Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Skin diseases caused by viruses.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the etiologic agent of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER. Its cells are slightly smaller and more uniform in size than those of RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus fever acquired through contact with lice (TYPHUS, EPIDEMIC LOUSE-BORNE) as well as Brill's disease.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.
A mammalian pancreatic extract composed of enzymes with protease, amylase and lipase activities. It is used as a digestant in pancreatic malfunction.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.
A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
The etiologic agent of murine typhus (see TYPHUS, ENDEMIC FLEA-BORNE).
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
A neurobehavioral syndrome associated with bilateral medial temporal lobe dysfunction. Clinical manifestations include oral exploratory behavior; tactile exploratory behavior; hypersexuality; BULIMIA; MEMORY DISORDERS; placidity; and an inability to recognize objects or faces. This disorder may result from a variety of conditions, including CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; infections; ALZHEIMER DISEASE; PICK DISEASE OF THE BRAIN; and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.

Comparative study of the anti-human cytomegalovirus activities and toxicities of a tetrahydrofuran phosphonate analogue of guanosine and cidofovir. (1/2392)

Cidofovir is the first nucleoside monophosphate analogue currently being used for the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis in individuals with AIDS. Unfortunately, the period of therapy with the use of this compound may be limited due to the possible emergence of serious irreversible nephrotoxic effects. New drugs with improved toxicity profiles are needed. The goal of this study was to investigate the anticytomegaloviral properties and drug-induced toxicity of a novel phosphonate analogue, namely, (-)-2-(R)-dihydroxyphosphinoyl-5-(S)-(guanin-9'-yl-methyl) tetrahydrofuran (compound 1), in comparison with those of cidofovir. The inhibitory activities of both compounds on HCMV propagation in vitro were similar against the AD 169 and Towne strains, with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.17 microgram/ml for cidofovir and < 0.05 to 0.09 microgram/ml for compound 1. A clinical HCMV isolate that was resistant to ganciclovir and that had a known mutation within the UL54 DNA polymerase gene and a cidofovir-resistant laboratory strain derived from strain AD 169 remained sensitive to compound 1, whereas their susceptibilities to ganciclovir and cidofovir were reduced by 33- and 10-fold, respectively. Both compound 1 and cidofovir exhibited equal potencies in an experimentally induced murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in mice, with a prevention or prolongation of mean day to death at dosages of 1.0, 3.2, and 10.0 mg/kg of body weight/day. In cytotoxicity experiments, compound 1 was found to be generally more toxic than cidofovir in cell lines Hs68, HFF, and 3T3-L1 (which are permissive for HCMV or MCMV replication) but less toxic than cidofovir in MRC-5 cells (which are permissive for HCMV replication). Drug-induced toxic side effects were noticed for both compounds in rats and guinea pigs in a 5-day repeated-dose study. In guinea pigs, a greater weight loss was noticed with cidofovir than with compound 1 at dosages of 3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/day. An opposite effect was detected in rats, which were treated with the compounds at relatively high dosages (up to 100 mg/kg/day). Compound 1 and cidofovir were nephrotoxic in both rats and guinea pigs, with the epithelium lining the proximal convoluted tubules in the renal cortex being the primary target site. The incidence and the severity of the lesions were found to be dose dependent. The lesions observed were characterized by cytoplasm degeneration and nuclear modifications such as karyomegaly, the presence of pseudoinclusions, apoptosis, and degenerative changes. In the guinea pig model, a greater incidence and severity of lesions were observed for cidofovir than for compound 1 (P < 0.001) with a drug regimen of 10 mg/kg/day.  (+info)

Development and use of a 293 cell line expressing lac repressor for the rescue of recombinant adenoviruses expressing high levels of rabies virus glycoprotein. (2/2392)

An expression cassette designed for high-level production of rabies virus glycoprotein (RG) could not be rescued into a replication-defective, adenovirus-based vector using standard procedures. To overcome this difficulty, a 293-based cell line, designated 293LAP13, was constructed that contained and expressed a derivative of the lac repressor protein. The lac operator sequence, to which the repressor binds, was incorporated into an expression cassette, containing a promoter and intron, designed for high-level production of RG. Insertion of a single operator sequence immediately downstream of the transcription start site and the use of the 293LAP13 cell line allowed recombinant viruses that could not be isolated with 293 cells to be rescued efficiently. The operator-containing virus reached higher titres in 293LAP13 than in parental 293 cells and also produced plaques more efficiently in 293LAP13 cells. Moreover, in non-complementing human and canine cell lines, adenovirus vectors with a promoter-intron expression cassette expressed RG at much higher levels than vectors lacking the intron. These observations, together with the demonstration that expression of RG by operator-containing vectors was repressed markedly in 293LAP13 cells and that this inhibition was relieved at least partly by IPTG, suggest that the 293LAP13 cell line may be useful for the rescue and propagation of many vectors in which high expression of the desired protein prevents vector rescue in 293 cells.  (+info)

Complementation of P37 (F13L gene) knock-out in vaccinia virus by a cell line expressing the gene constitutively. (3/2392)

Vaccinia virus produces two different infectious forms, intracellular mature virus (IMV) and extracellular enveloped virus (EEV). Acquisition of the EEV envelope occurs by wrapping of IMV with vesicles of the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The most abundant protein in the envelope of EEV, P37, is a 37 kDa palmitylated protein encoded by the F13L gene. P37 is located in the inner side of the EEV envelope and accumulates in the TGN during infection. Deletion of gene F13L results in a severe defect in the wrapping process, although normal levels of IMV are produced. A cell line, derived from RK-13 cells, was obtained that stably expressed P37 (RK(P37)), and the properties of the protein were studied in the absence of other viral polypeptides. P37 produced in RK(P37) cells differed from P37 produced in vaccinia-infected cells in terms of hydrophobicity and intracellular distribution. Despite these differences, RK(P37) cells partially complemented the phenotypic defect of vaccinia virus P37- mutants. EEV production and cell-to-cell virus spread by mutant viruses were increased significantly in RK(P37) cells when compared to normal RK-13 cell cultures. Infection of RK(P37) cells with P37- virus substantially altered the hydrophobicity and the intracellular distribution of P37 in those cells. These results indicate the requirement of the infection context for determination of the normal palmitylation and intracellular localization of P37.  (+info)

Anti-herpes simplex virus activity of moronic acid purified from Rhus javanica in vitro and in vivo. (4/2392)

Rhus javanica, a medicinal herb, has been shown to exhibit oral therapeutic anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity in mice. We purified two major anti-HSV compounds, moronic acid and betulonic acid, from the herbal extract by extraction with ethyl acetate at pH 10 followed by chromatographic separations and examined their anti-HSV activity in vitro and in vivo. Moronic acid was quantitatively a major anti-HSV compound in the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. The effective concentrations for 50% plaque reduction of moronic acid and betulonic acid for wild-type HSV type 1 (HSV-1) were 3.9 and 2.6 microgram/ml, respectively. The therapeutic index of moronic acid (10.3-16.3) was larger than that of betulonic acid (6.2). Susceptibility of acyclovir-phosphonoacetic acid-resistant HSV-1, thymidine kinase-deficient HSV-1, and wild-type HSV type 2 to moronic acid was similar to that of the wild-type HSV-1. When this compound was administered orally to mice infected cutaneously with HSV-1 three times daily, it significantly retarded the development of skin lesions and/or prolonged the mean survival times of infected mice without toxicity compared with the control. Moronic acid suppressed virus yields in the brain more efficiently than those in the skin. This was consistent with the prolongation of mean survival times. Thus, moronic acid was purified as a major anti-HSV compound from the herbal extract of Rhus javanica. Mode of the anti-HSV activity was different from that of ACV. Moronic acid showed oral therapeutic efficacy in HSV-infected mice and possessed novel anti-HSV activity that was consistent with that of the extract.  (+info)

A double-selective tissue culture system for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage applied in a long-term environmental surveillance. (5/2392)

We describe a simple, cost-efficient, double-selective method for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage samples containing vaccine polioviruses and other enteroviruses, with a detection limit of 18 to 50 PFU per 1 to 2 liters of sewage. By this method we were able to process 1,700 sewage samples collected between 1991 and 1996, from which 10,472 plaques were isolated, 41 of them being identified as wild-type polioviruses.  (+info)

Herpes simplex virus entry is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. (6/2392)

The initial step in herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry is binding of virion glycoprotein (g)C and/or gB to cell surface heparan sulfate. After this initial attachment, gD interacts with cell surface receptor or receptors, and the virion envelope fuses with the cell membrane. Fusion requires viral glycoproteins gB, gD, gL, and gH, but the cellular factors that participate in or the pathways activated by viral entry have not been defined. To determine whether signal transduction pathways are triggered by viral-cell fusion, we examined the association of viral entry with tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. Using immunoprecipitation and Western blotting, we found that at least three cytoplasmic host cell proteins, designated p80, p104, and p140, become tyrosine phosphorylated within 5-10 min after exposure to HSV-1 or HSV-2. However, no phosphorylation is detected when cells are exposed to a mutant virus deleted in gL that binds but fails to penetrate. Phosphorylation is restored when the gL-deletion virus is grown on a complementing cell line. Viral entry and the phosphorylation of p80, p104, and p140 are inhibited when cells are infected with virus in the presence of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Taken together, these studies suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of host cellular proteins is triggered by viral entry.  (+info)

Recombinant influenza A virus vaccines for the pathogenic human A/Hong Kong/97 (H5N1) viruses. (7/2392)

Recombinant reassortment technology was used to prepare H5N1 influenza vaccine strains containing a modified hemagglutinin (HA) gene and neuraminidase gene from the A/Hong Kong/156/97 and A/Hong Kong/483/97 isolates and the internal genes from the attenuated cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60 influenza virus strain. The HA cleavage site (HA1/HA2) of each H5N1 isolate was modified to resemble that of "low-pathogenic" avian strains. Five of 6 basic amino acids at the cleavage site were deleted, and a threonine was added upstream of the remaining arginine. The H5 HA cleavage site modification resulted in the expected trypsin-dependent phenotype without altering the antigenic character of the H5 HA molecule. The temperature-sensitive and cold-adapted phenotype of the attenuated parent virus was maintained in the recombinant strains, and they grew to 108.5-9.4 EID50/mL in eggs. Both H5N1 vaccine virus strains were safe and immunogenic in ferrets and protected chickens against wild-type H5N1 virus challenge.  (+info)

