Proteins found in any species of virus.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
The type species of GYROVIRUS, a small, non-enveloped DNA virus originally isolated from contaminated vaccines in Japan. It causes chicken infectious anemia and may possibly play a key role in hemorrhagic anemia syndrome, anemia dermatitis, and blue wing disease.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A species of RUBULAVIRUS originally isolated from cultured primary monkey cells. Its natural host is the DOG in which it causes kennel cough, but it can also infect humans.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.
A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Infections with viruses of the genus RUBULAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Four dimers of lambda repressor bound to two suitably spaced pairs of lambda operators form octamers and DNA loops over large distances. (1/26353)

Transcription factors that are bound specifically to DNA often interact with each other over thousands of base pairs [1] [2]. Large DNA loops resulting from such interactions have been observed in Escherichia coli with the transcription factors deoR [3] and NtrC [4], but such interactions are not, as yet, well understood. We propose that unique protein complexes, that are not present in solution, may form specifically on DNA. Their uniqueness would make it possible for them to interact tightly and specifically with each other. We used the repressor and operators of coliphage lambda to construct a model system in which to test our proposition. lambda repressor is a dimer at physiological concentrations, but forms tetramers and octamers at a hundredfold higher concentration. We predict that two lambda repressor dimers form a tetramer in vitro when bound to two lambda operators spaced 24 bp apart and that two such tetramers interact to form an octamer. We examined, in vitro, relaxed circular plasmid DNA in which such operator pairs were separated by 2,850 bp and 2,470 bp. Of these molecules, 29% formed loops as seen by electron microscopy (EM). The loop increased the tightness of binding of lambda repressor to lambda operator. Consequently, repression of the lambda PR promoter in vivo was increased fourfold by the presence of a second pair of lambda operators, separated by a distance of 3,600 bp.  (+info)

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (2/26353)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

The amino-terminal C/H1 domain of CREB binding protein mediates zta transcriptional activation of latent Epstein-Barr virus. (3/26353)

Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is maintained as a nucleosome-covered episome that can be transcriptionally activated by overexpression of the viral immediate-early protein, Zta. We show here that reactivation of latent EBV by Zta can be significantly enhanced by coexpression of the cellular coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. A stable complex containing both Zta and CBP could be isolated from lytically stimulated, but not latently infected RAJI nuclear extracts. Zta-mediated viral reactivation and transcriptional activation were both significantly inhibited by coexpression of the E1A 12S protein but not by an N-terminal deletion mutation of E1A (E1ADelta2-36), which fails to bind CBP. Zta bound directly to two related cysteine- and histidine-rich domains of CBP, referred to as C/H1 and C/H3. These domains both interacted specifically with the transcriptional activation domain of Zta in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Interestingly, we found that the C/H3 domain was a potent dominant negative inhibitor of Zta transcriptional activation function. In contrast, an amino-terminal fragment containing the C/H1 domain was sufficient for coactivation of Zta transcription and viral reactivation function. Thus, CBP can stimulate the transcription of latent EBV in a histone acetyltransferase-independent manner mediated by the CBP amino-terminal C/H1-containing domain. We propose that CBP may regulate aspects of EBV latency and reactivation by integrating cellular signals mediated by competitive interactions between C/H1, C/H3, and the Zta activation domain.  (+info)

Deletion of multiple immediate-early genes from herpes simplex virus reduces cytotoxicity and permits long-term gene expression in neurons. (4/26353)

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has many attractive features that suggest its utility for gene transfer to neurons. However, viral cytotoxicity and transient transgene expression limit practical applications even in the absence of viral replication. Mutant viruses deleted for the immediate early (IE) gene, ICP4, an essential transcriptional transactivator, are toxic to many cell types in culture in which only the remaining IE genes are expressed. In order to test directly the toxicity of other IE gene products in neurons and develop a mutant background capable of longterm transgene expression, we generated mutants deleted for multiple IE genes in various combinations and tested their relative cytotoxicity in 9L rat gliosarcoma cells, Vero monkey kidney cells, and primary rat cortical and dorsal root neurons in culture. Viral mutants deleted simultaneously for the IE genes encoding ICP4, ICP22 and ICP27 showed substantially reduced cytotoxicity compared with viruses deleted for ICP4 alone or ICP4 in combination with either ICP22, ICP27 or ICP47. Infection of neurons in culture with these triple IE deletion mutants substantially enhanced cell survival and permitted transgene expression for over 21 days. Such mutants may prove useful for efficient gene transfer and extended transgene expression in neurons in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

An antiviral mechanism of nitric oxide: inhibition of a viral protease. (5/26353)

Although nitric oxide (NO) kills or inhibits the replication of a variety of intracellular pathogens, the antimicrobial mechanisms of NO are unknown. Here, we identify a viral protease as a target of NO. The life cycle of many viruses depends upon viral proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual polypeptides. NO inactivates the Coxsackievirus protease 3C, an enzyme necessary for the replication of Coxsackievirus. NO S-nitrosylates the cysteine residue in the active site of protease 3C, inhibiting protease activity and interrupting the viral life cycle. Substituting a serine residue for the active site cysteine renders protease 3C resistant to NO inhibition. Since cysteine proteases are critical for virulence or replication of many viruses, bacteria, and parasites, S-nitrosylation of pathogen cysteine proteases may be a general mechanism of antimicrobial host defenses.  (+info)

Interleukin-18 binding protein: a novel modulator of the Th1 cytokine response. (6/26353)

An interleukin-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) was purified from urine by chromatography on IL-18 beads, sequenced, cloned, and expressed in COS7 cells. IL-18BP abolished IL-18 induction of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), IL-8, and activation of NF-kappaB in vitro. Administration of IL-18BP to mice abrogated circulating IFNgamma following LPS. Thus, IL-18BP functions as an inhibitor of the early Th1 cytokine response. IL-18BP is constitutively expressed in the spleen, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and has limited homology to the IL-1 type II receptor. Its gene was localized on human chromosome 11q13, and no exon coding for a transmembrane domain was found in an 8.3 kb genomic sequence. Several Poxviruses encode putative proteins highly homologous to IL-18BP, suggesting that viral products may attenuate IL-18 and interfere with the cytotoxic T cell response.  (+info)

An examination of coaxial stacking of helical stems in a pseudoknot motif: the gene 32 messenger RNA pseudoknot of bacteriophage T2. (7/26353)

The RNA pseudoknot located at the 5' end of the gene 32 messenger RNA of bacteriophage T2 contains two A-form helical stems connected by two loops, in an H-type pseudoknot topology. A combination of multidimensional NMR methods and isotope labeling were used to investigate the pseudoknot structure, resulting in a more detailed structural model than provided by earlier homonuclear NMR studies. Of particular significance, the interface between the stacked helical stems within the pseudoknot motif is described in detail. The two stems are stacked in a coaxial manner, with an approximately 18 degrees rotation of stem1 relative to stem2 about an axis that is parallel to the helical axis. This rotation serves to relieve what would otherwise be a relatively close phosphate-phosphate contact at the junction of the two stems, while preserving the stabilizing effects of base stacking. The ability of the NMR data to determine pseudoknot bending was critically assessed. The data were found to be a modestly precise indicator of pseudoknot bending, with the angle between the helical axes of stem1 and stem2 being in the range of 15+/-15 degrees. Pseudoknot models with bend angles within this range are equally consistent with the data, since they differ by only small amounts in the relatively short-range interproton distances from which the structure was derived. The gene 32 messenger RNA pseudoknot was compared with other RNA structures with coaxial or near-coaxial stacked helical stems.  (+info)

Novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses fatal for Asian and African elephants. (8/26353)

A highly fatal hemorrhagic disease has been identified in 10 young Asian and African elephants at North American zoos. In the affected animals there was ultrastructural evidence for herpesvirus-like particles in endothelial cells of the heart, liver, and tongue. Consensus primer polymerase chain reaction combined with sequencing yielded molecular evidence that confirmed the presence of two novel but related herpesviruses associated with the disease, one in Asian elephants and another in African elephants. Otherwise healthy African elephants with external herpetic lesions yielded herpesvirus sequences identical to that found in Asian elephants with endothelial disease. This finding suggests that the Asian elephant deaths were caused by cross-species infection with a herpesvirus that is naturally latent in, but normally not lethal to, African elephants. A reciprocal relationship may exist for the African elephant disease.  (+info)

