reported in the journal Frontiers in Microbiology. It could help ... A research team has discovered a protein without which cells infected by viruses cannot trigger an immune response, leading to ... Scientists discover cell protein crucial in preventing viral replication. *Download PDF Copy ... 2019, November 06). Scientists discover cell protein crucial in preventing viral replication. News-Medical. Retrieved on ...
Retroviridae Proteins Research. Viral Nonstructural Proteins Research. Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins Research. Viral ... A nucleo-cytoplasmic SR protein functions in viral IRES-mediated translation initiation. A significant number of viral and ... Actinohivin, a novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus protein from an actinomycete, inhibits viral entry to cells by binding ... A mutation study of the DNA binding domain of human papillomavirus type11 E2 protein. A site-specific mutation study was ...
... can translocate across the cell membrane and have been extensively studied for the delivery of proteins, nucleic acids, and ... The BMV CPNT overlaps with the sequence known to bind BMV RNA, and it can deliver BMV RNAs into cells, resulting in viral ... CPNT increased uptake of the green flourescent protein (GFP) into the cell when covalently fused to GFP or when present in ... We showed that the intact virion and a recombinant capsid protein (CaP) from a plant-infecting nonenveloped icosahedral RNA ...
The F-box protein is one of the four components of the SCF (SKp1, Cullin, F-box protein) complex, which mediates ubiquitination ... On the other hand, F-box proteins can be used in the defense response by the host. This review describes the role of F-box ... of proteins targeted for degradation by the proteasome, playing an essential role in many cellular processes. Several ... proteins and the use of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in virus-host interactions. ...
Study Identifies Protein Essential For Immune Recognition, Response To Viral Infection. by editor ... "The detection of viral genetic material inside an infected cell is critical to initiating the responses that signal the immune ... research team has identified an immune cell protein that is critical to setting off the bodys initial response against viral ... "We are hopeful that this discovery will allow the development of new strategies to curtail viral mechanisms that impede the ...
Infectious disease specialists at the Johns Hopkins Childrens Center have identified a protein that regulates the bodys ... Cells with intact NOD2s secreted higher levels of interferon, a natural antiviral protein, and were able to curtail viral ... Researchers identify protein that helps control common viral infection. Johns Hopkins Medicine ... The protein -- a cell receptor called NOD2 found in several types of immune cells -- has long been known for its role in ...
We show that the amount and the peculiarities of distribution of the protein intrinsic disorder in the viral shell can be used ... Based on this analysis, an empirical model for predicting the viral transmission behavior is developed. This model is able to ... A potentially new vaccine strategy could involve searches for viral strains that are characterized by the evolutionary misfit ... Another protein of interest to this paper is the N-protein [5, 12]. The N-protein is an RNA binding protein. While many of its ...
Secreted immunomodulatory viral proteins: virokines and viroceptors. Virus-encoded immunomodulatory proteins have been ... viral CC chemokine inhibitor; VCP, vaccinia complement control protein; IMP, inflammatory modulatory protein; serpin, serine ... Secreted Immunomodulatory Viral Proteins as Novel Biotherapeutics Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Some of these viral anti-immune regulators are expressed as secreted proteins that engage specific host immune targets in the ...
Artificial virus components: protein polymers that mimick viral capsid proteins. Status: Afgerond Start project:. 1-dec-2009. ... Artificial virus components: protein polymers that mimick viral capsid proteins. In the development of gene (DNA) therapy, ... With a view to both applications, we are investigating the binding to DNA of protein polymers (polymer-like proteins designed ... The polymers, which are synthesised like natural proteins in yeast cells (Pichia pastoris), consist entirely of natural amino ...
Here we describe a new family of viral inhibitors (v-FLIPs) which interfere with apoptosis signalled through death receptors ... Viral FLICE-inhibitory proteins (FLIPs) prevent apoptosis induced by death receptors Nature. 1997 Apr 3;386(6624):517-21. doi: ... v-FLIPs contain two death-effector domains which interact with the adaptor protein FADD, and this inhibits the recruitment and ... Here we describe a new family of viral inhibitors (v-FLIPs) which interfere with apoptosis signalled through death receptors ...
B) DV genomic organization and functions of viral proteins. For some proteins their function in the viral life cycle is not yet ... whereas the processing of most of the other NS proteins and the C-terminus of the C protein is carried out by the viral two- ... 1. Genome Organization & Viral Protein Expression. DV belongs to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. These viruses ... NS3 acts as the viral serine protease, which requires the protein NS2B as cofactor for activity. In addition, NS3 also ...
We confirm that the viral transporter protein is expressed during infection and show that the protein functions to take up ... Host-derived viral transporter protein for nitrogen uptake in infected marine phytoplankton. View ORCID ProfileAdam Monier, ... This gene is transcribed during infection and when expressed in yeast mutants the viral protein is located to the plasma ... Host-derived viral transporter protein for nitrogen uptake in infected marine phytoplankton ...
Determining the structure of this molecule and its role in the viral fusion mechanism may aid the development of drugs and ... "Because of F proteins central role in viral infection, solving the structure of this critical protein is truly a great advance ... They replaced the part of the protein that is embedded in the viral membrane with an engineered piece of protein that acts as a ... About the Protein and How its Structure was Solved The F protein that the research team solved is from a parainfluenza virus. ...
Antibodies developed by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) were used to directly detect the viral protein Zika NS1 at ... New Portable, Cost-effective Agile R100 Detects Zika Viral Protein with High Sensitivity and Specificity. ... announces a new publication in Biosensors and Bioelectronics demonstrating detection of Zika viral antigen using the label-free ...
Using bioinformatic tools we have previously shown that viral structural proteins are a rich source for new bioactive peptide ... The antibacterial mechanism of action of the two most active viral protein-derived peptides, vAMP 059 and vCPP 2319, was ... The antibacterial mechanism of action of the two most active viral protein-derived peptides, vAMP 059 and vCPP 2319, was ... Overall, the results show that structural viral proteins are an abundant source for membrane-active peptides sequences with ...
We studied the sub-cellular local-isation and interactions of pUL71 with a subset of cellular and viral proteins. Thereby we ... Zunächst konnte das Protein als Kapsid-assoziiertes strukturelles Protein identifiziert werden. Es wurden Interaktionen von ... The function of essential HCMV protein pUL77 is characterised in the first part of the study. HCMV pUL77 was shown to be a ... Der erste Teil der Arbeit befasst sich mit der funktionellen Charakterisierung des HCMV Pro-teins pUL77. Es ist bekannt, dass ...
In this review we focus on the interaction of viral proteins with important regulators of cell cycle-oncoproteins YB-1, p53, ... Since HCV does not carry any known oncogene, it is thought that interaction between virally encoded proteins and host proteins ... Many crucial interactions between HCV-encoded proteins and host proteins have been reported. ... if the virus dominates by evolving quasispecies which code for altered proteins that interact differently with host proteins, ...
