Proteins found in any species of virus.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.
A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE causing encephalitis and myocarditis in rodents. ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS is the type species.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Use for nucleic acid precursors in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A species of replication-competent oncogene-containing virus in the genus ALPHARETROVIRUS. It is the original source of the src oncogene (V-SRC GENES) and causes sarcoma in chickens.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.
A family of RNA plant viruses with flexuous, filamentous particles and consisting of six genera: POTYVIRUS; Ipomovirus; Macluravirus; Rymovirus; Tritimovirus; and Bymovirus. All members of the family form cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusion bodies during infection.
A genus of DNA plant viruses with bacilliform morphology. Transmission in clonally-propagated plants is by vegetative propagation of infected plant materials. Transmission in nature is by mealybugs, seeds, and pollen. The type species is Commelina yellow mottle virus.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
A family of bisegmented, double-stranded RNA viruses causing infection in fish, mollusks, fowl, and Drosophila. There are three genera: AQUABIRNAVIRUS; AVIBIRNAVIRUS; and ENTOMOBIRNAVIRUS. Horizontal and vertical transmission occurs for all viruses.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE associated with worldwide sporadic outbreaks of GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The first recorded outbreak was in human infants in Sapporo, Japan in 1977. The genus is comprised of a single species, Sapporo virus, containing multiple strains.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.
A genus of plant viruses in the family SEQUIVIRIDAE. Transmission is by APHIDS but depends on the presence of a helper protein encoded by the Anthriscus yellow virus, a WAIKAVIRUS. The type species is Parsnip yellow fleck virus (parsnip serotype).
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A genus of RNA viruses in the family BIRNAVIRIDAE infecting fish, mollusks, and crustaceans. It is transmitted both vertically and horizontally with no known vectors. The natural hosts are salmonids and the type species is INFECTIOUS PANCREATIC NECROSIS VIRUS.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.
Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain piperidine alkaloids (PIPERIDINES).
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
This alteration is mediated by the viral protease, which cleaves the Gag polyprotein precursor, allowing the freed parts to ... Gag is an essential structural protein of the HIV virus. Gag undergoes a chain of interactions both with itself and with other ... Bevirimat prevents this viral replication by specifically inhibiting cleavage of the capsid protein (CA) from the SP1 spacer ... bevirimat and other maturation inhibitors interfere with protease processing of newly translated HIV polyprotein precursor, ...
... codes for the precursor gag polyprotein which is processed by viral protease during maturation to MA (matrix protein, p17); CA ... HIV protease is required to cleave the precursor Gag polyprotein to produce structural proteins, RT is required to transcribe ... Viral structural proteins are encoded by long ORFs, whereas smaller ORFs encode regulators of the viral life cycle: attachment ... some minor proteins, and the major core protein. The genome of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encodes 8 viral proteins ...
The viral-encoded polyprotein precursors are then processed to become structural proteins and viral enzymes forming D-type ... The viral protease is responsible for prepping the structural proteins and viral enzymes for the budding process. In all ... During or shortly thereafter viral budding, viral protease cleaves Gag protein to yield the mature virion-associated proteins ... The reverse transcriptase made up of 1771 amino acid protein, gp70 surface 586 aa protein, Pr95 911 aa protein, and Pr78 657 aa ...
During viral maturation, the Gag polyprotein is cleaved by the retroviral protease into several corresponding structural ... Matrix proteins are produced as N-terminal domains of Gag precursor polyproteins. The Gag polyprotein directs the assembly and ... These proteins line the inner surface of viral envelopes and are associated with viral membranes. ... Although matrix proteins from different viruses appear to perform similar functions and can have similar structural folds, ...
There are 4 genes that encode the viral structural proteins. They are "gag" encoding the structural internal virion proteins ... The viral proteins are synthesized initially as large precursors and are later processed into the mature proteins by ... "-"Pol" polyproteins are cleaved into their mature forms by protease. This step maturation is essential for the formation of ... In vitro assays have found that enJSRV does this by blocking various stages of the viral replication cycle. An example of this ...
The lipid bilayer contains integrated host and viral proteins studded with carbohydrate molecules. The viral particle is ... coding for structural proteins, enzymes including the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase), and coat proteins, ... The viral glycoproteins are expressed on the membrane as trimer of a precursor Env, which is cleaved into SU and TM by host ... In addition to these three polyproteins: Gag, Pol and Env, common to all retroviruses, MLV also produces the p50/p60 proteins ...
"Calicivirus isolate Geel 2008/Belgium non-structural polyprotein gene, partial cds; and capsid protein precursor and small ... The viral genome encodes viral structural protein. Virions consist of 1 viral structural protein (major species), or 2 Viral ... Viral structural protein: Capsid protein has a molar mass of 58000-60000 Da; is the coat protein. Capsid protein has a ... structural proteins (detected in Norwalk virus, amyelosis chronic stunt virus and porcine enteric calicivirus located in the ...
These resulting primers are then incorporated into the viral mRNA. BATV will also encode for two non-structural proteins, NSm ... The M segment has a polyprotein precursor in the open reading frame. The L segment encodes for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ... and non-structural proteins (NSm). The L segment encodes for the replicase/ transcriptase L protein. The nonstructural proteins ... It also contains one open reading frame that encode three proteins of 151, 943, or 1395 amino acids. Viral enveloped ...
The protease cleaves the gag and pol polyprotein precursor. The viral tat gene encodes a 94-amino acid protein. Tat is the most ... The visna viral genome encodes three structural genes characteristic of retroviruses, gag (group specific antigen), pol ( ... The env gene is translated into a single precursor polyprotein that is cleaved by a host protease into two proteins, the ... The viral rev gene encodes a post-transcriptional regulatory protein. Rev is required for expression of unspliced or partially ...
In all retroviruses the Gag protein is the precursor to the internal structural protein. Protease (pro) is expressed ... gag and pol encode polyproteins, each managing the capsid and replication. The pol region encodes enzymes necessary for viral ... Proteins: consisting of gag proteins, protease (PR), pol proteins, and env proteins. Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are ... Pol proteins are responsible for synthesis of viral DNA and integration into host DNA after infection. Env proteins play a role ...
Structural proteins (C, prM/M, E) are capsid, precursor membrane proteins, and envelope proteins, respectively. The structural ... RNA is translated into a polyprotein which is then cleaved by both host and viral proteases NS2B-NS3 to produce mature proteins ... The capsid proteins are one of the first proteins created in an infected cell; the capsid protein is a structural protein whose ... The protein shell is made of two structural proteins: the glycoprotein E and the small membrane protein M. Protein E has ...
... end and non-structural proteins at the 3' end in a single polyprotein. The polyprotein is organised as follows: L-1ABCD-2ABC- ... VPg may also play an important role in specific recognition of viral genome by movement protein (MP). Movement proteins are non ... Precursor proteins also have an effect on VPg-CRE specificity and stability. The upper RNA stem loop, to which VPg binds, has a ... It has both icosahedral virus particles, viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and protease and viral replication proteins. But ...
... the pVP2-VP4-VP3 precursor, which is cleaved into three proteins . Segment B encodes a single viral protein, VP1. Viral protein ... Viral protein 4 is a serine protease, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of polyprotein pVP2-VP4-VP3 to release the viral proteins ... Viral protein 2 is a major structural component of the virion. The protein contains three domains: base, shell, and projection ... Viral protein 3 is an immunogenic protein that interacts with VP1. Its helps to regulate VP2 apoptosis by inhibiting ...
Non structural protein VP5 is found in RNA segment A.[citation needed] The function of this small viral protein is unknown. It ... Jagadish MN, Staton VJ, Hudson PJ, Azad AA (March 1988). "Birnavirus precursor polyprotein is processed in Escherichia coli by ... Analyses of viral proteins showed that VP2 is the major structural and immunogenic polypeptide of the virus. All neutralizing ... that is processed into the major structural proteins of the virion: VP2, VP3 (a minor structural component of the virus), and ...
... however while doing so it transcribes viral RNA which is then translated into precursor polyproteins. At this point in the ... Foamy viruses also contain structural genes that are distinct to their particular genus. The Gag protein is not always ... Viral fusion is mediated through the TM glycoprotein. The fusion process is imitated when the TM protein is cleaved by the ... Inside the matrix lies the capsid, a protein shell that contains viral intigrase, reverse-transcriptase and the nucleocapsid, ...
Host proteases cut this polyprotein into three structural (C, prM, E) and seven nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, ... The sfRNAs are a result of incomplete degradation of the viral genome by the exonuclease and are important for viral ... so is denoted as precursor M (prM) and forms a complex with protein E. The immature particles are processed in the Golgi ... Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ...
Short for non-structural protein 2, NSP2 is one of the many non-structural proteins encoded in the orf1ab polyprotein. NSP2 ... Lengths shown are for the precursor proteins. SLC46A3 is an integral membrane protein 461 amino acids (aa) of length with a ... "The nsp2 proteins of mouse hepatitis virus and SARS coronavirus are dispensable for viral replication". Advances in ... S-palmitoylation can also modulate protein-protein interactions of SLC46A3 by changing the affinity of the protein for lipid ...
... is required to cleave a viral polyprotein precursor into individual mature proteins. The viral RNA and viral proteins assemble ... A very critical step is the proteolytic cleavage of the polypeptide precursors into mature enzymes and structural proteins ... a b c d e f g h i j k Wlodawer, A. (2002) Rational approach to AIDS drug design through structural biology. Annual Review of ... The mRNA is then translated into viral proteins and the third virally encoded enzyme, namely HIV protease, ...
Once viral genome and viral proteins reach high enough concentrations within the host cell, structural proteins must assemble. ... The final step in maturation of the virus is when VP0, a precursor protein, is cleaved into VP2 and VP4. Viral capsid proteins ... cleave the polyprotein into individual proteins that will help continue the viral replication process. As soon as viral ... UTR is the viral protein VPg which aids in viral entry and replication. 2A and 3C are viral proteinases which aid in the ...
The Gag-Pol polyprotein, which contains premature coding proteins, including HIV-1 PR. PR is located between the reverse ... The HIV-1 PR precursor catalyzes its own production by facilitating its cleavage from the Gag-Pol polyprotein in a mechanism ... The reverse transcriptase converts viral RNA into DNA, facilitating the integrase's role in incorporating viral genetic ... Nature Structural Biology. 3 (11): 946-50. doi:10.1038/nsb1196-946. PMID 8901873. S2CID 1076528. Liu H, Müller-Plathe F, van ...