EN] The RNA silencing pathway constitutes a defence mechanism highly conserved in eukaryotes, especially in plants, where the underlying working principle relies on the repressive action triggered by the intracellular presence of double-stranded RNAs. This immune system performs a post-transcriptional suppression of aberrant mRNAs or viral RNAs by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that are directed towards their target in a sequence-specific manner. However, viruses have evolved strategies to escape from silencing surveillance while promoting their own replication. Several viruses encode suppressor proteins that interact with different elements of the RNA silencing pathway and block it. The different suppressors are not phylogenetically nor structurally related and also differ in their mechanism of action. Here, we adopt a model-driven forward-engineering approach to understand the evolution of suppressor proteins and, in particular, why viral suppressors preferentially target some components of ...
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A key step in the virus evolutionary journey seems to have come about around 1.5 billion years ago - thats the age at which the team estimated the 66 virus-specific protein folds came on the scene. These changes are to proteins in the virus outer coat - the machinery viruses use to break into host cells ...
Nuclear mRNA export is a highly complex and regulated process in cells. Cellular transcripts must undergo successful maturation processes, including splicing, 5-, and 3-end processing, which are essential for assembly of an export competent ribonucleoprotein particle. Many viruses replicate in the nucleus of the host cell and require cellular mRNA export factors to efficiently export viral transcripts. However, some viral mRNAs undergo aberrant mRNA processing, thus prompting the viruses to express their own specific mRNA export proteins to facilitate efficient export of viral transcripts and allowing translation in the cytoplasm. This review will focus on the Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 protein, a multifunctional protein involved in all stages of viral mRNA processing and that is essential for virus replication. Using the example of ORF57, we will describe cellular bulk mRNA export pathways and highlight their distinct features, before exploring how the virus has evolved to exploit
TY - JOUR. T1 - Function of herpes simplex virus gene products. AU - Nishiyama, Y.. AU - Murata, Takayuki. AU - Yamauchi, Y.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.2222/jsv.51.29. DO - 10.2222/jsv.51.29. M3 - Review article. C2 - 11565262. AN - SCOPUS:0035380417. VL - 51. SP - 29. EP - 36. JO - Uirusu. Journal of virology. JF - Uirusu. Journal of virology. SN - 0042-6857. IS - 1. ER - ...
Scientific Experts, Publications, Research Topics, Locale, Genomes and Genes, Species about Experts and Doctors on viral proteins in Tianjin, Tianjin Shi, China
1GVP: Analyses of the stability and function of three surface mutants (R82C, K69H, and L32R) of the gene V protein from Ff phage by X-ray crystallography.
1AE3: Analyses of the stability and function of three surface mutants (R82C, K69H, and L32R) of the gene V protein from Ff phage by X-ray crystallography.
When someone is infected with HIV, certain regions of viral proteins are chopped up and displayed by infected cells to their immune system, using platforms known as MHC molecules. These protein fragments are recognized by killer cells, which destroy the virus-infected cells. Viruses have evolved many clever mechanisms to avoid being detected in this way, including altering the protein fragments that our immune system recognizes. This study identifies for the first time, in the course of a natural human infection, HIV mutations outside of the regions that are recognized that actually prevent generation of the protein fragments. HIV can, apparently, alter its sequence so that the human chopping proteins can no longer grab onto the viral protein ...
Lytic cycle is one one of the two alternative life cycles of a virus inside a host cell, whereby the virus that has entered a cell takes over the cells replication mechanism, makes viral DNA and viral proteins, and then lyses (breaks open) the cell, allowing the newly produced viruses to leave the now disintegrated host cell to infect other cells. This method of replication is contrasted with the lysogenic cycle, whereby the virus that has infected a cell attaches itself to the host DNA and, acting like an inert segment of the DNA, replicates when the host cell divides. The lysogenic cycle causes no harm to the host cell, but the lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell ...
Viruses need living cells for replication and production of virus progeny. Thus far, antiviral therapy primarily targets viral factors but often induces therapy resistance. New improved therapies attempt to targets cellular factors that are essential for viral replication.
The study of viral proteins provides functional information that is currently not well represented. In the analysis, we detected 13 different proteins, most of them not previously identified, from clinical samples. One such protein called Orf9b, which suppresses the hosts immune response, had been predicted, but our team provided the first evidence for its expression, said Tatu ...
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면역혈소판감소자색반병으로 진단되면 생명에 위험을 줄 수 있는 출혈이 있을 때 응급으로 혈소판 수혈을 하며 만성면역혈소판감소자색반병에서 혈소판 수가 20,000/uL 이하이거나 출혈이 있으면서 혈소판 수가 50,000/uL 이하인 경우 스테로이드 투여, 비장절제, 면역글로불린 투여, 면역억제제투여 등의 치료를 한다. 20년 전 혈소판감소증으로 내원하여 말초혈액도말 검사, 거대세포바이러스, 엡스타인-바바이러스, 인간 면역결핍 바이러스, 간염 혈청 검사, 항핵항체 검사에서 모두 음성으로 확인되었으며 골수 검사에서 거대핵세포 수가 약간 증가된 것을 포함하여 특이 소견이 없었고 수차례 확인하였으나 가족력도 없어 면역혈소판감소자색반병으로 진단하였고 출혈 소견이 있으며 혈소판 수가 20,000/uL미만이었기 때문에 스테로이드, 면역글로불린, 다나졸을 ...
Genetic information processingProtein synthesisRibosomal proteins: synthesis and modificationribosomal protein uL29 (TIGR00012; HMM-score: 76.9) ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 protein interacts with PYM to enhance translation of viral intronless mRNAs. AU - Boyne, James R.. AU - Jackson, Brian R.. AU - Taylor, Adam. AU - MacNab, Stuart A.. AU - Whitehouse, Adrian. PY - 2010/6/2. Y1 - 2010/6/2. N2 - Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) expresses numerous intronless mRNAs that are unable to access splicing-dependent cellular mRNA nuclear export pathways. To circumvent this problem, KSHV encodes the open reading frame 57 (ORF57) protein, which orchestrates the formation of an export-competent virus ribonucleoprotein particle comprising the nuclear export complex hTREX, but not the exon-junction complex (EJC). Interestingly, EJCs stimulate mRNA translation, which raises the intriguing question of how intronless KSHV transcripts are efficiently translated. Herein, we show that ORF57 associates with components of the 48S pre-initiation complex and co-sediments with the 40S ribosomal subunits. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification and characterization of the virion-induced host shutoff product of herpes simplex virus gene UL41. AU - Smibert, C. A.. AU - Johnson, David. AU - Smiley, J. R.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The virion-induced host shutoff product of the herpes simplex virus UL41 gene is required for shutoff of host translation and degradation of cellular mRNAs. We employed a rabbit antipeptide antiserum to identify a 58K UL41-related phosphoprotein in infected cells. We also provide evidence that this protein is a component of the virus particle, consistent with its role in virion-induced shutoff.. AB - The virion-induced host shutoff product of the herpes simplex virus UL41 gene is required for shutoff of host translation and degradation of cellular mRNAs. We employed a rabbit antipeptide antiserum to identify a 58K UL41-related phosphoprotein in infected cells. We also provide evidence that this protein is a component of the virus particle, consistent with its role in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded protein kinase and its interaction with K-bZIP. AU - Izumiya, Yoshihiro. AU - Izumiya, Chie. AU - Van Geelen, Albert. AU - Wang, Don Hong. AU - Lam, Kit S.. AU - Luciw, Paul A.. AU - Kung, Hsing Jien. PY - 2007/2/1. Y1 - 2007/2/1. N2 - The oncogenic herpesvirus, Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, also identified as human herpesvirus 8, contains genes producing proteins that control transcription and influence cell signaling. Open reading frame 36 (ORF36) of this virus encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase, which is designated the viral protein kinase (vPK). Our recent efforts to elucidate the role of vPK in the viral life cycle have focused on identifying viral protein substrates and determining the effects of vPK-mediated phosphorylation on specific steps in viral replication. The vPK gene was transcribed into 4.2-kb and 3.6-kb mRNAs during the early and late phases of viral reactivation. vPK is colocalized with viral DNA ...
Structure of a trimeric variant of the Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein B. - Marija Backovic, Richard Longnecker, Theodore S Jardetzky
Candidate tegument proteins.The tegument is a complex structure which contains at least 18 different viral proteins (32). The functions of most of these and their structural relationships within the tegument are still poorly defined; however, a number of them have been shown to be nonessential for virus replication and therefore seem unlikely to be candidates to form the major connection between tegument and capsid. Earlier morphological and biochemical studies provide some indications regarding which tegument protein is being resolved in our reconstruction of the intact virion.. Biochemically, the essential tegument protein VP1-3 has been shown to bind very tightly to the capsid. Thus, detergent treatment of virions removes the envelope and solubilizes some tegument proteins but leaves others (notably VP1-3) in an insoluble, capsid/tegument fraction (31, 36), while more vigorous treatment results in the loss of virtually all envelope and tegument proteins except for VP1-3 (14). Since it has ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Measles Large Polymerase protein (ab68490). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Hi! I plan to edit this article by providing an overview of what a viral protein is. The range of discovered viral proteins today is vast, and its very difficult to talk specifically about each and every one of them in a single article. I plan to talk about the four main types of viral proteins, namely viral structural proteins, viral nonstructural proteins, and viral regulatory and accessory proteins. Im certain that there may be other types of viral proteins that Im unaware of (due to limited general information about viral proteins available online) but Ill try my best to expand this article in a way that is helpful to the general audience. Im still working on the article, and I will be making edits to the main article page starting from April 5th.BiochemistrymafiaX (talk) 04:09, 13 April 2016 (UTC). ...
Viral proteins are highly antigenic and referred to as potent stimulators of adaptive immune responses. useful tool for the investigation of mucosal immune responses or autoimmune diseases and extends the spectrum of antibodies with specific effector functions. by hybridoma technology occur in a polymeric or dimeric form analogue to produced IgA [4]. The obtained secretory IgA antibodies were used for experimental studies of mucosal surfaces and microfold (M) cells in order to investigate bacterial and viral intestine infections. Additional investigations showed that secretory IgAs appear to have got an increased functional stability and activity than IgG counterparts [5]. For their particular effector features, IgA antibodies are of high scientific interest because they are impressive in recruiting polymorphonuclear cells for antibody reliant mobile cytotoxicity (ADCC) [6] and in improving respiratory system burst and phagocytosis of individual leukocytes [7]. These data reveal that antibodies ...
The virion host shutoff protein (Vhs) is a herpes simplex virus (HSV) protein involved in early shutoff of the host cell. It is a component of the infecting virion, located in the tegument region, that works by rapidly ...
The central focus of our research is the synthesis, folding, processing and function of viral glycoproteins. Previous studies of the synthesis and processing of viral glycoproteins in the secretory pathway have led to fundamental discoveries of basic cellular processes, and our research on the folding and processing of paramyxovirus glycoproteins provides insight into both cellular functions and important viral proteins. Our studies on viral proteins aim to elucidate mechanisms of promotion of membrane fusion, and to provide new targets for antiviral treatments. Many major human pathogenic viruses (including HIV, herpes simplex virus, measles virus and Ebola virus) are packaged in a membrane. In order for these viruses to infect cells, specific viral proteins promote fusion of the viral membrane with the membrane of the host cell. Understanding this process of protein-mediated membrane fusion is the major focus of our work. We study fusion proteins from several different paramyxoviruses. First, ...
In this study, we provide evidence that the UL131-128 locus of the HCMV genome is indispensable for HCMV to productively replicate in HUVECs and to be transmitted to PMN and monocytes. In addition, our data suggest that each of the genes of the locus is individually requested. This is not to imply that UL131-128 are the only virus-encoded proteins specifically required for the HCMV growth in ECs and transfer to leukocytes. Indeed, our study implicates an additional locus, UL146-UL147, as necessary for the efficient transmission to PMN (see below).. These conclusions are supported by experimental conditions leading to either a gain or a loss of function. Loss of function, i.e., the loss of both EC tropism and leukocyte transfer was documented by two experimental findings: (i) the experimental introduction of targeted deletions into the UL131-128 locus and (ii) the identification of spontaneous mutations within the UL131-128 locus of natural viral variants. As for the first finding, generation of ...
Our results lead to three principal conclusions. First, it is possible to complement fully the growth of mutant HCMV in human fibroblasts by using a recombinant retrovirus. Second, UL69 is required for HCMV efficiently to induce a G1 block within infected cells. Third, UL69 protein packaged in virus particles is sufficient to induce a G1 block and to generate a normal yield of virus when cells are infected at a relatively high multiplicity. It is not necessary to express UL69 protein from the infecting viral genome.. TNsubUL69 is profoundly defective when used to infect cells at a low multiplicity of infection in the absence of UL69 protein (Fig. 2B). The defect is not absolute. Given time, the mutant virus produces an infectious yield similar to that of the wild-type virus. It was not practical to generate a derivative of human fibroblasts containing a constitutively expressed UL69 gene, because expression of the gene is toxic and because the primary cells have a limited lifespan. However, ...
Comparative examination of viral and host protein homologs reveals novel mechanisms governing downstream signaling effectors of both cellular and vi- ral origin. The vaccinia virus B1 protein kinase is involved in promoting multiple facets of the virus life cycle and is a homolog of three conserved cellular enzymes called vaccinia virus-related kinases (VRKs). Recent evidence indicates that B1 and VRK2 mediate a com- mon pathway that is largely uncharacterized but appears independent of previous VRK substrates. Interestingly, separate studies described a novel role for B1 in inhibiting vac- cinia virus protein B12, which otherwise impedes an early event in the viral lifecycle. Herein, we characterize the B1/VRK2 signaling axis to better understand their shared functions. First, we demonstrate that vaccinia virus uniquely requires VRK2 for viral repli- cation in the absence of B1, unlike other DNA viruses. Employing loss-of-function analy- sis, we demonstrate that vaccinia viruss dependence on VRK2 is
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes a latent infection in hematopoietic cells, from which it can reactivate to cause significant disease in immunocompromised individuals. HCMV expresses a functional homolog of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (termed cmvIL-10), and alternate splici …
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) induces a profound host shut-off during lytic infection. The virion host shut-off (vhs) protein plays a key role in this process by efficiently cleaving host and viral mRNAs. Furthermore, the onset of viral DNA replication is accompanied by a rapid decline in host transcriptional activity. To dissect relative contributions of both mechanisms and elucidate gene-specific host transcriptional responses throughout the first 8h of lytic HSV-1 infection, we employed RNA-seq of total, newly transcribed (4sU-labelled) and chromatin-associated RNA in wild-type (WT) and Δvhs infection of primary human fibroblasts. Following virus entry, vhs activity rapidly plateaued at an elimination rate of around 30% of cellular mRNAs per hour until 8h p.i. In parallel, host transcriptional activity dropped to 10-20%. While the combined effects of both phenomena dominated infection-induced changes in total RNA, extensive gene-specific transcriptional regulation was observable in ...
Virus infections remain the single most common reason that Canadians seek medical attention. Although impressive progress has been made in developing anti-viral drugs, drug resistant variants often arise and many virus infections remain untreatable. The innate immune system is our first line of defense against virus infection. Unfortunately, most viruses produce proteins that serve as effective countermeasures. My laboratory is focused on how viral regulatory proteins function at the molecular level, and how cellular antiviral responses inhibit viral replication. The hope is that increased understanding of host antiviral defenses and viral immune evasion strategies will open up new approaches to controlling virus infections. Most of our work focuses on herpes simplex virus (HSV), a ubiquitous human pathogen and the prototypical member of the herpesviridae, a large family of enveloped DNA viruses that replicate in the nuclei of host cells. Recently we have also begun similar studies with HIV-1, ...
component of complex A-1, DNA polymerase accessory protein clamp loader, ATP dependent,required to assemble PCNA and polymerase delta on the DNA ...
Accumulation of viral products such as RNA replication intermediates and viral proteins represents a potential stressor for host cells. Rapidly after detection, host cells respond by implementing multiple appropriated defense mechanisms, including innate immune and stress responses. The strongest response to several forms of stress, including viral infections, is a global reduction of protein synthesis which promotes cellular survival. Translation suppression is induced by the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2α), thereby causing stalling of translation initiation and accumulation of stalled pre-initiation complexes in cytosolic stress granules (SGs). Viruses do not package ribosomes and therefore fully rely on the utilization of the host translation machinery to ensure viral protein synthesis, replication and virus progeny production. As a consequence, virus survival depends on the establishment of a delicate and fine-tuned balance ...