  • Cells expressing v-FLIPs are protected against apoptosis induced by CD95 or by the related death receptors TRAMP and TRAIL-R. The herpesvirus saimiri FLIP is detected late during the lytic viral replication cycle, at a time when host cells are partially protected from CD95-ligand-mediated apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • The persistent production of HIV-1 proteins in the absence of viral replication helps explain persistent immune activation despite HIV-1 levels below detection, and also presents new challenges to HIV-1 eradication. (nih.gov)
  • By inhibiting viral replication, ZBP1 signaling provides precious time to the body to create antibodies and clear the virus from the host. (news-medical.net)
  • Viral replication was much higher in brain cells and embryonic fibroblasts from mice without ZBP1 expression after infecting with either pathogenic or nonpathogenic strains of West Nile virus, as well as of Zika virus . (news-medical.net)
  • Rep68 and Rep78 DNA helicases, encoded by adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2), are required for replication of AAV viral DNA in infected cells. (molecularstation.com)
  • The BMV CPNT overlaps with the sequence known to bind BMV RNA, and it can deliver BMV RNAs into cells, resulting in viral replication, as well as deliver double-stranded RNAs that can induce gene silencing. (apsnet.org)
  • Cells with intact NOD2s secreted higher levels of interferon, a natural antiviral protein, and were able to curtail viral replication. (eurekalert.org)
  • DV RNA replication occurs in close association with cellular membranes that may serve as a scaffold for the viral replication complexes (RC). (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Also for the glycoprotein NS1 it is believed that it plays a role in viral RNA replication, most probably prior to or at initial minus-strand RNA. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY. (harvard.edu)
  • When the scientists restored normal NOD2 function, the previously malfunctioning cells were once again able to block viral replication. (medindia.net)
  • Thus, viruses do not code for many of their own viral proteins, and instead use the host cell's machinery to produce the viral proteins they require for replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the replication of viruses, some viral nonstructural proteins carry out important functions that affect the replication process itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • one in the glycoprotein for binding and entry into dendritic cells and the other in the viral polymerase that enhances viral replication. (scripps.edu)
  • via their binding motifs and thereby facilitates the protein synthesis and viral replication. (labome.org)
  • Haemagglutinin's function is to bind to the surface of its target cell and allow the viral genes into the cell, where replication occurs. (sciencephoto.com)
  • This protein corrupts the cellular checkpoint mechanisms that guard cell division and the transcription, replication and repair of DNA. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Drs. Clurman and Welcker suspect that by acting as a decoy and binding to Fbw7, T antigen protects cellular Fbw7 targets that facilitate viral replication and tumorigenesis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the absence of functional protein p6, the two major processes of the viral cycle, transcription and DNA replication, were affected. (asm.org)
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that phosphorylation of viral CPs is involved in the regulation of the viral infection process from enabling virion disassembly to regulation of viral protein synthesis and replication. (dovepress.com)
  • Transport of maize streak virus (MSV) DNA into the nucleus of host cells is essential for virus replication and the presence of virus particles in the nuclei of infected cells implies that coat protein (CP) must enter the nucleus. (apsnet.org)
  • Like most other accessory proteins, p30 and p28 are dispensable for in vitro viral replication and transformation but are required for efficient viral replication and persistence in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review we summarize and compare what is known about p30 and p28, highlighting their roles in viral replication and viral pathogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. (mdpi.com)
  • Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. (mdpi.com)
  • The protein is the key switch that regulates human herpes virus 8 replication. (chemdiv.com)
  • The viral DI RNA associates with multiple viral proteins during replication, and is therefore expected to form heterogeneous RNA-protein complexes. (illinois.edu)
  • Lipid droplet-binding protein TIP47 regulates hepatitis C Virus RNA replication through interaction with the viral NS5A protein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • NS5A is critically involved in viral RNA replication that takes place at newly formed membranes within the endoplasmic reticulum (membranous web) and assists viral assembly in the close vicinity of lipid droplets (LDs). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • As these progenitor cells mature further down the myeloid lineage towards cells that support active viral replication, the levels of these microRNAs decrease. (epfl.ch)
  • Deletion of open reading frames 3a, 3b, 6, and 7a, either alone or in combination, does not affect the virus replication significantly in cell culture ( 45 ), demonstrating that these SCoV accessory proteins are not essential for virus replication in cell culture. (asm.org)
  • RESULTS: No evidence of viral replication in the epithelial (WISH) cells was found. (arvojournals.org)
  • At the middle phase of CMV replication in RPE cells, a low percentage of cells express immediate early (IE) protein at a time when a high percentage of the cells express early (E) proteins. (arvojournals.org)
  • The low frequency of expression of IE viral protein in RPE cells, the subsequent slow replication of CMV, and the altered expression of IE viral proteins may be critical variables that impact on their relationship to viral persistence and activation within the retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • Also, cells treated with glycosylation inhibitors did not exhibit cytopathic effect, demonstrating that a functioning host glycosylation system is necessary for viral replication. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Viral matrix proteins, like many other viral proteins, can exert different functions during the course of the infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonetheless, these viral proteins provide us with valuable tools to access the poorly characterised MAM compartment, to define its cellular constituents and describe how virus infection alters these to its own end. (nih.gov)
  • To protect humans against infection, a protein called MARCH8 tags the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) for destruction while it merely holds HIV hostage, a new study in eLife shows. (news-medical.net)
  • The findings reveal how a single protein can use multiple strategies to defend cells against viral infection. (news-medical.net)
  • 2020) MARCH8 inhibits viral infection by two different mechanisms. (news-medical.net)
  • They found a cytoplasmic sensor protein, ZBP1, which is essential in recognizing the presence of a virus by the accumulation of RNA in response to the infection. (news-medical.net)
  • Prior research by the same scientists has shown the steep rise in ZBP1 expression in mouse brains and mouse cells following viral infection. (news-medical.net)
  • Hopefully, by increasing the level of ZBP1 protein production in the brain, by enhancing the expression of the ZBP1 genes, the virus will be eliminated from the brain and encephalitis will not occur following infection. (news-medical.net)
  • A peptidoglycan hydrolase motif within the mycobacteriophage TM4 tape measure protein promotes efficient infection of stationary phase cells. (molecularstation.com)
  • Alfenas-Zerbini, P. The Role of F-Box Proteins during Viral Infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Correa RL, Bruckner FP, de Souza Cascardo R, Alfenas-Zerbini P. The Role of F-Box Proteins during Viral Infection. (mdpi.com)
  • A Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH)-led research team has identified an immune cell protein that is critical to setting off the body's initial response against viral infection. (redorbit.com)
  • The detection of viral genetic material inside an infected cell is critical to initiating the responses that signal the immune system to fight an infection and prevent its spread throughout the body," says Hans-Christian Reinecker, MD, of the Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the MGH Gastrointestinal Unit, senior author of the report. (redorbit.com)
  • We confirm that the viral transporter protein is expressed during infection and show that the protein functions to take up sources of nitrogen. (pnas.org)
  • Because of F protein's central role in viral infection, solving the structure of this critical protein is truly a great advance in biomedical science," says Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., NIH director. (eurekalert.org)
  • These cells serve as key detectors of infection and normally respond to viral infection by producing IFN-I proteins. (scripps.edu)
  • To better understand how this immune-suppressing response develops, Oldstone and his team, including first authors John R. Teijaro and Cherie Ng, along with Brian Sullivan, looked in detail at the early events in a persistent viral infection. (scripps.edu)
  • The production of IFN-Is by plasmacytoid dendritic cells has been considered a normal and beneficial part of the immune reaction to a viral infection. (scripps.edu)
  • It is small and has an outer "envelope" with two proteins, one that interacts with a cellular receptor, its dance partner, and another that fuses the viral envelope with the cell membrane, starting infection. (healthcanal.com)
  • Viruses counteract these host responses, hijacking the host's cellular machinery in a variety of ways that subvert immune defenses and allow the viral infection to spread. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The product of bacteriophage φ29 early gene 6, protein p6, is a double-stranded-DNA binding protein and one of the more abundant proteins during viral infection. (asm.org)
  • We have studied the role of protein p6 in vivo through the infection of suppressor and nonsuppressor Bacillus subtilis strains with a phage carrying a nonsense mutation in gene 6, sus6(626). (asm.org)
  • Viral DNA synthesis was practically abolished, and early transcription was remarkably delayed and, in addition, underregulated at late times of the infection. (asm.org)
  • The amount of protein p6 synthesized after infection with mutant phage sus6(626) under suppressor conditions was sixfold lower than that produced after wild-type infection. (asm.org)
  • However, its role in viral infection and the mechanisms involved remain unclear. (ssrn.com)
  • These findings demonstrate a critical role of the IRG1-itaconate axis in viral infection and provide potential targets for developing antiviral therapeutics. (ssrn.com)
  • A study from a Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) research team has identified the specific function of a protein found in HIV and related viruses that appears to slow down viral spread in the earliest stages of infection. (massgeneral.org)
  • Our investigation identified a particular function of the protein Nef as responsible for disrupting the ability of infected T cells to migrate, slowing the rate at which the virus initially spreads after infection. (massgeneral.org)
  • Recent studies by Mempel's team and others have suggested that - in contrast to the conventional view that HIV spreads throughout the body as free viral particles - the virus can be transported by infected T cells that travel through tissues and the circulatory system and then spread the infection by direct contact with uninfected cells. (massgeneral.org)