Identification of a distinct autoepitope homologous to a viral gag polyprotein". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 85 (5 ... "Aberrant nuclear trafficking of La protein leads to disordered processing of associated precursor tRNAs". Molecular Cell. 9 (5 ... "Structural basis for recognition and sequestration of UUU(OH) 3' temini of nascent RNA polymerase III transcripts by La, a ... Sjögren syndrome type B antigen (SS-B) also known as Lupus La protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSB gene. ...
... the RNA genome encodes seven nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins in the form of a single polyprotein (Q32ZE1 ... The viral protein numbered NS4A can lead to small head size (microcephaly) because it disrupts brain growth by hijacking a ... the spermatozoa precursors. Semen parameters can be altered in patients for several weeks post-symptoms onset, and spermatozoa ... One of the structural proteins encapsulates the virus. This protein is the flavivirus envelope glycoprotein, that binds to the ...
... encoding a large polyprotein which is cleaved into six smaller non-structural proteins (NS1/2 to NS7) by the viral 3C-like ... FUT2 fucosyl-transferase transfers a fucose sugar to the end of the ABO(H) precursor in gastrointestinal cells and saliva ... a major structural protein (VP1) of about 58~60 kDa and a minor capsid protein (VP2). The most variable region of the viral ... The protein MDA-5 may be the primary immune sensor that detects the presence of noroviruses in the body. Some people have ...
... with the portion of the genome that produces the structural proteins of the capsid in order to produce functioning viral ... It is uncertain whether or not the P1 precursor assemblages are precursors themselves to the final capsid form or if they are ... "Triatoma virus structural polyprotein expression, processing and assembly into virus-like particles". Journal of General ... Four structural proteins comprise the capsid: VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4. VP1, VP2, and VP3 compose the main structural units of ...
Viral proteins: Viral mRNA is translated on cellular ribosomes into two types of viral protein: Structural: proteins which make ... must provide the energy and synthetic machinery and the low molecular-weight precursors for the synthesis of viral proteins and ... genome RNA forms the mRNA and is translated into a polyprotein product that is subsequently cleaved to form the mature proteins ... stranded genome by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to yield monocistronic mRNAs that code for the various viral proteins ...
The protein is called syncytin in mammals. Viral structural protein Gene+Products,+env at the US National Library of Medicine ... This precursor is cleaved by host cell enzymes to yield the surface protein subunit, gp85, and the transmembrane protein ... The Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV) env gene codes for a polyprotein gp70 (P10259) that is cleaved to yield the surface (SU) ... Env is a viral gene that encodes the protein forming the viral envelope. The expression of the env gene enables retroviruses to ...
The unspliced viral RNA translation produces env, gag, and gag-pol polyproteins. The Env becomes a polypeptide precursor and ... This gene was discovered using a non-virulent protein of murine leukemia virus. This protein will block replication of some ... Many also share a conserved RNA structural element called a core encapsidation signal. The avian reticuloendotheliosis viruses ... Viral double-stranded DNA is then integrated into the host cell genome via viral integrase, an enzyme that allows for viral DNA ...
This alteration is mediated by the viral protease, which cleaves the Gag polyprotein precursor, allowing the freed parts to ... Gag is an essential structural protein of the HIV virus. Gag undergoes a chain of interactions both with itself and with other ... Bevirimat prevents this viral replication by specifically inhibiting cleavage of the capsid protein (CA) from the SP1 spacer ... bevirimat and other maturation inhibitors interfere with protease processing of newly translated HIV polyprotein precursor, ...
In this review, we will analyze the host and viral factors taking part in the development of MCII in order to give a general ... the involvement of complement factors and the specific role of some HCV proteins. ... It is cleaved by viral and host proteases, resulting in a series of structural (core, E1 and E2) and nonstructural proteins (p7 ... HCV genome is approximately 9,600 base pairs long and encodes a polyprotein precursor of about 3,000 amino acids. ...
HIV-1 assembly is a multistep process mediated primarily by the viral structural protein, Gag. This protein, synthesized as a ... 2003) Involvement of the matrix and nucleocapsid domains of the bovine leukemia virus Gag polyprotein precursor in viral RNA ... 1982) Binding sites of viral protein P19 onto Rous sarcoma virus RNA and possible controls of viral functions. J Mol Biol 160: ... 2006) Structural basis for targeting HIV-1 Gag proteins to the plasma membrane for virus assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103: ...
Buy the Paperback Book HIV Interactions with Host Cell Proteins by Paul Spearman at, Canadas largest bookstore. + ... HIV assembly is a process directed by the viral Gag polyprotein. Gag is a myristoylated precursor protein that is translated in ... The mechanism and structural basis for this interaction is now under intense study. Our hypothesis is that the AP-3 interaction ... Preface.- Host restriction of HIV-1 by APOBEC3 and viral evasion through Vif.- Interactions of viral protein U (Vpu) with ...
Co- and posttranslational processing by cellular and viral proteases generates three structural proteins, C, prM, and E, and ... The genome is approximately 11 kb long and encodes a polyprotein precursor of about 3,400 amino acid residues. ... The NS1 protein could be detected even when viral RNA was negative in reverse transcriptase-PCR or in the presence of ... This assay was at least 10 times less sensitive for the detection of NS1 proteins of other viral serotypes than for the ...
Two non-structural proteins, NS3 and NS2b, play an essential role in viral replication, and are therefore potential targets for ... Requiring NS2b as the cofactor, NS3 protease processes viral polyprotein precursor.. * wnvNS3 Protease ...
... the remainder coding for non-structural proteins. The polyprotein serves as the precursor to at least 10 separate viral ... HCV E1 protein, HCV E2 protein, HCV p7 protein, HCV NS2 protein, HCV NS3 protein, HCV NS4a protein, HCV NS4b protein, HCV NS5a ... The organization of structural and non-structural proteins in the HCV polyprotein is as follows: C-E1-E2-p7-NS2-NS3-NS4a-NS4b- ... encoding a polyprotein precursor that is processed to yield the structural proteins and enzymatic activities required for viral ...
cleaves precursor polyprotein to form the final structural protein of the mature virion core, inhibits viral protein processing ... Inhibits neuraminidase which cleaves sialic acid residues from viral proteins and surface proteins of infected cells , decrease ... Blocks viral attachment by blocking CCR5, a transmembrane protein involved in the attachment of HIV to host cell ... Activated by viral thymidine kinase (TK) to forms that inhibit viral DNA polymerase, guanosine analog, competitive substrate ...
VP3 form a closed capsid enclosing the viral positive strand RNA genome. Capsid proteins interact with host alpha-V/beta-3 ... Protease 3C: cysteine protease that generates mature viral proteins from the precursor polyprotein. In addition to its ... Protein 2C: Associates with and induces structural rearrangements of intracellular membranes. It displays RNA-binding, ... Capsid proteins VP0, VP2, VP3 form a closed capsid enclosing the viral positive strand RNA genome. Capsid proteins interact ...
... dimeric aspartyl protease which specifically cleaves the polyprotein precursors encoding the structural proteins and enzymes of ... dimeric aspartyl protease which specifically cleaves the polyprotein precursors encoding the structural proteins and enzymes of ... multidisciplinary efforts that have been applied to date to the identification of specific inhibitors of this critical viral ...
RNA is the messenger for the translation of the gag and pol genes encoding the precursors to the major structural proteins and ... is formed of independent well-structured domains involved in key steps of the viral life cycle such as the initiation of ... An internal ribosomal entry mechanism promotes translation of murine leukemia virus gag polyprotein precursors.. C Berlioz, J L ... An internal ribosomal entry mechanism promotes translation of murine leukemia virus gag polyprotein precursors. ...
Purchase From Gene to Protein: Information Transfer in Normal and Abnormal Cells - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Synthesis and Posttranslational Modification of Retrovirus Precursor Polyproteins Encoded by gag and env Genes. Avian ... Protein Phosphatase C: Properties, Specificity, and Structural Relationship to a Larger Holoenzyme. Regulation of Pyruvate ... Synthesis and Maturation of Transmembrane Viral Glycoproteins. The Control of Protein Synthesis in Rabbit Reticulocyte Lysates ...
... from a cDNA construct that encompasses the region encoding the 980 amino-terminal residues of the viral polyprotein precursor. ... Processing of the putative structural proteins of hepatitis C virus was examined by using an in vitro expression system. An RNA ... Analysis of processed proteins translated from a series of truncated forms of the cDNA construct as well as determination of ... Gene mapping of the putative structural region of the hepatitis C virus genome by in vitro processing analysis.. M Hijikata, N ...
The Caliciviridae genome encodes a polyprotein precursor for nonstructural proteins, and 2 structural capsid proteins, viral ... Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees of the amino acid sequences of the partial polyprotein sequence (A), viral protein (VP) 1 ( ... Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees of the amino acid sequences of the partial polyprotein sequence (A), viral protein (VP) 1 ( ... The partial polyprotein precursor and complete VP1 and VP2 proteins were aligned with corresponding sequences of representative ...
... codes for the precursor gag polyprotein which is processed by viral protease during maturation to MA (matrix protein, p17); CA ... HIV protease is required to cleave the precursor Gag polyprotein to produce structural proteins, RT is required to transcribe ... Viral structural proteins are encoded by long ORFs, whereas smaller ORFs encode regulators of the viral life cycle: attachment ... some minor proteins, and the major core protein. The genome of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encodes 8 viral proteins ...
... to combat infection and spread of RNA virusesDevelop novel methods for the recombinant production of challenging proteins in ... information on viral proteins stems from structural results of individual domains or mature forms of the viral proteins. To ... it is absolutely necessary to examine the changes in the properties of viral proteins before and after polyprotein processing. ... and even less about the structural properties of the precursor forms. Much of the existing biochemical and biophysical ...
... vector that contains the coding regions for the FMDV A24 structural protein precursor and the 3C protease (Ad5-A24), a viral ... enzyme required for capsid polyprotein processing. One dose of this vaccine protects both swine and cattle as early as 7 days. ... In the present study, we added the coding regions of FMDV nonstructural proteins (NSPs) 2B and 2C to enhance the immunogenicity ... Title: Delivery of Both Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Structural and Nonstructural Antigens Improves Protection of Swine ...
The polyprotein precursor is co- and posttranslationally processed by cellular and viral proteases to yield the mature ... structural and nonstructural proteins (39). The structural proteins are believed to be processed by the endoplasmic reticulum ( ... 1995) Hepatitis C virus-encoded nonstructural protein NS4A has versatile functions in viral protein processing. J. Virol. 69: ... protein NS3 from yellow fever virus is a serine protease responsible for site specific cleavages in the viral polyprotein. Proc ...