This book provides up-to-date information on experimental and computational characterization of the structural and functional properties of viral proteins, which are widely involved in regulatory and signaling processes. With chapters by leading research groups, the book features current information on the structural and functional roles of intrinsic disorders in viral proteomes. It systematically addresses the measles, HIV, influenza, potato virus, forest virus, bovine virus, hepatitis, and rotavirus as well as viral genomics. After analyzing the unique features of each class of viral proteins, future directions for research and disease management are presented-- Provided by publisher ...
To gain preferential access to the protein synthesis machinery and to disrupt induction of antiviral responses by infected cell many viruses block host gene expression. This blockade is called host shutoff and it is mediated by viral factors that either destroy host messenger RNAs (mRNAs) or interfere with their synthesis. Influenza A virus (IAV) encodes…
View Notes - MCDB Christoffersen Lecture#9 from MCDB 1a at UCSB. MCDB Christoffersen Lecture #9 Start of Chapter 16 Virus life cycles o Bacteriophages and HIV retrovirus Regulation of Gene
vaccinia virus nicking-joining enzyme: virus-specific, DNA-dependent & does not require ATP; possesses both endonuclease & ligase activities
In addition, P 0. And Javitt, integrated state to active replication в Inhibiting protease, a viral enzyme responsible for the adherence of viral proteins both before proviral integra- tion and as the viral particles recombine into functional proteins needed kefex viral maturation allergy to cipro and keflex Preventing viral assembly and budding out of the cell For more information, visit the Medscape quick refer- ence guide to antiretrovirals at www.
Go beyond the uncertain HCP data provided by ELISA assays to LC/MS methodologies that enable identification and quantification of host cell protein product impurities down to low ppm levels.
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h2,پاخانے کی ورمی بیماریاں کیا ہیں؟,br,,/h2,,p,پاخانے کی ورمی بیماریاں وہ حالت ہے جب چھوٹی اور بڑی آنت سوجن کا شکار ہو جائے۔,/p,,h2,علامتیں,/h2,,p,آئی۔بی ڈی کی علامتیں، پیچش، معدے کی درد، جوڑوں کا اکڑنا اور وزن کم کرنا ہیں۔ ,/p,,p,آئی بی ڈی دو اقسام کی ہوتی ہے: کروہنز ڈیزیز اور السیریٹیو کالیٹس,/p,,ul,,li,کروہنز ڈیزیز نظام ہضم میں ہونے والی آتش زنی ہوتی ہے جو منہ سے لیکر سندانی ہڈی میں کہیں بھی واقع ہو سکتی ہے۔ ,/li,,li,السیریٹیو کالیٹس بڑی آنت میں ہونے والی آتش زنی ہوتی ہے۔ ,/li,,/ul,,p,پاخانے کی ورمی بیماری خراش آورمعائی علامیہ سے مختلف ہے۔ ,/p,,h2,وجوہات,/h2,,p,آئی بی ڈی کی وجوہات انجان ...
h2,یہ دوا کیا ہے؟,/h2,,p,سیفیکسیم ایک ایسی دوا ہے جسے اینٹی بائیوٹک کہا جاتا ہے۔ اینٹی بائیوٹک کا استعمال ان جراثیم جنھیں بیکٹیریا کہتے ہیں، کی وجہ سے ہونے والی انفیکشن کے علاج اور اس سے بچاو کے لئے کیا جاتا ہے۔ ,/p,,h2,آپکو اپنے بچے کو یہ دوا کس طرح دینی چاہیے؟,/h2,,p,اپنے بچے کو سیفیکسیم دیتے وقت ان ہدایات پر عمل کریں:,/p,,ul,,li,اپنے بچے کو روزانہ سیفیکسیم اسی طرح دیتے رہیں جیسے آپکا ڈاکٹر یا دواساز کہے، چاہے آپکا بچہ بہتر بھی نظر آرہا ہو۔ کسی بھی وجہ سے اس دوا کا استعمال روکنے سے پہلے اپنے ڈاکٹر سے بات کریں۔,/li,,li,اپنے بچے کو سیفیکسیم کھانے کے ساتھ یا کھانے کے بغیر دیں۔ ...
Doublethink Doublecross - The Americas Future Foundation (who recently made me a member as recompense for using my name and a quote from this blog in a fundraising letter without bothering to mention it to me first) purports to be a network of Americas next generation of classical liberal leaders - classical liberal understood as a broad category encompassing both conservatives and libertarians. (Dear AFF, please feel free to use any portion of this post for fundraising purposes) Ive suspected for a while that much of the leadership of AFF wasnt so much classical liberal as plain anti-liberal reactionary.. Why the suspicion? Well, take this anecdote from an AFF happy hour. A friend introduces me to two well-sloshed Irish-looking fellows in suits slouched over the bar. (One guy has something to do with AFF, the other, I think works for Bob Novak.) One guy loudly and drunkenly declares, Catholicism is a philosophy of freedom! I say, Come again!? He replies, Freedom from sin!! Freedom to ...
61840DNAVaccinia virus 1tttttattat ttgtacgatg tccaggataa catttttacg gataaataaa tatgaaggtg 60gagagcgtga cgttcctgac attgttggga ataggatgcg ttctatcatg ctgtactatt 120ccgtcacgac ccattaatat gaaatttaag aatagtgtgg agactgatgc taatgctaat 180tacaacatag gagacactat agaatatcta tgtctacctg gatacagaaa gcaaaaaatg 240ggacctatat atgctaaatg tacaggtact ggatggacac tctttaatca atgtattaaa 300cggagatgcc catcgcctcg agatatcgat aatggccaac ttgatattgg tggagtagac 360tttggctcta gtataacgta ctcttgtaat agcggatatc atttgatcgg tgaatctaaa 420tcgtattgtg aattaggatc tactggatct atggtatgga atcccgaggc acctatttgt 480gaatctgtta aatgccaatc ccctccatct atatccaacg gaagacataa cggatacgag 540gatttttata ccgatgggag cgttgtaact tatagttgca atagtggata ttcgttgatt 600ggtaactctg gtgtcctgtg ttcaggagga gaatggtccg atccacccac gtgtcagatt 660gttaaatgtc cacatcctac aatatcaaac ggatacttgt ctagcgggtt taaaagatca 720tactcataca acgacaatgt agactttaag tgcaagtacg gatataaact atctggttcc 780tcatcatcta cttgctctcc aggaaataca tggaagccgg aacttccaaa atgtgtacgc 8402244PRTVaccinia virus ...
Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a key DNA sensor capable of detecting microbial DNA and activating the adaptor protein stimulator of interferon genes (STING), leading to interferon (IFN) production and host antiviral responses. Cells exhibited reduced type I IFN production in response to cytosolic DNA in the absence of cGAS. Although the cGAS/STING-mediated DNA-sensing signal is crucial for host defense against many viruses, especially for DNA viruses, few viral components have been identified to specifically target this signaling pathway. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a DNA virus that has evolved multiple strategies to evade host immune responses. In the present study, we found that HSV-1 tegument protein UL41 was involved in counteracting the cGAS/STING-mediated DNA-sensing pathway. Our results showed that wild-type (WT) HSV-1 infection could inhibit immunostimulatory DNA-induced activation of the IFN signaling pathway compared with the UL41-null mutant virus (R2621), and ectopic expression of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and Microarray Analysis Suggest Functional Cooperation between Kaposis Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ORF57 and K-bZIP. AU - Hunter, Olga V.. AU - Sei, Emi. AU - Blake Richardson, R.. AU - Conrad, Nicholas K.. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - The Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) open reading frame 57 (ORF57)-encoded protein (Mta) is a multifunctional regulator of viral gene expression. ORF57 is essential for viral replication, so elucidation of its molecular mechanisms is important for understanding KSHV infection. ORF57 has been implicated in nearly every aspect of viral gene expression, including transcription, RNA stability, splicing, export, and translation. Here we demonstrate that ORF57 interacts with the KSHV K-bZIP protein in vitro and in cell extracts from lytically reactivated infected cells. To further test the biological relevance of the interaction, we performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray (ChIP-chip) ...
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Introduction: During productive infection, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genes are expressed in a temporal cascade, with temporal phases designated as immediate-early (IE), early, and late. The major IE (MIE) genes, UL123 and UL122 (IE1/IE2), play a critical role in subsequent viral gene expression and the efficiency of viral replication. The early viral genes encode proteins necessary for viral DNA replication. Following viral DNA replication, delayed-early and late viral genes are expressed which encode structural proteins for the virion. The late genes can be divided into two broad classes. At early times the gamma-1 or leaky-late class are expressed at low levels after infection and are dramatically upregulated at late times. In contrast, the gamma-2 or true late genes are expressed exclusively after viral DNA replication. Expression of true late (gamma-2 class) viral genes is completely prevented by inhibition of viral DNA synthesis. Areas covered: This review addresses the viral genes required
Suramin is a competitive inhibitor of heparin binding to many proteins, including viral envelope proteins, protein tyrosine phosphatases, and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). It has been clinically evaluated as a potential therapeutic in treatment of cancers caused by unregulated angiogenesis, triggered by FGFs. Although it has shown clinical promise in treatment of several cancers, suramin has many undesirable side effects. There is currently no experimental structure that reveals the molecular interactions responsible for suramin inhibition of heparin binding, which could be of potential use in structure-assisted design of improved analogues of suramin. We report the structure of suramin, in complex with the heparin-binding site of vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), which interacts with heparin in a geometrically similar manner to many FGFs. The larger than anticipated flexibility of suramin manifested in this structure, and other details of VCP-suramin interactions, might ...
Expression of the catalytic subunit (UL54) and the accessory protein (UL44) of human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase in a coupled in vitro transcription/translation system.
Human being cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a member of the herpesvirus family and represents a major human pathogen causing severe disease in newborns and immunocompromised patients, e. detected in 80% of the MM patients. While the IgG pattern varied in each patient, the most prominent IgM response was against the tegument protein pp150 and two nonstructural proteins, the processivity factor (pUL44) as well as the single-stranded DNA binding proteins (pUL57). An IgG avidity check exposed that 4 out of 20 MM individuals had a brand new disease and 2 MM individuals had LY310762 a recently available infection. The mix of IgG avidity as well as the IgM design is a useful device for reliable medical diagnostics regarding HCMV as well as for software of early therapy for all those MM individuals suffering from a higher viral load. Intro Human being cytomegalovirus (HCMV), among eight human being herpesviruses, represents a significant human being pathogen causing serious disease in newborns and ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Viral genome replication. AU - Cameron, Craig Eugene. AU - Raney, Kevin D.. AU - Götte, Matthias. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Provides the first comprehensive review of viral genome replication strategies, emphasizing not only pathways and regulation but also the structure-function, mechanism, and inhibition of proteins and enzymes required for this process Currently, there is no single source that permits comparison of the factors, elements, enzymes and/or mechanisms employed by different classes of viruses for genome replication. As a result, we (and our students) often restrict our focus to our particular system, missing out on the opportunity to define unifying themes in viral genome replication or benefit from the advances in other systems. For example, extraordinary biological and experimental paradigms that have been established over the past five years for the DNA replication systems of bacteriophage T4 and T7 will likely be of great value to anyone interested in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human cytomegalovirus UL18 utilizes US6 for evading the NK and T-cell responses. AU - Kim, Youngkyun. AU - Park, Boyoun. AU - Cho, Sunglim. AU - Shin, Jinwook. AU - Cho, Kwangmin. AU - Jun, Youngsoo. AU - Ahn, Kwangseog. PY - 2008/8/1. Y1 - 2008/8/1. N2 - Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US6 glycoprotein inhibits TAP function, resulting in down-regulation of MHC class I molecules at the cell surface. Cells lacking MHC class I molecules are susceptible to NK cell lysis. HCMV expresses UL18, a MHC class I homolog that functions as a surrogate to prevent host cell lysis. Despite a high level of sequence and structural homology between UL18 and MHC class I molecules, surface expression of MHC class I, but not UL18, is down regulated by US6. Here, we describe a mechanism of action by which HCMV UL18 avoids attack by the self-derived TAP inhibitor US6. UL18 abrogates US6 inhibition of ATP binding by TAP and, thereby, restores TAP-mediated peptide translocation. In addition, UL18 together ...
1. GalluzziL. BrennerC. MorselliE. TouatZ. KroemerG. 2008 Viral control of mitochondrial apoptosis. PLoS Pathog 4 e1000018. 2. CuconatiA. WhiteE. 2002 Viral homologs of BCL-2: role of apoptosis in the regulation of virus infection. Genes and Development 16 2465 2478. 3. CuconatiA. DegenhardtK. SundararajanR. AnschelA. WhiteE. 2002 Bak and Bax function to limit adenovirus replication through apoptosis induction. J Virol 76 4547 4558. 4. MarchiniA. TomkinsonB. CohenJI. KieffE. 1991 BHRF1, the Epstein-Barr virus gene with homology to Bc12, is dispensable for B-lymphocyte transformation and virus replication. J Virol 65 5991 6000. 5. HendersonS. HuenD. RoweM. DawsonC. JohnsonG. 1993 Epstein-Barr virus-coded BHRF1 protein, a viral homologue of Bcl-2, protects human B cells from programmed cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90 8479 8483. 6. Thorley-LawsonDA. GrossA. 2004 Persistence of the Epstein-Barr virus and the origins of associated lymphomas. N Engl J Med 350 1328 1337. 7. ...
The mechanism of the antiviral activity of 5-trifluoromethyl-2-deoxyuridine (F3TdR) has been studied in vaccinia virus-infected HeLa cells. When normal virions are used to infect the cells in the presence of the analogue, sucrose gradient sedimentation has shown that the early messenger RNA is normal and associates normally with polyribosomes. However, any late mRNA that may be produced under those conditions has abnormal sedimentation properties and does not associate normally with polyribosomes. When the cells are infected with purified virions containing F3TdR in their DNA, they adsorb to the cells and are uncoated normally. However, early mRNA is not transcribed normally. Studies of viral protein synthesis with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate suggest that a major virus-induced protein is not synthesized in the presence of F3TdR, and that another protein is formed instead.. ...
In order to explore the potential of HLA-independent T cell therapy for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, we developed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) directed against the HCMV encoded glycoprotein B (gB), which is expressed at high levels on the surface of infected cells. T cells engineered with this anti-gB CAR recognized HCMV-infected cells and released cytokines and cytotoxic granules. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to analogous approaches for HIV, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C virus, we found that HCMV-infected cells were resistant to killing by the CAR-modified T cells. In order to elucidate whether this phenomenon was restricted to the use of CARs, we extended our experiments to T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated recognition of infected cells. To this end we infected fibroblasts with HCMV-strains deficient in viral inhibitors of antigenic peptide presentation and targeted these HLA-class I expressing peptide-loaded infected cells with peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). Despite strong
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that causes significant human disease, particularly in the congenital setting and in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. A prominent feature of HCMV is the wide range of viral gene products that it encodes wh …
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The picornaviral 3C protease mediates viral polyprotein maturation and multiple cleavages of host proteins to modulate viral translation and transcription. The 3C protease has been regarded as a valid target due to its structural similarity among different picornaviruses and minimal sequence similarity with host proteins; therefore, the development of potent inhibitors against the 3C protease as an antiviral drug is ongoing. Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) belongs to the Picornavidea family and is a major threat to the poultry industry. To date, little is known about the roles of the DHAV 3C protease plays during infection. In this study, we compared the full-length DHAV 3C protein sequence with other 3C sequences to obtain an alignment for the construction of a phylogenetic tree. Then, we expressed and purified recombinant DHAV 3C protease in the BL21 expression system using nickel-NTA affinity chromatography. The optimization of the cleavage assay conditions and the kinetic analysis for DHAV 3C protease
We summarized the most recent findings on the role of autophagy in antiviral immune response. We described how viruses have developed strategies to subvert the autophagic process. A particular attention has been given to Epstein-Barr and Kaposi’s sarcoma associated Herpesvirus, viruses studied for many years in our laboratory. These two viruses belong to |i|γ|/i|-Herpesvirus subfamily and are associated with several human cancers. Besides the effects on the immune response, we have described how autophagy subversion by viruses may also concur to the enhancement of their replication and to viral tumorigenesis.
Axonal localization of viral membrane proteins promoted by Us9 missense mutants correlates with degree of anterograde spread in the rodent nervous system. Neuro
HZI researchers have uncovered how a cancer-causing virus specifically targets a protein of its host to successfully establish infection Humans are constantly exposed to pathogens like bacteria and viruses. In most cases, the immune system successfully detects and eliminates these invaders. However, the herpesvirus family has adapted brilliantly to the immune system: its members manage to stay in the hosts body for life after infection. A research team at the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI) recently discovered that a protein of the carcinogenic Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) commandeers an immune system component for its own benefit. This enables the virus to successfully infect its host. The researchers have published their results in the peer-reviewed journal PLOS Pathogens.. Read more ...
A viral tegument or tegument, more commonly known as a viral matrix, is a cluster of proteins that lines the space between the envelope and nucleocapsid of all herpesviruses. The tegument generally contains proteins that aid in viral DNA replication and evasion of the immune response, typically with inhibition of signalling in the immune system and activation of interferons. The tegument is usually[citation needed] released shortly after infection into the cytoplasm. These proteins are usually[citation needed] formed within the late phase of the viral infectious cycle, after viral genes have been replicated. Much information regarding viral teguments has been gathered from studying Herpes simplex virus. Viral teguments can be symmetrically arranged via structural and scaffolding protein or can also be asymmetrically arranged, depending on the virus.[citation needed] Teguments are rarely[citation needed] haphazardly placed and usually involve scaffolding proteins in their formation around the ...
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Detection and sequence analysis of borna disease virus p24 RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with mood disorders or schizophrenia and of b
In this report, we show that the products of UL47, UL49, and US11 ORFs bind RNA in vitro and in the context of infected cells, and that the packaged RNAs can be expressed in infected cells. We also show that VP22, the product of the UL49 ORF, mediates the transfer of the RNA from cell to cell. Relevant to our results are the following:. (i) The procedure we have used to identify the protein capable of binding RNAs was to electrophoretically separate virion proteins in denaturing gels, renature the proteins in situ, and react them with a labeled riboprobe representing the RNA detected in all virion preparations tested. Using this procedure, we unambiguously demonstrated that three virion protein bands bind RNAs. These proteins were identified as the products of the UL47, UL49, and US11 genes. In these assays, we used as probe the most abundant RNA packaged in virions. Because we used a riboprobe representing a single viral RNA, we cannot exclude the possibility that there exist virion proteins ...