Surfactant protein-A enhances respiratory syncytial virus clearance in vivo. (8/2392)

To determine the role of surfactant protein-A(SP-A) in antiviral host defense, mice lacking SP-A (SP-A-/-) were produced by targeted gene inactivation. SP-A-/- and control mice (SP-A+/+) were infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by intratracheal instillation. Pulmonary infiltration after infection was more severe in SP-A-/- than in SP-A+/+ mice and was associated with increased RSV plaque-forming units in lung homogenates. Pulmonary infiltration with polymorphonuclear leukocytes was greater in the SP-A-/- mice. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 were enhanced in lungs of SP-A-/- mice. After RSV infection, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generation was deficient in macrophages from SP-A-/- mice, demonstrating a critical role of SP-A in oxidant production associated with RSV infection. Coadministration of RSV with exogenous SP-A reduced viral titers and inflammatory cells in the lung of SP-A-/- mice. These findings demonstrate that SP-A plays an important host defense role against RSV in vivo.  (+info)

BioAssay record AID 235809 submitted by ChEMBL: Selectivity is determined by CC50/EC50 of viral plaque reduction against herpes simplex virus 1.
Implications for viral behavior and virulence.Alphavirus variants with reduced plaque sizes often have reduced virulence in vivo as well, although there are certainly exceptions to this rule, and fresh wild-type isolates frequently contain a mixture of large-plaque and small-plaque viruses. Repeated tissue culture passaging of alphaviruses can lead to decreased plaque size and decreased virulence (19, 39). Small-plaque and large-plaque alphavirus variants typically have different affinities for hydroxyapatite (a form of calcium phosphate), indicating changes in the surface charge of the glycoproteins (3, 23). It may be possible to reinterpret these findings in light of our demonstration that SV can bind to HS. We suggest that alphaviruses with a small-plaque phenotype under agar (indicating strong binding to the agar sulfated polysaccharide) may also bind better to HS and that strong binding to HS may decrease virulence in vivo.. The strain of SV used in this study, Toto 1101, is a relatively ...
Minato, N and Katsura, Y, Virus-replicating t cells in the immune response of mice. I. Virus plaque assay of the lymphocytes reactive to sheep erythrocytes. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1641 ...
Plaque assay;a) Sf9 cells negative control (Mock)b) one day after virus dilution added to Sf9 cellsc) two days after virus dilution added to Sf9 cellsd) four da
The plaque assay is an essential tool for determining virus titers. The concept is simple: virus infection is restricted to neighboring cells by a semisoli
A full size adult generally uses 3 bottles of a good blend the first year for general improvement, 1 container a year after that for maintenance.
IRVINE, Calif., Nov. 22, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- AtheroNova Inc. Preclinical Study Demonstrates 95% Reduction in Arterial Plaque Formation. Findings Reported...
Heartstream 12-Lead Arrhythmia Simulator with Manikin Overlay medium 12-Lead Arrhythmia Simulator with Manikin Overlay Use on any medium- or large-sized manikin or simulator to change it into a 12-lead trainer. Pace and defibrillate directly on the overlay system connected to the interactive 12-lead ECG simulator, included with the overlay. You may purchase optional defibrillation training cables that allow you to have hands-free defibrillation simulation, with up to 360 joules, as well as electrical capture with your external pacer. The simulator capture key is used to select one of four preset pacing capture levels: 70, 80, 90 or 100mA. When the pacer current is greater than the selected capture level, paced beats will appear on your monitor. Waveforms for pacing include: Sinus Brady (two), 1st degree A-V block, 2nd degree type I A-V block, 2nd degree type II A-V block, 2nd degree type II A-V block with PVCs, and 3rd degree A-V block. Simulate cardioversion with your manual, semiautomatic, or ...
Looking for online definition of plaque assay in the Medical Dictionary? plaque assay explanation free. What is plaque assay? Meaning of plaque assay medical term. What does plaque assay mean?
Measure viral titers by automatic detection and quantification of formed viral plaques and foci using horse radish peroxidase or fluorescent labeling
When incubated at 37 degrees Celsius, plaques are slightly turbid and approximately 2.5 millimeters in diameter. The plaques can be seen after 24 hours incubation and do not change after 48 hours. When incubated at 30 degrees Celsius the plaque morphology does not change other then becoming slightly more turbid ...
The observation of viral plaques is the standard method for determining the viral titer and understanding the behaviors of viruses. Here, we report the application of a wide field-of-view (FOV), time-lapse, on-chip imaging platform, termed the ePetri, for plaque analysis of murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1). The ePetri offers the ability to dynamically track plaques at the individual cell death event level over a wide FOV of 6 mm × 4 mm. As demonstration, we captured high-resolution time-lapse images of MNV-1-infected cells at 30 min intervals. We implemented a customized image-processing program containing a density-based clustering algorithm to analyze the spatial-temporal distribution of cell death events to identify plaques at their earliest stages. By using the results in a viral titer count format, we showed that our approach gives results that are comparable to conventional plaque assays. We further showed that the extra information collected by the ePetri can be used to monitor the dynamics of ...
Percentage of Participants who are YF and Dengue Virus (DENV)-naive at Baseline and are Seroprotected against YF on Day 30 as Measured by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) in a Subset of 120 Participants in each Trial ...
Adsorb the virus at 37C for 1-2 hrs; use frequent rocking (every 10-15 min by hand) to avoid drying the cells. Note: Previous protocols have done the dilutions in eppendorf tubes and the adsorption step with 500 ul per well and rocked the plates on the automatic rocker at RT. Ive had problems with the automatic rocker and the lower volume (400 ul/well) that is suggested in this protocol. I think the rocker may actually promote drying of the center of the well by drawing the fluid to the side of the well via capillary action ...
Rs instructions. Each recombinant adenovirus was selected after three rounds of plaque purification in HEK293 cells and was separately identified by PCR. The
Investigating the neutralizing antibody (NAb) titer against HSV-1 is essential for monitoring the immune protection against HSV-1 in susceptible populations, which would facilitate the development of vaccines against herpes infection and improvement of HSV-1 based oncolytic virotherapy. In this study, we have developed a neutralization test based on the enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT-NT) to determine the neutralizing antibody titer against HSV-1 in human serum samples. This optimized assay employed a monoclonal antibody specifically recognizing glycoprotein D to detect the HSV-1 infected cells. With this test, the neutralizing antibody titer against HSV-1 could be determined within one day by automated interpretation of the counts of cell spots. We observed good correlation in the results obtained from ELISPOT-NT and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) by testing 22 human serum samples representing different titers. Moreover, 269 human serum samples collected from a wide range of age
We performed a serologic investigation to determine whether orthobunyaviruses commonly infect humans in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Orthobunyavirus-specific antibodies were detected by plaque reduction neutralization test in 146 (18%) of 823 persons tested. Further studies are needed to determine health risks for humans from this potentially deadly group of viruses ...
Rapid treatment of the virus with hot water had little effect on the virus, reducing the titre by around two-fold, but prolonged incubation at 55°C abolished detectable infectivity. However, the addition of any of 1% bleach, 50% and 10% malt vinegar and 1%, 0.1% and 0.01% washing up liquid were all effective at rapidly reducing viable virus below the limit of detection, while a low concentration of vinegar (1%) was no more effective than hot water alone (Figure 1A). In contrast to the plaque assay results, most agents were ineffective at reducing the number of detectable genome copies as determined by RT-PCR, with only bleach having a significant effect (Figure 2A). The data for the plaque assays and RT-PCR assays are compiled in Tables S1 and S2. Thus, while a strong oxidizing agent such as bleach is effective at reducing both genome detection and virus infectivity, low pH and detergent are equally efficacious virucidal agents. These results also indicate that whilst vinegar and detergent ...
I have strimmer/rabbit guards, mulch mats, etc. and we intend to put a small plaque to keep the FAS lads from disregarding it. The idea is to provide a nice tree, that will provide fruit for everyone for the next generations, and somewhere for us to go to enjoy memories ...
Im am really stuck what to write on kaydens plaque, we had something written down as thats how we felt but it was 2many words.. i didnt know if any1 had any ideas...
The Lifeline Express or Jeevan Rekha Express is Worlds first hospital train run by the Impact India Foundation. It was developed in collaboration with the Indian Railways and Health Ministry and has been funded by Impact UK, international charitable sources, Indian corporate houses and individuals. It started on 16 July 1991; as of 2010 the service had completed almost 120 projects, benefiting over 600,000 rural Indians. The Lifeline express was started to provide on-the-spot diagnostic, medical and advanced surgical treatment for preventive and curative interventions for disabled adults and children. It is an outreach program for inaccessible rural areas where medical services are not available, traveling via Indian Railways. In addition to providing access to these much needed services, the Lifeline express seeks to improve the efficiency of the existing local government and voluntary health infrastructure and services, as well as providing initiative and encouragement for the local bodies to ...
Virus mutants (NDVpi) isolated from L cells persistently infected with the Herts strain of Newcastle disease virus have been previously reported by this laboratory to differ from the wild-type virus (NDVo) in several physical and biological properties. It has now been determined that, in addition to these differences, the NDVpi mutants are also spontaneously selected temperature-sensitive mutants. The temperature sensitivity of 10 NDVpi clones was confirmed by temperature inhibition, plaquing efficiency, and single-cycle yield experiments. The cut-off temperature, at which more than 90% of virus replication is inhibited was between 41 and 42 C. All 10 NDVpi clones were also found to be defective in virus-specific ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis in infected chick embryo cells at 42 C and are tentatively classified as RNA−. The possible relationships of the temperature sensitivity, the other NDVpi properties, and the maintenance of the persistently infected state are discussed. ...