... a 3C-like protease that plays an important role in processing viral polyprotein precursors into mature non-structural proteins ... a 3C-like protease that plays an important role in processing viral polyprotein precursors into mature non-structural proteins ... One possible factor is non-structural protein 6 (NSP6), ... study examined the effects of ectopic expression of the protein ... To fully establish a role for NSP6, the present study examined the effects of ectopic expression of the protein in rabbit (RK13 ...
Being able to simultaneously amplify the whole genome and identify enteroviruses in samples is important for studying the viral ... Being able to simultaneously amplify the whole genome and identify enteroviruses in samples is important for studying the viral ... These precursors are subsequently cleaved to give functional proteins: (1) P1 giving rise to four structural capsid proteins ( ... flanking a large open reading frame encoding a polyprotein that is cleaved to give three precursors P1 to P3. ...
... contained in the nsp3 protein generates viral non-structural proteins from a polyprotein precursor, and cleaves ubiquitin and ... The main viral protease (nsp5) of SARS-CoV-2 provides an excellent target for antivirals, due to its essential and conserved ... The most potent and commercially available peptidyl-FMK compound inhibited viral growth in Vero E6 cells to some extent, while ... Calpain inhibitor I inhibited viral infection in monkey-derived Vero E6 cells, with an EC 50 in the low micromolar range. ...
Articles on viral structure, function, and genetics will be considered, as well as articles focusing on virus-host interactions ... and clinical studies on viruses and viral diseases. ... Structural proteins made by the hepatitis C virus include the ... leading to the production of a precursor polyprotein, which is then cleaved by both cellular and viral proteases into three ... the polyprotein). The large polyprotein is later cut by cellular and viral proteases into the 10 smaller proteins that allow ...
... is cleaved and released from the polyprotein by L protease and processed by viral protease 3C to form four structural proteins ... "A recombinant pseudorabies virus co-expressing capsid proteins precursor P1-2A of FMDV and VP2 protein of porcine parvovirus: a ... W. H. Wu, Y. Fang, R. Farwell et al., "A 10-kDa structural protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ... S. Dea, C. A. Gagnon, H. Mardassi, B. Pirzadeh, and D. Rogan, "Current knowledge on the structural proteins of porcine ...
The medium segment encodes a precursor polyprotein, which gives rise to the viral surface glycoproteins (Gc and Gn) and to a ... The small RNA encodes a structural nucleocapsid (N) protein, as well as a smaller nonstructural protein (NSS) in overlapping ... RNA extraction was conducted by using a commercial kit (QIAmp Viral RNA Mini Kit; QIAGEN, Valencia, CA, USA) according to the ... The large RNA segment encodes a large protein that has RNA polymerase activity for transcription and replication of genomic RNA ...
17D virus in which the prM-E envelope protein genes are replaced with the corresponding genes of the WN NY99 virus. Pre- ... and post-translationally into individual viral proteins, the structural proteins C (capsid), prM/M (pre-membrane/membrane) and ... The ORF encodes a polyprotein precursor C-prM/M-E-NS1-NS2A/2B-NS3-NS4A/4B-NS5 that is cleaved co- ... proteins essential for virus replication. The E protein is the main functional protein of the envelope responsible for virus ...
The nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) from the hepatitis C virus processes the non-structural region of the viral precursor ... polyprotein in infected hepatic cells. The NS3 protease activity has been considered a target for drug development since its ... Protein, Protein Binding, Computational Biology, Drug Design, optimization (mathematics), Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, ... We found ligands binding to the Zn(+2)-free NS3 protease, trap the inactive protein, and block the viral life cycle. The ...
... a precursor of the viral replicase (Rep). Downstream from the Rep gene there are four structural proteins, 5-Rep-S-E-M-N-3, ... Gene 1 consists of two overlapping regions (ORF1a and ORF1b), and is translated into a polyprotein, ... The nucleocapsid protein N is a phosphoprotein of 50 to 60 kd that interacts with viral genomic RNA to form the viral ... The N protein in the viral nucleocapsid further interacts with M protein leading to the formation of virus particles. ...
The polyprotein is processed by host cell and viral proteases into three major structural proteins and several non structural ... The hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein represents the first 191 amino acids of the viral precursor polyprotein and is ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core is a viral structural protein; it also participates in some cellular processes, including ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ...
... genome organization implies that mature viral proteins are produced by posttranslational cleavage of a polyprotein precursor ... The structural proteins are found within the amino-terminal 780 residues of this polyprotein; the remainder of the open reading ... frame consists of nonstructural viral polypeptides. This ...
The viral protein main protease is required for cleaving precursor polyproteins into functional viral proteins. This essential ... 30-kb RNA genome encoding two large overlapping polyprotein precursors (pp1a and pp1ab), four structural proteins (spike, ... The cleavage of the two polyproteins (pp1a/pp1ab) into individual nonstructural proteins is essential for viral genome ... Boceprevir, GC-376, and calpain inhibitors II, XII inhibit SARS-CoV-2 viral replication by targeting the viral main protease. ...
  • Bevirimat prevents this viral replication by specifically inhibiting cleavage of the capsid protein (CA) from the SP1 spacer protein. (
  • Two non-structural proteins, NS3 and NS2b, play an essential role in viral replication, and are therefore potential targets for treatment and prevention of West Nile Virus disease. (
  • Despite the commonality of polyprotein processing as a means of regulating the viral life cycle, very little is known about the higher order complexes of replication proteins post-processing, and even less about the structural properties of the precursor forms. (
  • We have previously developed an alternative strategy that overcomes these disadvantages using a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vector that contains the coding regions for the FMDV A24 structural protein precursor and the 3C protease (Ad5-A24), a viral enzyme required for capsid polyprotein processing. (
  • The proteolytic events mediated by the NS3 serine protease have been shown to be essential for viral replication in vivo in the related yellow fever ( 4 ) and bovine viral diarrhea viruses ( 50 ), as well as very recently also in HCV ( 23a ). (
  • The two copies of RNA strands are vital in contributing to HIV-1 recombination, which occurs during reverse transcription of viral replication. (
  • Viral structural proteins are encoded by long ORFs, whereas smaller ORFs encode regulators of the viral life cycle: attachment, membrane fusion, replication, and assembly. (
  • We developed a protease assay that was used to screen a custom compound library from which we identified dihydrotanshinone I and Ro 08-2750 as compounds that inhibit PLpro in protease and isopeptidase assays and also inhibit viral replication in cell culture-based assays. (
  • The main viral protease (nsp5) of SARS-CoV-2 provides an excellent target for antivirals, due to its essential and conserved function in the viral replication cycle. (
  • The 5′ and 3′ ends of the RNA are not translated into proteins (UTR) but are important to translation and replication of the viral RNA. (
  • The large RNA segment encodes a large protein that has RNA polymerase activity for transcription and replication of genomic RNA segments. (
  • An HCV cell culture system is critical for studying various stages of HCV growth including viral entry, genome replication, packaging, and egress. (
  • The polyprotein is processed by host cell and viral proteases into three major structural proteins and several non structural proteins necessary for viral replication. (
  • This genome organization implies that mature viral proteins are produced by posttranslational cleavage of a polyprotein precursor and has implications for flavivirus RNA replication and for the evolutionary relation of this virus family to other RNA viruses. (
  • Epidemiological reports have suggested that malarial infection transiently enhances HIV-1 replication and increases HIV-1 viral load in co-infected individuals 2,3 . (
  • parasite with a noncellular structure composed mainly of nucleic acid nucleic acid, any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis. (
  • These observations suggest that for viruses composed of unprocessed precursors, replication is interrupted before the reverse transcription step. (
  • These data demonstrate that ZIKV elicits mechanisms to counteract host anti-viral stress responses to promote a cellular environment propitious for viral replication. (
  • Our work demonstrates that ZIKV prevents a host stress response in order to maintain a cellular environment propitious for viral replication. (
  • However, the mechanism by which resting CD4 + T cells restrict such production in the late viral replication phase of infection has remained unclear. (
  • Screening of a library of human cell surface membrane proteins showed that the virus could utilize human junctional adhesion molecule 1 as a receptor to enter cells and initiate replication. (
  • The nonstructural proteins are encoded within a large polyprotein in ORF1 beginning at the 5′ end of the genome and are released by proteolytic cleavage during replication. (
  • NS5 (non structural protein 5) may play a role in the viral RNA replication of the Hepatitis C Virus. (
  • NS5A is a ~56 kDa pleiotropic protein with key roles in both viral RNA replication and modulation of the physiology of the host cell. (
  • NS5B (non-structural protein 5B) is an RNA-dependant RNA polymerase responsible for replication of the hepatitis C viral genome, and is currently a principal target for chemotherapeutic inhibition of HCV replication. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus-1 capsid (HIV-1 CA) is involved in different stages of the viral replication cycle. (
  • In addition to its functions in late stages of the viral replication cycle, CA plays key roles in a number of processes during early phases of HIV-1 infection including trafficking, uncoating, recognition by host cellular proteins and nuclear import of the viral pre-integration complex. (
  • In this review, we will summarize available data on CA functions in HIV-1 replication, describing in detail its roles in late and early phases of the viral replication cycle. (
  • These compounds are inhibitors of RNA-dependent RNA viral replication and are useful for the treatment of RNA-dependent RNA viral infection. (
  • It is believed that most of the non-structural proteins encoded by the HCV RNA genome are involved in RNA replication. (
  • As such NC protein drives critical structural rearrangements of the genomic RNA, notably RNA dimerization in the course of virus assembly and viral nucleic acid annealing required for genomic RNA replication by the viral reverse transcriptase (RT). (
  • The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, or NS5B, is a key enzyme in the HCV replication complex within an infected cell, and is responsible for the production of nascent genomes for packaging into new virions. (
  • The 5′ end of the 5′ UTR is covalently bound to the viral 3B (or VPg) protein, which is crucial for viral RNA replication. (
  • Characteristic features of all members of the family are three capsid proteins with β-barrel folding, polyprotein processing by virus-encoded cysteine proteinase(s), and replication by an RNA-directed RNA polymerase with a YGDD sequence motif. (
  • Therefore, it is essential that continued attempts be made to build up novel medicines targeting methods in the viral replication routine not suffering from current therapies. (
  • As an extra advantage, developing inhibitors against book targets offers a prosperity of fundamental mechanistic information Pazopanib HCl regarding fundamental areas of viral replication. (
  • Additionally, NS4B, a key protein in the virus replication, can be an alternative target for antiviral therapy. (
