Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Products, vpr: Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.vpr Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins: Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Virus Release: Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Reoviridae: A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Potyvirus: A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.Chicken anemia virus: The type species of GYROVIRUS, a small, non-enveloped DNA virus originally isolated from contaminated vaccines in Japan. It causes chicken infectious anemia and may possibly play a key role in hemorrhagic anemia syndrome, anemia dermatitis, and blue wing disease.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Parvoviridae: A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Parainfluenza Virus 5: A species of RUBULAVIRUS originally isolated from cultured primary monkey cells. Its natural host is the DOG in which it causes kennel cough, but it can also infect humans.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Encephalomyocarditis virus: The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Protein PrecursorsVirus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Togaviridae: A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Poxviridae: A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Rhabdoviridae: A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Arterivirus: A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.Iridovirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.Herpesvirus 8, Human: A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Adenovirus E1B Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Rauscher Virus: A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Polyproteins: Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Mice, Inbred BALB CHerpesvirus 1, Suid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.PhosphoproteinsBaculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Borna disease virus: A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Adenovirus E4 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Adenovirus E1 Proteins: The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Gene Products, nef: Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.Vaccinia: The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Rubulavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus RUBULAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Gene Products, rev: Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Gene Products, tat: Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.Iridoviridae: A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.

Four dimers of lambda repressor bound to two suitably spaced pairs of lambda operators form octamers and DNA loops over large distances. (1/26353)

Transcription factors that are bound specifically to DNA often interact with each other over thousands of base pairs [1] [2]. Large DNA loops resulting from such interactions have been observed in Escherichia coli with the transcription factors deoR [3] and NtrC [4], but such interactions are not, as yet, well understood. We propose that unique protein complexes, that are not present in solution, may form specifically on DNA. Their uniqueness would make it possible for them to interact tightly and specifically with each other. We used the repressor and operators of coliphage lambda to construct a model system in which to test our proposition. lambda repressor is a dimer at physiological concentrations, but forms tetramers and octamers at a hundredfold higher concentration. We predict that two lambda repressor dimers form a tetramer in vitro when bound to two lambda operators spaced 24 bp apart and that two such tetramers interact to form an octamer. We examined, in vitro, relaxed circular plasmid DNA in which such operator pairs were separated by 2,850 bp and 2,470 bp. Of these molecules, 29% formed loops as seen by electron microscopy (EM). The loop increased the tightness of binding of lambda repressor to lambda operator. Consequently, repression of the lambda PR promoter in vivo was increased fourfold by the presence of a second pair of lambda operators, separated by a distance of 3,600 bp.  (+info)

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (2/26353)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

The amino-terminal C/H1 domain of CREB binding protein mediates zta transcriptional activation of latent Epstein-Barr virus. (3/26353)

Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is maintained as a nucleosome-covered episome that can be transcriptionally activated by overexpression of the viral immediate-early protein, Zta. We show here that reactivation of latent EBV by Zta can be significantly enhanced by coexpression of the cellular coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. A stable complex containing both Zta and CBP could be isolated from lytically stimulated, but not latently infected RAJI nuclear extracts. Zta-mediated viral reactivation and transcriptional activation were both significantly inhibited by coexpression of the E1A 12S protein but not by an N-terminal deletion mutation of E1A (E1ADelta2-36), which fails to bind CBP. Zta bound directly to two related cysteine- and histidine-rich domains of CBP, referred to as C/H1 and C/H3. These domains both interacted specifically with the transcriptional activation domain of Zta in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Interestingly, we found that the C/H3 domain was a potent dominant negative inhibitor of Zta transcriptional activation function. In contrast, an amino-terminal fragment containing the C/H1 domain was sufficient for coactivation of Zta transcription and viral reactivation function. Thus, CBP can stimulate the transcription of latent EBV in a histone acetyltransferase-independent manner mediated by the CBP amino-terminal C/H1-containing domain. We propose that CBP may regulate aspects of EBV latency and reactivation by integrating cellular signals mediated by competitive interactions between C/H1, C/H3, and the Zta activation domain.  (+info)

Deletion of multiple immediate-early genes from herpes simplex virus reduces cytotoxicity and permits long-term gene expression in neurons. (4/26353)

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has many attractive features that suggest its utility for gene transfer to neurons. However, viral cytotoxicity and transient transgene expression limit practical applications even in the absence of viral replication. Mutant viruses deleted for the immediate early (IE) gene, ICP4, an essential transcriptional transactivator, are toxic to many cell types in culture in which only the remaining IE genes are expressed. In order to test directly the toxicity of other IE gene products in neurons and develop a mutant background capable of longterm transgene expression, we generated mutants deleted for multiple IE genes in various combinations and tested their relative cytotoxicity in 9L rat gliosarcoma cells, Vero monkey kidney cells, and primary rat cortical and dorsal root neurons in culture. Viral mutants deleted simultaneously for the IE genes encoding ICP4, ICP22 and ICP27 showed substantially reduced cytotoxicity compared with viruses deleted for ICP4 alone or ICP4 in combination with either ICP22, ICP27 or ICP47. Infection of neurons in culture with these triple IE deletion mutants substantially enhanced cell survival and permitted transgene expression for over 21 days. Such mutants may prove useful for efficient gene transfer and extended transgene expression in neurons in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

An antiviral mechanism of nitric oxide: inhibition of a viral protease. (5/26353)

Although nitric oxide (NO) kills or inhibits the replication of a variety of intracellular pathogens, the antimicrobial mechanisms of NO are unknown. Here, we identify a viral protease as a target of NO. The life cycle of many viruses depends upon viral proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual polypeptides. NO inactivates the Coxsackievirus protease 3C, an enzyme necessary for the replication of Coxsackievirus. NO S-nitrosylates the cysteine residue in the active site of protease 3C, inhibiting protease activity and interrupting the viral life cycle. Substituting a serine residue for the active site cysteine renders protease 3C resistant to NO inhibition. Since cysteine proteases are critical for virulence or replication of many viruses, bacteria, and parasites, S-nitrosylation of pathogen cysteine proteases may be a general mechanism of antimicrobial host defenses.  (+info)

Interleukin-18 binding protein: a novel modulator of the Th1 cytokine response. (6/26353)

An interleukin-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) was purified from urine by chromatography on IL-18 beads, sequenced, cloned, and expressed in COS7 cells. IL-18BP abolished IL-18 induction of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), IL-8, and activation of NF-kappaB in vitro. Administration of IL-18BP to mice abrogated circulating IFNgamma following LPS. Thus, IL-18BP functions as an inhibitor of the early Th1 cytokine response. IL-18BP is constitutively expressed in the spleen, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and has limited homology to the IL-1 type II receptor. Its gene was localized on human chromosome 11q13, and no exon coding for a transmembrane domain was found in an 8.3 kb genomic sequence. Several Poxviruses encode putative proteins highly homologous to IL-18BP, suggesting that viral products may attenuate IL-18 and interfere with the cytotoxic T cell response.  (+info)

An examination of coaxial stacking of helical stems in a pseudoknot motif: the gene 32 messenger RNA pseudoknot of bacteriophage T2. (7/26353)

The RNA pseudoknot located at the 5' end of the gene 32 messenger RNA of bacteriophage T2 contains two A-form helical stems connected by two loops, in an H-type pseudoknot topology. A combination of multidimensional NMR methods and isotope labeling were used to investigate the pseudoknot structure, resulting in a more detailed structural model than provided by earlier homonuclear NMR studies. Of particular significance, the interface between the stacked helical stems within the pseudoknot motif is described in detail. The two stems are stacked in a coaxial manner, with an approximately 18 degrees rotation of stem1 relative to stem2 about an axis that is parallel to the helical axis. This rotation serves to relieve what would otherwise be a relatively close phosphate-phosphate contact at the junction of the two stems, while preserving the stabilizing effects of base stacking. The ability of the NMR data to determine pseudoknot bending was critically assessed. The data were found to be a modestly precise indicator of pseudoknot bending, with the angle between the helical axes of stem1 and stem2 being in the range of 15+/-15 degrees. Pseudoknot models with bend angles within this range are equally consistent with the data, since they differ by only small amounts in the relatively short-range interproton distances from which the structure was derived. The gene 32 messenger RNA pseudoknot was compared with other RNA structures with coaxial or near-coaxial stacked helical stems.  (+info)

Novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses fatal for Asian and African elephants. (8/26353)

A highly fatal hemorrhagic disease has been identified in 10 young Asian and African elephants at North American zoos. In the affected animals there was ultrastructural evidence for herpesvirus-like particles in endothelial cells of the heart, liver, and tongue. Consensus primer polymerase chain reaction combined with sequencing yielded molecular evidence that confirmed the presence of two novel but related herpesviruses associated with the disease, one in Asian elephants and another in African elephants. Otherwise healthy African elephants with external herpetic lesions yielded herpesvirus sequences identical to that found in Asian elephants with endothelial disease. This finding suggests that the Asian elephant deaths were caused by cross-species infection with a herpesvirus that is naturally latent in, but normally not lethal to, African elephants. A reciprocal relationship may exist for the African elephant disease.  (+info)

EN] The RNA silencing pathway constitutes a defence mechanism highly conserved in eukaryotes, especially in plants, where the underlying working principle relies on the repressive action triggered by the intracellular presence of double-stranded RNAs. This immune system performs a post-transcriptional suppression of aberrant mRNAs or viral RNAs by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that are directed towards their target in a sequence-specific manner. However, viruses have evolved strategies to escape from silencing surveillance while promoting their own replication. Several viruses encode suppressor proteins that interact with different elements of the RNA silencing pathway and block it. The different suppressors are not phylogenetically nor structurally related and also differ in their mechanism of action. Here, we adopt a model-driven forward-engineering approach to understand the evolution of suppressor proteins and, in particular, why viral suppressors preferentially target some components of ...
Nuclear mRNA export is a highly complex and regulated process in cells. Cellular transcripts must undergo successful maturation processes, including splicing, 5-, and 3-end processing, which are essential for assembly of an export competent ribonucleoprotein particle. Many viruses replicate in the nucleus of the host cell and require cellular mRNA export factors to efficiently export viral transcripts. However, some viral mRNAs undergo aberrant mRNA processing, thus prompting the viruses to express their own specific mRNA export proteins to facilitate efficient export of viral transcripts and allowing translation in the cytoplasm. This review will focus on the Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 protein, a multifunctional protein involved in all stages of viral mRNA processing and that is essential for virus replication. Using the example of ORF57, we will describe cellular bulk mRNA export pathways and highlight their distinct features, before exploring how the virus has evolved to exploit
TY - JOUR. T1 - Function of herpes simplex virus gene products. AU - Nishiyama, Y.. AU - Murata, Takayuki. AU - Yamauchi, Y.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0035380417&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0035380417&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.2222/jsv.51.29. DO - 10.2222/jsv.51.29. M3 - Review article. C2 - 11565262. AN - SCOPUS:0035380417. VL - 51. SP - 29. EP - 36. JO - Uirusu. Journal of virology. JF - Uirusu. Journal of virology. SN - 0042-6857. IS - 1. ER - ...
Scientific Experts, Publications, Research Topics, Locale, Genomes and Genes, Species about Experts and Doctors on viral proteins in Tianjin, Tianjin Shi, China
1GVP: Analyses of the stability and function of three surface mutants (R82C, K69H, and L32R) of the gene V protein from Ff phage by X-ray crystallography.
1AE3: Analyses of the stability and function of three surface mutants (R82C, K69H, and L32R) of the gene V protein from Ff phage by X-ray crystallography.
When someone is infected with HIV, certain regions of viral proteins are chopped up and displayed by infected cells to their immune system, using platforms known as MHC molecules. These protein fragments are recognized by killer cells, which destroy the virus-infected cells. Viruses have evolved many clever mechanisms to avoid being detected in this way, including altering the protein fragments that our immune system recognizes. This study identifies for the first time, in the course of a natural human infection, HIV mutations outside of the regions that are recognized that actually prevent generation of the protein fragments. HIV can, apparently, alter its sequence so that the human chopping proteins can no longer grab onto the viral protein ...
Lytic cycle is one one of the two alternative life cycles of a virus inside a host cell, whereby the virus that has entered a cell takes over the cells replication mechanism, makes viral DNA and viral proteins, and then lyses (breaks open) the cell, allowing the newly produced viruses to leave the now disintegrated host cell to infect other cells. This method of replication is contrasted with the lysogenic cycle, whereby the virus that has infected a cell attaches itself to the host DNA and, acting like an inert segment of the DNA, replicates when the host cell divides. The lysogenic cycle causes no harm to the host cell, but the lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell ...
Viruses need living cells for replication and production of virus progeny. Thus far, antiviral therapy primarily targets viral factors but often induces therapy resistance. New improved therapies attempt to targets cellular factors that are essential for viral replication.
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면역혈소판감소자색반병으로 진단되면 생명에 위험을 줄 수 있는 출혈이 있을 때 응급으로 혈소판 수혈을 하며 만성면역혈소판감소자색반병에서 혈소판 수가 20,000/uL 이하이거나 출혈이 있으면서 혈소판 수가 50,000/uL 이하인 경우 스테로이드 투여, 비장절제, 면역글로불린 투여, 면역억제제투여 등의 치료를 한다. 20년 전 혈소판감소증으로 내원하여 말초혈액도말 검사, 거대세포바이러스, 엡스타인-바바이러스, 인간 면역결핍 바이러스, 간염 혈청 검사, 항핵항체 검사에서 모두 음성으로 확인되었으며 골수 검사에서 거대핵세포 수가 약간 증가된 것을 포함하여 특이 소견이 없었고 수차례 확인하였으나 가족력도 없어 면역혈소판감소자색반병으로 진단하였고 출혈 소견이 있으며 혈소판 수가 20,000/uL미만이었기 때문에 스테로이드, 면역글로불린, 다나졸을 ...
Genetic information processingProtein synthesisRibosomal proteins: synthesis and modificationribosomal protein uL29 (TIGR00012; HMM-score: 76.9) ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification and characterization of the virion-induced host shutoff product of herpes simplex virus gene UL41. AU - Smibert, C. A.. AU - Johnson, David. AU - Smiley, J. R.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The virion-induced host shutoff product of the herpes simplex virus UL41 gene is required for shutoff of host translation and degradation of cellular mRNAs. We employed a rabbit antipeptide antiserum to identify a 58K UL41-related phosphoprotein in infected cells. We also provide evidence that this protein is a component of the virus particle, consistent with its role in virion-induced shutoff.. AB - The virion-induced host shutoff product of the herpes simplex virus UL41 gene is required for shutoff of host translation and degradation of cellular mRNAs. We employed a rabbit antipeptide antiserum to identify a 58K UL41-related phosphoprotein in infected cells. We also provide evidence that this protein is a component of the virus particle, consistent with its role in ...
Structure of a trimeric variant of the Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein B. - Marija Backovic, Richard Longnecker, Theodore S Jardetzky
Candidate tegument proteins.The tegument is a complex structure which contains at least 18 different viral proteins (32). The functions of most of these and their structural relationships within the tegument are still poorly defined; however, a number of them have been shown to be nonessential for virus replication and therefore seem unlikely to be candidates to form the major connection between tegument and capsid. Earlier morphological and biochemical studies provide some indications regarding which tegument protein is being resolved in our reconstruction of the intact virion.. Biochemically, the essential tegument protein VP1-3 has been shown to bind very tightly to the capsid. Thus, detergent treatment of virions removes the envelope and solubilizes some tegument proteins but leaves others (notably VP1-3) in an insoluble, capsid/tegument fraction (31, 36), while more vigorous treatment results in the loss of virtually all envelope and tegument proteins except for VP1-3 (14). Since it has ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Measles Large Polymerase protein (ab68490). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Hi! I plan to edit this article by providing an overview of what a viral protein is. The range of discovered viral proteins today is vast, and its very difficult to talk specifically about each and every one of them in a single article. I plan to talk about the four main types of viral proteins, namely viral structural proteins, viral nonstructural proteins, and viral regulatory and accessory proteins. Im certain that there may be other types of viral proteins that Im unaware of (due to limited general information about viral proteins available online) but Ill try my best to expand this article in a way that is helpful to the general audience. Im still working on the article, and I will be making edits to the main article page starting from April 5th.BiochemistrymafiaX (talk) 04:09, 13 April 2016 (UTC). ...
The virion host shutoff protein (Vhs) is a herpes simplex virus (HSV) protein involved in early shutoff of the host cell. It is a component of the infecting virion, located in the tegument region, that works by rapidly ...