Answer: B. Plaque reduction neutralization test. PRNT is used to confirm JCV infection following a positive or equivocal result for IgM-class antibodies by enzyme immunoassay or immunofluorescence assay. PRNT is also used to compare the endpoint neutralizing antibody titers between closely related viruses, with the infectious virus most frequently identified as the one with at least a 4-fold or higher endpoint titer compared to the other tested viruses. This is especially helpful if serologic testing is positive for more than one virus in the California serogroup, which occurs frequently due to the cross-reactivity of these assays. ...
Banks et al. (1) suggested that plaque formation by chlamydiae might depend on the strains growth rates, and consequently, for slowly growing strains such as biovar trachoma long-term maintenance of the cell monolayer in agar medium might be required for plaque formation. In the present study, two points were crucial to the success of plaque formation by biovar trachoma. (i) The liquid culture medium had to be layered onto a solid agarose medium and changed at 4- to 5-day intervals; this treatment may refresh the cells and support chlamydial growth until plaque formation occurs. (ii) The agarose concentration was intentionally reduced to 0.5%, although 1% is the usual concentration for plaque formation by lytic viruses. The reduced agarose concentration may serve to keep the cells in good condition. The quality of the agarose was also important because purified agar was unsuitable for long-term maintenance of the cells. It is also likely that the agarose overlay might create appropriate ...
This test is sent to an external laboratory. For antibody titres. Shipping (test code: xtrnu) and handling (test code: xhand) fees are also applicable on each submission. External test price is subject to change. ...
In this study, expanded human trial with M, Gerbil kidney tissue culture inactivated HFRS vaccine was carried out and neutralizing antibody response was assessed by plaque reduction neutralization(PRNT) and CPE neutralization(CPENT) methods. According to the data of all 74 person immune sera assayed by the two methods, the rates of seroconversion and GMT tesed by CPENT were significantly higher than that by PRNT. Several vaccinating groups were studied and the neutralizing antibody levels were as follows: v...
A piece of cholesterol, or plaque, may be seen in the arteries of the retina after dilating your eyes. If there is a small plaque in the retinal vessels of the back of the eye, it is likely that there are larger plaques in other places of the body. Large plaques increase your risk for heart attack and stroke. This is one more reason why we encourage patients to have their eyes dilated at their annual eye exams. With both eyes dilated, Dr. Nate and I can look closely at those vessels to rule-out these kinds of concerns.. If Dr. Nate or I find any of these signs, especially if you are under 60 years of age, we may ask you more questions about your lipid levels or even recommend that you get blood tests done with your primary care doctor.. Dont delay your annual eye exam! Getting your eyes checked should be included in your routine appointment days.. -Dr. Beth. ...
BioAssay record AID 775057 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity against 20 PFU poliovirus infected in human RD cells assessed as plaque forming unit pretreated at 125 uM for 72 hrs followed by viral infection and compound treatment at 250 uM for 7 hrs by plaque assay (Rvb = 1.2 x 10-9 PFU/ml).
Principal Investigator:OOOKA Shinya, Project Period (FY):2009 - 2011, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Gastroenterology
Computer Predictive Model for Plaque Formation and Progression in the Artery: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8828-5.ch013: In this chapter we described predictive model for plaque formation and progression in the coronary and carotid artery. A full three-dimensional model for
The genotype and phenotype of HSV2-gD27 are stable when the virus is passaged in human epithelial cells in vitro and during acute infection of mice.. HSV2-gD27 was propagated in B78H1-A10 mouse cells, which express human HVEM but not human nectin-1. HSV2-gD27 was not able to infect B78H1-C10 mouse cells, which express human nectin-1 but not HVEM, since the mutation in gD prevents its interaction with nectin-1 (33). To determine the sensitivity of the assay to detect WT virus mixed with HSV2-gD27, we infected B78H1-C10 cells with 400 PFU of WT virus (titrated in ARPE-19 cells) and 106 PFU of HSV2-gD27 (also titrated in ARPE-19 cells), either together or separately, and assayed the number of plaques on B78H1-C10 cells, which support replication of WT virus but not HSV2-gD27. Coinfection of B78H1-C10 cells with the two viruses resulted in a mean of 6.5 plaques, infection with WT virus alone yielded 5.5 plaques, and infection with HSV2-gD27 yielded no plaques. These data indicate that HSV2-gD27 does ...
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The phage produces two different plaque morphologies. The smaller plaques are about 1 mm in size and the larger plaques are 2-3x larger than the ...
A 76 year old man presents with a growth on his scalp. He denies history of skin cancer and is in good health. Can you make the correct diagnosis?
Plaque is abnormal area within a blood vessel where large quantities of lipids accumulate forming a fatty mass of tissue that projects into the lumen ...
Serum samples positive for flavivirus antibodies by HI assay or ELISA were tested by plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT) to identify the infecting virus. PRNTs were conducted in the BSL-3 facilities at Colorado State University. Serum sample results shown to be negative by HI assay and ELISA were not tested. PRNTs were done by using WNV (strain NY99-35261-11), SLEV (strain TBH-28), Ilhéus virus (ILHV, original strain), and Bussuquara virus (BSQV, strain BeAn-4073). Virus stocks were obtained from the World Health Organization Center for Arbovirus Reference and Research, maintained at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, CO. We tested serum samples for neutralizing antibodies to SLEV because the virus is enzootic in the Americas and because antibodies to WNV and SLEV often cross-react. Furthermore, horses are susceptible to natural SLEV infections, although clinical manifestations have not been reported (12). ILHV ...
We describe microneutralization assays that used automated 96-well enzyme-linked immunospot (ELI-SPOT) readout instrumentation to measure human anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies in CV-1 cells that were stably transfected to express human FcγRIIA (CD32) using conventional Vero cells as a comparator. Classic plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) end-point titers were determined by probit analysis. Neutralization titers against DENV measured in CV-1 transfectants were expressed in terms of both conventional 50% to 90% PRNT end-point titers and differential infectivity of antibody-treated virus in control and CD32-expressing CV-1 cells. Significantly reduced PRNT titers and strikingly heightened infectivity (up to 100-fold) of antibody-treated DENV was observed in CV-1 CD32 transfectants compared with that observed in control CV-1 or Vero cells. Because DENVs may preferentially replicate in CD32-expressing monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells, in vivo, it is possible that CD32 introduced into
Full Text - Coxsackie B3 virus (CVB3) is a member of small RNA viruses that belongs to the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae and CVB3 is the main pathogen of acute and chronic viral myocarditis. In this study RT-qPCR was used to determine the expression of miR-107 in CVB3-infected and uninfected HeLa cells. The experimental results show that the level of miR-107 began to rise at 4 h after the infection, and significantly boosted at 6 h. Based on the results of this experiment, we consider that miR-107 expression is related to CVB3 infection. In order to further clarify the effect of miR-107 in the process of CVB3 infection, we studied the effect of miR-107 upstream and downstream target genes on CVB3 replication. Levels of the target RNAs were detected by RT-qPCR after CVB3 infection, and the expression of CVB3 capsid protein VP1 by western blot analysis. Then the virus in the supernatant was quantitated via a viral plaque assay, reflecting the release of the virus. The experimental results
Coxsackie B3 virus (CVB3) is a member of small RNA viruses that belongs to the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae and CVB3 is the main pathogen of acute and chronic viral myocarditis. In this study RT-qPCR was used to determine the expression of miR-107 in CVB3-infected and uninfected HeLa cells. The experimental results show that the level of miR-107 began to rise at 4 h after the infection, and significantly boosted at 6 h. Based on the results of this experiment, we consider that miR-107 expression is related to CVB3 infection. In order to further clarify the effect of miR-107 in the process of CVB3 infection, we studied the effect of miR-107 upstream and downstream target genes on CVB3 replication. Levels of the target RNAs were detected by RT-qPCR after CVB3 infection, and the expression of CVB3 capsid protein VP1 by western blot analysis. Then the virus in the supernatant was quantitated via a viral plaque assay, reflecting the release of the virus. The experimental results showed that
While at MIT, Ira and I concentrated mostly on the E. coli mutant Gro15. Although the vast majority of λcl− phage are unable to form plaques on this strain, I noted the appearance, at an approximate frequency of 10−7, of phage mutants that were able to somehow compensate for the gro15 block. Interestingly, none of the phage mutants isolated on Gro15 formed plaques on our other mutant, GroC3. Searching for clues as to their nature, I purified many of these gro15 compensatory phage mutants and tested them for growth on standard E. coli laboratory strains, including supD, supE, supF (am-suppressing), and various sup0 (nonsuppressing) wild-type bacterial hosts. To my great surprise and delight, ∼20% of these λ compensatory mutants did not form plaques on any of the wild-type sup0 E. coli tested, but did grow on all of the various am-suppressing wild-type strains. Thus, these phage compensatory mutants carried a suppressible am mutation in some essential, yet unknown, phage gene. This finding ...
Method. Nebulized influenza was coughed into the examination room and Bioaerosol samplers collected size-fractionated aerosols (,1 µM, 1-4 µM, and ,4 µM aerodynamic diameters) adjacent to the breathing manikins mouth and also at other locations within the room. At constant temperature, the RH was varied from 7-73% and infectivity was assessed by the viral plaque assay.. Results. Total virus collected for 60 minutes retained 70.6-77.3% infectivity at relative humidity ≤23% but only 14.6-22.2% at relative humidity ≥43%. Analysis of the individual aerosol fractions showed a similar loss in infectivity among the fractions. Time interval analysis showed that most of the loss in infectivity within each aerosol fraction occurred 0-15 minutes after coughing. Thereafter, losses in infectivity continued up to 5 hours after coughing, however, the rate of decline at 45% relative humidity was not statistically different than that at 20% regardless of the aerosol fraction analyzed.. Conclusion. At low ...