  • There are four non-structural proteins, designated nsP1-4, which encode the viral replication machinery of the togaviruses. (
  • Alteration of the glycosylation can negatively affect viral replication. (
  • The isolation of enzymatically active RCs containing both viral and cellular proteins should facilitate efforts to dissect the contributions of the virus and the host to FCV RNA replication. (
  • It also talks about nidovirus genome structure and virion proteins, and nidovirus replication. (
  • Following infection of a susceptible cell by a nidovirus and uncoating of the RNA genome, the first step in a successful replication cycle is the production of the replicase proteins. (
  • In addition to its proteolytic activity, it binds to viral RNA, and thus influences viral genome replication. (
  • Note=Probably localizes to the surface of intracellular membrane vesicles that are induced after virus infection as the site for viral RNA replication. (
  • In mammals, early resistance to viruses relies on interferons, which protect differentiated cells but not stem cells from viral replication. (
  • Here, we have expressed, purified and developed enzymatic assays for SARS-CoV-2 nsp13 helicase, a viral replication protein that is essential for the coronavirus life cycle. (
  • Regardless of the really low level of series identification between them, both subdomains adopt the same / flip initially discovered in the RecA proteins (Xu (1995) attemptedto reconcile the structural variety among the particular polymerases and just how they affiliate with Triciribine phosphate NS3 subdomain 3 to create the replication complicated. (
  • All of the nonconservative amino acid substitutions abolished viral infectivity and only 5 of 10 conservative changes yielded replication-competent virus. (
  • All mutations that abrogated CTL recognition strongly impaired viral replication, and all replication-competent viral variants were recognized by CTL, although some variants with a lower efficiency. (
  • Our data indicate that this CTL epitope is located within a viral sequence essential for viral replication. (
  • NS3 is a protease and a helicase, whereas NS5 is the RNA polymerase in charge of viral RNA replication. (
  • Despite the fact that, diverse sets of substances have been referred to as antiviral goals against HCV via Particularly Targeted Antiviral Therapy for hepatitis C (STAT-C) strategy (where substances are made to straight stop HCV or web host proteins worried in HCV replication), still there's a need to enhance the properties of existing antiviral substances. (
  • Amprenavir binds to the catalytic aspartate residues of the HIV-1 protease and hence inhibits the processing of the gag and gag-po l polyprotein precursors, which cleave to yield structural proteins and replication enzymes of HIV, resulting in immature and noninfectious viral particles. (
  • While structural protein contribute to development of the older virion, nonstructural protein perform replication from the viral genome and defend the replicating trojan from attack with the BMS-707035 hosts disease fighting capability by modulating the web host cell environment [6]. (
  • It's been demonstrated that mutation of residues inside the DEN capping enzyme website eliminates viral replication, therefore highlighting the fundamental character of its features [10,12,13,14]. (
  • Used together, the need of capping enzyme activity for viral replication, the initial character GTP binding seen in the NS5 capping enzyme, as well as the potential wide range applications of flavivirus capping enzyme inhibitors make the capping enzyme a stunning focus BMS-707035 on for antiviral medication style. (
  • Promotes viral replication. (
  • No vaccine or specific antiviral treatment is available for treating Norovirus infection although the observation that the anti-viral nucleoside analogue 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine inhibits murine norovirus replication in macrophages has elicited hopes that this compound can be developed into medication for the treatment of infection with this virus. (
  • Remarkably, viral proteases found within the polyprotein are capable of performing multiple cleavages that can be separated by long distances in linear sequence. (
  • The polyprotein precursor is co- and posttranslationally processed by cellular and viral proteases to yield the mature structural and nonstructural proteins ( 39 ). (
  • The positive-stranded viral RNA genome encodes a single polyprotein precursor that is processed into structural proteins (core, envelope protein 1, and envelope protein 2) and nonstructural proteins (p7, NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B) by host and viral proteases (reviewed in references 32 and 39 ). (
  • These proteases are required for cleavage of specific regions of the precursor polyprotein into mature peptides. (
  • It genomes comprises a ~11kb long single strand positive-sense RNA that encodes a polyprotein precursor that is cleaved by virus and host cell proteases. (
  • The resulting polyprotein is subsequently cleaved by cellular and viral proteases at specific recognition sites. (
  • The flavivirus genome rules for an individual polyprotein precursor that's ultimately cleaved by web host and viral proteases into three structural proteins (C, prM and E) and eight non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, 2K, NS4B and NS5) [6]. (
  • HIV, Zika virus, Dengue virus, West Nile virus, chikungunya virus, and SARS virus), utilize a gene expression mechanism wherein one gene encodes a single polyprotein that is post-translationally cleaved into individual proteins. (
  • The genome is approximately 10,000 nucleotides and encodes a single polyprotein of about 3,000 amino acids. (
  • The structural polyprotein is translated from a viral sub genomic mRNA, while as the 5 structural proteins (capsid, E3, E2, 6K, E1) are translated as a single polyprotein, from which capsid (C) is cleaved off to encapsidate. (
  • The viral genome is a positive polarity single-stranded RNA molecule of approximately 9.5 kb in length that has a unique open-reading frame, coding for a single polyprotein. (
  • The virus has a genome of about 11000 bases that encodes a single large polyprotein that is subsequently cleaved into several structural and non-structural mature peptides. (
  • virus genome to be molecularly cloned and se- The RNA encodes a large polyprotein which is quenced. (
  • Capsid proteins interact with host alpha-V/beta-3 integrin heterodimer to provide virion attachment target cell. (
  • The genomic retroviral RNA is the messenger for the translation of the gag and pol genes encoding the precursors to the major structural proteins and enzymes, respectively, of the virion core. (
  • Each virion comprises a viral envelope and associated matrix enclosing a capsid, which itself encloses two copies of the single-stranded RNA genome and several enzymes. (
  • The single-strand RNA is tightly bound to p7 nucleocapsid proteins, late assembly protein p6, and enzymes essential to the development of the virion, such as reverse transcriptase and integrase. (
  • envelope]] of the virion is formed by a plasma membrane of host cell origin, which is supported by a matrix composed of the viral p17 protein, ensuring the integrity of the virion particle. (
  • Viral dynamics include daily virion production of 10 12 with a half-life of 2-3 hours for free virions and less for intracellular virions. (
  • Typically the protein coat, or capsid, of an individual virus particle, or virion, is composed of multiple copies of one or several types of protein subunits, or capsomeres. (
  • In this study, we found that the cell membrane metalloprotease TRAB domain-containing protein 2A (TRABD2A) inhibited this production in resting CD4 + T cells by degrading the virion structural precursor polyprotein Gag at the plasma membrane. (
  • During virion assembly, CA drives the formation of the hexameric lattice in immature viral particles, while in mature virions CA monomers assemble in cone-shaped cores surrounding the viral RNA genome and associated proteins. (
  • Concomitant with or shortly after budding of the immature virion, PR cleaves the Gag precursor molecules into the distinct proteins thus initiating the maturation process (Fig. 1 B). These PR-driven proteolysis events result in significant structural rearrangements of the virion interior, including the assembly of the fullerene-like, cone-shaped core, which is essential for productive viral infection. (
  • In the immature virion (left) Gag molecules are radially organized in the hexameric lattice (Gag domains are shown in the same colors as in A ). Two molecules of viral genomic RNA (magenta) per virion are packaged. (
  • The structural nature of apoE was further confirmed by electronic microscopy studies demonstrating 364042-47-7 manufacture that apoE 364042-47-7 manufacture is definitely located on the package of the HCV virion (37, 38). (
  • In members of genera where the 1AB is cleaved in the complete virion, empty capsids, which are produced by some picornaviruses, are very similar to virions, except that 1A and 1B are normally replaced by the uncleaved precursor, 1AB. (
  • Maturation of HIV-1 contaminants, which is definitely triggered from the action from the viral PR, happens concomitantly with virion launch from the contaminated cell (6,C8). (
  • Cleavage from the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins leads to a marked switch in virion morphology. (
  • In the immature particle, the Gag precursor proteins are organized radially round the external edge from the disease particle, whereas in the mature virion the CA proteins assemble right into a located, conical primary (known as the capsid) where the viral RNA genome as well as the viral enzymes RT and IN reside. (
  • The final phase-maturation, which overlaps with packaging-consists of programmed structural changes that convert the provirion into an infectious, virion. (
  • 11886265 ). Also promotes fusion of viral membrane with host endosomal membrane after endocytosis of the virion. (
  • Protein VP2: Virion. (
  • Protein VP3: Virion. (
  • Protein VP1: Virion. (
  • Protein 3B: Virion (Potential). (
  • Both gp35 and gp70 could be candidates of initially processed forms of envelope proteins of the hepatitis C virus. (
  • As the only proteins on the surface of the virus, the envelope glycoproteins (gp120 and gp41) are the major targets for HIV vaccine efforts. (
  • An HCV particle consists of a core of genetic material (RNA), surrounded by an icosahedral protective shell of protein, and is further encased in a lipid envelope. (
  • Two viral envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, are embedded in the lipid envelope [ 8 ]. (
  • This review focuses on the construction, pre-clinical and clinical characterization of ChimeriVax-WN02 for humans, a live chimeric vaccine composed of a yellow fever (YF) 17D virus in which the prM-E envelope protein genes are replaced with the corresponding genes of the WN NY99 virus. (
  • Yet structural data on the viral envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 are scarce, in spite of their essential role in the viral life cycle. (
  • Little structural information is available on the envelope proteins, which are heavily glycosylated, display hypervariable loops, and are stabilized by numerous disulfide bridges [4] . (
  • In viruses with a membrane envelope the nucleocapsid (capsid plus nucleic acid) enters the cell cytoplasm by a process in which the viral envelope merges with a host cell membrane, often the membrane delimiting an endocytic structure (see endocytosis endocytosis , in biology, process by which substances are taken into the cell. (
  • The nucleocapsid is tightly enveloped by a host-derived lipid bilayer (envelope) supporting the virus-encoded envelope proteins. (
  • 80 glycoprotein spikes are C- terminally anchored within the viral envelope. (
  • The envelope polyprotein precursor E3-E2-6K-E1 is translocated to the endoplasmatic reticulum. (
  • HIV regulatory, accessory proteins and envelope proteins are play a major role in vaccine development. (
  • Viral structural proteins include a nucleocapsid core protein (C) and two envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2. (
  • We here show that milligram amounts of the small envelope protein of the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) can be produced using cell-free expression, and that the protein self-assembles into subviral particles. (
  • It encodes for a polyprotein that is cleaved to form segments for capsid protein (C), precursor membrane protein (prM), envelope protein (E), and seven other proteins that are non-structural (NS). (