The central focus of our research is the synthesis, folding, processing and function of viral glycoproteins. Previous studies of the synthesis and processing of viral glycoproteins in the secretory pathway have led to fundamental discoveries of basic cellular processes, and our research on the folding and processing of paramyxovirus glycoproteins provides insight into both cellular functions and important viral proteins. Our studies on viral proteins aim to elucidate mechanisms of promotion of membrane fusion, and to provide new targets for antiviral treatments. Many major human pathogenic viruses (including HIV, herpes simplex virus, measles virus and Ebola virus) are packaged in a membrane. In order for these viruses to infect cells, specific viral proteins promote fusion of the viral membrane with the membrane of the host cell. Understanding this process of protein-mediated membrane fusion is the major focus of our work. We study fusion proteins from several different paramyxoviruses. First, ...
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes a latent infection in hematopoietic cells, from which it can reactivate to cause significant disease in immunocompromised individuals. HCMV expresses a functional homolog of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (termed cmvIL-10), and alternate splici …
Virus infections remain the single most common reason that Canadians seek medical attention. Although impressive progress has been made in developing anti-viral drugs, drug resistant variants often arise and many virus infections remain untreatable. The innate immune system is our first line of defense against virus infection. Unfortunately, most viruses produce proteins that serve as effective countermeasures. My laboratory is focused on how viral regulatory proteins function at the molecular level, and how cellular antiviral responses inhibit viral replication. The hope is that increased understanding of host antiviral defenses and viral immune evasion strategies will open up new approaches to controlling virus infections. Most of our work focuses on herpes simplex virus (HSV), a ubiquitous human pathogen and the prototypical member of the herpesviridae, a large family of enveloped DNA viruses that replicate in the nuclei of host cells. Recently we have also begun similar studies with HIV-1, ...
component of complex A-1, DNA polymerase accessory protein "clamp loader", ATP dependent,required to assemble PCNA and polymerase delta on the DNA ...
Accumulation of viral products such as RNA replication intermediates and viral proteins represents a potential stressor for host cells. Rapidly after detection, host cells respond by implementing multiple appropriated defense mechanisms, including innate immune and stress responses. The strongest response to several forms of stress, including viral infections, is a global reduction of protein synthesis which promotes cellular survival. Translation suppression is induced by the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2α), thereby causing stalling of translation initiation and accumulation of stalled pre-initiation complexes in cytosolic stress granules (SGs). Viruses do not package ribosomes and therefore fully rely on the utilization of the host translation machinery to ensure viral protein synthesis, replication and virus progeny production. As a consequence, virus survival depends on the establishment of a delicate and fine-tuned balance ...
View Notes - MCDB Christoffersen Lecture#9 from MCDB 1a at UCSB. MCDB Christoffersen Lecture #9 Start of Chapter 16 Virus life cycles o Bacteriophages and HIV retrovirus Regulation of Gene
vaccinia virus nicking-joining enzyme: virus-specific, DNA-dependent & does not require ATP; possesses both endonuclease & ligase activities
In addition, P 0. And Javitt, integrated state to active replication в Inhibiting protease, a viral enzyme responsible for the adherence of viral proteins both before proviral integra- tion and as the viral particles recombine into functional proteins needed kefex viral maturation allergy to cipro and keflex Preventing viral assembly and budding out of the cell For more information, visit the Medscape quick refer- ence guide to antiretrovirals at www.
Go beyond the uncertain HCP data provided by ELISA assays to LC/MS methodologies that enable identification and quantification of host cell protein product impurities down to low ppm levels.
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
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Doublethink Doublecross - The Americas Future Foundation (who recently made me a member as recompense for using my name and a quote from this blog in a fundraising letter without bothering to mention it to me first) purports to be "a network of Americas next generation of classical liberal leaders" - classical liberal understood as a broad category encompassing both conservatives and libertarians. (Dear AFF, please feel free to use any portion of this post for fundraising purposes) Ive suspected for a while that much of the leadership of AFF wasnt so much classical liberal as plain anti-liberal reactionary.. Why the suspicion? Well, take this anecdote from an AFF happy hour. A friend introduces me to two well-sloshed Irish-looking fellows in suits slouched over the bar. (One guy has something to do with AFF, the other, I think works for Bob Novak.) One guy loudly and drunkenly declares, "Catholicism is a philosophy of freedom!" I say, "Come again!?" He replies, "Freedom from sin!! Freedom to ...
61840DNAVaccinia virus 1tttttattat ttgtacgatg tccaggataa catttttacg gataaataaa tatgaaggtg 60gagagcgtga cgttcctgac attgttggga ataggatgcg ttctatcatg ctgtactatt 120ccgtcacgac ccattaatat gaaatttaag aatagtgtgg agactgatgc taatgctaat 180tacaacatag gagacactat agaatatcta tgtctacctg gatacagaaa gcaaaaaatg 240ggacctatat atgctaaatg tacaggtact ggatggacac tctttaatca atgtattaaa 300cggagatgcc catcgcctcg agatatcgat aatggccaac ttgatattgg tggagtagac 360tttggctcta gtataacgta ctcttgtaat agcggatatc atttgatcgg tgaatctaaa 420tcgtattgtg aattaggatc tactggatct atggtatgga atcccgaggc acctatttgt 480gaatctgtta aatgccaatc ccctccatct atatccaacg gaagacataa cggatacgag 540gatttttata ccgatgggag cgttgtaact tatagttgca atagtggata ttcgttgatt 600ggtaactctg gtgtcctgtg ttcaggagga gaatggtccg atccacccac gtgtcagatt 660gttaaatgtc cacatcctac aatatcaaac ggatacttgt ctagcgggtt taaaagatca 720tactcataca acgacaatgt agactttaag tgcaagtacg gatataaact atctggttcc 780tcatcatcta cttgctctcc aggaaataca tggaagccgg aacttccaaa atgtgtacgc 8402244PRTVaccinia virus ...
Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a key DNA sensor capable of detecting microbial DNA and activating the adaptor protein stimulator of interferon genes (STING), leading to interferon (IFN) production and host antiviral responses. Cells exhibited reduced type I IFN production in response to cytosolic DNA in the absence of cGAS. Although the cGAS/STING-mediated DNA-sensing signal is crucial for host defense against many viruses, especially for DNA viruses, few viral components have been identified to specifically target this signaling pathway. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a DNA virus that has evolved multiple strategies to evade host immune responses. In the present study, we found that HSV-1 tegument protein UL41 was involved in counteracting the cGAS/STING-mediated DNA-sensing pathway. Our results showed that wild-type (WT) HSV-1 infection could inhibit immunostimulatory DNA-induced activation of the IFN signaling pathway compared with the UL41-null mutant virus (R2621), and ectopic expression of
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Suramin is a competitive inhibitor of heparin binding to many proteins, including viral envelope proteins, protein tyrosine phosphatases, and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). It has been clinically evaluated as a potential therapeutic in treatment of cancers caused by unregulated angiogenesis, triggered by FGFs. Although it has shown clinical promise in treatment of several cancers, suramin has many undesirable side effects. There is currently no experimental structure that reveals the molecular interactions responsible for suramin inhibition of heparin binding, which could be of potential use in structure-assisted design of improved analogues of suramin. We report the structure of suramin, in complex with the heparin-binding site of vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), which interacts with heparin in a geometrically similar manner to many FGFs. The larger than anticipated flexibility of suramin manifested in this structure, and other details of VCP-suramin interactions, might ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Viral genome replication. AU - Cameron, Craig Eugene. AU - Raney, Kevin D.. AU - Götte, Matthias. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Provides the first comprehensive review of viral genome replication strategies, emphasizing not only pathways and regulation but also the structure-function, mechanism, and inhibition of proteins and enzymes required for this process Currently, there is no single source that permits comparison of the factors, elements, enzymes and/or mechanisms employed by different classes of viruses for genome replication. As a result, we (and our students) often restrict our focus to our particular system, missing out on the opportunity to define unifying themes in viral genome replication or benefit from the advances in other systems. For example, extraordinary biological and experimental paradigms that have been established over the past five years for the DNA replication systems of bacteriophage T4 and T7 will likely be of great value to anyone interested in ...
Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (γHV68) infection of mice results in the establishment of a chronic infection, which is largely maintained through latent infection of B lymphocytes. Acute virus replication is almost entirely cleared by 2 weeks postinfection. Spontaneous reactivation of γHV68 from latently infected splenocytes upon ex vivo culture can readily be detected at the early stages of infection (e.g., day 16). However, by 6 weeks postinfection, very little spontaneous reactivation is detected upon explant into tissue culture. Here we report that stimulation of latently infected splenic B cells harvested at late times postinfection with cross-linking surface immunoglobulin (Ig), in conjunction with anti-CD40 antibody treatment, triggers virus reactivation. As expected, this treatment resulted in B-cell activation, as assessed by upregulation of CD69 on B cells, and ultimately B-cell proliferation. Since anti-Ig/anti-CD40 stimulation resulted in splenic B-cell proliferation, we assessed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human cytomegalovirus UL18 utilizes US6 for evading the NK and T-cell responses. AU - Kim, Youngkyun. AU - Park, Boyoun. AU - Cho, Sunglim. AU - Shin, Jinwook. AU - Cho, Kwangmin. AU - Jun, Youngsoo. AU - Ahn, Kwangseog. PY - 2008/8/1. Y1 - 2008/8/1. N2 - Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US6 glycoprotein inhibits TAP function, resulting in down-regulation of MHC class I molecules at the cell surface. Cells lacking MHC class I molecules are susceptible to NK cell lysis. HCMV expresses UL18, a MHC class I homolog that functions as a surrogate to prevent host cell lysis. Despite a high level of sequence and structural homology between UL18 and MHC class I molecules, surface expression of MHC class I, but not UL18, is down regulated by US6. Here, we describe a mechanism of action by which HCMV UL18 avoids attack by the self-derived TAP inhibitor US6. UL18 abrogates US6 inhibition of ATP binding by TAP and, thereby, restores TAP-mediated peptide translocation. In addition, UL18 together ...
The mechanism of the antiviral activity of 5-trifluoromethyl-2-deoxyuridine (F3TdR) has been studied in vaccinia virus-infected HeLa cells. When normal virions are used to infect the cells in the presence of the analogue, sucrose gradient sedimentation has shown that the early messenger RNA is normal and associates normally with polyribosomes. However, any late mRNA that may be produced under those conditions has abnormal sedimentation properties and does not associate normally with polyribosomes. When the cells are infected with purified virions containing F3TdR in their DNA, they adsorb to the cells and are uncoated normally. However, early mRNA is not transcribed normally. Studies of viral protein synthesis with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate suggest that a major virus-induced protein is not synthesized in the presence of F3TdR, and that another protein is formed instead.. ...
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that causes significant human disease, particularly in the congenital setting and in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. A prominent feature of HCMV is the wide range of viral gene products that it encodes wh …
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The picornaviral 3C protease mediates viral polyprotein maturation and multiple cleavages of host proteins to modulate viral translation and transcription. The 3C protease has been regarded as a valid target due to its structural similarity among different picornaviruses and minimal sequence similarity with host proteins; therefore, the development of potent inhibitors against the 3C protease as an antiviral drug is ongoing. Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) belongs to the Picornavidea family and is a major threat to the poultry industry. To date, little is known about the roles of the DHAV 3C protease plays during infection. In this study, we compared the full-length DHAV 3C protein sequence with other 3C sequences to obtain an alignment for the construction of a phylogenetic tree. Then, we expressed and purified recombinant DHAV 3C protease in the BL21 expression system using nickel-NTA affinity chromatography. The optimization of the cleavage assay conditions and the kinetic analysis for DHAV 3C protease
Axonal localization of viral membrane proteins promoted by Us9 missense mutants correlates with degree of anterograde spread in the rodent nervous system. Neuro
A viral tegument or tegument, more commonly known as a viral matrix, is a cluster of proteins that lines the space between the envelope and nucleocapsid of all herpesviruses. The tegument generally contains proteins that aid in viral DNA replication and evasion of the immune response, typically with inhibition of signalling in the immune system and activation of interferons. The tegument is usually[citation needed] released shortly after infection into the cytoplasm. These proteins are usually[citation needed] formed within the late phase of the viral infectious cycle, after viral genes have been replicated. Much information regarding viral teguments has been gathered from studying Herpes simplex virus. Viral teguments can be symmetrically arranged via structural and scaffolding protein or can also be asymmetrically arranged, depending on the virus.[citation needed] Teguments are rarely[citation needed] haphazardly placed and usually involve scaffolding proteins in their formation around the ...
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Detection and sequence analysis of borna disease virus p24 RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with mood disorders or schizophrenia and of b
In this report, we show that the products of UL47, UL49, and US11 ORFs bind RNA in vitro and in the context of infected cells, and that the packaged RNAs can be expressed in infected cells. We also show that VP22, the product of the UL49 ORF, mediates the transfer of the RNA from cell to cell. Relevant to our results are the following:. (i) The procedure we have used to identify the protein capable of binding RNAs was to electrophoretically separate virion proteins in denaturing gels, renature the proteins in situ, and react them with a labeled riboprobe representing the RNA detected in all virion preparations tested. Using this procedure, we unambiguously demonstrated that three virion protein bands bind RNAs. These proteins were identified as the products of the UL47, UL49, and US11 genes. In these assays, we used as probe the most abundant RNA packaged in virions. Because we used a riboprobe representing a single viral RNA, we cannot exclude the possibility that there exist virion proteins ...
... the core capsid protein, the viral polymerase, surface antigens-preS1, preS2, and S, the X protein and HBeAg. The X protein is ... Envelope Proteins[edit]. The hepatitis envelope proteins are composed of subunits made from the viral preS1, preS2, and S genes ... The "adhesion" step of the dynamic phase-in which an exterior viral protein stably interacts with a host cell protein- ... These envelope proteins can assemble independently of the viral capsid and genome into non-infectious virus-like particles that ...
The genome codes for 4 proteins. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. Replication follows the ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
The genome codes for 7 proteins. Viral replication is nucleo-cytoplasmic. Replication follows the dsDNA(RT) replication model. ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015. Guo, Haitao; Mason, ...
The genome codes for 7 proteins. Viral replication is nucleo-cytoplasmic. Replication follows the dsDNA(RT) replication model. ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
The genome codes for 9 proteins. Below are a few of the essential proteins of Bornaviridae that have been characterized. Viral ... The viral family is named after the city of Borna in Saxony, Germany, which is where a large number of animals were lost to the ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Bào, Yīmíng; Basler, Christopher F.; Bavari, Sina; Beer, ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral GP glycoproteins to host receptors, which mediates clathrin- ...
The genome codes for 40 proteins. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral ... Import of the viral genome into host nucleus mediated by core protein VII. Transcription of early genes (E genes) by host RNA ... Microtubular transport toward nucleus of the viral genome still protected by the core protein VII and a partial capsid mainly ... Host translation shutoff performed by the viral 100K protein. Assembly of new virions in the nucleus. Virions are released by ...
The genome codes for 12 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus ... They were able to identify viral plaques from this and then subsequently sequence their genomes. "ICTV Report Cystoviridae". " ... 14 kb in length and their protein and lipid outer layer. No other bacteriophage has any lipid in its outer coat, though the ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "NCBI Taxonomy Browser: Cystoviridae". NCBI. Retrieved 19 June 2016. Silander OK, ...
The genome codes for 6 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
Lucas, A; McFadden, G (15 October 2004). "Secreted immunomodulatory viral proteins as novel biotherapeutics". Journal of ... A third class of virally encoded immunomodulatory proteins consists of proteins that bind directly to cytokines. Due to the ... The early 1990s saw several reports of virally encoded proteins with sequence homology to immune proteins, followed by reports ... Virokines are proteins encoded by some large DNA viruses that are secreted by the host cell and serve to evade the host's ...