  • The host restriction factor TRIM5α mediates a post-entry, pre-integration block to retroviral infection that depends upon recognition of the viral capsid by the TRIM5α PRYSPRY domain. (harvard.edu)
  • However, the CTL that come to dominate any immune response to viral infection recognize a very small proportion of all peptides encoded in a viral genome. (fredhutch.org)
  • Coat proteins (CPs) are the most abundant protein produced during a viral infection. (dovepress.com)
  • Dolganiuc A, Norkina O, Kodys K, Catalano D, Bakis G, Marshall C, Mandrekar P, Szabo G. Viral and host factors induce macrophage activation and loss of toll-like receptor tolerance in chronic HCV infection. (umassmed.edu)
  • We need to know whether the proteins projecting from the surface of a virus are positioned in such away that they might serve as triggers for the body to fight off the infection because antibody molecules raised in the blood might bind to those surface proteins and interfere with the life cycle of the virus. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The protein has also been shown to play a role in the disease's progression to AIDS, the late stage of HIV infection in which destruction of the immune system allows opportunistic diseases and cancers to overwhelm the host. (unclineberger.org)
  • To achieve this, the researchers could program the system to produce proteins that alert immune cells to fight the infection, instead of GFP. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • Utilizing a SeV infection model, we demonstrate that both viral isRNA and host RNAs are bound to Ebola and Marburg VP35s in cells. (jcvi.org)
  • A targeted sequencing approach was undertaken to identify mutations in a key viral activation site that correlate with the development of systemic disease after feline coronavirus infection. (cornell.edu)
  • The triglyceride-synthesizing enzyme acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) plays a critical role in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by recruiting the HCV capsid protein core onto the surface of cellular lipid droplets (LDs). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The nonstructural protein NS5A has emerged as a new drug target in antiviral therapies for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Remarkably, the researchers also found that blocking this protein in mice protected them from the lethal effects of dengue virus infection, an important finding given that an effective vaccine against dengue has remained elusive, partly because there are four serotypes of the virus that cause disease. (berkeley.edu)
  • The mention to Viral Protein Structural Database (VPDB) have been removed because this resource displays data of poor quality: example http://vpdb.bicpu.edu.in/tabview.php?pdbid=1K4R This entry displays a dengue virus envelope protein but the source organism is HIV? (wikipedia.org)
  • I plan to talk about the four main types of viral proteins, namely viral structural proteins, viral nonstructural proteins, and viral regulatory and accessory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural proteins linking the viral envelope with the virus core. (wikipedia.org)
  • So much has been learnt about the proteins of influenza virus during the last three years that most of the gene products can now be tentatively assigned a structural or functional role in the virion or in the infected cell. (springer.com)
  • One primarily unannotated PC dominated the dataset, but structural modeling and genomic context identified this PC as a previously unidentified capsid protein from multiple uncultivated tailed virus families. (pnas.org)
  • The F-box domain is a protein structural motif of about 50 amino acids that mediates protein-protein interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • In this way, greater understanding of the viral evolution based on its hosts and its environment can be achieved along with the better understanding of the structural mechanisms involved in such adaptive evolution. (hindawi.com)
  • Apart from the hydrophobic nature, not much is known about the functions of the small non-structural proteins NS2A, NS4A and NS4B. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Using bioinformatic tools we have previously shown that viral structural proteins are a rich source for new bioactive peptide sequences, namely antimicrobial and cell-penetrating peptides. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overall, the results show that structural viral proteins are an abundant source for membrane-active peptides sequences with strong antibacterial properties. (frontiersin.org)
  • HCMV pUL77 was shown to be a structural protein associated with capsids. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Giovannoni F, Ladelfa MF, Monte M, Jans DA, Hemmerich P, García C. Dengue Non-structural Protein 5 Polymerase Complexes With Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein (PML) Isoforms III and IV to Disrupt PML-Nuclear Bodies in Infected Cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Viral proteins are grouped according to their functions, and groups of viral proteins include structural proteins, nonstructural proteins, regulatory proteins, and accessory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most viral structural proteins are components for the capsid and the envelope of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral glycoproteins and their three-dimensional structures, before and after fusion, have allowed a wide range of structural conformations to be discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral membrane fusion proteins have been grouped into four different classes, and each class is identified by characteristic structural conformations: Class I: Post-fusion conformation has a distinct central coiled-coil structure composed of signature trimer of α-helical hairpins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Class III: Structural conformation is a combination of features from Class I and Class II viral membrane fusion proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a recent study led by Drs. Adel Benlahrech and Steven Patterson of the Imperial College School of Medicine in London, researchers employed a model vaccine based on structural (Gag) proteins of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to investigate two approaches for potentially broadening the CTL response to vaccination. (fredhutch.org)
  • In Viral Membrane Proteins: Structure, Function, and Drug Design, Wolfgang Fischer summarizes the current structural and functional knowledge of membrane proteins encoded by viruses. (ark.no)
  • The HTLV group of oncoretroviruses has a genome that encodes structural and enzymatic proteins Gag, Pro, and Env, regulatory proteins Tax and Rex, and several accessory proteins from the pX region. (frontiersin.org)
  • A radioimmunoassay specific for a murine leukemia virus structural protein, the gs antigen, detects an antigenic reactivity in normal murine cells in culture and natural tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • One of the major drawbacks of modern bioinformatics is the fact that protein similarity and blast searches are still based on primary amino acid sequence rather than structural data. (springer.com)
  • In this direction and in an effort to bridge this flaw, a novel platform has been developed, which is capable of performing fast similarity searches using protein primary and secondary structural information. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, PSSP is capable of efficiently exploiting protein secondary structural information from the PDB database when available. (springer.com)
  • Scientists looked at messenger RNAs, which carry genetic messages from DNA to help make proteins - long chains of amino acids that form structural components of body tissue such as muscle and hair. (chemdiv.com)
  • Structural, antigenic, and evolutionary characterizations of the envelope protein of newly emerging Duck Tembusu Virus. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we examined in detail structural, antigenic, and evolutionary properties of envelope (E) proteins of six DTMUV isolates spanning 2010-2012, each being isolated from individual farms with different geographical locations where disease outbreaks were documented. (nih.gov)
  • Structural analysis showed that E proteins of DTMUV and its closely related flavivirus (Japanese Encephalitis Virus) shared a conserved array of predicted functional domains and motifs. (nih.gov)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV1) Rev has been reported to act by inducing the nucleocytoplasmic transport of unspliced and singly spliced RNAs that encode viral structural proteins. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Here we find a new interaction between the non-structural protein NS5A and DGAT1 and show that the trafficking of NS5A to LDs depends on DGAT1 activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These data established that, in addition to 3a protein, 7a protein was a SCoV accessory protein identified as a SCoV structural protein. (asm.org)
  • SCoV 3a protein is a viral structural protein ( 15 , 37 ) and is released from 3a-expressing cells and virus-infected cells in membranous structures ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • DV genome organization, polyprotein processing scheme and membrane topology of viral proteins. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. (harvard.edu)
  • A significant portion of its genome is devoted to evading immune responses, ensuring viral persistence for the host's lifetime 14 . (nature.com)
  • Many copies of a single viral protein or a number of different viral proteins make up the capsid, and each of these viral proteins are coded for by one gene from the viral genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral nonstructural proteins are proteins coded for by the genome of the virus and are expressed in infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viral genome, now inside the cell, tells it to stop dividing and mandates the building of new viruses. (healthcanal.com)
  • Adenovirus uses protein VII to compact its genome within virus particles, similarly to how histone proteins condense a cell's DNA into chromosomes, collectively called chromatin. (medicalxpress.com)
  • With at least one error in every genome they copy, viral genomes are moving targets for antiviral drugs, creating resistant mutants as they multiply. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • These findings combined with the finding of viral-specific RNA indicate that portions of the viral genome are being expressed with a much greater frequency than previously appreciated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The viral genome is composed of two viral RNA's: RNA 1 and RNA 2. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Marine viruses are abundant and have substantial ecosystem impacts, yet their study is hampered by the dominance of unannotated viral genes. (pnas.org)
  • The five most abundant protein groups comprised 67% of the metaproteomes and were tentatively identified as capsid proteins of predominantly unknown viruses, all of which putatively contain a protein fold that may be the most abundant biological structure on Earth. (pnas.org)
  • Viruses are ecologically important, yet environmental virology is limited by dominance of unannotated genomic sequences representing taxonomic and functional "viral dark matter. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, four of the five most abundant PCs in the metaproteome represent capsid proteins containing the HK97-like protein fold previously found in many viruses that infect all three domains of life. (pnas.org)
  • Both VLPs and mature viruses contain a number of host proteins that are recruited by binding to viral proteins. (nature.com)
  • Proteins from two unrelated viruses, human CMV (HCMV) and HCV, are documented to traffic sequentially from the ER into mitochondria, probably through the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) compartment. (nih.gov)