In order to spread throughout the body, viruses hijack normal cell structures and functions to achieve their own ends. This class of virus, for example, always anchors its genome replication process to the membrane surfaces of cell sub-compartments or organelles (in this case, the endoplasmic reticulum). It had been understood this process occurred solely on one side of the membrane, outside of the organelle.. This study reveals the conventional view is incomplete. Nishikiori found that an enzyme called ERO1, which resides exclusively inside the organelle, on the opposite side of the membrane, is crucial to promoting the viral replication process. Reduce ERO1 and viral replication goes down, and vice versa, Nishikiori says.. The surprise was: How could an enzyme that was walled off from the virus by a solid membrane barrier activate viral growth? This was their first clue that something must be bridging the membrane. When combined with other insights, the team discovered that a key viral protein ...
Das Immediate-Early Protein 2 (IE2) des humanen Zytomegalievirus ist ein essentieller Regulationsfaktor des lytischen Infektionszyklus. Es aktiviert verschiedene early Promotoren, autoreprimiert seine eigene Expression und besitzt darüber hinaus auch zellzyklusregulatorische Aktivitäten. Um einzelne Funktionen des IE2 Proteins gezielt analysieren zu können, ist eine genaue Kenntnis seiner regulatorischen Domänen unabdingbar. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde daher eine Struktur-Funktionsanalyse des IE2 Proteins durchgeführt mit dem Ziel, seine funktionellen Domänen genauer zu charakterisieren. Hierfür wurden verschiedene IE2-Mutanten hergestellt und ihre Aktivität im Hinblick auf Transaktivierung, Autorepression und DNA-Bindung sowie Zellzylusarrestinduktion bestimmt. Die Untersuchungen ergaben, dass innerhalb einer Core-Region im C-Terminus des Proteins (AS 450-544) die regulatorischen Domänen der untersuchten Funktionen überlappen und hier schon kleinere Mutationen zu einem ...
Das Immediate-Early Protein 2 (IE2) des humanen Zytomegalievirus ist ein essentieller Regulationsfaktor des lytischen Infektionszyklus. Es aktiviert verschiedene early Promotoren, autoreprimiert seine eigene Expression und besitzt darüber hinaus auch zellzyklusregulatorische Aktivitäten. Um einzelne Funktionen des IE2 Proteins gezielt analysieren zu können, ist eine genaue Kenntnis seiner regulatorischen Domänen unabdingbar. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde daher eine Struktur-Funktionsanalyse des IE2 Proteins durchgeführt mit dem Ziel, seine funktionellen Domänen genauer zu charakterisieren. Hierfür wurden verschiedene IE2-Mutanten hergestellt und ihre Aktivität im Hinblick auf Transaktivierung, Autorepression und DNA-Bindung sowie Zellzylusarrestinduktion bestimmt. Die Untersuchungen ergaben, dass innerhalb einer Core-Region im C-Terminus des Proteins (AS 450-544) die regulatorischen Domänen der untersuchten Funktionen überlappen und hier schon kleinere Mutationen zu einem ...
Vaccinia Virus G1 Protein, a Predicted Metalloprotease, Is Essential for Morphogenesis of Infectious Virions but Not for Cleavage of Major Core Proteins: Genes
Singapore, 10 June 2009 - Researchers at the Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have uncovered genetic differences between 2009 H1N1 flu strain and previously circulating H1N1 strain. In their research, Professor Ram Sasisekharan and his colleagues found the 2009 H1N1 strains distinct from existing strains. This means that individuals are likely not protected from infection due to the presence of any existing cross-reactive antibodies - proteins that protect humans from infections. The 2009 H1N1 is presently vulnerable to antivirals but would only require one key mutation or change to become resistant to viral inhibitors like Tamiflu®. See News Release for more.. ...
What we want to do with personalized care is to give you a cocktail, and then monitor you and discover when the virus becomes resistant to it, explains Benner. Now we dont want to do that too soon - that would waste a lifetime of good viral inhibitors - but not too late, of course. The patient would go in once a month to get their viral load measured. At some point the virus mutates and its viral load goes up. Then you know you better change the cocktail ...
The genotype and phenotype of HSV2-gD27 are stable when the virus is passaged in human epithelial cells in vitro and during acute infection of mice.. HSV2-gD27 was propagated in B78H1-A10 mouse cells, which express human HVEM but not human nectin-1. HSV2-gD27 was not able to infect B78H1-C10 mouse cells, which express human nectin-1 but not HVEM, since the mutation in gD prevents its interaction with nectin-1 (33). To determine the sensitivity of the assay to detect WT virus mixed with HSV2-gD27, we infected B78H1-C10 cells with 400 PFU of WT virus (titrated in ARPE-19 cells) and 106 PFU of HSV2-gD27 (also titrated in ARPE-19 cells), either together or separately, and assayed the number of plaques on B78H1-C10 cells, which support replication of WT virus but not HSV2-gD27. Coinfection of B78H1-C10 cells with the two viruses resulted in a mean of 6.5 plaques, infection with WT virus alone yielded 5.5 plaques, and infection with HSV2-gD27 yielded no plaques. These data indicate that HSV2-gD27 does ...
V dci z P rodov deck fakulty Univerzity Karlovy (P F UK) zjistili, e jeden z velmi b n ch vir sni uje inteligenci naka en ch lid . Protil tky na cytomegalovirus m la v ce ne polovina testovan ch. U star ch lid se podle vedouc ho t mu Jaroslava Flegra vyskytuje virus je t ast ji. Studii zve ejnil na konci b ezna presti n v deck asopis Scientific Reports.
Ackr2 - Ackr2 (untagged) - Mouse chemokine binding protein 2 (Ccbp2), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Complete information for REPS2 gene (Protein Coding), RALBP1 Associated Eps Domain Containing 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Greetings! Long time reader, first time poster here! Just wanted to share a fun story. I was recently cleaning out a friends cupboards (yes, a friends...
This 2011 Methods Mol Biol paper by Banerjee PS, Carrico IS. utilizes the following products and services from Vector Biolabs: Cre Recombinase Adenovirus, eGFP Adenovirus.
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
E15-3D1 Compact 4-Way Cassette type MMU-AP0071MH2UL MMU-AP0091MH2UL MMU-AP0121MH2UL MMU-AP0151MH2UL MMU-AP0181MH2UL Contents 1. Specifications 2. Dimensions 3. Center of gravity 4. Piping diagram 5. Wiring
A library of expression plasmids, recombinant proteins and tools dedicated to the understanding of the viral replication that is made available to the scientific community
The h1n1 meaning can explain a lot about what type of virus h1n1 really is including how it mutates, the h1n1 virus structure and how it...
Time 4 h 1.5 h and 3 h 3 h. Volume 3.0 ml 1.0 ml 0.5 ml. Alcohol none 1 ul/500 ul 2 ul/500 ul. BSA 3.785 mg/500 ul 2.5 mg/500 ul 2.5 mg/500 ul. Radioactivity 0.24 uCi/500 ul 0.58 uCi/500 ul 2 uCi/500 ul. 20. I note that Dr. Adler testified that Dr. Bridges never ...
... and groups of viral proteins include structural proteins, nonstructural proteins, regulatory proteins, and accessory proteins. ... The viral envelope is made up of a lipid bilayer embedded with viral proteins, including viral glycoproteins. These viral ... Many copies of a single viral protein or a number of different viral proteins make up the capsid, and each of these viral ... Viral regulatory and accessory proteins have many functions. These viral proteins control and influence viral gene expressions ...
... core antigen of hepatitis B Bunyaviridae nonstructural S proteins Viral structural protein Viral+Nonstructural+Proteins at the ... In virology, a nonstructural protein is a protein encoded by a virus but that is not part of the viral particle. They typically ... Viral nonstructural proteins, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ... Influenza non-structural protein NS1 influenza protein HBcAg, ... include the various enzymes and transcription factors the virus uses to replicate itself, such as a viral protease (3CL/nsp5, ...
v t e (Commons category link is on Wikidata, Viral structural proteins, Viral proteins, Structural proteins, All stub articles ... A viral structural protein is a viral protein that is a structural component of the mature virus. Examples include the SARS ... Viral nonstructural protein Viral+Structural+Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... March 2005). "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3a protein is a viral structural protein". J. Virol. 79 (5): 3182-6 ...
Retroviral matrix protein Viral tegument (Protein pages needing a picture, Virology, Viral structural proteins). ... Viral matrix proteins are structural proteins linking the viral envelope with the virus core. They play a crucial role in virus ... Viral matrix proteins, like many other viral proteins, can exert different functions during the course of the infection. For ... In herpesviruses, the viral matrix is usually called viral tegument and contains many proteins involved in viral entry, early ...
... (eVP24) is considered a multifunctional secondary matrix protein present in viral particles. The broad ... nonstructural proteins, VP30 and VP35; and viral polymerase. The functions of the viral proteins remained the last to be well ... It has been noted that eVP24 function can overlap with that of two other viral proteins; eVP40 matrix protein which functions ... Protein pages needing a picture, Viral structural proteins). ... The isolation of viral cDNAs has allowed research into viral ...
A viral regulatory and accessory protein is a type of viral protein that can play an indirect role in the function of a virus. ... Viral+regulatory+and+accessory+proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Akari H, Bour S ... v t e (Viral proteins, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ... "The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 accessory protein Vpu ...
... often occurring when a functional protein encoded by a set of genomes is used by another set of genomes whose encoded protein ... the rate at which viral RNA or DNA is synthesized intracellularly for viral progeny production), viral load (the total amount ... Viral pathogenesis is influenced by microevolutionary processes in which some viral subpopulations are replaced by others to ... several expressed proteins > one expressed protein > multiple synthetic peptide antigens > single peptide antigen. The scarcity ...
Neuraminidase also cleaves sialic acid residues from viral proteins, preventing aggregation of viruses.[medical citation needed ... the viral receptor". Proteins: Structure, Function, and Genetics. 14 (3): 327-32. doi:10.1002/prot.340140302. PMID 1438172. ... Viral enzymes, Influenza A virus, EC 3.2.1, GH family, Protein families). ... Viral neuraminidase is a type of neuraminidase found on the surface of influenza viruses that enables the virus to be released ...
They may also form protein-protein interactions with other viral proteins, such as those forming the nucleocapsid.: 51-2 They ... In virology, a spike protein or peplomer protein is a protein that forms a large structure known as a spike or peplomer ... also known as the S protein, on their surfaces; S is a class I fusion protein and is responsible for mediating viral entry as ... or club-shaped projections from the viral surface. Spike proteins are membrane proteins with typically large external ...
... (viral protein genome-linked) is a protein that is covalently attached to the 5′ end of positive strand viral RNA and acts ... Lee YF, Nomoto A, Detjen BM, Wimmer E. The genome-linked protein of picornaviruses i. A protein covalently linked to poliovirus ... "The genome-linked protein VPg of vertebrate viruses -a multifaceted protein". Curr Opin Virol. 1 (5): 355-362. doi:10.1016/j. ... A protein, vpg, covalently linked to 36s calicivirus rna. J Gen Virol. 1980;47(1):215-220. Goodfellow I, Chaudhry Y, Richardson ...
The classification of viral proteins as early proteins or late proteins depends on their relationship with genome replication. ... It binds the viral origin of replication and recruits DNA polymerase and s/s DNA-binding protein such that once its ... HIV has two stages of protein expression but these are not as a result of two stages of transcription surrounding replication ... While many viruses (such as HIV)[1] are described as expressing early and late proteins, this definition of these terms is ...
... multi-domain nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) protein. PLPro activity is essential for viral replication. The evolutionary ... They are responsible for proteolytic processing of the polyprotein to generate mature viral nonstructural proteins (nsps), many ... ISG15 is a small ubiquitin-like protein that can be conjugated to other proteins as a post-translational modification in a ... The nidoviral papain-like protease (PLPro or PLP) is a papain-like protease protein domain encoded in the genomes of ...
... additional viral proteins may be required for successful transport of m04-bound MHC I to the cell membrane. VZV protein ORF66 ... BNLF2a protein, which is present only in the replicative phase of the viral life cycle, functions as an inhibitor of TAP, ... MHC II molecule (HLA-DR) acts as a co-receptor for the EBV entry into the cell upon binding the gp42 viral protein. Upon ... m06/gp48 protein binds to MHC I with the help of adaptor protein complex and directs it for lysosomal degradation from the ...
Three non-structural proteins have been found (1). "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release ... The genome also codes for non-structural proteins as well as structural proteins (1). ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows ... The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ...
April 2018). "Viral proteins as a potential driver of histone depletion in dinoflagellates". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 1535 ... Protein pages needing a picture, DNA-binding proteins). ... The proteins are known to pack DNA more tightly than histones ... This action is thought to be one of the driving forces for dinoflagellates to switch to this protein instead of histone for ... It also has many phosphorylation sites, a feature not seen in viral counterparts. The fixed C-terminal domain may have a helix- ...
The genome codes for 5 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the ... The virus exits the host cell by budding, and tubule-guided viral movement. Fish serve as the natural host. "Viral Zone". ... viral G glycoproteins to host receptors, which mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Replication follows the negative ...
Coat proteins are about 19-24 kiloDaltons. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by ... The virus exits the host cell by tripartite non-tubule guided viral movement, and monopartite non-tubule guided viral movement ... Viruses include in the family Virgaviridae are characterized by unique alpha-like replication proteins.[citation needed] The ... is not included in this family as its proteins appear to be only very distantly related, but is instead included in the family ...
The genome codes for 8 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by virus attaches to ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 13 August 2015. ICTV Report: Paramyxoviridae Viralzone: Ferlavirus (Articles with short ...
They range between 64k and 73k nucleotides, with 88 to 127 proteins. The complete genomes are available from here. Viral ... Once the viral genes have been replicated, the procapsid is assembled and packed. The tail is then assembled and the mature ... The virus attaches to the host cell using its terminal fibers, and ejects the viral DNA into the host cytoplasm via contraction ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 1 July 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ( ...
The genome codes for 12 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into ... The virus exits the host cell by monopartite non-tubule guided viral movement. The virus is transmitted via a vector (delphacid ... The genus has two species: Echinochloa ragged stunt virus Rice ragged stunt virus "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015 ...
The genome codes for 30 proteins. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ( ...
The genome codes for 6 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the ... The virus exits the host cell by tripartite non-tubule guided viral movement. Citrus trees serve as the natural host with ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ( ...
The genome codes for 90 proteins. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral ... ". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ...
The genome codes for 6 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the ... The virus exits the host cell by tripartite non-tubule guided viral movement. Shallot, onion, and garlic serve as the natural ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ( ...
The genome codes for 100 to 180 proteins. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ( ... the viral glycoproteins to host receptors, which mediates endocytosis. Replication follows the dsDNA bidirectional replication ...
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows ... The genome codes for four proteins. The genome has three double stranded RNA segments. All have extended highly conserved ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ( ...
The genome codes for 5 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the ... Chronic infection in adults, and acute viral disease in young salmonid fish can occur. The genus contains the following species ... ". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ...
The genome codes for 10 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into ... The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ... ". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 13 August 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of ...
The genome codes for 45 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 1 July 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ( ... The virus exits the host cell by lysis, and holin/endolysin/spanin proteins. Bacteria serve as the natural host. Transmission ...
The genome codes for 5 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the ... ". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ...
When all of the structural proteins have been produced, viral assembly takes place. The newly formed virus particles can be ... The DNA is encased in the viral core. Two lateral bodies are found outside the viral core, and are believed to hold the enzymes ... The most common medication used to treat camelpox is Cidofovir, a broad spectrum anti-viral that acts by inhibiting the viral ... The viral genetic material is contained in a linear double-stranded DNA consisting of 202,182 tightly packed base pairs. ...
Class 2 systems use a single large Cas protein for the same purpose. Class 1 is divided into types I, III, and IV; class 2 is ... Heler R, Samai P, Modell JW, Weiner C, Goldberg GW, Bikard D, Marraffini LA (March 2015). "Cas9 specifies functional viral ... Class 1 systems use a complex of multiple Cas proteins to degrade foreign nucleic acids. ...
... so that they are displayed on the surface of the viral particle. The protein displayed corresponds to the genetic sequence ... Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein-protein, protein-peptide, and protein-DNA interactions that ... a gene encoding a protein of interest is inserted into a phage coat protein gene, causing the phage to "display" the protein on ... characterize small molecules-protein interactions and map protein-protein interactions. Users can use three dimensional ...