The genome codes for 5 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic, and is lysogenic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by ... The virus exits the host cell by tripartite non-tubule guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
Both proteins are associated with cell membranes.[4] p41 (capsid protein)[edit]. The viral capsid protein CP, or p41, is a ... The p22 protein is a movement protein that is required for the virus to spread from cell to cell. P22 is an RNA-binding protein ... a capsid protein (called CP or p41), and two additional proteins, the RNA silencing suppressor p19 and movement protein p22.[4] ... TBSV is an unenveloped icosahedral virus with a T=3 viral capsid composed of 180 subunits of a single capsid protein. Its ...
During replication of a virus some of the viral proteins are expressed on the cell surface membrane of the infected cell. ... Antibodies can then bind to these viral proteins. Next, the NK cells which have Fc Receptors will bind to that antibody, ... inducing the NK cell to release proteins such as perforin and proteases known as granzymes, which causes the lysis of the ...
The genome codes for 2 to 6 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic, and is lysogenic. Entry into the host cell is achieved ... The virus exits the host cell by tripartite non-tubule guided viral movement, and tubule-guided viral movement. Plants and ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
Multiple necessary viral proteins are located within the envelope. DNA and proteins enter the host cell nucleus and turn-off ... Entrance to host cells begins infection, and is largely controled by the US 2 viral protein. Envelope fusion with the plasma ... L genes are transcribed "after the synthesis of DNA and viral protein onset". Virion DNA maturation occurs as the nucleocapids ... During this phase IE genes are transcribed without other proteins. The E genes are also transcribed before viral DNA ...
"Antiadenovirus activity of milk proteins: lactoferrin prevents viral infection". Antiviral Res. 53 (2): 153-8. doi:10.1016/ ... The fraction of protein extracted from milk, contains 3.3% RNA, but, the protein preferably binds to double-stranded DNA rather ... Occurrence of iron-containing red protein in bovine milk was reported as early as in 1939; however, the protein could not be ... optical absorption spectra and presence of two iron atoms per protein molecule. The protein was extracted from milk, contained ...
The viral replication, protein synthesis and assembly require a considerable amount of energy, provided by large clusters of ... Szajner; Weisberg, AS; Wolffe, EJ; Moss, B (2001). "Vaccinia virus A30L protein is required for association of viral membranes ... Viral evolution Viral replication Novoa, R. R.; Calderita, G.; Arranz, R.; Fontana, J.; Granzow, H.; Risco, C. (Feb 2005). " ... A viroplasm is an inclusion body in a cell where viral replication and assembly occurs. They may be thought of as viral ...
proteins. na. involved in. replicación. viral. replication has been proposed. .,ref name=Rozanov1992,Rozanov MN, Koonin EV, ...
It has about 46k nucleotides, with 60 proteins. The complete genome is available here Viral replication is cytoplasmic. The ... Once the viral genes have been replicated, the procapsid is assembled and packed. The tail is then assembled and the mature ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. NCBI (February 2015 ... virus attaches to the host cell's adhesion receptors using its terminal fiber, and ejects the viral DNA into the host cytoplasm ...
Synthesis of proteins and nucleic acid[edit]. Within minutes, bacterial ribosomes start translating viral mRNA into protein. ... Proteins modify the bacterial RNA polymerase so it preferentially transcribes viral mRNA. The host's normal synthesis of ... Of the viral families with DNA genomes, only two have single-stranded genomes. Eight of the viral families with DNA genomes ... Several attempts have been made to map Protein-protein interactions among phage and their host. For instance, bacteriophage ...
The outer layer is a protein structure of 240 capsid proteins trimers, and the inner one is a proteinaceous lipid membrane ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. After adsorption to ... It encodes about 30 proteins that are transcribed in operons. At least 9 structural proteins are present in the viron. The ... Capsid proteins polymerize around a lipoprotein vesicle translocated in the cytoplasm by virion assembly factors. Mature virons ...
... presenting the first described case of exaptation of an enzyme for a virus capsid protein function. Viral replication is ... The TTV1 virion contains four virus-encoded proteins, TP1-4. The proteins do not display any sequence similarity to structural ... Interestingly, nucleocapsid protein TP1 has apparently evolved from a Cas4 endonuclease, a conserved component of the adaptive ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015. Janekovic, D.; ...
On the other hand, an increase in N (viral protein) was observed. Infected alfalfa was also not seen to be harmful for domestic ... Beside encapsidation and its role in movement the viral coat protein also plays a role in the initiation of RNA replication. ... Tenllado F.; Bol J. (2000). "Genetic dissection of the multiple functions of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein in viral RNA ... The capsid protein remains attached to the coat protein binding site (CPB) at the 3'- end of the RNAs. The initiation factors ...
... glycosylation is often used by viruses to shield the underlying viral protein from immune recognition. A significant example is ... In addition to their function in protein folding and cellular attachment, the N-linked glycans of a protein can modulate a ... Glycans serve a variety of structural and functional roles in membrane and secreted proteins.[1] The majority of proteins ... disorders of protein N-glycosylation, disorders of protein O-glycosylation, disorders of lipid glycosylation and disorders of ...
... pol proteins, and env proteins. *Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are major components of the viral capsid, which are ... This step will also make viral enzymes and capsid proteins (8). Viral RNA will be made in the nucleus. These pieces are then ... Next, some of these RNA molecules are translated into viral proteins. For example, the gag gene is translated into molecules of ... Pol proteins are responsible for synthesis of viral DNA and integration into host DNA after infection. ...
... viral coat protein, a variant called E1-A226V. This mutation potentially allows the virus to multiply more easily in mosquito ... The virus consists of four nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins.[12] The structural proteins are the capsid and ... viral antigen and viral RNA were found in macrophages in the synovial joint of a person experiencing a relapse of ... monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 ...
Xin-Cheng Qin et al.: A tick-borne segmented RNA virus contains genome segments derived from unsegmented viral ancestors, in: ... Orsay virus utilizes ribosomal frameshifting to express a novel protein that is incorporated into virions, in: Virology 450-451 ... Henxia Xia et al.: A dsRNA virus with filamentous viral particled, in: Nature Communicationsvolume 8, Nr. 168 (2017), [[doi: ...
Quantification of extracellular viral genomic RNA suggested that the number of virus particles released from cells infected ... is one of the most important viral pathogens of salmonids. In rainbow trout, IHNV isolates in the M genogroup are highly ... Viral nucleocapsid (N) protein accumulation in U strain infections was fivefold lower than in M strain infections. These ... Quantification of extracellular viral genomic RNA suggested that the number of virus particles released from cells infected ...
I plan to talk about the four main types of viral proteins, namely viral structural proteins, viral nonstructural proteins, and ... Hi! I plan to edit this article by providing an overview of what a viral protein is. The range of discovered viral proteins ... Im certain that there may be other types of viral proteins that Im unaware of (due to limited general information about viral ... The mention to Viral Protein Structural Database (VPDB) have been removed because this resource displays data of poor quality: ...
In herpesviruses, the viral matrix is usually called viral tegument and contains many proteins involved in viral entry, early ... Viral matrix proteins, like many other viral proteins, can exert different functions during the course of the infection. For ... Structural proteins linking the viral envelope with the virus core. They play a crucial role in virus assembly, and interact ... An example is the M1 protein of the influenza virus, showing affinity to the glycoproteins inserted in the host cell membrane ...
So much has been learnt about the proteins of influenza virus during the last three years that most of the gene products can ... Maizel, J. V.: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of viral proteins. In: Methods in virology, vol. V (eds. K. Maramorosch and H ... White D.O. (1974) Influenza Viral Proteins: Identification and Synthesis. In: Arber W. et al. (eds) Current Topics in ... Krug, R. M.: Influenza viral RNPs newly synthesized during the latent period of viral growth in MDCK cells. Virology 44, 125- ...