  • Trafficking of viral proteins to the MAM may allow viruses to manipulate a variety of fundamental cellular processes, which converge at the MAM, including Ca2+ signalling, lipid synthesis and transfer, bioenergetics, metabolic flow, and apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies have shown that MARCH8 stops HIV and VSV from entering human cells by targeting the viral proteins that are essential for these viruses to enter cells. (news-medical.net)
  • A research team has discovered a protein without which cells infected by viruses cannot trigger an immune response, leading to 100% mortality with even non-disease-producing strains. (news-medical.net)
  • When viruses invade cells, they often move towards the nucleus in order to replicate and sometimes to integrate their own genetic material into that of the host cell, traveling along structures called microtubules that cells use for internal protein transport. (redorbit.com)
  • The sensing of intracellular viral nucleic acids for induction of interferons is so important that many viruses, including influenza A, have evolved specific strategies to interfere with activation of the interferon defense system," says Reinecker, an associate professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. (redorbit.com)
  • Previously, we provided evidence that the behavior of viruses can be predicted from the analysis of their predicted intrinsic disorder in their protein shells, more specifically, by looking at the peculiarities of disorder distribution in their matrix and capsid proteins [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Many viruses have learned to evade or subvert the host antiviral immune responses by encoding and expressing immunomodulatory proteins that protect the virus from attack by elements of the innate and acquired immune systems. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, an examination of viral strategies in general reveals that viruses as a whole can express effector molecules that target the entire gamut of immune pathways of vertebrate hosts, including some that likely remain to be uncovered. (jimmunol.org)
  • Determining the structure of this molecule and its role in the viral fusion mechanism may aid the development of drugs and vaccines that target these types of viruses, say the scientists, whose work was funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), both parts of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (eurekalert.org)
  • As described in the latest issue of the journal Nature, this large protein, called F, studs the surfaces of certain RNA viruses that are encased in a membrane envelope. (eurekalert.org)
  • T Cell Responses to Nonstructural Protein 3 Distinguish Infections by Dengue and Zika Viruses. (harvard.edu)
  • The capsid of some viruses are enclosed in a membrane called the viral envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • These viral glycoproteins bind to specific receptors and coreceptors on the membrane of host cells, and they allow viruses to attach onto their target host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • FAST proteins are coded for by members of the nonenveloped reoviridae family of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. (curehunter.com)
  • A team led by Roberto Cattaneo, Ph.D., a Mayo molecular biologist, describes the crucial initial steps taken by attachment proteins of the measles virus and related respiratory viruses with their cellular partners, the receptors. (healthcanal.com)
  • But Amy Lee, a former graduate student in the program of virology, and Sean Whelan, HMS professor of microbiology and immunobiology, now say the ribosome appears to take a more active role, regulating the translation of specific proteins and ultimately how some viruses replicate. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The researchers were studying differences between how viruses and the host cells they infect carry out the process of translating messenger RNAs (mRNAs) into proteins. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Focusing on protein components found on the surface of the ribosome, they discovered a protein that some viruses depend on to make other proteins, but that the vast majority of cellular mRNAs do not need. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Because certain viruses are very sensitive to the presence and absence of these ribosomal proteins, it might be a useful way for us to think about targeting ribosomes for therapeutic purposes from an antiviral standpoint," says Whelan. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In Viral Applications of Green Fluorescent Protein: Methods and Protocols, leading investigators from around the world contribute detailed examples of both the construction and application of fluorescent proteins delivered by viruses in a format crafted to produce rapid, readily reproducible results. (springer.com)
  • Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. (umassmed.edu)
  • Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. (umassmed.edu)
  • This year as protein artists we will take up the challenge of making art inspired by viruses. (oregonstate.edu)
  • then we may as well be asking, "What does a virus factory look like," since the way to make a big collection of viruses is to have one of them infect a living cell and subvert its mechanisms toward rampant viral manufacture. (oregonstate.edu)
  • While other proteins are involved in the virus' ability to infect these white blood cells and replicate, researchers say Nef plays a role in preventing reinfection of the same white blood cell by two different HIV viruses, and in preventing recognition of the virus by the immune system. (unclineberger.org)
  • Many plant viruses and primarily those with (+)-sense single-strand (ss) RNA genomes have been cloned and modified to express foreign peptides and proteins in planta. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the E proteins showed that viruses evolved into two distinct genotypes, termed as DTMUV.I and DTMUV.II, with II emerging as the dominant genotype. (nih.gov)
  • By sticking two naturally-occurring proteins together, scientists have developed a new molecule that not only stops viruses reproducing but also bypasses the defence pathway that some virus can block. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • Viral cytokines and cytokine receptors, together with a group of structurally unique, soluble, cytokine-binding or cytokine receptor-binding proteins, represent the three major molecular strategies for subversion and modulation of the host cytokine networks mainly in large DNA viruses. (kegg.jp)
  • Many enveloped viruses exploit the class E vacuolar protein-sorting (VPS) pathway to bud from cells, and use peptide motifs to recruit specific class E VPS factors. (rupress.org)
  • Numerous examples of these structures have been characterized, ranging from spherical viruses to tubular protein assemblies. (portlandpress.com)
  • In herpesviruses, the viral matrix is usually called viral tegument and contains many proteins involved in viral entry, early gene expression and immune evasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, because the NOD2 protein is regulated by a gene implicated in the inflammatory intestinal condition Crohn's disease, the findings offer a new explanation for the severe CMV infections that sometimes occur in patients with Crohn's. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the present work, we show that a virus of a marine alga carries a gene encoding a transporter protein that mediates nutrient uptake. (pnas.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • Because gene therapy approaches have also been frustrated by immune responses, this suggests another situation in which protein VII's suppression of the immune response could be used to benefit patients. (medicalxpress.com)
  • To see if CP is imported into the nucleus in the absence of other viral gene products, the MSV CP gene was expressed in insect cells with a baculovirus vector system, and also in tobacco protoplasts with a cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter-driven transient gene expression vector. (apsnet.org)
  • Both p30 and p28 regulate viral gene expression at the post-transcriptional level whereas p30 can also function at the transcriptional level. (frontiersin.org)
  • Protein-based nanoparticles for non-viral retinal gene therapy. (arvojournals.org)
  • In this work two different peptidic constructions (R9-GFP-His and HNRK) have been tested on in-vitro and in-vivo models for its application in non-viral retinal gene therapy. (arvojournals.org)
  • Rev-RRE interaction regulates viral gene expression by controlling the export of spliced and unspliced mRNAs into the cytoplasm. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • In this vector, PV101, the gene of interest was inserted downstream of the duplicated subgenomic promoter of the viral coat protein gene, and the corresponding protein was expressed in its free form. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The zinc finger proteins are engineered to recognize adjacent DNA sequences within the targeted gene, so if they both find their sequences, the inteins line up and are then cut out, allowing the extein halves to rejoin and form a functional protein. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • The extein protein is a transcription factor designed to turn on any gene the researchers want. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • The M2 protein alone resulted in inhibition of host-directed gene expression at the level of transcription and induction of nuclear fragmentation. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The NV protein was not involved in the regulation of the host gene expression, but was involved in another type of cytopathic effect characterized as cell rounding. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In virology, a nonstructural protein is a protein encoded by a virus but that is not part of the viral particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deletion and mutation studies in the N- and C-terminus of protein alpha have identified protein regions required for the packaging of FHV viral RNAs. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The C-terminus is needed for packaging of both viral RNAs. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The identified protein regions involved in packaging viral RNAs bind random cellular RNA with high affinity and standard methods of identifying RNA-protein interactions such as gel shift mobility assays will be unable to discriminate between specific and unspecific binding. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • In this case, the YTHDF2 protein detects the m6A modifications on messenger RNAs. (chemdiv.com)
  • The Ebola virus VP35 protein binds viral immunostimulatory and host RNAs identified through deep sequencing. (jcvi.org)
  • yet, there are no data that identify viral immunostimulatory RNAs (isRNA) or host RNAs bound to VP35 in cells. (jcvi.org)
  • We have found that a family of small RNAs, termed microRNAs, encoded by human myeloid progenitor cells are capable of repressing a key viral protein, thus enabling the virus to ensure a quiet/latent state. (epfl.ch)
  • We use the natural the protein synthesis 'machinery' in micro-organisms to create novel protein-like polymers that consist of a string of polymer segments (also called 'modules' or blocks), each with a different function, that are often (but not always) inspired by (or copied from) natural proteins. (wur.nl)
  • These results suggest that concerted action between the PP1 binding domain and the effector domain of ICP34.5 is crucial for eIF2alpha dephosphorylation and viral protein synthesis. (labome.org)
  • The team screened protein constituents of the ribosome to see which ones might be involved in specialized protein synthesis. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The concept of targeting cellular functions such as protein synthesis for antiviral therapies is being explored by a number of research groups, but there are no drugs based on this. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • These two conformations have been suggested to play a role in minus sense synthesis and viral protein translation, respectively. (umsystem.edu)