  • isoelectrofocusing of nonionic-detergent-disrupted flaviviruses separated the envelope glycoprotein of 53,000 to 58,000 daltons and the nucleocapsid protein of 14,000 daltons. (
  • the envelope protein and nucleocapsid protein were isolated at isoelectric points of pi 7.8 and 10.3, respectively. (
  • the antigenic determinants of st. louis encephalitis, japanese encephalitis, and dengue virus envelope and nucleocapsid proteins were examined by solid-phase competition radioimmunoassay. (
  • The structural proteins consist of the capsid protein (C or CP), the two surface envelope glycoproteins (E1 and E2) and two small peptides (E3 and 6K) which serve as leader peptides for E2 and E1 respectively but are not present in all alphaviruses. (
  • Multiple viral glycoproteins are implanted in the envelope. (
  • Between the capsid and the envelope is a compartment called the tegument that accommodates viral proteins destined for delivery into a host cell. (
  • Antibody Response in Cats to the Envelope Proteins of Feline Immunodeficincy Virus: identification of an Immunodominant Neutralization Domain", Virology, 1994, vol. 198, pp. 257-264. (
  • The neutralizing antibodies are produced against its pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) proteins, however, the cross-reactive antibodies may interact with the antigens of other flaviviruses in addition to ZV itself resulting in the antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) phenomenon, a risk for DENV immune ZV vaccine candidates. (
  • There are 180 identical copies of the envelope (E) protein attached to the surface of the viral membrane by a short transmembrane segment. (
  • The structural proteins are the capsid (C) protein, the envelope (E) glycoprotein and the membrane (M) protein, itself derived by furine-mediated cleavage from a prM precursor. (
  • In the infectious form of the virus, the envelope protein lays flat on the surface of the virus, forming a smooth coat with icosahedral symmetry. (
  • The subsequently formed immature virions are assembled by budding of newly formed nucleocapsids into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), thereby acquiring a lipid bilayer envelope with the structural proteins prM and E. The virions mature during transport through the acidic trans-Golgi network, where the prM proteins stabilize the E proteins to prevent conformational changes. (
  • Structurally are con-stituted by two identical strands of (+)RNA associated with matrix proteins, a double protein capsid, and a lipid envelope with inserted glycoproteins. (
  • Glycoprotein (gp160) is the major envelope glycoprotein and is composed of a trans-membrane segment (gp41) noncovalently bound to the external major glyco-protein (gp120), highly immunogenic. (
  • In addition, coexpression with NS4A dramatically increased the intracellular stability of NS3 (mean protein half-life of 26 versus 3 h) and allowed for NS4A-dependent trans -cleavage at the NS4B-NS5A junction. (
  • Cleavage at the NS2-NS3 site is mediated by a viral protease composed of NS2 and the amino-terminal one-third of NS3 ( 13 , 18 , 38 ). (
  • that is released from larger precursors molecules via proteolytic cleavage at the N and C termini. (
  • Maturation of the vesivirus major capsid protein VP1 involves proteolytic cleavage of the capsid precursor protein between the capsid leader sequence (LC) and VP1 by the same viral proteinase that mediates processing of the ORF1 polyprotein ( 4 ). (
  • p200 is the polyprotein precursor, while p150 and p90 are the cleavage products. (
  • Site-directed mutagenesis of the Cys-1151 residue (one of the catalytic dyad residues of the viral protease) and of the Gly-1300 residue (the viral protease cleavage site) abrogated protease activity and p200 precursor cleavage, respectively. (
  • HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a small basic protein generated by the cleavage of the Gag structural polyprotein precusor by the viral protease during virus assembly in the infected cell. (
  • In addition, in vitro data demonstrated that HIV-1 PR mediates cleavage of mitochondrial proteins Tom22, VDAC and ANT, leading to release of AIF and Hsp60 proteins. (
  • PR-mediated Gag cleavage provides rise towards the matrix (MA), capsid (CA), nucleocapsid (NC), and p6 protein also to two little spacer peptides, SP1 and SP2, located between CA and NC and between NC and p6, respectively. (
  • The BioAfrica HIV-1 Proteomics Resource is a website that contains detailed information about the HIV-1 proteome and protease cleavage sites, as well as data-mining tools that can be used to manipulate and query protein sequence data, a BLAST tool for initiating structural analyses of HIV-1 proteins, and a proteomics tools directory. (
  • The matrix (p17), capsid (p24) and nucleocapsid (p7) proteins are produced by protease cleavage of Gag and Gag-Pol, a fusion protein derived by ribosomal frame-shifting. (
  • The viral enzymes (protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H and integrase) are formed by protease cleavage of Gag-Pol. (
  • The current presence of the NS2B cofactor is essential for NS3pro to demonstrate its proteolytic activity.2,3 NS3pro is in charge of the cleavage from the capsid proteins C, and in addition on the NS2A/NS2B, NS2B/NS3, NS3/NS4A, and NS4B/NS5 limitations and, furthermore, on the junction of NS4A/2K peptide. (
  • A structural change, either through Gag multimerization or phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P 2 ] binding to MA, is required to expose the myristate and enhance membrane binding ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • Structural and biochemical studies suggest that the HBR of HIV-1 MA and analogous regions of other retroviral MA are apposed to face the cytoplasmic leaflet of membranes and facilitate membrane binding by interacting with acidic lipids ( 4 , 10 - 14 ). (
  • Gag is a myristoylated precursor protein that is translated in the cytoplasm and then traffics to the plasma membrane or to endosomal vesicles for assembly. (
  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein represents the first 191 amino acids of the viral precursor polyprotein and is cotranslationally inserted into the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. (
  • An expression library of 3,559 human plasma membrane proteins was screened for reactivity with Hom-1 virus-like particles, and a single interacting protein, human junctional adhesion molecule 1 (hJAM1), was identified. (
  • Taken together, our data indicate that entry of the Hom-1 vesivirus into these permissive human cell lines is mediated by the plasma membrane protein hJAM1 as a functional receptor. (
  • Trimers of Env protein are embedded in the viral membrane. (
  • Viral membrane proteins are prime targets in the combat against infection. (
  • Cell-free protein synthesis and solid-state NMR are promising approaches in this context, one with respect to its high potential of native expression of complex proteins, and the other for its ability to analyze membrane proteins in lipids. (
  • In summary, our results describe the involvement of HIV-1 PR in apoptosis, which is caused either by a direct effect of HIV-1 PR on mitochondrial membrane integrity or by its interaction with cellular protein BCA3. (
  • Upon expression, the polyprotein precursors Gag and Gag-Pol migrate to the plasma membrane, where they assemble into immature viral particles. (
  • Recently phylogenetic analyses have mainly focused on partial sequences derived from either the prM or E gene, which is important in several biological activities, including hemagglutination, neutralization, viral binding to cellular receptors and membrane fusion [ 3 ]. (
  • Protein 2B and 2BC precursor affect membrane integrity and cause an increase in membrane permeability (By similarity). (
  • Protein 3A, via its hydrophobic domain, serves as membrane anchor (By similarity). (
  • The nascent polyprotein ought to be inserted in to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane because of its appearance and processing with the web host and viral proteinases. (
  • The respective antibodies recognize the receptors on the viral particle and the host cell membrane. (
  • The NS1 protein could be detected even when viral RNA was negative in reverse transcriptase-PCR or in the presence of immunoglobulin M antibodies. (
  • The major diagnostic methods currently available are viral RNA detection by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) ( 15 ) or serological tests, such as an immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (MAC-ELISA) ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • Its innermost region consists of a cone-shaped core that includes two copies of the (positive sense) ssRNA genome, the enzymes reverse transcriptase, integrase and protease, some minor proteins, and the major core protein. (
  • Through the use of a proteinase inhibitor (A77003), we determined that the viral reverse transcriptase can efficiently synthesize viral DNA as part of the unprocessed Gag-Pol precursor. (
  • For conversion into a fully infectious particle, incorporation of the Gag-Pol polyprotein comprising three viral enzymes-reverse transcriptase (RT), integrase (IN) and protease (PR)-is needed. (
  • Gag-Pol molecules that produce viral enzymes-protease (PR) (purple), reverse transcriptase (RT) (orange) and integrase (IN) (brown)-are present in 1:20 ratio to Gag. (
  • The Gag polyprotein comprises the structural proteins of the viral shell (matrix, capsid and nucleocapsid), while the Pol polyprotein consists of viral PR, reverse transcriptase and integrase. (
  • Toward this overarching goal we are (1) determining how hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins with host cell receptors and broadly neutralizing antibodies, (2) exploring the mechanisms of viral polyprotein processing, and (3) examining how the innate immune system distinguishes self versus viral RNAs. (
  • This structure revealed that HCV E2 does not share any similarity to other viral glycoproteins, including those from closely related viruses, suggesting that HCV may use a novel entry mechanism. (
  • The medium segment encodes a precursor polyprotein, which gives rise to the viral surface glycoproteins (Gc and Gn) and to a nonstructural protein NS M . The small RNA encodes a structural nucleocapsid (N) protein, as well as a smaller nonstructural protein (NS S ) in overlapping reading frames ( 1 ). (
  • The structural HCV proteins include the core protein and transmembrane glycoproteins, E1 and E2. (
  • A quantity of cell surface healthy proteins were demonstrated to interact with the viral package glycoproteins Elizabeth1 and Elizabeth2 (7). (
  • The E.coli derived recombinant multimer protein contains the HCV core nucleocapsid immunodominant regions, amino acids 2-119. (
  • The HIV-1 Gag consists of four domains-matrix (MA), capsid (CA), nucleocapsid (NC) and p6-and two short peptides, SP1 and SP2, that are cleaved into distinct proteins by the viral protease during maturation. (
  • Properties and functions of the nucleocapsid protein in virus assembly. (
  • Schematic illustration of the nucleic acids binding, fraying and annealing properties of the HIV nucleocapsid protein. (
  • This causes the transient opening of the 5′ and 3′ end sequences (short arrows), in a process called fraying and strand stretching (Single DNA molecule stretching measures the activity of chemicals that target the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein). (
  • The HIV genome encodes a small number of viral proteins, invariably establishing cooperative associations among HIV proteins and between HIV and host proteins, to invade host cells and hijack their internal machineries.HIV is different in structure from other retroviruses. (
  • The RNA genome encodes the non-structural proteins in a single ORF immediately after a 5′ non-coding region. (
  • Open reading frame 1 of the viral genome encodes a polyprotein precursor, nsP1234, which is processed further into different non structural proteins (nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 and nsP4). (
  • Peptides or small-size proteins are important substances for medicines, diagnosis, and molecular biology research. (
  • Peptides or small-size proteins are important substances for medicines, diagnosis, and molecular biology research, such as enzyme inhibitors, antagonists/agonists against receptors, antigenic peptides for antibody preparation, and peptide probes that detect a protein-peptide interaction. (