ABSTRACT. Background:. To evaluate the presence of unrecognized MERS-CoV infections among health care workers (HCWs) after the 2015 Korean MERS outbreak, we performed a serologic investigation. Methods:. During the outbreak, all HCWs exposed or assigned to MERS patients were quarantined for 14 days and tested screening sputum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays thereafter. HCWs with positive PCR results were excluded from the study. We prospectively collected the sera of HCWs exposed or assigned to MERS patients at 6 to 26 weeks post exposure. We primarily used anti-MERS-CoV IgG ELISA, and sera with an optical density (OD) ratio ¡Ã 0.2 were substantiated by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT).. Results:. Fifty-nine of the 189 HCWs exposed to four highly-infective MERS patients (31.2%) and 130 of 254 HCWs assigned to MERS patient care (51.2%) consented to the study. The median of ELISA OD ratio of exposed HCWs and assigned HCWs were both 0.08 ...
An inducible, mutant virus, designated vvtetO:I7L/G1L, was used to study the morphogenic proteolysis step of the vaccinia virus life cycle. The vvtetO:I7L/G1L controlled the expression of two genes, I7L, a cysteine proteinase, and G1L, a putative metalloproteinase. These proteins are involved in the maturation of viral core proteins, p4a, p4b, and p25K, to form infectious virions. DNA extraction and genomic sequencing verified the correct insertion of the tetracycline operators. The multiplicity of infection (MOI) was optimized, and a MOI of 0.5 was best, with a 99.25% reduction in viral plaque formation compared to the wild type vaccinia virus. A growth curve over 12 hours was done and the vvtetO:I7L/G1L in the on state closely followed the growth kinetics of the wild type vaccinia virus and the vvtetO:I7L/G1L in the off state had significantly lower viral titers throughout the last 6 hours of the cycle. Viral core protein processing in the on and off states, and in rescue experiments ...
The advantage of low-adsorption phage in the biofilm environment is most vividly demonstrated by its competitive rise in frequency during the production-emigration transfer cycles. In fact, the same pattern was also observed when there is no top agar layer (i.e., 0% top agar - see [additional file 3]). Even though we have not conducted the serial transfer experiments with the complete settlement-production-emigration cycle, the summary in Table 1 makes it apparent that low adsorption rate is advantageous when the phage fitness is dependent on its ability to be transmitted to the next locale.. The selective pressure is such that the most remarkable result from our study is the emergence of large-plaque variants (GP phages in Supplemental Table Two sup) evolved from the ancestral HA-Stf during the transfer. Apparently, the HA-Stf plaques contain a mixture of phages, possibly with high proportion of the GP phages. For example, there would be on average ~500 phages emigrated out of the HA-Stf plaque ...
Large plaque burden, certain phenotypes, and low wall shear stress (WSS) are associated with adverse outcomes and high WSS with development of plaque vulnerability. We aimed to investigate the incremental value of the combination of plaque burden, WS
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The sapling was planted, unobtrusively, near the observatory with a small plaque at the base to commemorate the former Beatle, who died in 2001, because he spent his final days in Los Angeles and because he was an avid gardener for much of his adult life ...
Having plaque on your teeth can not only be unsightly, but it can be unhealthy. Here are a number of natural ways to prevent and remove plaque.
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Factors That Cause, Remove and Prevent Arterial Plaque By Stephen Heuer Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is responsible for more death worldwide and accounted for…
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"New low-viscosity overlay medium for viral plaque assays". Virology Journal. BioMed Central. 3: 63. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-3-63 ... It is also used in plaque assays for counting viruses, as an alternative to carboxymethylcellulose. A naturally occurring ...
Viral plaque assays determine the number of plaque forming units (pfu) in a virus sample, which is one measure of virus ... as these viruses would not be amenable to the plaque assay. Like the plaque assay, host cell monolayers are infected with ... The focus forming assay (FFA) is a variation of the plaque assay, but instead of relying on cell lysis in order to detect ... ISBN 0-12-521532-0. Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene (November 4, 2014). "Viral Concentration Determination Through Plaque Assays ...
The plaque assay was developed using poliovirus; the discovery of viral replication in culture was also with poliovirus in 1949 ... Depending on the type and degree of dehydration the viral particle is around 27-30 nm in diameter. The viral genome is around ... It has both icosahedral virus particles, viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and protease and viral replication proteins. But ... Picornaviruses have a viral protein (VPg) covalently linked to 5' end of their genomes instead of 7-methylguanosine cap like ...
The viral plaque assay is to calculate the number of viruses present in a sample. In this technique the number of viral plaques ... DNase footprinting assay Filter binding assay Gel shift assay Bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA assay) Bradford protein assay Lowry ... Chemotaxis assay Secretion assays Apoptosis assays such as the DNA laddering assay, the Nicoletti assay, caspase activity ... to invade eukaryotic cells Metastasis Assay Crude oil assay The HPCE-based viral titer assay uses a proprietary, high- ...
Assay Viral culture Virus Virus quantification Virology Finter, N. B (1969-10-01). "Dye Uptake Methods for Assessing Viral ... A viral plaque is a visible structure formed after introducing a viral sample to a cell culture grown on some nutrient medium. ... Counting the number of plaques can be used as a method of virus quantification. These plaques can sometimes be detected ... give turbid plaques. Some partially lysogenic phages give bull's-eye plaques with spots or rings of growth in the middle of ...
Viral quantification using the plaque assay ELISA Immune complex Schmidt, N J; J Dennis; E H Lennette (July 1976). "Plaque ... The concentration of plaque forming units can be estimated by the number of plaques (regions of infected cells) formed after a ... "Dengue Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) in Primary and Secondary Dengue Virus Infections: How Alterations in Assay ... The plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titer of neutralizing antibody for a virus. The serum sample ...
... viral load MeSH E05.200.875.970 - virus cultivation MeSH E05.200.875.970.790 - plaque assay MeSH E05.200.875.977 - virus ... colony-forming units assay MeSH E05.200.500.383.910 - tumor stem cell assay MeSH E05.200.500.385 - cytogenetic analysis MeSH ... drug screening assays, antitumor MeSH E05.337.550.200.800 - tumor stem cell assay MeSH E05.337.550.200.900 - xenograft model ... drug screening assays, antitumor MeSH E05.200.500.388.930 - tumor stem cell assay MeSH E05.200.500.410 - electroporation MeSH ...
... infection and viral replication may result in host cell lysis and formation of a viral plaque. Human cell lines DU145 (prostate ... Assay and Drug Development Technologies. 12 (4): 207-18. doi:10.1089/adt.2014.573. PMC 4026212. PMID 24831787. Bhattacharya M, ... Viral culture is also related, with cells as hosts for the viruses. The laboratory technique of maintaining live cell lines (a ... Whole wild type viruses, recombinant viruses or viral products may be generated in cell types other than their natural hosts ...
A titration procedure wherein infected cells are made evident by IF microscopy and a plaque assay also have been described. ... The first unequivocal evidence of viral replication is the appearance of nascent viral antigen in the nucleus (Fig. 2A). In at ... Viral antigen is detected in the cytoplasm of cells soon after infection if the inoculum contains a high titer of virus and ... The viral genome is single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with a molecular weight of 1.4 × 106 (i.e., about 26.5% of the ...
Transgenic mouse assay using a mouse strain infected with a viral shuttle vector is another method for testing mutagens. ... Using similar method as the blue-white screen, the plaque formed with DNA containing mutation are white, while those without ... Such systems include the HPRT assay for resistance to 8-azaguanine or 6-thioguanine, and ouabain-resistance (OUA) assay. Rat ... Mice may also be used for dominant lethal assays where early embryonic deaths are monitored. Male mice are treated with ...
ELISA antigen assays, plaque neutralization assays, and immunofluorescence essays. However, immunofluorescence essays provide ... Lassa fever, also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF), is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus.[1] ... Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Consortium Lassa fever Archived 4 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Page accessed April 6, 2016 ... Clinically, Lassa fever infections are difficult to distinguish from other viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Ebola and Marburg ...
It is useful for detecting and counting hemorrhagic fever viruses by plaque assays. Vero E6, also known as Vero C1008 (ATCC No ... Research strains transfected with viral genes: Vero F6 is a cell transfected with the gene encoding HHV-1 entry protein ... or the growth of viral stocks for research purposes as host cells for eukaryotic parasites, specially of the trypanosomatids ...
After viral growth, viral detection by IPA yields the infectious virus titer, expressed as tissue culture infectious dose ( ... to detect and titrate viruses that do not cause measurable cytopathic effects and cannot be measured by classical plaque assays ... Indirect immunoperoxidase assay (IPA) is a laboratory technique used ... by an Indirect Immunoperoxidase Assay". SARS- and Other Coronaviruses. Methods in Molecular Biology. 454. pp. 93-102. doi: ...
... attenuated viruses can therefore be used in assays while an additional assay such as a plaque assay must be used to determine ... A consequence of this is that at certain concentrations, a viral suspension may bind together (agglutinate) the RBCs, thus ... While less accurate than a plaque assay, it is cheaper and quicker (taking just 30 minutes).[citation needed] This assay may be ... By serially diluting a virus suspension into an assay tray (a series of wells of uniform volume) and adding a standard amount ...
"A qPCR expression assay of IFI44L gene differentiates viral from bacterial infections in febrile children". Scientific Reports ... a cohort of 264 Caribbean Hispanics with varying smoking frequencies were evaluated for carotid plaque burden and 11 single ... FAM89A is also suggested to be involved in discriminating viral and bacterial infection in febrile patients. A 2016 study ... "Novel Genetic Variants Modify the Effect of Smoking on Carotid Plaque Burden in Hispanics". Journal of the Neurological ...
Cell counting Growth medium Miles and Misra method Most probable number Replica plating Viral plaque Goldman, Emanuel; Green, ... "Optimized digital counting colonies of clonogenic assays using ImageJ software and customized macros: comparison with manual ...