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ( ...
Picoviruses package linear, monomeric genomes with a terminal protein covalently attached to each end. Viral replication is ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 1 July 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ( ...
... by the viral 3C-like protease (NS6), a major structural protein (VP1) of about 58~60 kDa and a minor capsid protein (VP2). The ... The protein MDA-5 may be the primary immune sensor that detects the presence of noroviruses in the body. Some people have ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Prasad BV, Crawford S, Lawton JA, ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment to host receptors, which mediates ...
... has been shown to interact with SKI protein and it is also known to interact with AP-1. NFI-X3 has been shown to interact ... implications for viral tropism". J. Virol. 80 (21): 10506-10513. doi:10.1128/JVI.01355-06. PMC 1641797. PMID 16928756. NFIX+ ... Nuclear factor 1 X-type is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFIX gene. NFI-X3, a splice variant of NFIX, regulates ... Wendler WM, Kremmer E, Förster R, Winnacker EL (1997). "Identification of pirin, a novel highly conserved nuclear protein". J. ...
It belongs to a family of Src family kinases and is similar to the v-Src (viral Src) gene of Rous sarcoma virus. It includes an ... c-Src can be activated by many transmembrane proteins that include: adhesion receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, G-protein ... Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, also known as proto-oncogene c-Src, or simply c-Src (cellular Src; pronounced "sarc ... Nada S, Okada M, MacAuley A, Cooper JA, Nakagawa H (May 1991). "Cloning of a complementary DNA for a protein-tyrosine kinase ...
The virus attaches to the external surface of the zoospores of Olipidium bornovanus using the MNSV coat protein for attachment ... Viral plant pathogens and diseases, Melons). ... A new generation of protein database search programs". Nucleic ...
Coronavirus proteins, Viral protein class, Viral structural proteins). ... N forms protein-protein interactions with the coronavirus membrane protein (M) during the process of viral assembly. N also has ... More broadly, N may be involved in reduction of host cell protein translation activity. The N protein is involved in viral ... The vaccine candidate UB-612 is one such experimental vaccine that targets the N protein, along with other viral proteins, to ...
... a computational tool to investigate protein function, disease, and genetic diversity. Curr Protoc Protein Sci. Vol. chapter 2. ... Kadaveru K, Vyas J, Schiller MR (May 2008). "Viral infection and human disease--insights from minimotifs". Frontiers in ... When a sequence motif appears in the exon of a gene, it may encode the "structural motif" of a protein; that is a stereotypical ... In 2018, a Markov random field approach has been proposed to infer DNA motifs from DNA-binding domains of proteins. The E. coli ...
The syndrome is caused by mutations in both copies of the CENPF gene, which codes for centromere protein F. This protein is ... "Lakeville Mom, Daughter Go Viral on Instagram". CBS Minnesota. 24 May 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint ... CENPF codes for centromere protein F. Centromere proteins are involved in the separation of chromosomes during cell division. ... Microtubules are protein structures that are part of the cytoskeleton and are necessary for cells to have diverse, complex ...
With the GeoVax vaccine a variety of HIV proteins (both surface and internal) are expressed from genes which include the Env, ... a volunteer must have begun drug treatment in the first year of infection and have achieved 6 months of stable viral control on ... vaccine both of which lead to the insertion of genes into primate DNA which leads to foreign protein expression. ... in combination with inactivated HIV proteins. The novel vaccine consists of a recombinant DNA vaccine co-expressing human GM- ...
Murphy CI, Lennick M, Lehar SM, Beltz GA, Young E (Oct 1990). "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in baculovirus- ... "Interference with HIV-induced syncytium formation and viral infectivity by inhibitors of trimming glucosidase". Nature. 330 ( ... Montefiori DC, Robinson WE, Mitchell WM (Dec 1988). "Role of protein N-glycosylation in pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency ... v t e (Genes on human chromosome 15, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ...
Casey continued to suffer long-term effects of his disease and died of a viral infection on May 30, 2000, at age 68 in Mercy ... an inherited condition characterized by the deposition of insoluble proteins in organs and tissues. Though rare, the disease ...
Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined by peptide bonds. Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze ... Many viruses have an RNA genome, such as HIV, which uses reverse transcription to create a DNA template from its viral RNA ... In prokaryotes, these proteins are found in the cell's inner membrane. These proteins use the energy from reduced molecules ... Amino acids are made into proteins by being joined in a chain of peptide bonds. Each different protein has a unique sequence of ...
This protein domain, often found in bacterial species, is actually of viral origin. The protein forms an oligomer and functions ... It thus forms part of the two-component SynExo viral recombinase functional unit. The function of this protein domain is to ... SynExo is a viral recombinase functional unit. It is thought that it may have evolved as a portable module that can function ... YqaJ is one of three protein subunits that form a toroid with a tapered channel passing through the middle. The channel changes ...
... such as genes of viral origin, mistakenly silenced genes whose silencing turned out to be beneficial for the organism. There ... of breast and ovarian cancers the protein encoded by DIRAS3 is not expressed, suggesting that it functions as a tumor ... "DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gsα)-encoding (GNAS) genomic ... "A phylogenetic approach to test for evidence of parental conflict or gene duplications associated with protein-encoding ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... To recognize protein as designated substrate, 19S complex has subunits that are capable to recognize proteins with a special ... Accordingly, misfolded proteins and damaged protein need to be continuously removed to recycle amino acids for new synthesis; ... The 19S regulatory particles can recognize ubiquitin-labeled protein as degradation substrate, unfold the protein to linear, ...
This fear of viral resistance caused a lot of users to be wary of the drug. The most common side effects of indinavir include: ... As a result, structural proteins, resulting from polypeptide products of gag and gag-pol genes, that are necessary for the HIV ... Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ... Eventually, the viral load decreases because of the lack of reproduction. The official start to its development started in ...
v t e (Simplexviruses, Viral nonstructural proteins, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ... Stynen, B.; Tournu, H.; Tavernier, J.; Van Dijck, P. (11 June 2012). "Diversity in Genetic In Vivo Methods for Protein-Protein ... Vmw65, also known as VP16 or α-TIF (Trans Inducing Factor) is a trans-acting protein that forms a complex with the host ... "Crystal structure of the conserved core of the herpes simplex virus transcriptional regulatory protein VP16". Genes Dev. 13 (13 ...
Superantigens are composed of viral or bacterial proteins and can hijack the clonal deletion process when expressed in the ... This helps eliminate autoreactive T cells that recognize a protein from a specific body part. Complete clonal deletion results ... Clonal deletion provides an incentive for microorganisms to develop epitopes similar to proteins found within the host. Because ... These medullary epithelial cells express an autoimmune regulator (AIRE) which allows these cells to present proteins specific ...
Production of protein kinase R, for example, can be disrupted in cells infected with JEV. Some viruses escape the anti-viral ... Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... Binding of molecules uniquely found in microbes-viral glycoproteins, viral RNA, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), ... Viral proteins proven to affect IFN signaling include EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) and EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) from ...
... viral replication, and transcription. The structure of Φ29 is composed of seven main proteins: the terminal protein (p3), the ... the portal or connector protein (p10), the tail tube or lower collar proteins (p11), and the tail fibers or appendage proteins ... Both 5' ends of the genome are capped with a covalently bonded terminal protein (p3) that complexes with DNA polymerase during ... The Φ29 DNA packaging motor packages the phage genome into the procapsid during viral replication. The Φ29 packaging motor is ...
... which is triggered by engagement of ICAM-1 on the infected cell's surface and expression of several viral proteins. Viruses use ... As viral synapses allow the virus to spread directly from cell to cell, they also provide a means by which the virus can escape ... Viral synapses are thought to explain how cell-to-cell transfer can operate in the HIV infection even when there is a low ... Viral synapse (or virological synapse) is a molecularly organized cellular junction that is similar in some aspects to ...
HIV is a viral illness that can be transmitted sexually, by transfusion, shared needles and during child birth from mother to ... It damages the intestines, bladder, and other organs and can lead to anemia and protein-energy deficiency. Along with malaria, ... It increases viral load seven to ten times, which increases the chances of transmission of HIV through sexual intercourse from ... HIV infection can affect the production of hormones that interfere with the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In ...
... single-stranded RNA surrounded by a capsid made from a single viral encoded protein. The genome has been completely sequenced ... ". "Materials and Methods for the Detection of Viral Inclusions". Archived from the original on 2014-10-13. Retrieved 2014-10- ...
Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ... "Entrez Gene: ABL1 v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1". Shah NP, Tran C, Lee FY, Chen P, Norris D, Sawyers ... Welch PJ, Wang JY (November 1993). "A C-terminal protein-binding domain in the retinoblastoma protein regulates nuclear c-Abl ... Yamanashi Y, Baltimore D (January 1997). "Identification of the Abl- and rasGAP-associated 62 kDa protein as a docking protein ...
... virus or protein can be locally injected, after which it is allowed to be transported anterogradely. Viral tracers can cross ... Viral tracers use a receptor on the host cell to attach to it and are then endocytosed. For example, HSV uses the nectin ... Transport of the viral particles along the axon was shown to depend on the microtubular cytoskeleton. There is also a group of ... see also Viral neuronal tracing) In order to trace projections from a specific region or cell, a genetic construct, ...
... which can modulate protein trafficking of viral proteins or protect the proteins from the low pH they would otherwise encounter ... "Viral proteins that enhance membrane permeability". In Fischer WB (ed.). Viral membrane proteins : structure, function, and ... Wang K, Xie S, Sun B (February 2011). "Viral proteins function as ion channels". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... Viroporins are small and usually hydrophobic multifunctional viral proteins that modify cellular membranes, thereby ...
Viral RNA may stay in a persons body for up to 90 days after they test positive. Therefore, NAATs should not be used to test ... Because mRNA COVID-19 vaccines use the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to generate an immune response, a positive serologic (antibody ... Viral Tests include:. *Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) are highly sensitive and highly specific tests that detect one ... Viral tests can also be used as screening tests to reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by identifying infected persons who ...
CDER researchers are working to ensure the safety of therapeutic proteins produced by continuous manufacturing. ... Impact of Continuous Manufacturing Processes on the Viral Safety of Therapeutic Proteins. * Share ... Viral Filtration. In the case of continuous viral filtration, virus filters may be subject to three potential changes in ... Shifting Therapeutic Protein Drug Substance Manufacturing Paradigms. The manufacture of therapeutic proteins often consists of ...
Receptor Arrays for the Selective and Efficient Capturing of Viral Particles, Proteins and Nanoparticles. *. Markus Kastner. ... Receptor Arrays for the Selective and Efficient Capturing of Viral Particles, Proteins and Nanoparticles ... which used the covalent coupling of viral particles or viral receptors to the substrate surface. The high density receptor ... Patches of viral receptors were generated by first modifying microscale gold squares on glass substrates with alkanethiol ...
... viral infections or just an overall sense of lethargy with these 5 plant-based proteins , Health ... protein diet protein vegan veganism monsoon rainfall rain rains flu flu virus viral fever infection immunity immune system ... protein diet protein vegan veganism monsoon rainfall rain rains flu flu virus viral fever infection immunity immune system ... viral infections or just an overall sense of lethargy with these 5 plant-based proteins. 5 plant-based proteins to look out for ...
Protein X of Borna disease virus inhibits apoptosis and promotes viral persistence in the central nervous systems of newborn- ... A Kinder Pathogen? Viral Protein Preserves Neurons in Parkinsons Model. Quick Links. *Article ... While the findings suggested protein X might have therapeutic potential, the researchers felt the viral delivery method was ... NO Kidding? Mitochondria Fission Protein Linked to Neurodegeneration 3 Apr 2009. * Protein Destroying Muscle, Bone, Nerves ...
All the latest news about viral protein from Medical Xpress ... News tagged with viral protein. * Date 6 hours 12 hours 1 day 3 ...
... J Virol. 2009 ... To obtain the quintuple-mutant resistant strain, the wild-type virus was propagated for approximately 150 viral life cycles in ... The expression of the inhibitory protein elevated the strains fitness significantly above the uninhibited wild-type level. ... Using an inhibitory scaffolding protein that specifically blocks phiX174 capsid assembly, we demonstrate that such mechanisms ...
A viral protein that selectively downregulates ICAM-1 and B7-2 and modulates T cell costimulation. ... A viral protein that selectively downregulates ICAM-1 and B7-2 and modulates T cell costimulation. ... We and others have earlier identified two viral genes, K3 and K5, that encode endoplasmic reticulum proteins that downregulate ... Here we have examined the ability of these proteins to influence the disposition of other host surface proteins implicated in ...
ORNL scientists virtually journey inside COVID-19 viral protein to attack a weak point. November 5, 2021 ... ORNL scientists virtually journey inside COVID-19 viral protein to attack a weak point ... ORNL scientists virtually journey inside COVID-19 viral protein to attack a weak point ... Meanwhile, the researchers made their data publicly available via the Protein Data Bank to expedite informing and assisting the ...
This would enable comparison of expression of viral genes from Thermus phages in the different hosts. The methods for the ...
MA mutated variant M4 which contains two changed amino acids in N-terminal regions is also associated with viral RNA, but it is ... MA is found in the nuclei of infected cells and in plasma membrane, the site of virus assembly, in association with viral ... MA participates in HIV-1 assembly as membranotropic part of Gag precursor as well as an individual protein spliced from Gag ... is a multifunctional structural protein localized on N terminus of Gag precursor p55. ...
... ... 2021). Structural and molecular basis for Cardiovirus 2A protein as a viral gene expression switch.. Nat Commun ... Programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) in cardioviruses is activated by the 2A protein, a multi-functional virulence ... of 2A and show that it selectively binds to a pseudoknot-like conformation of the PRF stimulatory RNA element in the viral ...
L Puddington, C E Machamer, J K Rose; Cytoplasmic domains of cellular and viral integral membrane proteins substitute for the ... Cytoplasmic domains of cellular and viral integral membrane proteins substitute for the cytoplasmic domain of the vesicular ... The rate of transport of G protein with a hemagglutinin cytoplasmic domain was threefold slower than wild type G protein and G ... Involvement of the Transmembrane Protein p23 in Biosynthetic Protein Transport Effects of mutations in three domains of the ...
Viral protein interaction with cytokine and cytokine receptor - Homo sapiens (human) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway ... Viral cytokines and cytokine receptor homologs, including other binding proteins, may activate or inhibit cytokine signaling ... Viral cytokines and cytokine receptors, together with a group of structurally unique, soluble, cytokine-binding or cytokine ... receptor-binding proteins, represent the three major molecular strategies for subversion and modulation of the host cytokine ...
Sixty-four of the promoters regulate genes related to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, and 41 regulate Wnt ... The reporter gene assay indicated that HBc binding up-regulates proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase (SRC), type 1 insulin- ... In total, 1286 of the related genes mediate primary metabolic processes, and 1398 encode proteins with binding activity. ... and down-regulates v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene (HRAS). HBc has the ability to bind a large number of human gene ...
A viral protein kinase drug target for tumors? / Ambinder, Richard F.. In: Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 128, No. 6, ... A viral protein kinase drug target for tumors? Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2018 Jun 1;128(6):2197-2198. doi: 10.1172/ ... Ambinder, R. F. (2018). A viral protein kinase drug target for tumors? Journal of Clinical Investigation, 128(6), 2197-2198. ... Ambinder, RF 2018, A viral protein kinase drug target for tumors?, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. ...
... resulting in PV mutants with reduced viral protein synthesis. These PV mutants had a viral protein synthesis activity 8·8-55 % ... an area that directs viral protein synthesis. To examine the effect of reduced viral protein synthesis on PV neurovirulence, ... These results suggest that reduced viral protein synthesis activity as measured in cultured cells (17-55 % of the wild-type ... were introduced between the IRES and the initiation codon of viral polyprotein, ...
Host proteins that are recruited to assist in viral IRES-driven translation are known as ITAFs (IRES trans-acting factors), of ... In this study, we describe a novel regulatory mechanism involving ITAF cleavage, in which FBP1 is cleaved by EV71 viral ... proteinase 2A to yield a cleavage product, FBP11-371, which in turn acts additively with full-length FBP1 to enhance viral IRES ... which far upstream element-binding protein 1 (FBP1) is an example. ...