  • 3. Dianthins inhibit protein synthesis in a lysate of rabbit reticulocytes, with an ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) of 9.15 ng/ml (dianthin 30) and 3.6 ng/ml (dianthin 32). (biochemj.org)
  • Protein synthesis by intact cells is partially inhibited by dianthins at a concentration of 100 microgram/ml. 4. (biochemj.org)
  • The structure of the capsid allows the virus to use a small number of viral genes to make a large capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. (curehunter.com)
  • These genes require functional characterization, and there has been an increasing demand for transient in planta expression systems that allow the rapid and cost-effective expression of recombinant proteins or RNA interference (RNAi)/silencing of endogenous plant genes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The expression of the viral genes at the protein and RNA level, and their cellular localization, were characterized to further our understanding of viral pathogenesis. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Likewise, the viral proteins coded in the defective proviruses may form extracellular virus-like particles and may trigger immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • The report that will be published in an upcoming issue of Nature Immunology and is receiving early online release describes finding that a protein called GEF-H1 is essential to the ability of macrophages - major contributors to the innate immune system - to respond to viral infections like influenza. (redorbit.com)
  • But how microtubule-based movement of viral components contributes to induction of the immune response has been unknown. (redorbit.com)
  • A series of experiments by Reinecker's team found that GEF-H1 is expressed in macrophages - key components of the innate immune system - and activated in response to viral RNA and that it controls the expression of beta interferon and other cytokines. (redorbit.com)
  • We are hopeful that this discovery will allow the development of new strategies to curtail viral mechanisms that impede the immune responses to infections that are often associated with high mortality rates. (redorbit.com)
  • Infectious disease specialists at the Johns Hopkins Children's Center have identified a protein that regulates the body's immune response to cytomegalovirus (CMV), a common pathogen that causes lifelong infections and can lead to devastating illness in newborns and those with weakened immune systems. (eurekalert.org)
  • The protein -- a cell receptor called NOD2 found in several types of immune cells -- has long been known for its role in fighting off bacterial invaders by sensing their presence and alerting immune cells to release chemicals that weaken or destroy the harmful bacteria. (eurekalert.org)
  • That same protein, the Johns Hopkins team found, also appears to regulate the body's immune response to CMV by initiating a chemical signaling cascade that curbs viral spread. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some of these viral anti-immune regulators are expressed as secreted proteins that engage specific host immune targets in the extracellular environment, where they exhibit potent anti-immune properties. (jimmunol.org)
  • We review here viral immunomodulatory proteins that have been tested as anti-inflammatory reagents in animal models of disease caused by excessive inflammation or hyperactivated immune pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • The potential for such viral molecules for the development of novel drugs to treat immune-based or inflammatory disorders is discussed. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, studies of individual viral anti-immune mechanisms tend to shed light on specific pathways that regulate the immune or inflammatory responses encountered by that particular virus. (jimmunol.org)
  • In fact, the growing collection of viral strategies that modulate these aspects of the immune system can be considered as comprising the discipline of anti-immunology and is the subject of a vast body of scientific literature (e.g., see Refs. (jimmunol.org)
  • This combination of high potency and highly specific biochemical targeting provides a powerful platform with which to develop next-generation drugs based on viral protein immunomodulators to treat diseases based on excessive inflammation or hyperactive immune reactions ( 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The protein, called vFLIP K13, had been thought to protect virally infected cells from attack by the body's own immune system by inhibiting the activity of a cellular protein called caspase 8 that is associated with apoptosis, or programmed cell death. (rxpgnews.com)
  • They also produce both immune-enhancing proteins (cytokines/chemokines) to drive forward a vigorous immune response, as well as immune-suppressing proteins including interleukin-10 (IL-10) and PD-1, which act as a braking system that balances the immune response to keep within healthy (non-autoimmune) limits. (scripps.edu)
  • When a virus delivers its DNA into a cell nucleus, cellular proteins recognize the invader and alert the host's immune response. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In the current study, the researchers reveal a new mechanism, in which a viral protein traps an important signaling molecule inside the cell nucleus, and prevents it from sounding an alarm to the immune system. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Protein VII shuts off this alarm: when protein VII binds to chromatin in the host cell, it traps HMGB1 in the cell nucleus, thus preventing its release and suppressing the recruitment of immune cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We will be investigating other viral proteins to determine whether they act similarly, in hiding alarm signals from the immune system," said Daphne C. Avgousti, Ph.D., the study's first author and a postdoctoral fellow in Weitzman's laboratory. (medicalxpress.com)
  • A core viral protein binds host nucleosomes to sequester immune danger signals," Nature , online June 29, 2016. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Their experiments in mice with key elements of a human immune system - the only animal model capable of being infected with HIV - supported previous findings that Nef reduces the migration of infected cells by disrupting the assembly and disassembly of a protein called actin into branched filaments. (massgeneral.org)
  • The authors also found that the benefit to viral survival conferred by the hydrophobic patch on the unmutated form of Nef was not seen in cellular studies, suggesting that it had developed in response to the immune system pressures present in a live animal. (massgeneral.org)
  • Murine immune responses to virus-like particle-associated pre- and postfusion forms of the respiratory syncytial virus F protein. (umassmed.edu)
  • Szabo G, Dolganiuc A. Hepatitis C core protein - the "core" of immune deception? (umassmed.edu)
  • Researchers are planning to continue to investigate the role of the protein outside of infected immune cells, since they believe it's being sent out for a purpose. (unclineberger.org)
  • Presence of viral Ags and direct immune effector functions to virus-infected cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • You could program the cell to kill itself, or to secrete proteins that would allow the immune system to identify it as an enemy cell so the immune system would take care of it. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • To generate a viral antigen for presentation to the immune system without the limitations of direct peptide delivery or viral vectors, plasmid DNA encoding influenza A nucleoprotein was injected into the quadriceps of BALB/c mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • SARS-CoV, the virus that caused a global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Asia in 2003, encodes three viral membrane proteins-called viroporins-that play a role in activating inflammatory responses of the immune system. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Furthermore, because proper trafficking of viral proteins is necessary for their function, discovering the requirements for MAM to mitochondrial trafficking of essential viral proteins may provide novel targets for the rational design of anti-viral drugs. (nih.gov)
  • The results show the effectiveness of the features and algorithm in predicting the interaction type which leads to the development of anti-viral drugs. (ssrn.com)
  • Jainul Fathima, A. and Rathinasamy, Revathy and Balamurali, S. and Murugaboopathi, G., Prediction of Dengue-Human Protein Interaction Using Artificial Neural Network for Anti-Viral Drug Discovery (February 24, 2019). (ssrn.com)
  • In one such evasion strategy, the plant viral protein p19 suppresses a plant's anti-viral RNA silencing response. (proteopedia.org)
  • As expected to insure recognition of any anti-viral siRNAs, there are no base-specific contacts. (proteopedia.org)
  • Indeed, we found that multiple cellular and viral proteins, which target the MAM, showed no apparent consensus primary targeting sequences. (nih.gov)
  • We studied the sub-cellular local-isation and interactions of pUL71 with a subset of cellular and viral proteins. (hu-berlin.de)
  • and/or peptide motifs in cellular and viral proteins (see below). (rupress.org)
  • Cell lysis is an inevitable step in classical mass spectrometry-based strategies to analyse protein complexes. (nature.com)
  • We have developed Virotrap, a viral particle sorting approach that obviates the need for cell homogenization and preserves the protein complexes during purification. (nature.com)
  • Virotrap constitutes an elegant complementary approach to the arsenal of methods to study protein complexes. (nature.com)
  • Proteins mostly exert their function within supramolecular complexes. (nature.com)
  • The protein complexes extracted from this 'soup' of constituents are then subjected to several washing steps before actual analysis by trypsin digestion and liquid chromatography-MS/MS analysis. (nature.com)
  • Host cell lipid metabolism plays a major role in the infectious life cycle of HCV and several of the viral proteins are shown to be involved in the recruitment of viral complexes to the lipid droplets, LDs [ 6 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recently, a single molecule pull-down (SiMPull) assay was developed to isolate and study single protein complexes directly from cell lysates. (illinois.edu)
  • Using a similar principle, the objective of this study is to extend the SiMPull assay to isolate and study single cellular RNA-protein complexes. (illinois.edu)
  • Utilizing a biological system of virally infected mammalian cells, the substrate targeted in the study are viral RNA-protein complexes. (illinois.edu)
  • Many proteins self-assemble to form large supramolecular complexes. (portlandpress.com)
  • By fusing a bait protein to the HIV-1 GAG protein, we show that interaction partners become trapped within virus-like particles (VLPs) that bud from mammalian cells. (nature.com)
  • In the present study, by an approach of combining serial dilutions of CD4 + T cells and T cell-cloning technologies, we are able to demonstrate that defective proviruses that persist in HIV-infected individuals during suppressive cART are translationally competent and produce the HIV-1 Gag and Nef proteins. (nih.gov)
  • By killing off the infected host cell, this short-circuits the normal viral program of hijacking the host cell's machinery to create numerous viral copies, assemble them and release them to infect new host cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Actinohivin, a novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus protein from an actinomycete, inhibits viral entry to cells by binding high-mannose type sugar chains of gp120. (molecularstation.com)
  • Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) can translocate across the cell membrane and have been extensively studied for the delivery of proteins, nucleic acids, and therapeutics in mammalian cells. (apsnet.org)
  • The polymers, which are synthesised like natural proteins in yeast cells (Pichia pastoris), consist entirely of natural amino acids and can ultimately be fully degraded in the human body. (wur.nl)
  • The amino termini of prM, E, NS1 and NS4B are generated upon cleavage by the host ER signal peptidase in the lumen of the ER, whereas the processing of most of the other NS proteins and the C-terminus of the C protein is carried out by the viral two-component protease NS2B-NS3 in the cytoplasm of DV infected cells. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Bhagat R, Prajapati B, Narwal S, Agnihotri N, Adlakha YK, Sen J, Mani S, Seth P. Zika virus E protein alters the properties of human fetal neural stem cells by modulating microRNA circuitry. (harvard.edu)
  • The persistent LCMV Cl 13 strain also turned out to be much better at infecting plasmacytoid dendritic cells-which are considered the principal source of IFN-I proteins during viral infections. (scripps.edu)
  • A conserved domain of herpes simplex virus ICP34.5 regulates protein phosphatase complex in mammalian cells. (labome.org)
  • T antigen also inactivates some of the most important proteins that protect cells against malignant transformation, including tumor suppressor proteins p53 and pRb. (bio-medicine.org)
  • HIV uses several proteins with a number of functions predicted to change the migratory patterns of infected cells," says Thorsten Mempel, MD, PhD, of the MGH Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases , senior author of the report. (massgeneral.org)
  • Since Nef has previously been shown both to downregulate the function of several proteins involved in signal transduction and to disrupt processes thought to drive cellular migration, the MGH team took a detailed look at exactly how Nef and other HIV proteins exert their effects on the motility of infected T cells. (massgeneral.org)
  • Addgene: A versatile viral system for expression and depletion of proteins in mammalian cells. (addgene.org)
  • To investigate if CP might also be involved in viral DNA nuclear transport, Escherichia coli -expressed CP, together with TOTO-1-labeled viral ss or ds DNA, was microinjected into maize and tobacco epidermal cells. (apsnet.org)
  • HIV may be able to affect cells it can't directly infect by packaging a key protein within the host's cellular mail and sending it out into the body, according to a new study out of a University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center laboratory. (unclineberger.org)
  • What we identified is that the protein is being secreted from infected cells without the viral genetic material. (unclineberger.org)
  • 3. Detection of viral antigen in normal murine cells and tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The system was designed to produce green fluorescence in cells carrying a viral DNA sequence, as seen at right. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • In biochemical membrane flotation assays, TIP47 cofractionated with HCV NS3, NS5A, NS5B proteins, and viral RNA, and together with nonstructural viral proteins was uniquely distributed to lower-density LD-rich membrane fractions in cells actively replicating HCV RNA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Thus, EBV uses its latent protein, LMP2A, to activate the NF-κB-survivin pathway to rescue EBV-infected epithelial cells from serum deprivation, and up-regulation of survivin may play a role in the progression of this specific type of gastric carcinoma infected with EBV. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that HCMV has evolved to utilize cellular miRNAs in cells that promote latency to regulate expression of a viral protein critical for viral reactivation. (epfl.ch)
  • Cells have proteins that can latch onto dsRNA, triggering a series of events which protect the cell or organism. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • In expressing cells, 7a protein exhibits a variety of biological activities, including induction of apoptosis, activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, inhibition of host protein translation, and suppression of cell growth progression. (asm.org)
  • Coexpression of 7a protein with SCoV S, M, N, and E proteins resulted in production of virus-like particles (VLPs) carrying 7a protein, while 7a protein was not released from cells expressing 7a protein alone. (asm.org)
  • S protein was not required for the 7a protein incorporation into VLPs, and yet 7a protein interacted with S protein in coexpressing cells. (asm.org)
  • Expression of 3a, 6, and 7a proteins has been confirmed to occur in infected cells and patients ( 8 , 10 , 46 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition, the shell appears to be perforated by pores for metabolite transport into and out of the carboxysome, suggesting comparisons to the pores through oligomeric transmembrane proteins, which serve to transport small molecules across the membrane bilayers of cells and eukaryotic organelles. (portlandpress.com)
  • Virus protein expression evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assays, Western blot analysis, and flow cytometry revealed a delay in viral protein expression in RPE cells compared to viral protein expression in fibroblasts. (arvojournals.org)
  • This difference in percentage of cells expressing specific CMV proteins is transient, that is, it does not remain apparent at 100% cpe. (arvojournals.org)
  • A team of researchers led by molecular virologist Eva Harris, a UC Berkeley professor in the Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, presented new evidence that a guilty party is a protein secreted by cells infected with the mosquito-borne dengue virus. (berkeley.edu)
  • Called nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), it is the only one of the 10 viral proteins secreted by infected cells to circulate freely in the bloodstream. (berkeley.edu)
  • The role of the M2 and NV proteins in viral pathogenesis was investigated by transient expression of these proteins individually in cultured fish cells. (oregonstate.edu)
  • This invention provides an isolated nucleic acid which comprises a nucleotide segment having a sequence encoding a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral envelope protein contains one or more mutations in amino acid. (google.com)
  • This invention provides an isolated nucleic acid which comprises a nucleotide segment having a sequence encoding a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral envelope protein contains one or more mutations in amino acid sequence that enhance the stability of the complex formed between the viral surface protein and transmembrane protein. (google.com)
  • This invention also provides a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral envelope protein contains one or more mutations in amino acid sequence that enhance the stability of the complex formed between the viral surface protein and transmembrane protein. (google.com)
  • Researchers in Japan suspected that MARCH8 might flag an important VSV envelope protein for destruction by targeting a particular amino acid called lysine. (news-medical.net)
  • Disulfide bonds were found to link the nonglycosylated envelope protein VP-2/M (19 kDa), encoded by open reading frame 6, and the major envelope glycoprotein VP-3 (25 to 42 kDa), encoded by open reading frame 5, of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). (asm.org)
  • Nanomedical Diagnostics , a cutting-edge life science company pioneering graphene biosensors that accelerate pharmaceutical and biotherapeutics development, announces a new publication in Biosensors and Bioelectronics demonstrating detection of Zika viral antigen using the label-free Agile R100 biosensor. (prweb.com)
  • The DNA tumor virus simian virus 40 produces the Large T antigen which inactivates two of the cell's most important cancer-preventing proteins, p53 and pRb. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In a study published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, researchers at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center report the discovery of an additional target for T antigen--a protein called Fbw7. (bio-medicine.org)
  • SV40 T antigen contains a motif that mimics the destruction signal found in these proteins. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The assay was shown to measure an antigen that is highly related to the virion protein as shown by absorption tests, immunoadsorbent chromatography, and by analysis of linearized dose-response curves. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Wei Y, Zhang Y, Cai H, Mirza AM, Iorio RM, Peeples ME, Niewiesk S, Li J. Roles of the putative integrin-binding motif of the human metapneumovirus fusion (f) protein in cell-cell fusion, viral infectivity, and pathogenesis. (umassmed.edu)
  • Extensive studies of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 and HTLV-2 over the last three decades have provided detailed knowledge on viral transformation, host-viral interactions and pathogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Likewise, SCoV accessory proteins may play roles in SCoV pathogenesis, but the biological functions of these SCoV-specific accessory proteins are largely unexplored. (asm.org)
  • The role of viral proteins in the pathogenesis of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was studied at the molecular level. (oregonstate.edu)
  • We showed that the intact virion and a recombinant capsid protein (CaP) from a plant-infecting nonenveloped icosahedral RNA virus, Brome mosaic virus (BMV), can penetrate the membranes of plant protoplasts but are trapped by the extracellular matrix. (apsnet.org)
  • Recombinant Borrelia Burgdorferi Decorin Binding Protein B produced in E.coli is a non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain having a calculated molecular mass of 19,353 Dalton. (prospecbio.com)
  • The virus-mediated overexpression (VOX) vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus described previously for these species are incapable of expressing free recombinant proteins of more than 150 to 250 amino acids, are not suited for high-throughput screens, and have other limitations. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Transient in planta expression systems using plant virus-mediated overexpression (VOX) vectors can provide the rapid production of heterologous recombinant proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Viral membrane fusion proteins act as catalysts to overcome this high energy barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following viral glycoprotein binding to cellular receptors, viral membrane fusion proteins undergo a change in structure conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most viral membrane fusion proteins would end up in a hairpin-like conformation after fusion, in which FLs/FPs and the transmembrane domain are all on the same side of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins can either contribute to the infectivity (for example, Cyclophilin/FKBPA 13 ) or act as antiviral proteins preventing the spreading of the virus (for example, APOBEC proteins 14 ). (nature.com)
  • We usually think of IFN-I proteins as antiviral proteins, so that more IFN is better," said Ng. (scripps.edu)
  • Filovirus virulence is partially attributed to the VP35 protein, a well-characterized inhibitor of the RIG-I-like receptor pathway that triggers the antiviral interferon (IFN) response. (jcvi.org)
  • 6 . The isolated nucleic acid of claim 3 , wherein the viral surface protein is gp120 or a modified form of gp120, wherein the modification alters the immunogenicity of the molecule relative to wild type gp120. (google.com)
  • 11 . The isolated nucleic acid of any one of claims 3 - 10 , wherein the transmembrane protein is gp41 or a modified form of gp41, wherein the modification alters the immunogenicity of the molecule relative to wildtype gp41. (google.com)