These qualities make RVPs a safer and faster alternative to plaque assays, and especially well-suited for high-throughput ... Since the RVP genome lacks genes essential for viral replication, RVPs are capable of only a single round of infection. Thus ... A related assay tests for antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), a phenomenon where non-neutralizing antibodies against viruses ... 254: 1-7. Peskova, M; Heger, Z; Janda, P; Adam, V; and Pekarik, V (2017). "An enzymatic assay based on luciferase Ebola virus- ...
Plaque assays consist of pouring a soft agar solution with an indicator strain onto an agar plate. The indicator strain should ... Strep TSS is an acute, febrile illness that begins with a mild viral-like syndrome characterized by fever, chills, myalgia, ... "Plaque Assay Protocols". Microbe Library. American Society for Microbiology. Archived from the original on 30 November 2012. ... The presence of lysogenic bacteriophage T12 can be tested through plaque assays if the indicator strain utilized is susceptible ...
Rowe, Wallace P.; Pugh, Wendell E.; Hartley, Janet W. (1970). "Plaque assay techniques for murine leukemia viruses". Virology. ... Hopkins, N.; Rowe, W. P.; Hartley, J. W.; Holland, C. A. (January 1985). "At least four viral genes contribute to the ... 2 December 2012). "Chapter 2. Dedication (to Wallace Prescott Rowe) by Janet W. Hartley". Viral and Mycoplasmal Infections of ... aroused great interest and excitement among clinicians and virologists alike in that no new acute viral respiratory disease of ...
Lympoid cells at the bite site may also express the EBV1 viral gene, BZLF1; this gene promotes the lyses of its infected cell ... The initial lesions may be papules, plaques, vesicles, or blisters and give a burning or itcy sensation. The eruptions may be ... The diagnosis can be supported by the detection, using for example an ELISA assay), IgE directed against mosquito saliva ... viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections; and insect bites. Mosquitos are among the insects known to trigger MBA in ...
A viral infection following Japanese encephalitis virus infection also increased GPR84 expression by 2-4.5% in the mice brain. ... Finally, it has also shown that GPR84 expression is increased in both the normal appearing white matter and plaque in brains ... in the cAMP assay). These results suggest that GPR84 activation by medium-chain FFAs is coupled to a pertussis toxin-sensitive ...
In vitro assays have found that enJSRV does this by blocking various stages of the viral replication cycle. An example of this ... hybridization analysis revealed that HYAL2 mRNA was only detected in the binucleate cells and multi-nucleated syncytial plaques ... The viral proteins are synthesized initially as large precursors and are later processed into the mature proteins by ... An additional open reading frame (ORF) was observed in the viral genome and has been called orfX and its function is undefined ...
... viral MeSH E01.450.230.700 - spinal puncture MeSH E01.450.230.900 - vaginal smears MeSH E01.450.375.107 - blood cell count MeSH ... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.370.750.600 - passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.370.750.610 - patch tests MeSH E01.370. ... hemolytic plaque technique MeSH E01.450.495.385 - histocompatibility testing MeSH E01.450.495.385.120 - blood grouping and ... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.450.495.750.600 - passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.450.495.750.610 - patch tests MeSH ...
... a direct measurement of the concentration of virus particles in a fraction of the time required for traditional plaque assays. ... Antiviral research Viral vector research and protein expression Bioprocess optimization Viral antigen characterization Viral ... both being substantially higher than plaque titer values. In 2004 the virus counter's added a second detection channel to the ... being more similar in magnitude and correlated with infectious assay results. A commercial version of the virus counter was ...
Hamsters develop atherosclerotic plaques as humans do. Smoke inhalation can be studied on Syrian hamsters by putting the ... Syrian hamsters may be infected with the virus, and like humans will have viral replication and lesions in the respiratory ... "Measurement of the scrapie agent using an incubation time interval assay". Annals of Neurology. 11 (4): 353-8. doi:10.1002/ana. ... Milazzo, ML; Eyzaguirre, EJ; Molina, CP; Fulhorst, CF (15 November 2002). "Maporal viral infection in the Syrian golden hamster ...
The two types of senile plaques are diffuse plaques and neuritic plaques, and differ in morphology. In addition to the amyloid ... One assay to determine the extent at which a ligand binds to its receptor is the radioligand binding assay (RBA), in which ... Gene therapy may provide a novel route to introduce new dopamine production via viral-medicated gene transfection, but clinical ... While the RBA assay assumes that the tissue prepared has just one molecular target per ligand, in actuality this may not be the ...
Measuring TSH-receptor antibodies with the h-TBII assay has been proven efficient and was the most practical approach found in ... Since Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease which appears suddenly, often later in life, a viral or bacterial infection may ... causing an inflammatory reaction and subsequent fibrous plaques. The three types of autoantibodies to the TSH receptor ...
In 2010 CDC developed an ELISA also for JCV IgM . Similarly, the New York State Department of Health has performed JCV plaque ... It does the latter by an immunofluorescence assay. Prior to the 1990s, the only tests for California serogroup virus infections ... "California Group Seroviruses". In Liu D (ed.). Molecular Detection of Human Viral Pathogens. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 609 ... The CDC has used plaque reduction neutralization tests to detect JCV neutralizing antibodies since 1995. The test is ...
In the case of viral identification, a region of dead cells results from viral growth, and is called a "plaque". Eukaryotic ... Bacterial or viral[edit]. As bacterial and viral infections can both cause the same kinds of symptoms, it can be difficult to ... Comparison of viral and bacterial infection Characteristic Viral infection Bacterial infection Typical symptoms In general, ... Some viral infections can also be latent, examples of latent viral infections are any of those from the Herpesviridae family.[ ...
... worked out a procedure for assaying animal virus particles by their formation of plaques on a sheet of cultured cells, just as ... HERSHEY AD, CHASE M. "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". J Gen Physiol. 1952 ... phage form plaques on a lawn of bacterial cells. This procedure set the stage for Dulbecco to implement a comprehensive ...
Since Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease which appears suddenly, often later in life, a viral or bacterial infection may ... Measuring TSH-receptor antibodies with the h-TBII assay has been proven efficient and was the most practical approach found in ... causing an inflammatory reaction and subsequent fibrous plaques. ...
The plaque-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells was found to be enhanced in mice fed a formula diet containing 20 g ... MTT assay indicated that cells grew in combined medium had a significantly lower survival rate compared to the cells grew in ... Cell Activation and Viral Infection - C. Pasquier et al. (eds); 311-321 (1994) ... More specifically, an in-vitro assay showed that at concentrations that induce GSH synthesis in normal human cells, a specially ...
... studies showing evidence for viral replication in the placenta or reporting the full viral life cycle in placental-derived ... "World Health Organization International Standard to Harmonize Assays for Detection of Hepatitis E Virus RNA". Emerging ... The symptomatic phase coincides with elevated hepatic aminotransferase levels.[18][19][20][21] Viral RNA becomes detectable in ... Liu, Dongyou (2010-11-23). Molecular Detection of Human Viral Pathogens. CRC Press. p. 102. ISBN 9781439812372. .. ...
In the case of viral identification, a region of dead cells results from viral growth, and is called a "plaque". Eukaryotic ... Comparison of viral and bacterial infection Characteristic Viral infection Bacterial infection Typical symptoms In general, ... Bacterial or viral[edit]. Bacterial and viral infections can both cause the same kinds of symptoms. It can be difficult to ... Only a few viral infections are painful, like herpes. The pain of viral infections is often described as itchy or burning.[12] ...
Interferon-alpha, an interferon type I, was identified in 1957 as a protein that interfered with viral replication.[3] The ... Boyle JJ (January 2005). "Macrophage activation in atherosclerosis: pathogenesis and pharmacology of plaque rupture". Curr Vasc ...
"Platelet Function Assay FAQ" (PDF). Department of Pathology. Virginia Commonwealth University. Retrieved 2017-03-27.. ... William Osler observed platelets and, in published lectures in 1886, called them a third corpuscle and a blood plaque; and ... This support clinical data which show that many with serious bacterial or viral infections have thrombocytopenia, thus reducing ... The PFA-100 (Platelet Function Assay-100) is a system for analysing platelet function in which citrated whole blood is ...
In India, scrub typhus has become the major cause of acute encephalitis syndrome, which was earlier caused mainly by a viral ... Moree, M.F.; Hanson, B. (1992). "Growth characteristics and proteins of plaque-purified strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi". ... More sensitive tests such as rapid immunochromatographic test (RICT), immunofluorescence assays (IFA), ELISA, and DNA analysis ... immunofluorescence assays, and polymerase chain reaction. There is no vaccine for the infection. The earliest record of O. ...
This assay evaluates the final dilution that may cause a viral infection in 50% of inoculated eggs. This EID50 assay is used to ... Tatsumoto N, Miyauchi T, Arditi M, Yamashita M (November 2018). "Quantification of Infectious Sendai Virus Using Plaque Assay ... titer can also be assessed by using plaque assay in LLC-MK2 cells and by serial end point 2x dilution hemagglutination assay ( ... All these complexes are needed for the viral RNA replication. Two different sets of proteins are translated from viral mRNAs. ...
Gilbard, Jeffrey P; Douyon, Yanick; Huson, Robert B (May 2010). "Time-Kill Assay Results for a Linalool-Hinokitiol-Based Eyelid ... on the plaque removal and the improvement of gingivitis". Nihon Shishubyo Gakkai Kaishi (Journal of the Japanese Society of ... for an anti-viral composition that included oral care products. Hinokitiol is found to have insecticidal and pesticidal ...
... first demonstrated in a corneal micropocket implant assay and subsequently confirmed in a rabbit ischemic hindlimb model. CYR61 ... cysteine rich-61 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques: relationship with clinical ... murine resident Ly6Clow monocytes along the endothelial in the steady state and is required for their accumulation under viral- ...
Currently, POWV is detected with IgM antibody capture ELISA of an IgM immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) assay, plaque reduction ... the lineages are part of the same viral species. The virus can be transmitted with bites from altogether six known species of ...
Viral plaque assay. Virus titers were measured in the brain, TG, and skin of HSV-infected mice as described previously by ... D) The primary site of skin inoculation was examined for viral titers at day 6 p.i. using plaque assay. The level of ... by swabbing the HSV-infected eye with a sterile swab and assaying for the virus by plaque assay. The level of significance was ... Virus titers in all samples were measured using standard plaque assay as described previously (24). ...