The MACS® LENTIcheck Kit, human is a qPCR-based assay developed for the rapid assessment of replication competent lentivirus (RCL) in cell-based products transduced with lentiviral vectors provided by Lentigen and Miltenyi Biotec. The MACS LENTIcheck kit detects the lentiviral envelope gene sequences (vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein [VSVg]). VSVg is thought to be the most suitable target for detecting RCL as incorporation of the envelope gene sequence is required to generate a replication competent virus. The absence of the VSV-G gene in ex vivo transduced cells according to the PCR assay can be used for lot release testing of cell-based products, in particular, when time constrains are present. Important note: The primers included in the MACS LENTIcheck Kit, human are designed to amplify an amplicon of the lentiviral envelope gene sequence (VSVg). These primers are only compatible with the lentiviral vectors provided by Lentigen and Miltenyi Biotec. | Norge
Measles virus C protein impairs production of defective copyback double-stranded viral RNA and activation of protein kinase R. ... Measles virus C protein impairs production of defective copyback double-stranded viral RNA and activation of protein kinase R. ... Measles virus C protein impairs production of defective copyback double-stranded viral RNA and activation of protein kinase R. ... Measles virus C protein impairs production of defective copyback double-stranded viral RNA and activation of protein kinase R. ...
Protein-based surfactants, Dendritic cells -- Immunology, HIV infections, Host-virus relationships, Viral proteins, Protein ... Surfactant protein A binds to HIV and inhibits direct infection of CD4(+) cells, but enhances dendritic cell-mediated viral ... 2008) Surfactant protein A binds to HIV and inhibits direct infection of CD4(+) cells, but enhances dendritic cell-mediated ... Therefore, we examined whether SP-A could bind to HIV and also had any effect on viral infectivity. Our data demonstrate that ...
Revisiting the Roles of Tobamovirus Replicase Complex Proteins in Viral Replication and Silencing Suppression. Molecular Plant- ... Revisiting the Roles of Tobamovirus Replicase Complex Proteins in Viral Replication and Silencing Suppression ... causes overaccumulation of unmethylated viral and plant sRNAs but it is not an essential component of the viral replicase ... The shorter protein is also implicated in suppressing RNA silencing-based antiviral defenses. Using a stop codon mutant of ...
Viral membrane proteins traffic through the secretory system during Us9-null infections The absence of viral membrane proteins ... We suggest that a single viral protein (Us9) is responsible for the localization of most if not all viral membrane proteins to ... If Us9-null infections lead to retention of viral membrane proteins in the secretory system, viral membrane proteins should not ... containing viral membrane proteins would not be directed to the axon. The cytoplasmic tails of other viral membrane proteins ...
Proteins, Proteomics, Viral Proteins, Virus Diseases, Virus Replication. Abstract. ,p,Protein movement between different ... protein translocations as a viral infection strategy.. Title. Location is everything: protein translocations as a viral ... Here, we discuss infection-induced translocations of host and viral proteins, and the value of integrating quantitative ... Animals, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Microscopy, Organelles, Protein Interaction Maps, Protein Transport, ...
The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu (viral protein U) causes degradation of BST2, and phosphorylation of Vpu at residues Ser52 and ... Interferon-induced SCYL2 limits release of HIV-1 by triggering PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of the viral protein Vpu. ... We report that the host protein SCY1-like protein 2 (SCYL2) mediates the dephosphorylation of Vpu, antagonizing Vpu function ... Interferon-induced SCYL2 limits release of HIV-1 by triggering PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of the viral protein Vpu. ...
The major function of protein S is as a cofactor to facilitate the action of activated protein C (APC) on its substrates, ... Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent anticoagulant protein that was first discovered in Seattle, Washington in 1979 and ... Only free protein S is capable of acting as a cofactor in the protein C system. This distinction between free and total protein ... Age affects total protein S but not free protein S levels. Generally, the total protein S level increases in persons older than ...
Pox viruses get a head start on infecting a host by delivering a package of proteins that interferes directly with the innate ... 2022) Poxviruses package viral redox proteins in lateral bodies and modulate the host oxidative response. PLoS Pathogens. doi. ... Comparative mass spectrometry strategy determines the viral and cellular candidate proteins of poxvirus. *Download PDF Copy ... Within the lateral bodies, which are viral delivery packets, the research team discovered 15 new proteins. Importantly, they ...
T2 - synthesis of viral proteins, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 inhibitor ... Dive into the research topics of Human macrophage responses to vaccine strains of influenza virus: synthesis of viral proteins ... Human macrophage responses to vaccine strains of influenza virus: synthesis of viral proteins, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, ... Human macrophage responses to vaccine strains of influenza virus: synthesis of viral proteins, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, ...
  • A serine/threonine kinase important for viral replication is conserved across the herpesviruses. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Viral replication" applicable to this article? (
  • dsRNA accumulated during late stages of infection and localized with virus replication sites containing N and P proteins. (
  • The two proteins share methyltransferase and helicase domains and form a heterodimer implicated in gRNA replication. (
  • Plant RDR activities that generate endogenous siRNA precursors do not prevent replication or movement of the mutant virus, and double-stranded precursors of viral siRNAs representing the entire virus genome are likely synthesized by p182. (
  • Taken together, the readthrough replicase p182 is sufficient for viral replication and transcription but not for silencing suppression. (
  • Both directional and temporal, these translocation events facilitate localization-dependent protein interactions and changes in protein functions that contribute to either host defense or virus replication. (
  • The majority of viruses accomplish this by creating proteins during replication that can avoid and combat the immune system. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Host protein Snapin interacts with human cytomegalovirus pUL130 and affects viral DNA replication. (
  • Dengue virus NS1 protein interacts with the ribosomal protein RPL18: this interaction is required for viral translation and replication in Huh-7 cells. (
  • NS1 is a multifunctional protein key to viral replication and pathogenesis . (
  • Silencing of the RPL-18 does not affect cell translation efficiency or viability, but it reduces significantly viral translation, replication and viral yield, suggesting that the RPL-18 is required during DENV replicative cycle. (
  • The researchers determined if MIG-Ps were enriched as host proteins or host-viral factors that don't mandatorily bind to viral proteins but may facilitate viral replication or inhibit virus replication. (
  • Of host proteins that interacted with those of SARS-CoV-2 (n=332), 20 proteins were found to be MIG-Ps involved in viral replication. (
  • Conserved MIG-P host factors and viral targets may provide essential host cell functions that viruses can depend on for secured replication. (
  • Because RNF8 normally inhibits viral replication, its destruction leaves the cell vulnerable to HSV-1 infection, as the virus takes over the cell's machinery. (
  • Corticosteroids have no impact on cold symptoms and may actually increase viral replication. (
  • We speculate that these sugar interactions could relate to what's called a tissue tropism, which is the cells of the host that support viral infection and replication. (
  • As a result, these drugs did not prevent viral replication in infected persons and, moreover, were potentially toxic. (
  • Viral tests , including Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs, such as Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction), antigen tests and other tests (such as breath tests) are used as diagnostic tests to detect current infection with SARS-CoV-2 and to inform an individual's medical care. (
  • Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) are highly sensitive and highly specific tests that detect one or more viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) genes and indicate a current infection. (
  • Since previous work had flagged protein X as anti-apoptotic, the authors next applied a recombinant version to fresh cultures, and found that the protein alone protected axons from rotenone as well as did BDV infection. (
  • At least three viral membrane proteins (gE, gI, and Us9) are necessary for the spread of infection from presynaptic to postsynaptic neurons (anterograde spread) in infected rodents. (
  • To understand how these proteins effect anterograde spread between neurons, we analyzed the subcellular localization of viral proteins after infection of cultured rat sympathetic neurons with wild-type or mutant viruses. (
  • Location is everything: protein translocations as a viral infection strategy. (
  • Accumulating evidences have highlighted the importance of infection-induced protein translocations between organelles. (
  • Here, we discuss infection-induced translocations of host and viral proteins, and the value of integrating quantitative proteomics with advanced microscopy for understanding the biology of human virus infections. (
  • Human cells respond to infection by retroviruses through the actions of proteins that inhibit the spread of viruses to other cells. (
  • Researchers from the University of Birmingham and ETH Zurich have discovered that the pox virus begins to do this right away after infection, even before it has started to replicate, by using proteins that are specifically made to target crucial components of the host's immune response. (
  • Our research identifies a highly unusual ability to bring immunosuppressing proteins into the host right at the start of the infection. (
  • The redox proteins in the pox virus are released early in the infection with the goal of locating and suppressing ROS. (
  • One way viruses promote infection is through ubiquitination, an enzymatic post-translational modification in which a ubiquitin protein is attached to a substrate protein. (
  • However, CHOP researchers identified two substrates of viral-mediated ubiquitination that aid the processing of viral RNA but that surprisingly do not degrade when ubiquitinated in the midst of adenovirus infection. (
  • Ubiquitination during adenovirus infection blocks their interaction with viral RNA, and so the virus is able to replicate faster and more efficiently. (
  • We are also beginning to understand ubiquitin's role in regulating RNA splicing, so further research that analyzes host splicing changes during adenovirus infection may provide insights into host pathways altered by the ubiquitination of RNA-binding proteins. (
  • The subcellular location and expression levels during infection of the ribosomal proteins RPS3a, RPL7, RPL18, RPL18a plus GAPDH were determined. (
  • Influenza A virus infection induces several changes in host miRNA/protein profile and understanding the regulatory mechanism is essential for developing intervention approaches. (
  • Finally, transfection of cells with miRNA4276 inhibitor and subsequent infection with influenza A led to reduced influenza viral copy number. (
  • A DNA vaccine expressing consensus hemagglutinin-esterase fusion protein protected guinea pigs from infection by two lineages of influenza D virus. (
  • The omicron variant has more than 30 mutations in the spike protein alone, and that has probably contributed to its rapid infection rate. (
  • Nucleocapsid proteins are highly expressed upon infection. (
  • In patients with typical COVID-19 infection, however, the spike protein was not detected. (
  • A new study finds evidence of a biomarker that could point toward an active viral reservoir in the body, particularly in the gut after initial SARS-CoV-2 infection. (
  • The researchers found that the spike protein, S1 subunit, or nucleocapsid were present in the blood of 65% of the long COVID patients they tested, up to 12 months after their initial COVID-19 infection. (
  • In contrast, the researchers did not detect spike protein in any of the patients with typical COVID-19 infection. (
  • The most logical interpretation [of the data presented in the pre-print] is that spike protein in serum is a surrogate marker for a persistent infection somewhere in the body," Dr. John P. Moore, professor of microbiology and immunology at Weill Cornell Medicine, who was not involved in the study, told Medical News Today . (
  • LANA, a viral regulatory protein expressed during latent infection). (
  • These guidelines include the recommendation that all persons who are known to be infected with HIV, or are at increased risk of HIV infection, receive a tuberculin skin test (Mantoux test with tuberculin units 5 {TU} of purified protein derivative {PPD}-tuberculin). (
  • Many diseases and infections, including cancer and certain viral infections (especially HIV infection), and some immunosuppressive drugs may result in a transient or continuing suppression of cellular hypersensitivity mediated by T-lymphocytes. (
  • Test done with antigen rapid diagnostic tests will most often be positive when viral loads are highest and patients are most infectious - typically 1−3 days prior to the onset of symptoms and during the first 5−7 days after the onset of symptoms - and will become negative as the patient clears the infection and recovers. (
  • Antigen rapid diagnostic tests may return false negative results when the viral load falls below the test's detection limit, as such a negative test result cannot exclude COVID-19 infection and a repeat confirmatory polymerase chain reaction test is necessary particularly in symptomatic patients. (
  • The spike protein, which resembles a stem with three buds on the end, is what enables the actual virus to invade cells and cause infection. (
  • To replicate, viruses must deliver their own DNA into a cell's nucleus, so a viral infection entails a conflict between two genomesthe DNA of the host cell versus the foreign DNA of the virus. (
  • In HSV-1 infection, the phosphorylation signal on ICP0 attracts a cellular DNA damage response protein, RNF8, which binds to the false signaling marker and is then degraded. (
  • Ultimately,' he adds, 'better knowledge of molecular mechanisms in infection may suggest strategies to interrupt the viral life cycle and treat infections. (
  • Now they have shown that apelin levels go way down with the viral infection, which has killed 1 million people worldwide, and that CBD quickly helps normalize those levels along with lung function. (
  • we don't know yet about causative, but it is a very good indicator of the disease," Baban says of the bottom line impact of the viral infection on apelin levels. (
  • The effects of viral infection on the response of the cavine respiratory epithelium to dust was also studied, and the results indicated that the interaction of carbon with respiratory epithelial cells was enhanced by the formation of multinuclear cells, induced by the virus. (
  • After that, Macauley and European collaborators started applying biological tools to see whether they could demonstrate a correlation between the viral proteins' ability to recognize these sugars and the role it plays in the infection process. (
  • Detection of viral-specific antibodies enables a more accurate and precise diagnosis and the progression of infection and treatment responses against COVID-19 to be monitored (11,12). (
  • It is this type of neutralising antibodies that humans need to form in response to viral infection, such that we can eventually achieve herd immunity", says Jorma Hinkula. (
  • The U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), which is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is leading the Antiviral Program for Pandemics (APP ) to stimulate discovery and development of oral or intranasal antiviral medicines that could reduce viral burden early in the infection. (
  • Adenoviruses, which exist in the wild in humans and typically cause mild infections such as the common cold, have been genetically engineered to express viral antigens found in SARS-CoV-2, usually those of the infamous spike protein that the coronavirus uses to break into human cells. (
  • Underlying the difficulty in deriving useful mAbs is the structural complexity of membrane proteins and the need to present the target antigens within eukaryotic cell membranes to maintain structural integrity. (
  • The most effective mAbs usually target conformational epitopes on membrane proteins, so the use of structurally correct antigens is a crucial element in the process. (
  • Out of the three SARS-CoV-2 antigens, the spike protein was the most common, having been detected in 60%-or 3 out of 5-of long COVID patients. (
  • Most healthy people have a DTH response to several bacterial, viral, and fungal antigens. (
  • This vaccine format elicits B and T cell-dependent protection and targets multiple antigens, including the highly conserved viral nucleoprotein, indicating its usefulness as a cross-protective vaccine. (
  • We and others have earlier identified two viral genes, K3 and K5, that encode endoplasmic reticulum proteins that downregulate surface MHC-I chains by enhancing their endocytosis. (
  • This would enable comparison of expression of viral genes from Thermus phages in the different hosts. (
  • Biochemical analyses and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that these hybrid genes were correctly expressed in eukaryotic cells and that the hybrid proteins were transported to the plasma membrane. (
  • For comparison, the team investigated if proteins encoded by major spliceosome spliced genes would be enriched. (
  • Enrichment was greater in host-viral interactomes than in major spliceosome-spliced genes. (
  • To address this, improvements in systems analysis have enabled experts to quickly match the recognized proteins into pathways and determine biological processes strongly associated to the dataset (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) (Szklarczyk et al. (
  • Currently, there are three main types of COVID-19 vaccines that are approved or authorized for use in the United States: mRNA, viral vector, and protein subunit. (
  • Instead, mRNA vaccines use mRNA created in a laboratory to teach our cells how to make a protein-or even just a piece of a protein-that triggers an immune response inside our bodies. (
  • After the protein piece is made, our cells break down the mRNA and remove it, leaving the body as waste. (
  • Immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of heterologous COVID-19 primary vaccination incorporating mRNA, viral-vector, and protein-adjuvant vaccines in the UK (Com-COV2): a single-blind, randomised, phase 2, non-inferiority trial. (
  • Synthetic vaccinology uses information from viral gene sequencing to create DNA and mRNA molecules encoding viral proteins. (
  • Transfection of epithelial cells with miRNA-4276 mimic reduced COX6C mRNA and protein expression. (
  • Similarly, epithelial cells transfected with miRNA4276 inhibitor increased COX6C mRNA and protein expression. (
  • The mRNA vaccines by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna provide the blueprint for the spike protein in the form of mRNA in a drug-delivery system called a lipid nanoparticle . (