  • 12 . The isolated nucleic acid of claim 11 , wherein the transmembrane protein is the gp41 ectodomain. (google.com)
  • 13 . The isolated nucleic acid of claim 11 or 12 , wherein the transmembrane protein is modified by the absence or presence of one or more canonical glycosylation sites absent or present in the wild type gp120. (google.com)
  • 14 . The isolated nucleic acid of any one of claims 1 - 13 , wherein the stabilization of the complex is achieved by one or more cysteine-cysteine bonds that are formed between the surface and transmembrane proteins and that are not present in the corresponding wildtype complex. (google.com)
  • The capsid is a "shield" that protects the viral nucleic acids from getting degraded by host enzymes or other types of pesticides or pestilences. (wikipedia.org)
  • They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID. (umassmed.edu)
  • Examples of class II viral fusion proteins include the dengue virus E protein, and the west nile virus E protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by Aedesaegyti mosquito species. (ssrn.com)
  • Dengue-Human Protein interaction plays a vital role in disease prediction. (ssrn.com)
  • DenvInt is a biological repository which provides detailed information on Protein-Protein Interaction between dengue-human and dengue-mosquito. (ssrn.com)
  • The main objective of this study is to computationally predict the dengue-human protein interaction that assists to know which human proteins are affected when dengue virus enters into the human body. (ssrn.com)
  • This study focuses on applying Artificial Neural Network mechanism for predicting dengue human protein interaction. (ssrn.com)
  • They found that the protein itself, separate from the dengue virus, can cause blood vessels to leak fluid. (berkeley.edu)
  • Schematic of a dengue virus enveloped by proteins. (berkeley.edu)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes a regulatory protein Rev that binds to HIV-1 mRNA of the Rev responsive element (RRE). (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Using an efficient VLP enrichment protocol, Virotrap allows the detection of known binary interactions and MS-based identification of novel protein partners as well. (nature.com)
  • In addition, we show the identification of stimulus-dependent interactions and demonstrate trapping of protein partners for small molecules. (nature.com)
  • This review describes the role of F-box proteins and the use of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in virus-host interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • Many crucial interactions between HCV-encoded proteins and host proteins have been reported. (hindawi.com)
  • Genetic variants of HCV accumulate in patients and alter these interactions of host cell proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, understanding the interactions between viral proteins and host cell proteins is very important to develop drugs for these liver diseases and HCC. (hindawi.com)
  • Due to the difficulty in differentiating between specific and unspecific binding a new method for studying RNA-protein interactions was developed using a surface based detection approach. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The surface based system monitors real-time binding, whereby specific and unspecific RNA-protein interactions will be distinguished through comparison of relative association rates for each binding interaction. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The high-affinity and specificity of the Rev-RRE binding has been well characterized and was used as a model system to gauge the sensitivity of the surface based detection system, which can be further used to characterize various RNA-protein interactions. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Therefore, this study provides evidence for the applicability of SiMPull to isolate and study single cellular RNA-protein interactions. (illinois.edu)
  • Our findings illuminate an unexpected role for IFN-I protein(s) in persistent infections, which has major implications for how we treat these infections," said Michael B. A. Oldstone, a professor in the Department of Immunology and Microbial Science at TSRI and senior investigator for the study. (scripps.edu)
  • The Weitzman research group focuses on how viral infections represent battles between two genomes-the DNA carried by the virus and DNA of the host. (medicalxpress.com)
  • She added that much remains to be learned about how these specific viral proteins function in human lung infections and inflammation. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Now, a surprising discovery made in ribosomes may point the way to fighting fatal viral infections such as rabies. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The findings from this study can potentially be translated into novel therapeutic approaches for cancers that are caused by viral infections," Gao said. (chemdiv.com)
  • Through mapping proteins that can restrict viral infections, the researchers found a protein called YTHDF2 that can help regulate the human herpes virus 8 by detecting the m6A modification on viral messenger RNA. (chemdiv.com)
  • Antibiotics such as penicillin can be used to treat all sorts of bacterial infections, but doctors have few options when it comes to viral infections. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • An example is the M1 protein of the influenza virus, showing affinity to the glycoproteins inserted in the host cell membrane on one side and affinity for the RNP complex molecules on the other side, which allows formation at the membrane of a complex made of the viral ribonucleoprotein at the inner side indirectly connected to the viral glycoproteins protruding from the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these glycoproteins include: Hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and M2 protein in the influenza virus gp160, composed of subunits gp120 and gp41, in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (wikipedia.org)
  • 3D-molecular model showing the structure of haemagglutinin, a surface protein from the influenza virus. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Molecular models showing three views of the structure of haemagglutinin, a surface protein from the influenza virus. (sciencephoto.com)
  • They do not form trimers of hairpins or hairpin structures themselves, and they are the smallest known viral fusion proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modification of the respiratory syncytial virus f protein in virus-like particles impacts generation of B cell memory. (umassmed.edu)
  • Protein conjugation results with a red fluorescent protein (R-Phycoerythrin, R-PE) as a model protein showed significantly enhanced protein conjugation capacity of TMV-assembled particles (TMV-particles) over hydrogel particles without TMV templates. (aiche.org)
  • Further in-depth comparison of protein conjugation kinetics with slower conjugation reaction (strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) reaction) showed less diffusion-limited structure of the TMV-particles for protein conjugation. (aiche.org)
  • We also examined target protein capture capacity of the TMV-particles by utilizing an anti-R-PE antibody (R-Ab)-R-PE pair as a model system, whose results showed considerably improved target protein capture capacity over R-Ab conjugated hydrogel particles. (aiche.org)
  • A catalytically inactive mutant of DGAT1 (H426A) blocks the localization of NS5A, but not core, to LDs in a dominant-negative manner and impairs the release of infectious viral particles, underscoring the importance of DGAT1-mediated translocation of NS5A to LDs in viral particle production. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Analysis of SCoV particles that were purified by either sucrose gradient equilibrium centrifugation or a virus capture assay, in which intact SCoV particles were specifically immunoprecipitated by anti-S protein monoclonal antibody, demonstrated that 7a protein was associated with purified SCoV particles. (asm.org)
  • Here, we use metaproteomics and metagenomics to examine virion-associated proteins in marine viral communities, providing tentative functions for 677,000 viral genomic sequences and the majority of previously unknown virion-associated proteins in these samples. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we apply paired metaproteomics and dsDNA-targeted metagenomics to identify 1,875 virion-associated proteins from the ocean. (pnas.org)
  • However, these proteins are not assembled in the virion. (wikipedia.org)
  • CP phosphorylation also affects viral trafficking and virion assembly. (dovepress.com)
  • The two proteins comigrated in a complex of 45 to 55 kDa when the virion proteins were electrophoresed under nonreducing conditions but dissociated under reducing conditions. (asm.org)
  • Lectins then deliver the terminally misfolded protein to an E3-ligase complex that retrotranslocates the misfolded protein from the ER to the cytosol for proteasomal degradation, a process called ER-associated degradation (ERAD) 10 . (nature.com)
  • The peptides that are presented in this way are primarily generated by proteasomal degradation of proteins expressed by the target cell. (fredhutch.org)
  • In the first, they fused the entire Gag protein to ubiquitin, a small regulatory protein which tags other proteins for proteasomal degradation. (fredhutch.org)
  • The F-box protein is one of the four components of the SCF (SKp1, Cullin, F-box protein) complex, which mediates ubiquitination of proteins targeted for degradation by the proteasome, playing an essential role in many cellular processes. (mdpi.com)
  • May participate in the degradation of foreign protein expressed by the baculovirus system (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • These data demonstrate first that the processes of protein degradation and generation of antigenic peptides from cytosolic proteins can be dissociated, and second that effects of proteasome inhibitors on Ag presentation may reflect secondary effects on cellular metabolism. (jimmunol.org)
  • Most class I-binding peptides are between 8 and 10 residues long and are generated by proteolytic degradation of a cytosolic pool of proteins biosynthesized by APCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • The 20S proteasome ( M r ∼ 700,000) constitutes the catalytic core of a larger 26S complex involved in ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent and independent pathways of intracellular protein degradation ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The protein secondary structure profile (PSSP) tool is capable of performing conventional blast searches, based on protein sequences, as well as alignments based on a custom made hydropathy substitution matrix that takes into account the physicochemical profile of the amino acids that compose the query protein. (springer.com)
  • A phylogenetic tree was inferred from the nucleotide sequences of E proteins (Fig. 5). (nih.gov)
  • Although other coronaviruses also produce accessory proteins ( 19 , 43 ), the amino acid sequences of all of the SCoV accessory proteins have no homology with those of any other known viral proteins or nonviral proteins. (asm.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses, such as serotype 5 (Ad5), encode several proteins that can perturb cellular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression. (molecularstation.com)
  • The findings, published in the Aug. 22 online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), demonstrate that a viral protein associated with human herpesvirus 8, or HHV8, may help to cause lymphoma by activating a key pathway involved in the production of lymphocytes, a common cell type found in lymphoid tissue that divide over and over and eventually develop into lymphoma. (rxpgnews.com)
  • BFV activates the NF-kappaB pathway through its transactivator (BTas) to enhance viral transcription. (labome.org)
  • Together, this study suggests that BFV activates the NF-kappaB pathway through BTas to enhance viral transcription. (labome.org)