... and reduce the viral load. Of the four target genes tested, inactivated E. coli transformed with plasmids producing dsRNA ... and reduce the viral load. Of the four target genes tested, inactivated E. coli transformed with plasmids producing dsRNA ... Viral Plaque Assay. The viral titre of the supernatant from ASK culture infected with ISAV HPR35; ASK infected and treated with ... SRA and SRC made co-localization assays of bacteria in culture cell. SRC and GH made viral plaque assays. SRA also made ...
Hemagglutination and plaque-forming assay for viral titer quantification. Hemagglutination (HA) of guinea pig RBCs was ... For the plaque assay, serial 10-fold dilutions of the virus were allowed to adsorb onto confluent monolayers of MDCK cells on a ... B, Ex vivo viral uptake assay. CD11c+ lung cells were isolated using MACS beads from uninfected and mice infected with ... C, In vivo viral uptake assay. Mice were first infected with 20 HAU unlabeled influenza virus to establish lung inflammation, ...
... take a P1 viral stock and redo the plaque assay. Be sure to select well-spaced, occ- plaques. If you are having difficulty ... Im yielding no plaques from my baculovirus plaque assay. What are the possible causes for this? ... The viral titer is too low: Use a higher viral titer. You may need to re-infect your cells and collect a higher titer of your ... Viral stock contains a mixture of recombinant and non-recombinant baculovirus: Perform plaque purification to isolate ...
C) Viral plaque morphology assay. 0.01 MOI of P1 supernatants were inoculated in fresh MARC-145 cells and covered by MEM ... The virus titers were determined by plaque assay and the results were mean values from three independent experiments. Viral ... B) Viral plaque morphology and growth curves of the mutant viruses D1-D6 as described in Figure 3. ... The bars represent the average plaque diameters. (D) Viral multi-step growth curves. MARC-145 cells infected at an MOI of 0.01 ...
Viral Plaque Assay Substances * Antiviral Agents * Immunosuppressive Agents * Organophosphonates * Organophosphorus Compounds * ...
Viral Plaque Assay * Zanamivir Substances * Antiviral Agents * Enzyme Inhibitors * Guanidines * Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, ... Plaque size was measured in the presence or absence of bacterial neuraminidase (CPNA) and/or an influenza virus NA inhibitor, ...
Using newly established models of viral encephalitis recovery in adult animals, we show that in mice that have recovered from ... Viral burden was quantified via standard plaque assays. Data are pooled from two independent experiments (n=10 mice per group; ... Anti-viral T cells that persist in the CNS after viral recovery produce IFNγ. IFNγ targeting of microglia leads to the ... Doublecortin expression in CD8+ T-cells and microglia at sites of amyloid-beta plaques: a potential role in shaping plaque ...
Viral titers were determined with a conventional plaque assay.. Functional Assay. Sf9 cells (1.4 × 107 cells) seeded in a cell ... Functional Assay of B. mori Desat1 in a Bac-to-Bac Baculovirus Expression System. Analysis of the desaturase gene transcripts ... Transcript analyses by RT-PCR and subsequent functional assays using a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system revealed that ... was plaque-purified and propagated in Sf9 cells. Bac1-AcNPV, a control recombinant baculovirus, was prepared in the same way by ...
Viral titer was determined by plaque assay. Control Adv-lacZ, which carries β-gal cDNA, was isolated using the same procedure. ... Analytical procedures. Plasma glucose was assayed by the glucose oxidase method (Yellow Springs Instruments). Basal plasma ... Recombinant Adv from a single plaque was expanded and purified twice by cesium chloride gradient ultracentrifugation. ... Assay Designs Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA), Mouse Resistin RIA Kit (Linco Research Inc.), which cross-reacts with mouse and ...
Viral Detection in Lungs *Viral Plaque Assay (VPA) using Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells ... and viral titers were unchanged. Assessment of T cell responses at 10 dpi showed a decrease in the number of total and ... environment induced by triclosan exposure has the potential to influence the developing immune response to a respiratory viral ...
Viral Plaque Assay. West Nile Fever / drug therapy*, immunology, mortality. West Nile virus / immunology*. ... Previous Document: A novel fluorescence intensity screening assay identifies new low-molecular-weight inhibitors of the.... ... Overall, these data suggest that in hamsters hE16 can ameliorate neurological disease after significant viral replication has ...
Support Protocol 1: Titrating Viral Stocks with the Plaque Assay. *Support Protocol 2: Titrating Viral Stocks with the End‐ ... a plaque assay and an end‐point assay). Once viral stocks have been prepared and titered, a protocol for testing the virus in ... Support Protocol 2: Titrating Viral Stocks with the End‐Point Assay. Materials * Sf9 cells (1 × 106 cells/ml), grown in Sf‐900 ... Basic Protocol 1: Large‐Scale Production of Viral Stock. MaterialsSpodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells * Insect cell medium: TC100 ...
Viral titers were determined by plaque assay on MDCK cells. After absorption, cells were overlayed with MEM containing a 0.6% ... and viral titers were determined by plaque assay on 3T12 cells. For Sindbis virus experiments, 4-day-old pups were infected ... Recombinant WT influenza B/Lee/40 (B/Lee) virus was grown in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs and titered by plaque assay in ... Many of the previously defined host antiviral molecules function by inhibiting viral replication. Although increased viral ...
... plaque morphology, cell culture or tissue viral titers, temperature sensitivity); virulence and transmissibility in animal ... and M2 inhibitors in functional assays detected in field isolates or clinical case reports; and animals or cultured cells ... The H5N1 Inventory is an inclusive compilation of amino acid changes and/or motifs identified within each viral protein that ... 6 sialic acid as measured by in vitro assays); altered binding profiles or tropism for human airway tissues; replication ...
In this study, we have carried out viral binding assays to investigate the impact of the Wolbachia strain wAlbB on the ... In this study, we have carried out viral binding assays to investigate the impact of the Wolbachia strain wAlbB on the ... Our results showed that, in addition to suppression of viral replication, Wolbachia strongly inhibited binding of both DENV-2 ... Our results showed that, in addition to suppression of viral replication, Wolbachia strongly inhibited binding of both DENV-2 ...
Viral Concentration Determination Through Plaque Assays: Using Traditional and Novel Overlay Systems, Optimized Negative ... Viral Nanoparticles for In vivo Tumor Imaging, Production of Disulfide-stabilized Transmembrane Peptide Complexes for ... G Protein-selective GPCR Conformations Measured Using FRET Sensors in a Live Cell Suspension Fluorometer Assay, Synthesis of ... Structural Studies, Coupled Assays for Monitoring Protein Refolding in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Imaging the Neutrophil ...
Viral Concentration Determination Through Plaque Assays: Using Traditional and Novel Overlay Systems. Alan Baer1, Kylene Kehn- ... Real-time Cytotoxicity Assays in Human Whole Blood. Ching-Wen Hsiao*1, Yen-Ting Lo*1, Hong Liu2, Sonny C. Hsiao1 ... Reporter-based Growth Assay for Systematic Analysis of Protein Degradation. Itamar Cohen1, Yifat Geffen1, Guy Ravid1, Tommer ... A Colorimetric Assay that Specifically Measures Granzyme B Proteolytic Activity: Hydrolysis of Boc-Ala-Ala-Asp-S-Bzl. Magdalena ...
These findings offer the hope of rapidly generating large quantities of neutralizing anti-serum that could be used in a viral ... Viral titers were determined by plaque assay using Avicel RC-591 overlay (FMC Corporation). Briefly, 200 µl/well of 10-fold ... To measure neutralizing antibodies, a VSVΔG/EBOV-GP-based PRNT assay or a virus neutralization assay with Zaire EBOV isolate ... The protein concentration of purified VLPs was determined by Bradford assay (Bio-Rad), and the BCA assay (Thermo Fisher) was ...
ELISA assays and viral plaque assays. Identifies and solves common problems relating to laboratory methodology, instrumentation ... Participates in development of assays used in the laboratory, and training others on equipment and assays.. Maintains adequate ... Experience with viral Select Agents is highly desired.. Fluency in French.. Notes. BENEFITS. Battelles competitive benefits ... Performs assays and experiments in molecular biology to include nucleic acid extraction, PCR, real time PCR, cloning, plasmid ...
Viral titers in the lung homogenates were determined by plaque assay. Plaque-forming units (PFU) per lung lobe was calculated. ... Proof of Concept: Mouse Immunization Assay. Related Stories. *Complex SARS-CoV-2 serology means universal immunological assay ... On day four, following the challenge, there was no detectable viral titer or viral antigen in the lungs. ... Advantages of Viral Vector Vaccines. The spike (S) protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is the major antigen that elicits ...
Viral Plaque Assay. Viral titer in infected lungs were determined using a modified Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell plaque ... which correlates with the abrupt drop in viral titer between day 6 and 8 (no virus is detectable by day 10). After viral ... To analyze whether the rise and fall of effector T cells was correlated to viral titer we measured the levels of influenza ... We have used Thy1 disparate donor TCR Tg cells specific for viral hemagglutinin, adoptively transferred into normal BALB/c mice ...
Viral isolation was successful and identification was performed by plaque neutralization (4). In addition, 1 German patient ... Tests of an RT-PCR assay alone, without a further nested PCR step, showed that this method did not appear to be valid for ... perfiliewi are found (1,2). Transovarial transmission has been demonstrated in the laboratory and by viral isolation from male ... Detection and identification of Toscana and other phleboviruses by RT-PCR assays with degenerated primers. J Med Virol. 2003;71 ...
Plaque assay for viral yields.Detailed methods for adenovirus plaque assays have been described elsewhere (31). In brief, virus ... and the virus yield at 48 h postinfection was measured by plaque assay with 293 cells. The status of the relevant viral genes ... At 48 h after infection, the total virus present in the culture was measured by plaque assay. The yield of E1B-55K/E4orf3 ... The virus yield at 48 h postinfection was measured by plaque assay with 293 cells. The results shown are the averages of three ...
Plaque assay for viral titers.For plaque assays to determine viral titers, tissues were weighed and 10% tissue homogenates were ... and viral titers were determined for the indicated tissues by plaque assay. *, P ≤ 0.05; **, P ≤ 0.01; ***, P ≤ 0.001; ****, P ... subsets of mice from each group were euthanized and viral titers were determined for indicated tissues by plaque assay. *, P ≤ ... subsets of mice from each group were euthanized and viral titers were determined for the indicated tissues by plaque assay. The ...