  • Three nonstructural protein products (p200, p150, and p90) with molecular weights of 200, 150, and 90 kDa were identified using antisera raised against synthetic peptides corresponding to regions of the nonstructural proteins. (
  • A comparative tryptic phosphopeptide analysis of the gag-fps proteins of three FSV variants shows that the phosphotyrosine containing peptides have similar mobilities. (
  • There's a wide fascination with designing peptides in a position to bind to a particular region of the protein with the purpose of interfering using a known interaction or simply because starting place for the look of inhibitors. (
  • At present, nevertheless, automated computational strategies in a position to perform all of the required steps to create peptides binding to confirmed proteins without needing either the data from the structure of the proteins complicated or some information regarding the peptide OSU-03012 to become designed remain missing (11C13). (
  • The technique depends on the option of a proteins complicated where in fact the anchor residues, thought as those mediating the relationship with the proteins appealing, are accustomed to information the sampling and modeling of peptides produced from a data source of complicated fragments. (
  • The panning technique (16) uses the mark proteins structure to create peptides that are eventually progressed using the docking energy as fitness function. (
  • To simplify and streamline this second option process, we created PepComposer, a computational pipeline for the look of protein-binding peptides that will require as input just the target proteins framework and an approximate description from OSU-03012 the binding site. (
  • The gene is read at a different frame than the structural proteins, and the protease cuts itself free from the large polypep-tide chain generated from cell-expressed viral RNA and proceeds to further split the re-maining of the polyprotein precursor into several other proteins and peptides. (
  • The major structural proteins and the peptides derived from them are immunogenic and are recognized by the different components of the immune system of infected patients. (
  • This alteration is mediated by the viral protease, which cleaves the Gag polyprotein precursor, allowing the freed parts to reassemble to form the core of the mature virus particle. (
  • Concomitant using the launch of human being immunodeficiency disease type 1 (HIV-1) contaminants from your infected cell, the viral protease cleaves the Gag polyprotein precursor in several sites to result in disease maturation. (
  • The present invention provides nucleoside compounds and certain derivatives thereof which are inhibitors of RNA-dependent RNA viral polymerase. (
  • The carboxyl half of nonstructural protein 5, NS5B, contains the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (
  • Included in these are a promoter area located as the 5′ end from the genome to that your NS5 polymerase straight binds, aswell for as long range RNA-RNA relationships between stem-loop developing motifs located in Triciribine phosphate the 5′ and 3′ ends from the viral genome that result in its cyclization. (
  • The precise role from the helicase domains in the viral lifestyle cycle is normally unclear, however the enzyme is normally believed to split transient, intermediate dsRNA produced during polymerization catalyzed by NS5 viral polymerase into its person strands (Malet (2005) examined the NS3 helicase/nucleoside triphosphatase catalytic domains of DENV2 and YFV. (
  • One of the Polioviruses, like other RNA viruses, have error- functions of these viral sub-units is the prone virus encoded RNA polymerase enzyme, determination of the host range tissue tropism i.e. which lacks proof reading activities. (
  • Proteolytic processing occurs in a highly regulated and coordinated manner with intermediates having distinct functions and playing important roles during viral infection. (
  • Proteolytic processing of rubella virus nonstructural proteins. (
  • Structure of FMDV genome and proteolytic processing of viral polyprotein. (
  • The viral genome constitutes a 9.6-kb single-stranded positive-sense RNA with 5' and 3' noncoding regions and a long open reading frame encoding a polyprotein precursor of about 3,000 amino acids in length. (
  • It is normally an surrounded RNA trojan filled with a one positive-sense RNA genome that encodes a polyprotein precursor of 3,000 amino acids (1). (
  • This immune complex-mediated vasculitis is characterized by a primary B-cell clonal proliferation accompanied by the deposition of immune complexes composed of complement factors, mono/oligoclonal IgMs with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity bound to oligo/polyclonal IgGs that, in the case of HCV infection, are mostly directed against HCV proteins [ 3 ]. (
  • During flavivirus infection in vitro, nonstructural protein NS1 is released in a host-restricted fashion from infected mammalian cells but not vector-derived insect cells. (
  • These findings indicate that NS1 protein detection may allow early diagnosis of infection. (
  • Calpain inhibitor I inhibited viral infection in monkey-derived Vero E6 cells, with an EC 50 in the low micromolar range. (
  • Dengue Virus (DENV) is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection worldwide. (
  • This suggests that immature DENV particles only contribute to the viral load observed in patients with a heterologous DENV re-infection. (
  • Viruses grown in the presence of inhibitors of the protease contain core particles that are aberrantly assembled, and upon infection of susceptible cells, they do not synthesize viral DNA. (
  • We evaluated how ZIKV infection counteracts the assembly of dynamic aggregates of RNA and proteins called stress granules (SGs). (
  • In order to study the humoral immune responses against different HCV proteins in patients suffering from chronic HCV infection, we produced three structural (core, E1 and E2) and six nonstructural proteins (NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A and NS5B) in Sf 9 insect cells by using the baculovirus expression system. (
  • The recombinant HCV core, E1, E2, NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A and NS5B proteins were purified and used in Western blot analysis to determine antibody responses against individual HCV protein in 68 HCV RNA and antibody positive human sera that were obtained from patients suffering from genotype 1, 2, 3 or 4 infection. (
  • As a result of efficient cooperation of CA with other viral and cellular proteins, integration of the viral genetic material into the host genome, which is an essential step for productive viral infection, successfully occurs. (
  • Diagnosis==== Diagnosis for ZIKV infection include PCR tests to detect viral DNA as well as additional tests to detect ZIKV antibody (IgM) in serum. (
  • During HIV-1 infection, the virus-encoded aspartic PR is expressed as part of the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor. (
  • L pro , as a viral proteinase, self-cleaves from the nascent viral polyprotein precursor during FMDV infection and plays an important role in viral pathogenesis. (
  • NS4B is among the HCV major immunogenic proteins in chronic infection (5). (
  • The invention also provides methods for detecting infection by Hepatitis C virus in biological samples, methods of screening compounds which interact with viral propagation in HCV infected cells or screening of compounds impaction on the expression of shorter form core+1 protein and uses of these compounds for the preparation of compositions useful for their anti-viral activities. (
  • Thus vaccines to combat FMDV infection have been developed to generate antibodies against the capsid proteins. (
  • The spectrum of enteroviral infection and disease can be better understood and categorized according to epidemiologic features that include modes of transmission as well as evolutionary-adaptational aspects of the relationships between the viral agents, their human hosts, and the environment. (
  • Jul 29, 2019 · The following assays are used for diagnosing and managing Hepatitis C (HCV) infection:Serologic assays:These detect a specific antibody to the hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) in the serum or plasma and are reported as a positive or a negative value Molecular assays:These detect viral nucleic acid and can be qualitative or quantitative. (
  • Develop novel methods for the recombinant production of challenging proteins in mammalian cells. (
  • These advances in structural biology were made possible due to the development of stable recombinant forms of the viral spike by the introduction of an intersubunit disulphide bond and an isoleucine to proline mutation in gp41. (
  • Recombinant trimeric viral spikes are promising vaccine candidates as they display less non-neutralising epitopes than recombinant monomeric gp120 which act to suppress the immune response to target epitopes. (
  • In this paper, we review the current status of live attenuated recombinant PRVs and live PRV-based vector vaccines with potential for controlling viral infections in animals. (
  • As it has been considered that the viral cytopathic effect might be involved in the liver-cell injuries [ 1 , 2 , 13 ], here we have analyzed in detail the subcellular forms and biochemical changes occurring in human cells (HeLa and hepatic HepG2) following expression of the HCV polyprotein from VACV recombinant. (
  • Immunoreactivity of the purified recombinant proteins was evaluated by immunoblotting and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • Results: The recombinant NS4B protein was expressed and its immunoreactivity was confirmed by ELISA and western blotting. (
  • Components and Strategies Proteinase Appearance and Purification BL21 CodonPlus (DE3)-RIPL cells (Stratagene) had been transformed with the average person recombinant family pet101/DTOPO vectors encoding the WNV as well as the DV type 2 NS2B-NS3pro protein.13C15 Transformed cells were expanded in LB broth at 37C to attain A600? (
  • A detailed biochemical analysis of NTPase/RNA helicase and 5'-RNA phosphatase activities of recombinant CHIKV-nsP2T protein (containing conserved NTPase/helicase motifs in the N-terminus and partial papain like protease domain at the C-terminus) was carried out. (
  • Recombinant full length protein (expressed in E. coli ). (
  • Gene mapping of the putative structural region of the hepatitis C virus genome by in vitro processing analysis. (
  • Processing of the putative structural proteins of hepatitis C virus was examined by using an in vitro expression system. (
  • The nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) from the hepatitis C virus processes the non-structural region of the viral precursor polyprotein in infected hepatic cells. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is thought to contribute to HCV pathogenesis through its interaction with various signal transduction pathways. (
  • The viral genome of hepatitis C virus constitutes a 9.6-kb single-stranded positive-sense RNA which encodes altogether 11 viral proteins. (
  • The present invention relates to a novel form of core+1 protein of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), designated shorter form core+1 protein. (
  • The shorter form core+1 protein of Hepatitis C virus is the product of translation of a coding sequence consisting of all or part of a nucleotide sequence extending from nucleotide 598 to nucleotide 920 within the core+1 ORF of HCV represented on FIG. 3B. (
  • Furthermore, NS1 circulation in the bloodstream of patients during the clinical phase of the disease suggests a contribution of the nonstructural protein to dengue virus pathogenesis. (
  • Our results have provided unprecedented insights into viral polyprotein processing and pathogenesis, which may be applicable to other important human viruses that undergo polyprotein processing. (
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader protein (L pro ) is a papain-like proteinase, which plays an important role in FMDV pathogenesis. (
  • This combined database and software repository is designed to facilitate the capture, retrieval and analysis of HIV-1 protein data, and to convert it into clinically useful information relating to the pathogenesis, transmission and therapeutic response of different HIV-1 variants. (
  • There are two untranslated regions (5′ and 3′ -UTR) flanking a large open reading frame encoding a polyprotein that is cleaved to give three precursors P1 to P3. (
  • The viral genome consists of a 5′-untranslated region (UTR), a long open reading frame encoding a polyprotein precursor of approximately 3011 amino acids, and a short 3′UTR. (