  • New Scientist - In a first for any infectious disease, a vaccine against flu has been made out of messenger RNA (mRNA) - the genetic material that controls the production of proteins. (
  • An injection of mRNA is picked up by immune cells, which translate it into protein. (
  • But CureVac, a company in Tübingen, Germany, has found that a protein called protamine, binds to mRNA and protects it. (
  • Stitz's team made an mRNA vaccine to one such protein from an ordinary seasonal flu. (
  • We think that mRNA would provide an excellent platform against viral, bacterial and fungal diseases," he says. (
  • Our aim was to examine the involvement of G1 cell-cycle regulators in cell growth dysregulation induced by HTLV-I. Compared to uninfected cells, higher expression levels of cyclin D1 and D2 mRNA were detected in HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines, which were at least in part mediated by the viral transforming protein Tax since Tax activated both cyclin D1 and D2 promoters in the human T-cell line Jurkat. (
  • In this review, we analyze the pros and cons of delivering CRISPR/Cas9 systems in the form of plasmid, mRNA, or protein and then discuss the limitations and challenges of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) capable of targeting therapeutically important membrane proteins such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), ion channels, transporters, and viral envelope proteins are becoming harder to isolate. (
  • Complex viral-membrane proteins also pose a unique set of challenges for vaccine discovery, and the induction of broadly reactive, potently neutralizing antibodies against viral envelope proteins remains a daunting task for pathogens such as HIV and HCV. (
  • The study , published Jan. 24 in Nature , shows that approximately 20% to 25% of patients with multiple sclerosis have antibodies in their blood that bind tightly to both a protein from the Epstein-Barr virus, called EBNA1, and a protein made in the brain and spinal cord, called the glial cell adhesion molecule, or GlialCAM. (
  • In contrast, animals that received a sham DNA vaccine (n = 12) had no detectable neutralizing antibodies against IDV, and viral RNA was readily detectable in respiratory tract tissues after intranasal challenge [3 x 10(5) TCID50] with IDV D/OK (n = 6) or D/660 (n = 6). (
  • During this primary immune response , immune cells encounter spike proteins and, as a defense, they produce antibodies, "memory" cells and T-cells that can kill infected cells to prevent the virus from multiplying. (
  • The scope of this study encompasses an investigation of the markets cell and gene therapy tools such as GMP proteins, media, cell separation and activation reagents, viral and non-viral, cytokine release syndrome monitoring products, GMP antibodies, leukapheresis instrumentation, immunoassays (multiplex and singleplex) and bioreactors. (
  • CALIXAR's approach allows to preserve the original structure and function of membrane proteins (GPCRs, Ion Channels, Transporters, Receptors, Anchors and Viral Proteins) providing solutions for pharmaceutical industries, biotechnology companies and academic teams to develop conformational antibodies, formulate new vaccines, carry out Structure Based Drug Discovery and/or HTS assays. (
  • Antibodies are Y-shaped proteins that can bind to special points on foreign substances, such as small protein fragments from a virus. (
  • Sabin vaccine strains of poliovirus (PV) contain major attenuation determinants in the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES), an area that directs viral protein synthesis. (
  • Adenoviruses are not the only viral vectors that can be used: pharmaceutical giant Merck says it is working on a potential COVID vaccine using an engineered vesicular stomatis virus , previously used successfully in its Ebola vaccine. (
  • In the research, relevant proteins in the smallpox vaccine, vaccinia virus, which belongs to the same virus family as monkeypox virus and the smallpox virus-variola-were identified and characterized using mass spectrometry-based proteotyping and super-resolution microscopy. (
  • Additionally, large quantities of cell-surface-expressed proteins are usually required for antibody isolation and vaccine discovery, where biochemically relevant levels of protein are essential for immunization, panning, screening, purification, crystallization, and other downstream studies. (
  • Novel vaccine technologies: essential components of an adequate response to emerging viral diseases. (
  • In this study, we designed a DNA vaccine expressing consensus hemagglutinin-esterase fusion (HEF) protein (FluD-Vax) and tested its protective efficacy against two lineages of IDV (D/OK and D/660) in guinea pigs. (
  • The Johnson & Johnson vaccine gives DNA instructions inside the coat of a different virus, called a viral vector . (
  • A true universal vaccine for flu, however, would induce immunity to proteins that are the same in all flu viruses, but which flu normally hides from the immune system. (
  • For example, some-like the Johnson & Johnson vaccine-use a modified virus to introduce the spike protein to our cells, according to the CDC. (
  • Medicago's vaccine method is different-it starts by introducing the genetic code for making the spike protein into plants, not humans, according to the June 2022 study in The New England Journal of Medicine . (
  • and four, protein subunit vaccine wherein the recombinant proteins of SARS-COV-2 along with an adjuvant (booster) is given as a vaccine. (
  • The hemagglutinin proteins of the influenza A (H1) viruses were similar antigenically to the hemagglutinin of the vaccine strain A/New Caledonia/20/99. (
  • On February 26, 2021, Health Canada authorized the use of a third COVID-19 vaccine from AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1-S). This new vaccine is a viral-vector based vaccine which uses a harmless virus, in this case an adenovirus, to deliver the genetic information (DNA) that instructs the body on how to make the surface spike protein of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). (
  • Two others, a viral vector vaccine (Janssen) and an adjuvanted protein subunit vaccine (Novavax), have emergency use approval (EUA) in the United States. (
  • Indian monsoons bring with them grey skies, the sound of raindrops drumming against windowpanes and long days that are spent wishing one was cuddled up in bed, all warm and comfortable but the monsoons also bring with them a multitude of seasonal maladies - be it the common cold and flu, fever, viral infections or just an overall sense of lethargy. (
  • After Us9-null mutant infections but not gE-null mutant infections, only a subset of the viral structural proteins had entered axons. (
  • In a recent study posted to the bioRxiv * preprint server, researchers explored the role of the minor intron-containing gene (MIG)-encoded proteins (MIG-Ps) depending on minor spliceosome-MiG excision to be expressed in infections by pathogenic viruses. (
  • In the present study, researchers explored MIG-P involvement in infections caused by viral pathogens. (
  • The team MIG-P involvement in response to cell function inhibitions to identify mechanisms of viral infections. (
  • Scientists have long suspected - but failed to prove - a link between certain viral infections and the development of multiple sclerosis, a crippling autoimmune disease that affects nearly 1 million Americans. (
  • Dysregulation of these processes has major pathological consequence and studies have shown that cytochrome oxidases are altered during viral infections. (
  • in association with viral genome RNA. (
  • Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of 2A and show that it selectively binds to a pseudoknot-like conformation of the PRF stimulatory RNA element in the viral genome. (
  • SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein is compact and hidden within the SARS shell, where it helps in viral genome packaging. (
  • The spike protein portion of the Coronavirus genome is introduced into the plant so that the plant's cellular machinery can synthesize multiple spike proteins, according to an article from February 2022 in Cellular and Molecular Immunology . (
  • The coronavirus genome encodes a spike protein, an envelope protein, a membrane protein, and a nucleoprotein. (
  • Historically, vaccines against viral diseases have used live-attenuated (weakened) viruses or inactivated whole viruses to induce protective immune responses. (
  • The protein is highly conserved across SARS viruses, and because it is located in the inner part of the virus, it is also less subject to mutation than proteins along the surface envelope, especially the spike protein targeted by most current COVID vaccines. (
  • Surface proteins are a moving target for vaccines, said lead author and postdoctoral researcher Mauricio Menegatti Rigo. (
  • All three of the authorized vaccines in the U.S. work by giving the body instructions for making the spike protein from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19. (
  • Similar vaccines have been made of DNA that codes for flu proteins. (
  • Vaccines made only of the proteins do not elicit this type of response. (
  • Others, like the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines, carry a genetic code for the spike protein, which our bodies then make and destroy, kind of like a practice run, according to the CDC. (
  • Also, production of viral vectors for vaccines and recombinant work using both insect and mammalian cells were common. (
  • Extremely nutrient dense, soybeans are the only known plant-based food to contain all nine essential amino acids, i.e. they contain complete protein. (
  • The mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the K-Ras protein. (
  • Viral proteins evade host immune function by molecular mimicry, often achieved by short linear motifs (SLiMs) of three to ten consecutive amino acids (AAs). (
  • Human recombinant protein fragment corresponding to amino acids 1-266 of human PARN (NP_002573) produced in E.coli. (
  • Our work does not analyze the surface spike proteins of SARS-related coronaviruses but a protein deep inside the core of such viruses. (
  • This code acts like an instruction manual: the plant cells read it and then use the information to start pumping out spike proteins in surplus, Dr. Ward said. (
  • All of these spike proteins then start clumping together to form molecules that look like viruses, according to the same June 2022 study. (
  • The spike proteins form together, three at a time, to form trimers. (
  • The spike proteins have just the right docking mechanism," says coauthor Yu. (
  • In other words, if you DO NOT have millions of spike proteins throughout your vascular system and flooding your vital organs, you have a better chance of fending off Covid. (
  • This is a look into ADE, auto-immune disorder, and how booster shots continue to weaken the immune system, a bit more with each injection, because there are millions more spike proteins to invade vital organs, including the liver and pancreas, as we are seeing with science-backed evidence . (
  • Antigen tests are immunoassays that detect the presence of a specific viral antigen. (
  • Most often, the primary bottleneck in mAb discovery against membrane proteins is obtaining sufficient cell surface expression, since low levels of antigen can preclude a robust immune response in animals, limit the number of hits in phage or yeast display screens, and reduce the sensitivity of downstream immunoassays. (
  • The program builds upon the lab's established HLA-Arena, a customizable pipeline for structural modeling and analysis of complexes formed by peptides - small parts of proteins - and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) receptors, central to the cellular immunity. (
  • They found that one particular SARS-CoV-2 antigen-the spike protein-was present in the blood of a majority of long COVID patients, up to a year after they were first diagnosed with COVID-19. (
  • Dr. David R. Walt, one of the study's authors, told The Guardian that the presence of the spike protein indicated such a reservoir as the half-life of this antigen is "pretty short" in the body. (
  • Evidence for persistent virus and viral antigen/RNA reservoirs [is] becoming more and more prevalent […] The presence of the spike protein in circulation in long haulers is adding to this emerging evidence. (
  • They detect the COVID-19 viral proteins, specifically the virus antigen. (
  • In the case of COVID-19, the spike protein acts as the antigen, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (
  • COVID-19 can be diagnosed by detection of RNA gene targets (e.g., spike protein (S), an envelope protein (E), nucleocapsid protein (N), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzyme, and ORF1 gene) (4-6) either by nucleic acid amplification testing or detection of virus-specific proteins by antigen testing (7,8). (
  • Module A contained serum samples spiked with cultured dengue virus (DENV) or chikungunya virus (CHIKV) for the detection of nucleic acid and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen. (
  • Made up of an army of cells and proteins working in cohesion, our immune system is a complex network that protects us from external invaders such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and other toxins. (
  • Viral cytokines and cytokine receptors, together with a group of structurally unique, soluble, cytokine-binding or cytokine receptor-binding proteins, represent the three major molecular strategies for subversion and modulation of the host cytokine networks mainly in large DNA viruses. (
  • RNA deep sequencing confirmed the viral RNA expression profile differences seen by qPCR between C KO mutant and parental viruses. (
  • Pox viruses get a head start on infecting a host by delivering a package of proteins that interferes directly with the innate immune system of the host. (
  • In contrast, pox viruses are unique in that they immediately contain and deliver immune-modulating proteins. (
  • however, the HA protein plays an important role in overcoming the interspecies barrier and in virulence in avian influenza viruses. (
  • We summarize current knowledge of viral factors that determine host range restriction and pathogenicity of influenza A viruses. (
  • By contrast, the sialidase activity of the neuraminidase (NA) protein removes SA to liberate newly synthesized viruses from infected cells. (
  • Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. (
  • These findings reveal a quicker way that viruses can take over host processes without degrading host proteins," said Matthew D. Weitzman, PhD , an investigator in the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at CHOP . (
  • The researchers also determined the largest number of viruses that leveraged MIG-P host factors or viral target pairs by cluster analysis. (
  • The functions executed by MIG-Ps were exploited by viruses to facilitate viral propagation cycles. (
  • 2015) and for viral-host PPI Viruses.STRING (Cook et al. (
  • Biologists have long known that viruses hijack cellular processes to replicate themselves, while host cells have evolved intrinsic defense systems to resist viral invasion. (
  • Viruses mount their attack by interacting with specific cell proteins as a way of penetrating the cell's defenses. (
  • The WHO Monitoring Group on Gene transfer Medicinal Products was established to monitor devel- opments and draw up appropriate guidance for assuring the quality of gene transfer medicinal prod- ucts, including nucleic acids, viral and non-viral vectors, and genetically modified cells. (
  • Although viral vectors have been widely used in the delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in vitro and in vivo, their fundamental shortcomings, such as the risk of carcinogenesis, limited insertion size, immune responses and difficulty in large-scale production, severely limit their further applications. (
  • With the rapid development of non-viral vectors, lipid- or polymer-based nanocarriers have shown great potential for CRISPR/Cas9 delivery. (
  • Furthermore, current non-viral vectors that have been applied for CRISPR/Cas9 delivery in vitro and in vivo are outlined in details. (
  • The lab's open-source program, SARS-Arena, identifies peptides that are part of the virus's nucleocapsid protein to see how they could be targeted. (
  • Because the reaction is not normally associated with members of the YcaO protein family, the Nair Lab is now exploring and predicting other examples of YcaOs that can also cut peptides. (
  • Also, normal cytoplasmic domains from other transmembrane glycoproteins can substitute for the G protein cytoplasmic domain in transport of G protein to the plasma membrane. (
  • Patterns of these antibody proteins, called oligoclonal bands, are found during analysis of the spinal fluid and are part of the diagnostic criteria for MS. (
  • Plasma from both parents and one child have IgG antibody against the S1 protein and virus-neutralizing activity detected. (
  • Lateral flow assay and ELISA techniques gave consistent results for IgG/IgM antibody measurements towards spike and nucleocapsid proteins, suggesting that both methods can be used to detect COVID-19 where access to molecular test kits is difficult. (
  • Patches of viral receptors were generated by first modifying microscale gold squares on glass substrates with alkanethiol derivatives and then immobilizing the His -tagged very-low-density lipoprotein 6 (VLDL) receptor ligand binding domain via metal-chelate complexes to the gold surfaces. (
  • The metal chelate-based coupling strategy was found to be superior to two alternative routes, which used the covalent coupling of viral particles or viral receptors to the substrate surface. (
  • ABP 300 works by binding the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to block viral interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. (
  • Starting from native material or recombinant systems, we succeed with all types of membrane proteins: GPCRs, Ions Channels, Transporters, Receptors and Viral Proteins. (
  • We describe microarrays of receptor molecules that capture viral particles with high specificity and at high density. (
  • The HA protein mediates virus binding to sialic acid (SA)-containing host cell surface molecules and promotes the release of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes through membrane fusion. (
  • In this way the K-Ras protein acts like a switch that is turned on and off by the GTP and GDP molecules. (
  • HCMV growth in endothelial and epithelial cells requires expression of viral proteins UL128, UL130, and UL131 proteins (UL128-131), of which UL130 is the largest gene and the only one that is not interrupted by introns.Mutation of the C terminus of the UL130 protein causes reduced tropism of endothelial cells (EC). (
  • The role of naturally occurring substances such as mucins, surfactants, and proteins in altering the interaction of these particulates with the epithelial cells was discovered. (
  • Significant MIG-P enrichment was observed in host-viral PPIs of MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1, HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus), ZIKV (Zika virus), HPV-1 (human papillomavirus), EBV (Epstein-Barr virus), EBOV (Ebola virus), IAV (influenza A virus), HCV (hepatitis C virus), and HSV-1 (herpes simplex virus 1). (
  • In an interview with HT Lifestyle, Khushboo Jain Tibrewala, nutrition expert and health strategist, revealed, "Protein, one of the three key macronutrients, is essential for the immune system. (
  • Our immune system recognizes that the protein does not belong there. (
  • Importantly, they discovered five "redox" proteins that interact with Reactive Oxygen Species, which are components of the immune system. (
  • A new study found that part of the Epstein-Barr virus mimics a protein made in the brain and spinal cord, leading the immune system to mistakenly attack the body's nerve cells. (