b) Spleens were harvested from LCMV infected mice d3 p.i. and viral load was determined by plaque assay. n=4. (c,d) The ... Serum was collected from mice longitudinally and serum viral titers were determined by plaque assay. n=5 per time point. ( ... a) Longitudinal analysis of viral load in the serum. (b) Viral load in the spleen, liver, kidney, and brain. Data are ... Coregulation of CD8+ T cell exhaustion by multiple inhibitory receptors during chronic viral infection.. Blackburn SD1, Shin H ...
Improving the viral plaque assay speed, sensitivity and robustness using imaging cytometry. Improved fluorescent plaque assay ... plaque assay, viral plaque assay, virology,0 Comments ... Improving the viral plaque assay speed, sensitivity and ... Improving the viral plaque assay speed, sensitivity and robustness using imaging cytometry Celigo Application News, Latest News ... Is Your Lab Using High-throughput Image Cytometry to Expedite Viral Assay Development and Research of SARS-CoV-2?. Fast track ...
Improving the viral plaque assay speed, sensitivity and robustness using imaging cytometry. Improved fluorescent plaque assay ... Improving the viral plaque assay speed, sensitivity and robustness using imaging cytometry Celigo Application News, Latest News ... Improving the viral plaque assay speed, sensitivity and robustness using imaging cytometry November 15, 2019 ... Improving the viral plaque assay speed, sensitivity and robustness using imaging cytometry ...
... infectious titers by plaque assay and B) viral load... ... plaque assay was conducted as described for West Nile virus (26 ... For detection of viral RNA, we used 5 μL of RNA in a one-step real-time reverse transcription PCR upE assay (24) using the ... Virus Titration and Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. We titrated swab samples in viral transport medium, whole blood, and ... Antibody titers against MERS-CoV in dromedary camels inoculated with the virus as determined by 90% plaque reduction assay ...
... complex formation to support viral growth and viral protein expression. We also show that the canonical signals of mTORC1 ... and supernatants were analyzed by plaque assay at the indicated times. Viral titer data are presented as log10 plaque forming ... and supernatants were analyzed by plaque assay at the indicated times. Viral titer data are presented as log10 plaque forming ... were used to measure viral titer by standard plaque assay [31]. For infection, cells were inoculated with WNV, CHIKV or EMCV ...
  • The lesions appeared to primarily represent the destructive consequences of viral replication, and animals could be protected from HSE by acyclovir treatment provided 4 d after ocular infection. (
  • Once virus enters the brain, the lesions that follow are considered to be either the consequence of viral replication in critical cells ( 3 , 6 ) and/or caused by an inflammatory response to the infection ( 7 - 9 ). (
  • Using newly established models of viral encephalitis recovery in adult animals, we show that in mice that have recovered from WNV or ZIKV infection, T cell-derived interferon-γ (IFN-γ) signaling in microglia underlies spatial-learning defects via virus-target-specific mechanisms. (
  • Overall, these results indicate that the immune environment induced by triclosan exposure has the potential to influence the developing immune response to a respiratory viral infection and may have implications for healthcare workers who may be at an increased risk for developing infectious diseases. (
  • Once viral stocks have been prepared and titered, a protocol for testing the virus in small‐scale cultures is provided to determine the kinetics of expression, which allows evaluation of various cell culture and infection conditions aimed at developing optimal levels of protein production (e.g., comparisons of different host cell lines, media, and environmental parameters). (
  • Type I interferons (IFNs) play an essential role in the host response to viral infection through the induction of numerous IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), including important antiviral molecules such as PKR, RNase L, Mx, and iNOS. (
  • IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a ubiquitin homolog that is rapidly up-regulated after viral infection, and it conjugates to a wide array of host proteins. (
  • Here we demonstrate that ISG15 is critical for the host response to viral infection. (
  • Type I interferons (IFN-α and -β) play a critical role in the innate immune response to viral infection. (
  • ISG15 is an IFN-stimulated gene that is rapidly up-regulated after stimulation with either IFNs or viral infection. (
  • Given the dramatic up-regulation of ISG15 after viral infection, there has been speculation that ISG15 functions as an antiviral molecule. (
  • In this work, we provide evidence that ISG15 −/− mice are deficient in their ability to respond to viral infection. (
  • We found that, whereas wild-type mice had high viral loads and succumbed to EBOV infection, Npc1 −/− mice were entirely free of viral replication and completely protected from EBOV disease. (
  • Coregulation of CD8+ T cell exhaustion by multiple inhibitory receptors during chronic viral infection. (
  • T cell exhaustion often occurs during chronic infection and prevents optimal viral control. (
  • Flaviviruses do not shut down the translation of host mRNA during infection, so work to understand the mechanisms that flaviviruses manipulate to compete with host mRNA for access to the translational apparatus will provide important insight into the function of the viral RNA. (
  • Thus, establishment of persistent infection in vitro involves viral genetic changes that facilitate efficient viral spread from cell to cell as a potential mechanism to escape host antiviral responses. (
  • The susceptibility of tumor cells to NDV or other oncolytic viruses is likely attributed to changes that have arisen during oncogenesis, including defects in host interferon pathways resulting in an ineffective antiviral response and a concomitant increase in susceptibility to viral infection ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral infection that commonly affects children below the age of 4 years ( 1 ). (
  • In a mouse model of intranasal infection, naproxen treatment decreased the viral titers in mice lungs. (
  • The nucleoprotein (NP) is highly expressed during viral infection and has multiple functions. (
  • The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy. (
  • Recent researches, however, have demonstrated that neurons might host and regulate innate and adaptive immune responses to counter viral infection in the CNS [ 8 - 10 ]. (
  • Therefore, transgenes controlled by exogenous promoter may lead to unpredictable expression of the foreign genes over the course of the viral infection. (
  • In this context, we identified compounds that can simultaneously reduce the excessive inflammatory response and the viral replication as a strategy to treat influenza virus infection. (
  • Our results demonstrate the impact of CSF1R antagonism on APC activation in the CNS and periphery and the importance of microglia in orchestrating the CNS immune response following neurotropic viral infection. (
  • What does viral infection look like in early, late, and very late stages? (
  • These reviews covered methods used for the infection of cells by viral nucleic acids as well as interaction of mammalian cells with non-viral nucleic acids. (
  • Competence of suspended HeLa Cells for infection by inactivated poliovirus particles and by isolated viral RNA. (
  • 8. The method of claim 1, wherein the individual has an infection, condition, or disease associated with TLR3 selected from the group consisting of: a viral infection and a cancer. (
  • There is a lower limit of detection of the plaque assay - approximately 10 plaque forming units/ml - whether that would be sufficient to transmit infection is a good question. (
  • Such RNA is not infectious under the conditions of a plaque assay, nor is it likely to initiate infection in another person by transmission. (
  • Our findings suggest a mechanism facilitating S. pneumoniae contagion that is shared by viral infection. (
  • Dimethyl fumarate promoted viral infection of cancer cells, and the combined treatment was effective in multiple cancer models, including those that did not respond to virus or drug treatment alone. (
  • We show that DMF and various fumaric and maleic acid esters (FMAEs) enhance viral infection of cancer cell lines as well as human tumor biopsies with several oncolytic viruses (OVs), improving therapeutic outcomes in resistant syngeneic and xenograft tumor models. (
  • Heat stress can negatively affect an animal's growth performance and the immune competence to some bacterial or viral infection [ 1 - 6 ]. (
  • However, there have been few detailed studies addressing the effects of CHS on the innate immune response as the most immediate defense against viral infection. (
  • So far human cases of H5N1 infection in worldwide have increased to 522, including 309 deaths ( ). (
  • The study found that the viral RNA in the particles can remain airborne and thus could be inhaled deep into the lungs, which poses infection control challenges in health facilities. (
  • Viral infection with enteroviruses is a suspected trigger for T1D, but a causal role remains unproven and controversial. (
  • In order to resolve the controversial role of viruses in human T1D, we developed a viral infection model in immunodeficient mice bearing human islet grafts. (
  • The association of T1D with interferon (IFN) induced with helicase C domain 1 ( IFIH1 ) ( 2 ), which senses viral replication intermediates leading to downstream activation of type I IFN, raises viral infection as a possible environmental factor in T1D induction. (
  • Nevertheless, a definitive link between viral infection and the onset of T1D remains elusive. (
  • NOD mice have been used to extensively assess the parameters of viral infection on T1D, although a critical mass of autoreactive T cells rather than direct viral insult appears to accelerate progression to diabetes during CVB infection ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • Critical to the success of infection is the ability of influenza virus to rapidly produce viral proteins that alter cellular functions to favor production of new viral particles and to defeat the innate immune responses to virus infection. (
  • Because influenza virus must convert host cell regulatory and metabolic pathways to its own use during the early hours of infection, it should be possible to identify critical host pathways required for viral infection. (
  • We evaluated early viral dissemination pathways following ocular infection that involve trafficking to the olfactory bulb (OB). (
  • Following ocular infection, HSV-1 viral titers from nasal secretions were detected as early as 48 h through 8 days post infection (8 DPI). (
  • Cathelicidins have immunomodulatory and anti-viral effects, but their impact on influenza virus infection has not been previously assessed. (
  • Upon infection, viral RNPs are released in to the host cell cytoplasm and actively transported to the nucleus [ 4 ]. (
  • Accumulation of viral mRNA in the nucleus and cytoplasm of E1B-55K/E4orf3 double mutant virus-infected cells was severely reduced compared to that on wild-type virus-infected cells. (
  • The viral replication may turn off cellular or therapeutic gene expression because adenoviral replication has been attributed to a block in cytoplasmic accumulation of cellular mRNAs and preferential translation of viral mRNA ( 22 , 23 ). (
  • I'm not sure how you can get mRNA (viral or otherwise) to ribosomes inside a cell without using endosomal/fusion pathway. (