... a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral ... a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral ... acid sequence that enhance the stability of the complex formed between the viral surface protein and transmembrane protein. ... acid sequence that enhance the stability of the complex formed between the viral surface protein and transmembrane protein. ...
Both HCV core protein and HCMV UL37 proteins are associated with Ca2+ regulation and apoptotic signals. Trafficking of viral ... Access of viral proteins to mitochondria via mitochondria-associated membranes.. Williamson CD1, Colberg-Poley AM. ... Nonetheless, these viral proteins provide us with valuable tools to access the poorly characterised MAM compartment, to define ... Indeed, we found that multiple cellular and viral proteins, which target the MAM, showed no apparent consensus primary ...
The viral envelope is made up of a lipid bilayer embedded with viral proteins, including viral glycoproteins. These viral ... Many copies of a single viral protein or a number of different viral proteins make up the capsid, and each of these viral ... Viral regulatory and accessory proteins have many functions. These viral proteins control and influence viral gene expressions ... Viral proteins are grouped according to their functions, and groups of viral proteins include structural proteins, ...
Viral FLICE-inhibitory proteins (FLIPs) prevent apoptosis induced by death receptors.. Thome M1, Schneider P, Hofmann K, ... v-FLIPs contain two death-effector domains which interact with the adaptor protein FADD, and this inhibits the recruitment and ... Here we describe a new family of viral inhibitors (v-FLIPs) which interfere with apoptosis signalled through death receptors ... The herpesvirus saimiri FLIP is detected late during the lytic viral replication cycle, at a time when host cells are partially ...
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Influenza non-structural protein NS1 influenza protein Viral Nonstructural Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine ... In virology, a nonstructural protein is a protein encoded by a virus but that is not part of the viral particle. NSP1 ( ...
Retroviridae Proteins Research. Viral Nonstructural Proteins Research. Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins Research. Viral ... A nucleo-cytoplasmic SR protein functions in viral IRES-mediated translation initiation. A significant number of viral and ... Actinohivin, a novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus protein from an actinomycete, inhibits viral entry to cells by binding ... A mutation study of the DNA binding domain of human papillomavirus type11 E2 protein. A site-specific mutation study was ...
... can translocate across the cell membrane and have been extensively studied for the delivery of proteins, nucleic acids, and ... The BMV CPNT overlaps with the sequence known to bind BMV RNA, and it can deliver BMV RNAs into cells, resulting in viral ... CPNT increased uptake of the green flourescent protein (GFP) into the cell when covalently fused to GFP or when present in ... We showed that the intact virion and a recombinant capsid protein (CaP) from a plant-infecting nonenveloped icosahedral RNA ...
The F-box protein is one of the four components of the SCF (SKp1, Cullin, F-box protein) complex, which mediates ubiquitination ... On the other hand, F-box proteins can be used in the defense response by the host. This review describes the role of F-box ... of proteins targeted for degradation by the proteasome, playing an essential role in many cellular processes. Several ... proteins and the use of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in virus-host interactions. ...
Study Identifies Protein Essential For Immune Recognition, Response To Viral Infection. by editor ... "The detection of viral genetic material inside an infected cell is critical to initiating the responses that signal the immune ... research team has identified an immune cell protein that is critical to setting off the bodys initial response against viral ... "We are hopeful that this discovery will allow the development of new strategies to curtail viral mechanisms that impede the ...
Infectious disease specialists at the Johns Hopkins Childrens Center have identified a protein that regulates the bodys ... Cells with intact NOD2s secreted higher levels of interferon, a natural antiviral protein, and were able to curtail viral ... Researchers identify protein that helps control common viral infection. Johns Hopkins Medicine ... The protein -- a cell receptor called NOD2 found in several types of immune cells -- has long been known for its role in ...
Secreted immunomodulatory viral proteins: virokines and viroceptors. Virus-encoded immunomodulatory proteins have been ... viral CC chemokine inhibitor; VCP, vaccinia complement control protein; IMP, inflammatory modulatory protein; serpin, serine ... Secreted Immunomodulatory Viral Proteins as Novel Biotherapeutics Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Some of these viral anti-immune regulators are expressed as secreted proteins that engage specific host immune targets in the ...
Artificial virus components: protein polymers that mimick viral capsid proteins. Status: Afgerond Start project:. 1-dec-2009. ... Artificial virus components: protein polymers that mimick viral capsid proteins. In the development of gene (DNA) therapy, ... With a view to both applications, we are investigating the binding to DNA of protein polymers (polymer-like proteins designed ... The polymers, which are synthesised like natural proteins in yeast cells (Pichia pastoris), consist entirely of natural amino ...
These HMM searches discovered a single viral protein potentially involved in direct N uptake. This viral protein sequence [ ... To identify viral transporter proteins putatively involved in N uptake, all available viral amino acid sequences were screened ... We confirm that the viral transporter protein is expressed during infection and show that the protein functions to take up ... The resulting 22 OtV6 core proteins were then concatenated, aligned, and added to the original viral core protein alignment ...
Determining the structure of this molecule and its role in the viral fusion mechanism may aid the development of drugs and ... "Because of F proteins central role in viral infection, solving the structure of this critical protein is truly a great advance ... They replaced the part of the protein that is embedded in the viral membrane with an engineered piece of protein that acts as a ... About the Protein and How its Structure was Solved The F protein that the research team solved is from a parainfluenza virus. ...
A viral protein known as NS5 is a promising target for vaccines against Zika and related viruses, according to National ... NS5 viral protein could be promising vaccine target against Zika virus. *Download PDF Copy ... A viral protein known as NS5 is a promising target for vaccines against Zika and related viruses, according to National ... Tags: Allergy, Cell, Encephalitis, Fever, G-Protein, Health and Human Services, Immune Response, Immune System, Infectious ...
Antibodies developed by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) were used to directly detect the viral protein Zika NS1 at ... New Portable, Cost-effective Agile R100 Detects Zika Viral Protein with High Sensitivity and Specificity. ... announces a new publication in Biosensors and Bioelectronics demonstrating detection of Zika viral antigen using the label-free ...
Using bioinformatic tools we have previously shown that viral structural proteins are a rich source for new bioactive peptide ... The antibacterial mechanism of action of the two most active viral protein-derived peptides, vAMP 059 and vCPP 2319, was ... The antibacterial mechanism of action of the two most active viral protein-derived peptides, vAMP 059 and vCPP 2319, was ... Overall, the results show that structural viral proteins are an abundant source for membrane-active peptides sequences with ...
We studied the sub-cellular local-isation and interactions of pUL71 with a subset of cellular and viral proteins. Thereby we ... Zunächst konnte das Protein als Kapsid-assoziiertes strukturelles Protein identifiziert werden. Es wurden Interaktionen von ... The function of essential HCMV protein pUL77 is characterised in the first part of the study. HCMV pUL77 was shown to be a ... Der erste Teil der Arbeit befasst sich mit der funktionellen Charakterisierung des HCMV Pro-teins pUL77. Es ist bekannt, dass ...
... interaction of viral proteins with key host proteins inhibits or diverts innate immunity thus evading immediate viral clearance ... Therefore, understanding the interactions between viral proteins and host cell proteins is very important to develop drugs for ... Upon establishing persistent infection, some of the viral proteins interact with host cellular proteins and change their ... proteins by proteomic analysis in infected cells indicated that at least 420 host proteins interact with viral proteins [17], ...
  • Quantification of extracellular viral genomic RNA suggested that the number of virus particles released from cells infected with the U strain at a MOI of 1 was 47-fold lower than from M-infected cells, but U and M virions were equally infectious by particle to infectivity ratios. (usgs.gov)
  • At an MOI of 1, U strain intracellular viral genome accumulation and transcription were 37- and 12-fold lower, respectively, than those of the M strain at 24 h p.i. (usgs.gov)
  • Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of salmonids. (usgs.gov)