  • The cDNA encoding the nonstructural protein ORF of the wild-type M33 strain of rubella virus has been obtained and sequenced. (
  • To examine the processing of rubella virus nonstructural protein, the complete nonstructural protein ORF was expressed in BHK cells using a pSFV expression vector. (
  • The function of the remaining nonstructural proteins, NS4A and NS4B, and that of NS5A (the amino-terminal half of nonstructural protein 5) remain unknown. (
  • Gag undergoes a chain of interactions both with itself and with other cellular and viral factors to accomplish the assembly of infectious virus particles. (
  • HCV RNA transfected cells released infectious particles into culture supernatant and the viral titer was measured. (
  • Structural studies on this virus are difficult, in part because it propagates poorly in cell culture, and particles isolated from infected patients are heterogeneous and not amenable to a detailed structural characterization. (
  • in particular, polyanhydride particles have demonstrated the ability to provide sustained release of stable protein antigens and to activate antigen presenting cells and modulate immune responses 2-12 . (
  • We also found that the stabilities of core particles composed of unprocessed precursors were considerably enhanced. (
  • The major structural viral protein, Gag, is essential and sufficient for the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs). (
  • The integrated viral genome (the "provirus") is transcribed by the host transcription machinery followed by translation of viral transcripts into viral proteins needed for assembly of new HIV-1 particles. (
  • Here, we determined the structures of both Gag in vitro assemblies and Gag viral-like particles (VLPs) to 4.2 Å and 4.5 Å resolutions using cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging by emClarity. (
  • Mamastrovirus 5 (MAstV5), belonging to the Astroviridae (AstV) family, previously known as canine astrovirus or astrovirus-like particles, has been reported in several countries to be associated with viral enteric disease in dogs since the 1980s. (
  • In spite of the fact that the virus has been described as enveloped with icosahedral symmetry, viral like particles with anomalous morphology have been observed in field samples, this we have not been able to recover then in adequate quantities for full demonstration. (
  • A major focus has been on the use of systems that express the structural proteins of the virus that self-assemble to generate "empty capsid" particles which share many features with the intact virus but lack the ribonucleic acid genome and are therefore non-infectious. (
  • Capsid proteins VP0, VP2, VP3 form a closed capsid enclosing the viral positive strand RNA genome. (
  • These precursors are subsequently cleaved to give functional proteins: (1) P1 giving rise to four structural capsid proteins (VP1-VP4) and (2) P2 and P3, the non-structural proteins involved in the virus life cycle. (
  • however, many picornaviruses have three capsid proteins as 1AB (VP0) remains uncleaved. (
  • Capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 form a closed capsid enclosing the viral positive strand RNA genome. (
  • Recent development has included the clon- cleaved into three precursor proteins-the capsid ing and sequencing of several strains of the three proteins P1 and two non-capsid proteins- the types of poliovirus [9,10,11,12]. (
  • Like protease inhibitors, bevirimat and other maturation inhibitors interfere with protease processing of newly translated HIV polyprotein precursor, called gag. (
  • In many but not all systems, maturation is controlled by the activity of a viral protease. (
  • VPO, is the precursor which is cleaved Genetic Differences Between the Polioviruses intoVP4+VP2 during viral maturation. (
  • As the capsid protein remains bound to SP1, the virus particle core is prevented from compressing into its normal mature shape, which is crucial for infectivity, resulting in the release of an immature, non-infectious particle. (
  • The so-called SOSIP trimers not only reproduce the antigenic properties of the native viral spike but also display the same degree of immature glycans as presented on the native virus. (
  • The different stages of NC: immature NC in Gag and mature NC in the viral particle. (
  • During or shortly after budding of an immature HIV-1 particle, the protease self-activates and is released from its precursor. (
  • VP0 precursor is a component of immature procapsids. (
  • Microarray analysis revealed that HCV polyprotein expression modulated transcription of genes associated with lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cellular proliferation. (
  • While testing specific regions of the HCV genome using both consensus and next generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled such monitoring in DAA therapies, including agents targeting NS3, NS5A and NS5B [ 8 , 9 ], the emerging DAA combination regimens emphasise the necessity to simultaneously screen multiple genes of the viral genome in a simple, cost-effective manner. (
  • The non-structural genes occupy approximately two-thirds of the genome. (
  • The long 5' untranslated region, the leader, is formed of independent well-structured domains involved in key steps of the viral life cycle such as the initiation of proviral DNA synthesis, genomic RNA dimerization and packaging, and the initiation of gag translation. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions composed of unprocessed Gag and Gag-Pol precursors are capable of reverse transcribing viral genomic RNA. (
  • The genomic RNA of rubella virus contains two long open reading frames (ORF), a 5'-proximal ORF that codes for the nonstructural proteins and a 3'-proximal ORF that encodes the structural proteins. (
  • 2009 ). NC is responsible for packaging of the viral genomic RNA, and p6 is required for budding of newly assembled virions. (
  • 2011 ) (Fig. 1 C). In the cytoplasm of a newly infected cell the reverse transcription of the viral genomic RNA results in the formation of a double stranded viral DNA that is transported to the nucleus and integrates into the host cell chromatin. (
  • One of the salient feature of the NC central globular domain is an hydrophobic plateau which appears to orchestrate the NC functions, such as chaperoning the conversion of the genomic RNA into viral DNA by RT during the early phase, and driving the selection and dimerization of the genomic RNA at the initial stage of viral particle assembly. (
  • The particle core (40 nm) consists of 240 copies of the capsid protein (C or CP) arranged in a T4 symmetry surrounding the genomic RNA. (
  • Protein 3B is covalently linked to the 5'-end of both the positive-strand and negative-strand genomic RNAs. (
  • The inhibitors had been also powerful in cell-based assays using the sub-genomic, luciferase-tagged WNV and Dengue viral replicons. (
  • Interestingly enough, murine leukemia viruses code also for a glycosylated gag precursor, named glyco-gag, initiated at a CUG codon upstream and in the same open reading frame as the AUGgag. (
  • In recent years, many novel viruses have been identified in human and animal blood, respiratory secretions, and fecal material through viral metagenomic studies consisting of random amplification in combination with next-generation sequencing methods ( 2 - 5 ). (
  • To identify unknown human viruses in the enteric tracts of persons with diarrhea, we performed sequence-independent amplification on purified viral nucleic acid from fecal samples obtained from patients with diarrhea in Bangladesh ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • Since it was observed that the spike protein had been acquired from CCoV, it is understandable why FCoV type II viruses are serologically related to CCoV. (
  • The impact of parasite exposure on HIV-1 transcriptional/translational events is monitored by using single cycle pseudotyped viruses in which a luciferase reporter gene has replaced the Env gene while the effect on the quantity of virus released by the infected macrophages is determined by measuring the HIV-1 capsid protein p24 by ELISA in cell supernatants. (
  • in the other stage, however, viruses enter living plant, animal, or bacterial cells and make use of the host cell's chemical energy and its protein- and nucleic acid-synthesizing ability to replicate themselves. (
  • Certain viruses, such as bacteriophages, have complex protein tails. (
  • Gag is the HIV structural precursor protein which is cleaved by viral protease to produce mature infectious viruses. (
  • The recent establishment of reverse genetics systems to recover infectious fish RNA viruses entirely from cDNA has made possible to genetically manipulate the viral genome. (
  • Since many years, goals of different laboratories around the world have been mainly but not exclusively devoted to the development of new vaccine approaches based in part on live attenuated viruses to prevent viral diseases in aquaculture [ 11 , 12 ] and the determination of potential genetic factors that could explain the differences of virulence existing between virus strains and their host range restriction. (
  • We identified an isoform of Dicer, named antiviral Dicer (aviD), that protects tissue stem cells from RNA viruses-including Zika virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-by dicing viral double-stranded RNA to orchestrate antiviral RNAi. (
  • An RNA transcript for cell-free translation was prepared from a cDNA construct that encompasses the region encoding the 980 amino-terminal residues of the viral polyprotein precursor. (
  • One possible factor is non-structural protein 6 (NSP6), a 3C-like protease that plays an important role in processing viral polyprotein precursors into mature non-structural proteins. (
  • The NS3 serine protease domain and the full-length NS3 protein expressed in the absence of the NS4A cofactor were diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm and nucleus. (
  • Coexpression of NS4A, however, directed NS3 to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or an ER-like modified compartment, as demonstrated by colocalization with 3,3′-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide, protein disulfide isomerase, and calnexin, as well as subcellular fractionation analyses. (
  • These results demonstrate the importance of studying HCV proteins in their biological context and define a well-characterized cell culture system for further analyses of the NS3-NS4A complex and the evaluation of novel antiviral strategies against hepatitis C. (
  • While previous studies indicated a cytoplasmic localization of NS3 ( 15 , 24 , 42 ), recent work suggested that NS3 may be a nuclear protein that, with varying efficiency among different HCV isolates and depending on the p53 status of the cell, may be retained in the cytoplasm by interaction with NS4A ( 36 ). (
  • Regarding NS3 protease, two strategies have been followed: competitive inhibitors blocking the active site and allosteric inhibitors blocking the binding of the accessory viral protein NS4A. (
  • NS3 is a multifunctional protein with both serine protease and RNA helicase/NTPase activities and NS4A is as an essential cofactor for NS3 protease functions. (
  • After flavivirus admittance into the web host cell, its 11-kb positive-sense RNA genome can be uncoated and acts as a template for the translation of an individual C-prM-E-NS1-NS2A-NS2B-NS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5 polyprotein precursor (for testimonials discover1 and sources herein). (
  • The density is high as the glycans shield underlying viral protein from neutralisation by antibodies. (
  • The HCV protein expression was verified by Western blot and immunofluorescence assays using antibodies specific for HCV NS3 and NS5A proteins. (
  • Creative Diagnostics is a leading manufacturer and supplier of antibodies, viral antigens, innovative diagnostic components and critical assay reagents. (
  • The chapter provides a discussion on molecular epidemiology that focuses on three of the most useful techniques: partial genome sequencing, analysis of RNA genome relationships by screening oligonucleotide mapping of the entire genome, and analysis of viral epitope distribution by use of monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Inhibitors from the viral enzymes invert transcriptase (RT), protease (PR), and integrase (IN) type the backbone of current cART regimens. (
  • A common feature within the studied sera was that all except two sera recognized the core protein in high titers, whereas none of the sera recognized NS2 protein and only three sera (from genotype 3) recognised NS5B. (