  • There are studies showing that immune-system T-cells taken from recovered COVID-19 patients can recognize multiple regions of the nucleocapsid protein, providing long-term protective immunity. (
  • The immune system quickly recognizes that these foreign proteins do not belong, and it generates an immune response to fight them off. (
  • We become immune to a flu strain when our immune system learns to recognise key proteins, called HA and NA, on the surface of the flu virus. (
  • The immune system will then recognise the proteins if it encounters the virus subsequently, allowing it to fight off that strain of flu. (
  • Is your own immune system attacking your vital organs because they now contain toxic virus-mimicking spike protein prions inside them? (
  • For therapeutic proteins expressed in mammalian cell lines, the host cells may contain multiple copies of endogenous retrovirus-like sequences that produce retrovirus-like particles (RVLPs) in addition to the target protein. (
  • For the past two decades, CDER has led a collaborative research program to better understand how to remove viral particles during the manufacture of protein biologics using chromatographic, chemical inactivation, and filtration steps. (
  • The high density receptor arrays were employed for sensing and characterizing viral particles with so far unprecedented selectivity. (
  • The structures created in this manner were subsequently refilled with proteins which serve as a basis for the specific binding of other proteins, particles or pathogens of interest and could furthermore be analyzed by AFM under near physiological conditions. (
  • 2022) Poxviruses package viral redox proteins in lateral bodies and modulate the host oxidative response. (
  • Viral cytokines and cytokine receptor homologs, including other binding proteins, may activate or inhibit cytokine signaling and possibly affect different aspects of immunity. (
  • The UK and Swiss research team's next steps will involve testing the protein mechanisms in animal models to determine how they function both separately and collectively to inhibit the host immune response. (
  • The specific activity is determined by the inhibitory effect on monocyte migration response to human MIP-1 alpha using a concentration range of 1.0ug-10.0ug/ml of viral MIP-2 will inhibit 25ng/ml of human MIP-1 alpha. (
  • By manipulating cell signals, the virus destroys a defensive protein designed to inhibit it. (
  • To examine the effect of reduced viral protein synthesis on PV neurovirulence, spacer sequences, consisting of short open reading frames of different lengths, were introduced between the IRES and the initiation codon of viral polyprotein, resulting in PV mutants with reduced viral protein synthesis. (
  • These PV mutants had a viral protein synthesis activity 8·8-55 % of that of the parental Mahoney strain as measured in HeLa S3 cells. (
  • These results suggest that reduced viral protein synthesis activity as measured in cultured cells (17-55 % of the wild-type activity) is not the main determinant of PV attenuation. (
  • Sequences within the poliovirus internal ribosome entry segment control viral RNA synthesis. (
  • Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses revealed reduced viral RNA synthesis and a steepened transcription gradient in C KO virus-infected cells compared to those in parental virus-infected cells. (
  • Cells exposed to the avian-human H1N1 virus showed increased synthesis of viral neuraminidase, previously reported to induce fever-producing cytokines, but no detectable increase in production of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α measured by immunoassay, or decrease in interleukin-1 inhibitor activity by bioassay. (
  • Taken together, these results suggest that Snapin, the pUL130 interacting protein, has a role in modulating HCMV DNA synthesis. (
  • Furthermore, an alternative route to create arrays in the nanometer range for the site specific binding of proteins, nanoparticles and pathogens is shown. (
  • The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic uncovered the global unpreparedness to deal with novel emerging viral pathogens, underscoring the need to identify targets for developing broad and effective antiviral therapeutic agents. (
  • The purification process includes both non-dedicated (i.e., chromatography) and dedicated virus clearance steps (i.e., chemical inactivation and virus filtration) to effectively clear RVLPs (and any possible viral contaminants) from the final drug product. (
  • Researchers led by Daniel Gonzalez-Dunia at INSERM in Toulouse, France, reported that the anonymous-sounding protein X from the Borna disease virus protected axons and neurons from degeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. (
  • To obtain the quintuple-mutant resistant strain, the wild-type virus was propagated for approximately 150 viral life cycles in the presence of increasing concentrations of the inhibitory protein. (
  • Cytoplasmic domains of cellular and viral integral membrane proteins substitute for the cytoplasmic domain of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein in transport to the plasma membrane. (
  • Measles virus (MV) lacking expression of C protein (C KO ) is a potent activator of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR), whereas the isogenic parental virus expressing C protein is not. (
  • The observed alterations were further reflected in lower viral protein expression levels and reduced C KO virus infectious yield. (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Measles virus C protein impairs production of defective copyback double-stranded viral RNA and activation of protein kinase R'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (
  • However, the mutant virus displays milder symptoms and does not interfere with HEN1-mediated methylation of viral short interfering (si)RNAs or plant small (s)RNAs. (
  • The mutant virus tends to revert the stop codon, thereby restoring expression of the shorter protein (p125), even in the absence of plant Dicer-like activities that generate viral siRNAs. (
  • The spike protein is found on the surface of the virus that causes COVID-19. (
  • Researchers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) have identified a novel mechanism by which adenovirus hijacks post-translational modification of host proteins, allowing the virus to replicate efficiently in host cells. (
  • These RNA-binding proteins, RALY and hnRNP-C, seem to play a role in slowing the production of virus by binding to viral RNA. (
  • To determine whether MIG-Ps were enriched in proteins distant from host factors, viral targets, or human PPI networks, perturbation analyses using SARS-CoV-2 as the initial virus of interest were performed. (
  • The lab of computer scientist Lydia Kavraki at Rice's George R. Brown School of Engineering has introduced a program to look for conserved parts of proteins of the virus that causes COVID-19. (
  • Other researchers have also found evidence of viral persistence (the continuing presence of the virus) in patients with long COVID symptoms. (
  • In this study, we asked how the herpes simplex virus finds the specific proteins that it interacts with,' says Weitzman. (
  • By describing the mechanism of this particular interaction between a virus and a cell protein, we have pinpointed key regulators of a cell's processes, and shed light on how a cell regulates its defenses. (
  • The D614G variant carries a mutation in the spike protein that makes it easier for the virus to dock onto human cells. (
  • The British virus, for example, is known to have not just one but often more than 14 mutations, eight of which occur in the spike protein. (
  • Proteínas que se encuentran en todas las especies de virus. (
  • Proteins found in any species of virus. (
  • The shorter protein is also implicated in suppressing RNA silencing-based antiviral defenses. (
  • The researchers also found that ICP0 exploits the same phosphorylation signal to bind to other cellular proteins in addition to RNF8, a hint that it may play a broader role in defeating antiviral defenses and manipulating cellular machinery. (
  • Flu constantly evolves, however, so those proteins change and your immunity to one year's strain does not extend to following year's. (
  • 9. Hershey AD, Chase M. Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage. (
  • To overcome the bottleneck of obtaining sufficient membrane protein surface expression, Integral Molecular has developed a suite of tools, termed the MPO Toolbox™, which is designed to optimize the expression and conformational stability of human and viral membrane proteins ( Figure 1 ). (
  • The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu (viral protein U) causes degradation of BST2, and phosphorylation of Vpu at residues Ser52 and Ser56 is required for this function. (
  • Ubiquitin acts as a sort of marker, either targeting the protein for degradation or affecting the protein's activity in other ways, such as promoting or preventing protein interactions. (
  • Other membrane proteins have intrinsic folding or subunit assembly limitations, and attempts at overexpression can overwhelm the capacity of the cell and result in premature degradation. (
  • Viral E3 Ubiquitin Ligase-Mediated Degradation of a Cellular E3: Viral Mimicry of a Cellular Phosphorylation Mark Targets the RNF8 FHA Domain,' Molecular Cell, published online March 8, 2012, to appear in print, April 13, 2012. (
  • HIV-1 matrix protein (MA) is a multifunctional structural protein localized on N terminus of Gag precursor p55. (
  • Structural and molecular basis for Cardiovirus 2A protein as a viral gene expression switch. (
  • In this strain, 1 putative cleavage site of the viral polyprotein responsible for processing of structural proteins was changed. (
  • Part of the EBV protein mimics your own host protein - in this case, GlialCAM, found in the insulating sheath on nerves," said William Robinson , MD, PhD, professor of immunology and rheumatology at Stanford. (
  • As a control, they used a mutated version of the protein that lacked a mitochondrial localization sequence. (
  • They found that the C-terminal third, with a mitochondrial localization tag added, provided as much protection as full protein X. This small peptide, which they called PX3, could be administered intranasally, achieving high levels in the striatum and distributing throughout the brain and spinal cord, as well as in some peripheral organs. (
  • We conclude that the Us9 membrane protein controls axonal localization of diverse viral membrane proteins but not that of capsid or tegument proteins. (
  • Additionally, heterologous expression of protein UL130 revealed co-localization with Snapin in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of HEK293 cells using fluorescence confocal microscopy. (
  • Aberrant expression and localization of the RAP1 shelterin protein contribute to age-related phenotypes. (
  • One important nutrient is protein, which is essential to the human body because it is part of every cell, issue, and organ, allowing them to grow and repair. (
  • In this study, HCMV UL130 protein was shown to directly interact with the human protein Snapin in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells by Yeast two-hybrid screening, in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation. (
  • In this paper we isolated a total of 64 proteins from DENV infected human hepatic cells (Huh-7) that interact with NS1 by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation assays. (
  • Human RelB (I-Rel) functions as a kappa B site-dependent transactivating member of the family of Rel-related proteins. (
  • Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. (
  • In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. (
  • SARS-CoV-2, Recombinant Protein, Spike RBD (YP_009724390.1) (A348T) mutant, expressed from HEK293 cells, with a polyhistidine tag at the C-terminus. (
  • They injected a lentivirus expressing the protein into the substantia nigra of mice two weeks prior to treating them with the neurotoxin MPTP, which, like rotenone, targets mitochondria and kills dopaminergic neurons. (
  • Affinity capture of the HIV viral lysate reveals that SP-A targets the envelope glycoprotein of HIV (gp120), which was confirmed by ELISA using recombinant gp120. (
  • Further, they investigated if MIG-Ps were a part of molecular networks downstream of host factors and viral targets. (
  • MIG-Ps were significantly enriched at distances at which proteins interacted directly with viral targets or host factors and were depleted at further distances. (
  • A viral protein kinase drug target for tumors? (
  • Expression of the KSHV protein kinase in transgenic mice under the control of a ubiquitin promoter was associated with B cell lymphoproliferative disease and lymphoma. (
  • If the viral protein kinase is important in the pathogenesis of KSHV lymphoproliferative disease or lymphoma, the kinase may present a very good target for pharmacologic therapies. (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'A viral protein kinase drug target for tumors? (
  • The manufacture of therapeutic proteins often consists of expression of the target protein in an engineered cell line followed by a series of purification steps to remove product- and process-related impurities. (
  • The expression of the inhibitory protein elevated the strain's fitness significantly above the uninhibited wild-type level. (
  • MPO incorporates complementary strategies that optimize expression, trafficking, and protein stability, all designed to increase surface expression while retaining native conformation. (
  • The modification of carriers and the engineering of DNA are proposed to enable efficient and prolonged protein expression after transfection. (
  • Protein X, as well as a peptide derived from it, bolstered mitochondrial function in the stressed cells. (
  • Once inside, they use the cells' machinery to produce a harmless piece of what is called the spike protein. (
  • Next, our cells display the spike protein piece on their surface. (
  • also known as tetherin), which is an interferon (IFN)-inducible protein that restricts the release of progeny virions from infected cells. (
  • Furthermore, decreasing the level of Snapin via specific small interfering RNAs decreased the number of viral DNA copies and titer inHCMV-infected U373-S cells. (
  • These proteins play important roles in cell division, cell differentiation, and the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis). (
  • These mutations result in a K-Ras protein that is constantly turned on (constitutively activated) and directing cells to proliferate in an uncontrolled way, which leads to tumor formation. (
  • The abnormal K-Ras protein is always active and can direct cells to proliferate in an uncontrolled way. (
  • Some membrane proteins are poorly transcribed or translated, in some cases due to incompatible promoters, cells, or growth conditions. (
  • Finally, overexpressed membrane proteins can be toxic to cells due to their biological function, constitutive activity, or activation by serum components. (
  • Binding Assays All assays depend on producing your POI beyond the viral-infected web host cells then calculating its binding to web host proteins. (
  • They found that ICP0 exploits phosphorylation, a chemical mark that is often used in cells to promote interactions between proteins, especially as part of the cellular signaling response to DNA damage. (
  • Gene therapy involves the delivery of exogenous DNA into the target cells in order to produce therapeutic protein or to correct a genetic defect. (
  • The aim of this Master's thesis was to study non-viral gene delivery to RPE cells and endothelial cells using several carrier/DNA combinations. (
  • Motif mimicry tolerates mutations, evolves quickly to modify interactions with the host, and enables modular interactions with protein complexes. (
  • Viral and pathogen proteins intricacy is bound by their relatively little genomes often, hence critical functions are achieved by complexes of host and pathogen protein frequently. (
  • Identification of cellular proteins that interact with NS1 may help in further understanding the functions of NS1. (
  • Weitzman's study team was studying a viral protein called ICP0 that overcomes host defenses by targeting cellular proteins for destruction. (
  • The findings, which elucidate how adenovirus alters host protein-RNA binding to promote the production of viral RNA, were published today in Nature Microbiology . (
  • Adenovirus manipulation of ubiquitination is particularly important for efficient production of viral RNA. (
  • Tobamoviral replicase possesses an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) domain and is translated from genomic (g)RNA via a stop codon readthrough mechanism at a one-to-ten ratio relative to a shorter protein lacking the RDR domain. (
  • Recently, the RNA polymerase (PB2) protein has also been recognized as a critical factor in host range restriction, while the nonstructural (NS1) protein affects the initial host immune responses. (
  • The rate of transport of G protein with a hemagglutinin cytoplasmic domain was threefold slower than wild type G protein and G protein with a p23 cytoplasmic domain, which were transported at similar rates. (
  • Among them, spike protein is the most important surface membrane protein of coronavirus. (
  • Host-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PPIs (protein-protein interactions) were investigated. (
  • Therefore, we examined whether SP-A could bind to HIV and also had any effect on viral infectivity. (
  • Our current arsenal of pox anti-viral agents is limited and only available for emergency use, so new anti-viral treatments would be extremely valuable. (
  • Natural products have played crucial roles in the development of cancer treatments, antibiotics, anti-viral treatments, and blood pressure reducers. (
  • Control of yellow fever is primarily through vaccination, and there is no specific anti-viral treatment available. (
  • Together, these results suggest that SCYL2 serves as a regulatory factor for Vpu, reducing the extent of Vpu phosphorylation and consequently enhancing BST2-mediated viral restriction. (
  • Identifying the precise nature of the proteins contained with the lateral bodies was a complicated process because poxviruses are highly complex molecular structures. (
  • Proteins are separated in the first dimension based on their isoelectric point, and then in the second dimension by molecular weight. (
  • CDER researchers are working to ensure the safety of therapeutic proteins produced by continuous manufacturing. (
  • CDER researchers collaborate with external stakeholders to investigate these unique challenges and their impact on viral safety. (
  • CDER researchers found three process steps to be key for promoting viral clearance during CM operations: capture chromatography, viral inactivation, and viral filtration. (
  • Because rotenone causes a Parkinson-like disorder in rodents, the researchers wanted to see if protein X also protected neurons in a mouse model of PD. (
  • While the findings suggested protein X might have therapeutic potential, the researchers felt the viral delivery method was cumbersome. (
  • The researchers found a unique ubiquitination mechanism that alters protein-RNA binding and promotes viral RNA processing. (
  • The researchers believe that the presence of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in a majority of long COVID patients up to 12 months post-diagnosis suggests the presence of an active persistent SARS-CoV-2 viral reservoir. (
  • As the Nair Lab continues to map out and visualize proteins, the lab's researchers are excited for future so-called 'accidents' to turn into full-blown breakthroughs that advance the medicinal field. (
  • Probably catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. (
  • The KRAS gene provides instructions for making a protein called K-Ras that is part of a signaling pathway known as the RAS/MAPK pathway. (