  • The report that will be published in an upcoming issue of Nature Immunology and is receiving early online release describes finding that a protein called GEF-H1 is essential to the ability of macrophages - major contributors to the innate immune system - to respond to viral infections like influenza. (redorbit.com)
  • But how microtubule-based movement of viral components contributes to induction of the immune response has been unknown. (redorbit.com)
  • A series of experiments by Reinecker's team found that GEF-H1 is expressed in macrophages - key components of the innate immune system - and activated in response to viral RNA and that it controls the expression of beta interferon and other cytokines. (redorbit.com)
  • We are hopeful that this discovery will allow the development of new strategies to curtail viral mechanisms that impede the immune responses to infections that are often associated with high mortality rates. (redorbit.com)
  • Infectious disease specialists at the Johns Hopkins Children's Center have identified a protein that regulates the body's immune response to cytomegalovirus (CMV), a common pathogen that causes lifelong infections and can lead to devastating illness in newborns and those with weakened immune systems. (eurekalert.org)
  • That same protein, the Johns Hopkins team found, also appears to regulate the body's immune response to CMV by initiating a chemical signaling cascade that curbs viral spread. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some of these viral anti-immune regulators are expressed as secreted proteins that engage specific host immune targets in the extracellular environment, where they exhibit potent anti-immune properties. (jimmunol.org)
  • We review here viral immunomodulatory proteins that have been tested as anti-inflammatory reagents in animal models of disease caused by excessive inflammation or hyperactivated immune pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • The potential for such viral molecules for the development of novel drugs to treat immune-based or inflammatory disorders is discussed. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, studies of individual viral anti-immune mechanisms tend to shed light on specific pathways that regulate the immune or inflammatory responses encountered by that particular virus. (jimmunol.org)
  • In fact, the growing collection of viral strategies that modulate these aspects of the immune system can be considered as comprising the discipline of anti-immunology and is the subject of a vast body of scientific literature (e.g., see Refs. (jimmunol.org)
  • This combination of high potency and highly specific biochemical targeting provides a powerful platform with which to develop next-generation drugs based on viral protein immunomodulators to treat diseases based on excessive inflammation or hyperactive immune reactions ( 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Their study, published online May 19, 2016 in Cell Host & Microbe , suggests that altering or removing the NS5 protein from Zika virus would allow the human body's own immune defenses to attack the virus. (news-medical.net)
  • Partial protection was achieved with as little as 0.125 ng of L1 protein, and adjuvants appeared useful for prolonging the host immune response. (pnas.org)
  • They also produce both immune-enhancing proteins (cytokines/chemokines) to drive forward a vigorous immune response, as well as immune-suppressing proteins including interleukin-10 (IL-10) and PD-1, which act as a braking system that balances the immune response to keep within healthy (non-autoimmune) limits. (scripps.edu)
  • When a virus delivers its DNA into a cell nucleus, cellular proteins recognize the invader and alert the host's immune response. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In the current study, the researchers reveal a new mechanism, in which a viral protein traps an important signaling molecule inside the cell nucleus, and prevents it from sounding an alarm to the immune system. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We will be investigating other viral proteins to determine whether they act similarly, in hiding alarm signals from the immune system," said Daphne C. Avgousti, Ph.D., the study's first author and a postdoctoral fellow in Weitzman's laboratory. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The authors also found that the benefit to viral survival conferred by the hydrophobic patch on the unmutated form of Nef was not seen in cellular studies, suggesting that it had developed in response to the immune system pressures present in a live animal. (massgeneral.org)
  • Murine immune responses to virus-like particle-associated pre- and postfusion forms of the respiratory syncytial virus F protein. (umassmed.edu)
  • You could program the cell to kill itself, or to secrete proteins that would allow the immune system to identify it as an enemy cell so the immune system would take care of it. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • Interferons are a group of proteins known primarily for their role in inhibiting viral infections and in stimulating the entire immune system to fight disease . (jrank.org)
  • L1 protein, which self-assembled into virus-like particles, was purified on CsCl gradients and injected intradermally into the foot pad of beagles. (pnas.org)
  • Modification of the respiratory syncytial virus f protein in virus-like particles impacts generation of B cell memory. (umassmed.edu)
  • Protein conjugation results with a red fluorescent protein (R-Phycoerythrin, R-PE) as a model protein showed significantly enhanced protein conjugation capacity of TMV-assembled particles (TMV-particles) over hydrogel particles without TMV templates. (aiche.org)
  • Further in-depth comparison of protein conjugation kinetics with slower conjugation reaction (strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) reaction) showed less diffusion-limited structure of the TMV-particles for protein conjugation. (aiche.org)
  • We also examined target protein capture capacity of the TMV-particles by utilizing an anti-R-PE antibody (R-Ab)-R-PE pair as a model system, whose results showed considerably improved target protein capture capacity over R-Ab conjugated hydrogel particles. (aiche.org)
  • A catalytically inactive mutant of DGAT1 (H426A) blocks the localization of NS5A, but not core, to LDs in a dominant-negative manner and impairs the release of infectious viral particles, underscoring the importance of DGAT1-mediated translocation of NS5A to LDs in viral particle production. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Analysis of SCoV particles that were purified by either sucrose gradient equilibrium centrifugation or a virus capture assay, in which intact SCoV particles were specifically immunoprecipitated by anti-S protein monoclonal antibody, demonstrated that 7a protein was associated with purified SCoV particles. (asm.org)
  • Host cell lipid metabolism plays a major role in the infectious life cycle of HCV and several of the viral proteins are shown to be involved in the recruitment of viral complexes to the lipid droplets, LDs [ 6 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cell lysis is an inevitable step in classical mass spectrometry-based strategies to analyse protein complexes. (ugent.be)
  • We have developed Virotrap, a viral particle sorting approach that obviates the need for cell homogenization and preserves the protein complexes during purification. (ugent.be)
  • Virotrap constitutes an elegant complementary approach to the arsenal of methods to study protein complexes. (ugent.be)
  • Recently, a single molecule pull-down (SiMPull) assay was developed to isolate and study single protein complexes directly from cell lysates. (illinois.edu)
  • Using a similar principle, the objective of this study is to extend the SiMPull assay to isolate and study single cellular RNA-protein complexes. (illinois.edu)
  • Many proteins self-assemble to form large supramolecular complexes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Teaming up with researchers across multiple disciplines at CHOP and Penn Medicine, Weitzman and colleagues investigated protein VII, a small protein produced by adenovirus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Cutting-edge and easy to use, Viral Applications of Green Fluorescent Protein: Methods and Protocols supplies researchers with an ideal guide to the many uses of GFP and a vital starting point for future studies utilizing this highly adaptable protein. (springer.com)
  • Researchers reported in the journal mBio that the virus uses secreted cellular packages called exosomes to send the viral protein Nef into the body. (unclineberger.org)
  • The range of information covered includes signal proteins, ion channels, and fusion proteins.This book has a place in the libraries of researchers and scientists in a wide array of fields, including protein chemistry, molecular biophysics, pharmaceutical science and research, bioanotechnology, molecular biology, and biochemistry. (ark.no)
  • To create their new system, the researchers needed to link zinc fingers' DNA-binding capability with a consequence-either turning on a fluorescent protein to reveal that the target DNA is present or generating another type of action inside the cell. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • The researchers achieved this by exploiting a type of protein known as an "intein"-a short protein that can be inserted into a larger protein, splitting it into two pieces. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • Keck School of Medicine of USC researchers have identified a human protein that could prevent cancer by restricting a type of herpes virus from replicating. (chemdiv.com)