  • Thus, this study demonstrates the existence of a positive-feedback circuit in which BFV utilizes the host's NF-?B pathway through the RelB protein for efficient viral transcription. (labome.org)
  • These data indicate that specific HECT ubiquitin ligases can link PPXY motifs to the VPS pathway to induce viral budding. (rupress.org)
  • Because it remained uncertain as to precisely which HECT ubiquitin ligases mediate PPXY motif-dependent viral budding and how the class E VPS pathway is accessed by these proteins, we surveyed an array of HECT ubiquitin ligases and found that fragments of the HECT ubiquitin ligases WWP1 and WWP2 are unusually potent and specific inhibitors of viral PPXY motif function. (rupress.org)
  • Teaming up with researchers across multiple disciplines at CHOP and Penn Medicine, Weitzman and colleagues investigated protein VII, a small protein produced by adenovirus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Cutting-edge and easy to use, Viral Applications of Green Fluorescent Protein: Methods and Protocols supplies researchers with an ideal guide to the many uses of GFP and a vital starting point for future studies utilizing this highly adaptable protein. (springer.com)
  • Researchers reported in the journal mBio that the virus uses secreted cellular packages called exosomes to send the viral protein Nef into the body. (unclineberger.org)
  • The range of information covered includes signal proteins, ion channels, and fusion proteins.This book has a place in the libraries of researchers and scientists in a wide array of fields, including protein chemistry, molecular biophysics, pharmaceutical science and research, bioanotechnology, molecular biology, and biochemistry. (ark.no)
  • To create their new system, the researchers needed to link zinc fingers' DNA-binding capability with a consequence-either turning on a fluorescent protein to reveal that the target DNA is present or generating another type of action inside the cell. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • The researchers achieved this by exploiting a type of protein known as an "intein"-a short protein that can be inserted into a larger protein, splitting it into two pieces. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • Keck School of Medicine of USC researchers have identified a human protein that could prevent cancer by restricting a type of herpes virus from replicating. (chemdiv.com)
  • The researchers of a new study used the Universal Protein Resource database to obtain the Viroporin E sequence of SARS-CoV-2 for in silico (computer-based) analysis. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In this review we focus on the interaction of viral proteins with important regulators of cell cycle-oncoproteins YB-1, p53, and cyclin D1-which play a major role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair, and genomic stability. (hindawi.com)
  • The viral envelope is made up of a lipid bilayer embedded with viral proteins, including viral glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral glycoproteins play a critical role in virus-to-cell fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus-to-cell fusion is initiated when viral glycoproteins bind to cellular receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • A significant number of viral and cellular mRNAs utilize cap-independent translation, employing mechanisms distinct from those of canonical translation. (molecularstation.com)
  • As a result of complex splicing, various mRNAs encode regulatory and accessory proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • The findings were extended to a group of singly spliced viral mRNAs that produce Env in the following biochemical analyses. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The characteristic reticular ER morphology was visualized using a commercially available, soluble ER lumen fusion protein, pECFP-ER (Clontech). (nih.gov)
  • Then, using the Advanced Photon Source at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory, the research team employed high intensity X-rays to obtain data from the crystals, which they then interpreted in order to reconstruct the structure of the F fusion protein--the culmination of several years' worth of research. (eurekalert.org)
  • An example of a Class I viral fusion protein is the HIV glycoprotein, gp41. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a Class III viral fusion protein is the rabies virus glycoprotein, G. Class IV: Class IV viral fusion proteins are fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wei Y, Feng K, Yao X, Cai H, Li J, Mirza AM, Iorio RM, Li J. Localization of a region in the fusion protein of avian metapneumovirus that modulates cell-cell fusion. (umassmed.edu)
  • The inhibitors were used at sufficient concentrations to block presentation of biosynthesized full-length OVA and to completely stabilize a rapidly degraded chimeric ubiquitin-NP fusion protein. (jimmunol.org)
  • Evidence against extracellular exposure of a highly immunogenic region in the C-terminal domain of the simian immunodeficiency virus gp41 transmembrane protein. (umassmed.edu)
  • Latency II neoplasm includes nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma and is characterized by the expression of LMP1 ( 9 ), a transmembrane protein with transforming capacity for rodent fibroblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The 122-amino-acid (aa)-long SCoV 7a protein (also known as X4 protein or U122 protein) is a type I transmembrane protein consisting of a 15-aa signal peptide sequence at its N terminus, an 81-aa luminal domain, a 21-aa transmembrane domain, and a short C-terminal tail ( 30 ). (asm.org)
  • On the other hand, if the virus dominates by evolving quasispecies which code for altered proteins that interact differently with host proteins, or induce mutations in host protooncogenes, then the patient may develop liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • Among the six DTMUV strains, mutations were observed only at thirteen amino acid positions across three separate domains of the E protein. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, it was found that mutations in one region of the SARS-CoV-2 E protein could provide the basis for live, weakened and inactivated vaccines. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Specific mutations in the viral peplomer protein, S protein, allowed a SCoV-like virus to cross the species barrier and become a highly infectious human pathogen ( 22 , 35 ). (asm.org)
  • The fusion unleashes the viral RNA into the cell, which then hijacks the cell's machinery to make and spread more virus. (eurekalert.org)
  • Transfection efficiency of both nanoparticles using a plasmid encoding tdTomato fluorescent protein has been first evaluated in-vitro in two cell lines, and therefore the best formulation has been used for in-vivo transfection assays by sub-retinal injections in Long-Evans rats. (arvojournals.org)
  • Past studies of other coronaviruses suggested that many of the accessory proteins are important for viral virulence in vivo ( 6 , 32 , 33 , 41 , 44 ). (asm.org)
  • when an individual particle is too small to be seen by the naked eye, and the protein molecules of the capsid are tinier yet? (oregonstate.edu)
  • They accomplish this task by the interaction of their TCR with MHC class I molecules bearing peptides derived from proteins produced within the APC. (jimmunol.org)
  • Protein and RNA molecules interact with multiple protein partners to perform essential cellular processes such as post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA. (illinois.edu)
  • We demonstrate specific capture of viral DI RNA molecules using SiMPull, and could quantitatively measure the presence of interacting viral proteins. (illinois.edu)
  • Like other coronaviruses, the SCoV membrane contains three viral proteins, S, M, and E. The ∼30-kb SCoV genomic RNA is bound with N protein to form a nucleocapsid complex, which is surrounded by the viral membrane. (asm.org)
  • Viral cytokines and cytokine receptor homologs, including other binding proteins, may activate or inhibit cytokine signaling and possibly affect different aspects of immunity. (kegg.jp)
  • Utilizing NMR, we demonstrated that RHA binds to the monomeric 5'UTR at the bottom of the TAR hairpin, which is different from how it binds during viral packaging. (umsystem.edu)
  • R753Q single-nucleotide polymorphism impairs toll-like receptor 2 recognition of hepatitis C virus core and nonstructural 3 proteins. (umassmed.edu)
  • Chang S, Dolganiuc A, Szabo G. Toll-like receptors 1 and 6 are involved in TLR2-mediated macrophage activation by hepatitis C virus core and NS3 proteins. (umassmed.edu)
  • Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 localizes hepatitis C virus NS5A protein to lipid droplets and enhances NS5A interaction with the viral capsid core. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Over one-half of these proteins were newly functionally annotated and represent abundant and widespread viral metagenome-derived protein clusters (PCs). (pnas.org)
  • The dominance of these proteins within our dataset, as well as their global distribution throughout the world's oceans and seas, supports prior hypotheses that this HK97-like protein fold is the most abundant biological structure on Earth. (pnas.org)
  • The findings, published March 26 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE , offer what the Johns Hopkins teams says is a first-of-its-kind evidence that a protein that specializes in bacterial detection is also turned on when it sniffs out a virus from the DNA family. (eurekalert.org)
  • Protein sensing platforms with high performance are highly desired in various applications such as medical diagnostics, bioprocess monitoring and bioterrorism detection. (aiche.org)
  • Unlike ensemble measurements, SiMPull is a powerful tool that allows detection of diverse proteins present in a single complex and quantitation of the number of interacting partners when the proteins are stoichiometrically labeled. (illinois.edu)
  • The ribosome has traditionally been viewed as the cell's molecular machine, automatically chugging along, synthesizing proteins the cell needs to carry out the functions of life. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Based on these findings, we propose that the β-hairpin is a retrovirus associated molecular pattern widely exploited by TRIM5α proteins, while recognition of the cofactor binding region was driven by the emergence of the ancestors of modern Cercopithecinae SIVs. (harvard.edu)
  • p30 is encoded by a doubly spliced message in which ORF-II is linked to the Tax initiation codon located on exon II, resulting in a 241 amino acid protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • The vector allowed the expression of a 239-amino acid-long GFP in both virus-inoculated and upper uninoculated (systemic) leaves of wheat and maize and directed the systemic expression of a larger approximately 600-amino acid protein, GUSPlus, in maize. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Protein function is much more related to protein structure rather than to its amino acid sequence. (springer.com)
  • DGAT1 forms a complex with NS5A and core and facilitates the interaction between both viral proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We propose a model whereby DGAT1 serves as a cellular hub for HCV core and NS5A proteins, guiding both onto the surface of the same subset of LDs, those generated by DGAT1. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To identify host proteins that interact with NS5A, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen with the N-terminus of NS5A (amino acids 1-31), a well-studied α-helical domain important for the membrane tethering of NS5A. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our studies identified the LD-associated host protein, Tail-Interacting Protein 47 (TIP47) as a novel NS5A interaction partner. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Although interaction between 7a protein and another SCoV accessory protein, 3a, has been reported, 3a protein was dispensable for assembly of 7a protein into VLPs. (asm.org)