  • Based on our Western blot analyses we found that the major immunogenic HCV antigens were the core, NS4B, NS3 and NS5A proteins which were recognized in 97%, 86%, 68% and 53% of patient sera, respectively. (
  • The structural proteins are believed to be processed by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) signal peptidase ( 17 , 26 , 43 ). (
  • As determined by confocal microscopy, HCV proteins expressed from VT7-HCV7.9 localize largely in a globular-like distribution pattern in the cytoplasm, with some proteins co-localizing with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. (
  • L pro self-cleaves from the nascent viral polyprotein precursor as the first mature viral protein. (
  • Its product, protein p16, binds to a regionnear the 5' end of a nascent viral RNA strand known as TAR (transactivator re-sponse sequence) and promotes full and effective transcription of that strand. (
  • Predicated on preliminary screening tests, Johansson (2001) chosen a common scaffold that was additional improved by targeted chemical substance modification during business lead optimization to recognize a course of [5-amino-1-(phenyl) sulfonyl-pyrazol-3-yl)] substances that may function by preventing the NS2B binding pocket within NS3, thus preventing the connections between your two proteins that's necessary for protease activity. (
  • As for neurotropism, several studies showed the presence of RNA and viral antigens in brain tissue and CSF in humans. (
  • The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for detecting and quantifying proteins and antigens from various samples. (
  • In order to analyze the biological relevance of NS1 secretion in vivo, we developed a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the protein in the sera of dengue virus-infected patients. (
  • This review summarizes the strategies and multidisciplinary efforts that have been applied to date to the identification of specific inhibitors of this critical viral enzyme. (
  • This viral enzyme, therefore, has emerged as a major target in the design of novel antiviral agents against hepatitis C. The biochemical features of the NS3 serine protease have been well characterized in cell-free translation and transient cellular expression systems ( 39 ). (
  • The N-terminal capping enzyme domains from the NS5 proteins in particular displays promise as a spot of therapeutic treatment. (
  • Research have shown the viral enzyme binds GTP in a way distinct from sponsor cell GTP-binding protein [16,17,18,19,20,21]. (
  • Further, the high amount of structural conservation noticed among crystal constructions from multiple flavivirus capping enzymes shows that this original binding mechanism is normally conserved among all known flaviviral capping enzymes BMS-707035 and capping enzyme-targeted inhibitors may possess wide range anti-flaviviral applications [7,16,21,22,23]. (
  • Materials and Methods: Viral RNA was purified from the serum of an HCV positive patient and NS4B coding region was amplified using nested RT-PCR. (
  • Among these proteins, NS4B is studied relatively less than the others. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • The ORF2 sequence encoding a capsid precursor protein is located toward the 3′ end of the genome and overlaps ORF3, which encodes a basic minor structural protein, VP2. (
  • Comparison between the nonstructural proteins of the M33 and Therien strains of rubella virus revealed a 98% homology in nucleotide sequence and 98.1% in deduced amino acid sequence. (
  • Until recently, molecular epidemiological studies of HCV evolution within the host and at the population level have been limited to the analyses of partial viral genome segments, as it has been technically challenging to amplify and sequence the full-length of the 9.6 kb HCV genome. (
  • 2. The shorter form core+1 protein according to claim 1, which is encoded by a nucleotide sequence having a translation initiation codon (ATG) at position 598 or by a nucleotide sequence having an ATG at position 606 of the HCV core+1 coding sequence. (
  • 4. A shorter form core+1 protein of HCV obtainable in vivo by expression in transfected cells of the core+1 open reading frame (ORF) which is contained in nucleotide sequence extending from nucleotide at position 342 to nucleotide at position 920 of the nucleotide sequence represented on FIG. 3B, and which molecular weight is less than 10 kDa. (
  • 12. A nucleotide sequence consisting in a fragment of the nucleotide sequence extending from nucleotide 342 to nucleotide 920 represented on FIG. 3B, which fragment is capable of encoding a shorter form core+1 protein of HCV when transfected in mammalian cells under expression conditions. (
  • Most Internet online resources for investigating HIV biology contain either bioinformatics tools, protein information or sequence data. (
  • Phylogenetic analysis, on its own, provides little information about the conformational, immunological and functional properties of HIV-1 proteins, but instead, focuses on the evolution and historical significance of sequence variants. (
  • To understand the clinical significance of genetic variation, sequence analysis needs to be combined with methods that assess change in the structural and biological properties of HIV-1 proteins. (
  • The flaviviral full-length NS3 proteins sequence symbolizes a multifunctional proteins where the N-terminal 180-residue part encodes serine proteinase (NS3pro) as well as the C-terminal 440-residue part rules for an RNA helicase. (
  • First, the genetic map of the poliovirus genome was determined through sequence analysis of viral RNA and virus-encoded proteins. (
  • A membranous fraction that could synthesize viral RNA in vitro in the presence of magnesium salt, ribonucleotides, and an ATP-regenerating system was isolated from feline calicivirus (FCV)-infected cells. (
  • Structural research from the NS2B-NS3 complicated from WNV and DENV, as well as assays using particular Triciribine phosphate substrates, give a useful strategy for determining and developing book, selective NS3 protease inhibitors. (
  • To date, several host- and virus-related factors have been implicated in the progression to MCII, such as the virus-induced expansion of selected subsets of B-cell clones expressing discrete immunoglobulin variable (IgV) gene subfamilies, the involvement of complement factors and the specific role of some HCV proteins. (
  • Miami Winter Symposia, Volume 16: From Gene to Protein: Information Transfer in Normal and Abnormal Cells presents the expression and processing of genetic information at the levels of both proteins and nucleic acids. (
  • The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive online proteomics resource that integrates bioinformatics with the latest information on HIV-1 protein structure, gene expression, post-transcriptional/post-translational modification, functional activity, and protein-macromolecule interactions. (
  • The RIG-I (retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I) like receptors (RLR) consist of three cytoplasmic proteins (RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2) that detect the presence of viral RNA in infected cells. (
  • Finally, several structural proteins result from the expression of the gag gene. (
  • In addition to its role as a viral proteinase, L pro also has the ability to antagonize host antiviral effects. (
  • Hence, chances are that the tiny molecule interference using the successful conformation from the NS2B cofactor can be a superior medication discovery strategy in comparison to targeting from the energetic site from the viral proteinase. (
  • Protein 3C is a cysteine protease that generates mature viral proteins from the precursor polyprotein. (
  • these structural features are shared by all members of the order Picornavirales with solved atomic structures, e.g. cricket paralysis virus ( Dicistroviridae ), infectious flacherie virus ( Iflaviridae ) and the comoviruses cowpea mosaic virus, bean pod mottle virus and red clover mottle virus. (
  • Major viral diseases are mainly due to two antigenetically distinct Novirhabdoviruses which can coexist in the same fish farms: the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and the infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). (
  • Nonstructural proteins associated with the fraction included the precursor polypeptides Pro-Pol (76 kDa) and p30-VPg (43 kDa), as well as the mature nonstructural proteins p32 (derived from the N-terminal region of the ORF1 polyprotein), p30 (the putative "3A-like" protein), and p39 (the putative nucleoside triphosphatase). (
  • In this review, we will analyze the host and viral factors taking part in the development of MCII in order to give a general outlook of the molecular mechanisms implicated. (
  • Host restriction of HIV-1 by APOBEC3 and viral evasion through Vif. (
  • Imaging of HIV/host protein interactions. (
  • Implications of Nef - host cell interactions in viral persistences and progression to AIDS. (
  • Env is responsible for binding to its primary host receptor, CD4, and its co-receptor (mainly CCR5 or CXCR4), leading to viral entry into its target cell. (
  • However, given the moderate infected cell turnover and the absence of a viral reservoir, or in other words, the lack of host genome integration or episomal persistence in infected cells [ 7 ], HCV has the full potential for eradication. (
  • The HCV core protein has been previously shown to circulate in the bloodstream of HCV-infected patients and inhibit host immunity through an interaction with gC1qR. (
  • A free virus particle may be thought of as a packaging device by which viral genetic material can be introduced into appropriate host cells, which the virus can recognize by means of proteins on its outermost surface. (
  • A bacterial virus infects the cell by attaching fibers of its protein tail to a specific receptor site on the bacterial cell wall and then injecting the nucleic acid into the host, leaving the empty capsid outside. (
  • Polyprotein is processed by host signalases, resulting in E3, E2 & E1 forming viral hetero-trimeric spikes. (
  • HCV and many viral infections are detected by the host cell through the presence of viral nucleic acids, such as single- and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), triggering the production of interferons (IFN) and other cytokines that in turn stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses ( 16 ). (
  • This center studies the structural biology of viral RNA and its interactions with viral and host proteins. (
  • This review provides an overview on the recent breakthroughs achieved by using these reverse genetics systems in terms of viral protein function, virulence and host-specificity factor, vaccine development and vector design. (
  • These RCs seem to contain viral proteins, viral RNA and host cell factors. (
  • antigenic characterization of flavivirus structural proteins separated by isoelectric focusing. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes severe acute viral encephalitis in humans. (
  • ZV belongs to flavivirus genus, shares structural similarities with Dengue Virus (DENV) that are the mainstay for vaccine development research and consists of positive-sense RNA, a capsid with an outer shell. (
  • 12] The structural similarities among Zika and other flavivirus, for example Dengue Virus [DENV], are the primary focus for the current vaccine and therapeutic research against ZV. (
  • The flavivirus genome includes 10.7C11 kb positive-sense single-stranded RNA using a 5 type 1 RNA cover, which prevents degradation from the viral genome and is essential for translation initiation [4,5]. (
  • NTPase activity of helicase-like protein is typically stimulated by nucleic acids, particularly by poly (U). To test that, different concentrations of Poly (U) (125 ng to 5000 ng/reaction) were added and released phosphate was measured. (
  • HCV contains a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 9,600 nucleotides (nt) that encodes a polyprotein precursor of 3,010 to 3,033 amino acids (aa). (
  • The structural ORF is followed by a non-coding region of varying length (range 77-609 nucleotides) and finally, a polyadenylation signal. (
  • The genome is approximately 11 kb long and encodes a polyprotein precursor of about 3,400 amino acid residues. (
  • The genome contains a single open-reading frame and encodes a precursor polyprotein of approximately 3010 amino acid residues. (
  • We generated a set of viral mutants on an HX10 background differing by a single conservative or nonconservative amino acid substitution at each of the P1 to P9 amino acid residues of the epitope. (