  • Researchers found a protein that helps prevent human herpes virus 8 from replicating. (usc.edu)
  • MIP-2 Viral Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single,non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 70 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 7.9 kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • This communication describes the in vitro assembly of genetically recombinant Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) viral capsid proteins (CPs) into biological nanotubes, several micrometres long yet with a diameter of only 17 nm, triggered by double-stranded DNAs of different lengths. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Wei Y, Zhang Y, Cai H, Mirza AM, Iorio RM, Peeples ME, Niewiesk S, Li J. Roles of the putative integrin-binding motif of the human metapneumovirus fusion (f) protein in cell-cell fusion, viral infectivity, and pathogenesis. (umassmed.edu)
  • On the other hand, if the virus dominates by evolving quasispecies which code for altered proteins that interact differently with host proteins, or induce mutations in host protooncogenes, then the patient may develop liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • Among the six DTMUV strains, mutations were observed only at thirteen amino acid positions across three separate domains of the E protein. (nih.gov)
  • Point mutations generating stop codons very early in the coding sequences were constructed to prevent the expression of amino-terminal protein fragments which might have biological activity. (nih.gov)
  • Specific mutations in the viral peplomer protein, S protein, allowed a SCoV-like virus to cross the species barrier and become a highly infectious human pathogen ( 22 , 35 ). (asm.org)
  • The characteristic reticular ER morphology was visualized using a commercially available, soluble ER lumen fusion protein, pECFP-ER (Clontech). (nih.gov)
  • Then, using the Advanced Photon Source at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory, the research team employed high intensity X-rays to obtain data from the crystals, which they then interpreted in order to reconstruct the structure of the F fusion protein--the culmination of several years' worth of research. (eurekalert.org)
  • An example of a Class I viral fusion protein is the HIV glycoprotein, gp41. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a Class III viral fusion protein is the rabies virus glycoprotein, G. Class IV: Class IV viral fusion proteins are fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • PIPO is expressed as a fusion protein with the N-terminal half of P3 (P3N-PIPO) via transcriptional slippage of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). (nature.com)
  • Wei Y, Feng K, Yao X, Cai H, Li J, Mirza AM, Iorio RM, Li J. Localization of a region in the fusion protein of avian metapneumovirus that modulates cell-cell fusion. (umassmed.edu)
  • 11 . The isolated nucleic acid of any one of claims 3 - 10 , wherein the transmembrane protein is gp41 or a modified form of gp41, wherein the modification alters the immunogenicity of the molecule relative to wildtype gp41. (google.com)
  • 12 . The isolated nucleic acid of claim 11 , wherein the transmembrane protein is the gp41 ectodomain. (google.com)
  • 13 . The isolated nucleic acid of claim 11 or 12 , wherein the transmembrane protein is modified by the absence or presence of one or more canonical glycosylation sites absent or present in the wild type gp120. (google.com)
  • Evidence against extracellular exposure of a highly immunogenic region in the C-terminal domain of the simian immunodeficiency virus gp41 transmembrane protein. (umassmed.edu)
  • Latency II neoplasm includes nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma and is characterized by the expression of LMP1 ( 9 ), a transmembrane protein with transforming capacity for rodent fibroblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The 122-amino-acid (aa)-long SCoV 7a protein (also known as X4 protein or U122 protein) is a type I transmembrane protein consisting of a 15-aa signal peptide sequence at its N terminus, an 81-aa luminal domain, a 21-aa transmembrane domain, and a short C-terminal tail ( 30 ). (asm.org)
  • These data indicate that specific HECT ubiquitin ligases can link PPXY motifs to the VPS pathway to induce viral budding. (rupress.org)
  • Importantly, these inhibitors induce a defective viral assembly phenotype that resembles that of L-domain mutants. (rupress.org)
  • Therefore, understanding the interactions between viral proteins and host cell proteins is very important to develop drugs for these liver diseases and HCC. (hindawi.com)
  • CPNT increased uptake of the green flourescent protein (GFP) into the cell when covalently fused to GFP or when present in trans of GFP. (apsnet.org)
  • Solving the structure of this protein proved difficult, the scientists say, because F is an unusual protein that exists in two different forms, including the metastable shape that it adopts before it harpoons a cell and collapses into its stable post-fusion conformation. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this review we focus on the interaction of viral proteins with important regulators of cell cycle-oncoproteins YB-1, p53, and cyclin D1-which play a major role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair, and genomic stability. (hindawi.com)
  • Genetic variants of HCV accumulate in patients and alter these interactions of host cell proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • The result was the identification of roughly 950 cell proteins potentially involved in cancer. (healthcanal.com)
  • Analyzing protein function is a key focus in cell biology research. (clontech.com)
  • The findings, published in the Aug. 22 online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), demonstrate that a viral protein associated with human herpesvirus 8, or HHV8, may help to cause lymphoma by activating a key pathway involved in the production of lymphocytes, a common cell type found in lymphoid tissue that divide over and over and eventually develop into lymphoma. (rxpgnews.com)
  • They found that protein VII alters cellular chromatin in cell culture, in human lung tissue in the laboratory, and in mouse models. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This protein is part of a ubiquitin ligase complex that adds ubiquitin to proteins to mark them for destruction by the cell. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This points toward a role for the protein outside of the cell. (unclineberger.org)
  • Transfection efficiency of both nanoparticles using a plasmid encoding tdTomato fluorescent protein has been first evaluated in-vitro in two cell lines, and therefore the best formulation has been used for in-vivo transfection assays by sub-retinal injections in Long-Evans rats. (arvojournals.org)
  • A modular system of proteins can detect a particular DNA sequence in a cell and then trigger a specific response, such as cell death. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • Cambridge, MA) have developed a modular system of proteins that can detect a particular DNA sequence in a cell and then trigger a specific response, such as cell death. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • The coronavirus spike protein is a critical determinant of cell tropism and pathogenicity. (cornell.edu)
  • It is expressed on the viral surface and is responsible for binding the host cell receptor and initiating fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. (cornell.edu)
  • The pattern of viral protein evaluated by flow cytometry was noticeably different in the two cell types. (arvojournals.org)
  • In addition to causing cell cycle arrest, Vpr activation of ATR also leads to cellular apoptosis through BRCA1 protein, which is directly involved in the repair of damaged DNA. (ideaconnection.com)
  • Due to the difficulty in differentiating between specific and unspecific binding a new method for studying RNA-protein interactions was developed using a surface based detection approach. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The high-affinity and specificity of the Rev-RRE binding has been well characterized and was used as a model system to gauge the sensitivity of the surface based detection system, which can be further used to characterize various RNA-protein interactions. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Protein sensing platforms with high performance are highly desired in various applications such as medical diagnostics, bioprocess monitoring and bioterrorism detection. (aiche.org)
  • Using an efficient VLP enrichment protocol, Virotrap allows the detection of known binary interactions and MS-based identification of novel protein partners as well. (ugent.be)
  • Unlike ensemble measurements, SiMPull is a powerful tool that allows detection of diverse proteins present in a single complex and quantitation of the number of interacting partners when the proteins are stoichiometrically labeled. (illinois.edu)
  • Furthermore, the viral protein Nef down-regulates MHC-I molecules after it is produced between 6 and 12 h postinfection ( 11 , 12 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • New findings described here shall give insights into the antigenicity and evolution of this new pathogen and provide guidance for further functional studies of the E protein for which no effective vaccine has yet been developed. (nih.gov)
  • The findings were extended to a group of singly spliced viral mRNAs that produce Env in the following biochemical analyses. (nii.ac.jp)