  • Their genome single-stranded (+) sense RNA is that functions as mRNA after entry into the cell and all viral mRNA synthesized is of genome polarity. (
  • Upon hybridizing with the viral mRNA, fluorescent cells were visualized easily under a fluorescence microscope. (
  • NS1 inhibits cellular messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) processing and export, down-regulating host gene expression and enhancing viral gene expression. (
  • The release of NS1-mediated mRNA export block by DHODH inhibition also occurred in the presence of vesicular stomatitis virus M (matrix) protein, another viral inhibitor of mRNA export. (
  • RESULTS -Ad-36 and Ad-2 infections were confirmed by the presence of respective viral mRNA and protein expressions. (
  • The absence of CD8 T cells results in delayed clearance of the influenza virus, elevated pulmonary viral titers, and increased mortality ( 1 ). (
  • Plaque size was measured in the presence or absence of bacterial neuraminidase (CPNA) and/or an influenza virus NA inhibitor, zanamivir, to assess the relative contribution of the NA to replication efficiency in tissue culture. (
  • The nucleoprotein (NP) binds the viral RNA genome and associates with the polymerase in a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) required for transcription and replication of influenza A virus. (
  • Because of the continuous change in the major viral antigens, vaccine must be renewed each year, and during influenza pandemics, antiviral can provide a first step of protection, at least during the time lapse required for vaccine production. (
  • 90% amino acid sequence identity) among the different viral strains of influenza A virus and has no cellular counterpart. (
  • We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. (
  • These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. (
  • The underlying anti-influenza virus mechanism of SJS was studied by a series of biological assays to determine if hemagglutinin, ribonucleoprotein complex or neuraminidase were targets of SJS. (
  • Contact information for these laboratories can be found on the World Health Organization (WHO) website at . (
  • Monitoring of viral susceptibility: new challenges with the development of influenza NA inhibitors. (
  • In fact, 45% of the influenza viral RNA from cough aerosols collected using the NIOSH sampler came from just 4 of 38 subjects with influenza," they wrote, adding that the findings suggest some flu patients may be "superspreaders. (
  • The NS1 protein of influenza virus is a major virulence factor essential for virus replication, as it redirects the host cell to promote viral protein expression. (
  • The human cathelicidin, LL-37, and the murine cathelicidin, mCRAMP, demonstrated significant anti-viral activity in vivo, reducing disease severity and viral replication in infected mice to a similar extent as the well-characterized influenza virus-specific antiviral drug zanamivir. (
  • Moreover, we showed that these critical phosphorylation sites play the same role in influenza B virus and are likely present in influenza C and D viruses, suggesting our results are broadly applicable across viral strains and genera and reveal a global regulatory strategy for Orthomyxoviridae. (
  • Like all other negative-sense RNA viruses, the influenza virus genome associates with the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and multiple copies of the viral nucleoproteins (NP) to form ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNP) [ 2 ]. (
  • Here, a student performs a plaque assay to determine viral titer. (
  • Leaves and berries were harvested over a 14 day period and the viral titer was determined by plaque assay. (
  • Mice were euthanized on day 3 and viral titer in the lungs was assessed by plaque assay. (
  • There are few excuses for failing to measure viral infectivity by plaque assays. (
  • although substantially less virulent than if contained within the viral particle, the RNA can have increased infectivity when transfected into cells. (
  • This MB-based fluorescence assay enabled the direct counting of fluorescent cells and could achieve a detection limit of 1 PFU at 6 h postinfection, demonstrating a significant improvement in viral quantification over current infectivity assays. (
  • At constant temperature, the RH was varied from 7-73% and infectivity was assessed by the viral plaque assay. (
  • Treatment of CMV-infected human fetal astrocytes with VCD reduced both viral infectivity and replication by blocking viral particle attachment to the cell, a mechanism that differs from available anti-CMV drugs. (
  • Moreover, the large size of the viral genome enables cloning of large segments of DNA and consequent expression of complex protein aggregates. (
  • The non-infectious RNA detected by plaque assay is likely fragments of RNA, not the entire genome - PCR only assays for short stretches of RNA. (
  • The viral genome is around 2500 nm in length so we can therefore conclude that it must be tightly packaged within the capsid along with substances such as sodium ions in order to cancel out the negative charges on the RNA caused by the phosphate groups. (
  • Picornaviruses are classed under Baltimore's viral classification system as group IV viruses as they contain a single stranded, positive sense RNA genome. (
  • For each infected cell, 7-10 plaques were picked and used for massive parallel genome sequencing. (
  • Plaque purification has been used for years in virology to produce clonal virus stocks, but at least for VSV, a plaque is not produced by a single viral genome. (
  • These complexes contain the viral polymerase, genomic RNA, and multiple copies of nucleoprotein that bind RNA and oligomerize to coat the genome. (
  • Within the RNP, the hetero-trimeric polymerase (composed of subunits PB1, PB2 and PA) catalyzes both transcription of viral messages and replication of the viral genome using an RNA template that is encapsidated by oligomeric NP [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • Synthesis of new proteins from the resultant mRNAs enables replication of the viral genome. (
  • F 117S improves F protein cleavage efficiency, facilitating cell-to-cell fusion, while HN 169R possesses a multifaceted role in contributing to higher fusion, reduced receptor binding, and lower neuraminidase activity, which together result in increased fusion and reduced viral replication. (
  • Other viral detection method includes western blot, transmission EM, in vivo assay, in vitro assay, and NGS (Next Generation Sequencing). (
  • Molecular beacons (MBs) were first developed in 1996 ( 16 ) and have been applied in numerous in vitro hybridization assays ( 7 , 8 , 12 ). (
  • More recently, they have been used as secondary concentration methods for improved viral detection following primary concentration by other methods. (
  • Methods for a plaque neutralization test (PNT) were optimized for the detection and quantification of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) neutralizing activity in the plasma of Pacific Herring Clupea pallasii. (
  • The method segments included in the report are viral detection method, viral removal method, and viral inactivation method. (
  • The viral detection method is further subsegmented into plaque assays, PCR, ELISA, and other viral detection method. (
  • Here, we describe the identification of Chikungunya-specific 40 kD protein for development of synthetic peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Chikungunya virus-specific antibodies in the patient's sample. (
  • Gastric cancer cells were treated with AChE delivered by replication-deficient adenoviral vector (Ad.AChE) or oncolytic adenoviral vector (ZD55-AChE), respectively, followed by measurement of cell viability and apoptosis by MTT assay and apoptosis detection assays. (
  • MBs have been widely used in many areas, such as in real-time monitoring of DNA/RNA amplification during PCR, gene typing, mutation detection, real-time enzymatic cleavage assay ( 8 , 11 ), and RNA detection in living cells ( 3 , 6 ). (
  • Naproxen protected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells against viral challenges with the H1N1 and H3N2 viral strains and was much more effective than other cyclooxygenase inhibitors in decreasing viral titers of MDCK cells. (
  • Filoviruses, members of the family Filoviridae of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, cause sporadic viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks that primarily affect areas of equatorial Africa ( 1 ). (
  • Selection of resistant viruses after treatment with antiviral drugs is inevitable ( 4 ), and while resistant viral strains have increased in recent years, only a few antiviral drugs have been approved for clinical use ( 5 ). (
  • It is also used in plaque assays for counting viruses, as an alternative to carboxymethylcellulose. (
  • Viral clearance studies helps to analyze the effectiveness of each step in manufacturing process to remove or inactivate potential contaminant viruses. (
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-format microneutralization test for dengue viruses. (
  • Guidelines for plaque-reduction neutralization testing of human antibodies to dengue viruses. (
  • Coxsackie B3 virus (CVB3) is a member of small RNA viruses that belongs to the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae and CVB3 is the main pathogen of acute and chronic viral myocarditis. (
  • The profiles of viral replication in respiratory tissues and the immunogenicity and protective efficacy characteristics of the two ca H5N1 candidate LAIV viruses warrant further development into a vaccine for human use. (
  • Highly virulent or lytic strains create plaques that look clear (due to total cell destruction), while strains that only kill a fraction of their hosts (due to partial resistance/lysogeny), or only reduce the rate of cell growth, give turbid plaques. (
  • Infected mice exposed to triclosan did not show an increase in morbidity or mortality, and viral titers were unchanged. (
  • NDV vector vaccines protected mice from the SARS-CoV-2 challenge (A) Viral titers in the lungs. (
  • Serum was collected from mice longitudinally and serum viral titers were determined by plaque assay. (
  • b) Spleens were harvested from LCMV infected mice d3 p.i. and viral load was determined by plaque assay. (
  • Subcutaneous tumor growth in nude mice who received intratumoral injections of Ad- FHIT , at a total dose of 3 × 10 10 plaque-forming units/tumor for H1299 tumors and 4 × 10 10 /tumor for A549 tumors, were suppressed by more than 85% and 90%, respectively, compared with that in nude mice who received injections of empty vector at the same dose or with PBS alone. (
  • Finally, we showed that administration of ILG-p reduced lung viral titers and morbidity of mice infected with the PR8/H1N1 virus. (
  • The survival rate, body weight changes, lung index, lung viral load, histopathologic changes and immune regulation of the mice were measured. (
  • The lung index and the lung viral load of SJS treated mice were significantly decreased compared with untreated mice. (
  • A study of sexual transmission of Zika virus among mice ( link to paper ) demonstrates beautifully that viral nucleic acid detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is not the same as infectious virus. (
  • Then we examined mortality rate, histopathology, and viral loads in lung of CHS mice challenged with H5N1 virus. (
  • Human islet grafts from infected mice contained viral RNA, expressed viral protein, and had reduced insulin levels compared with grafts from uninfected mice. (
  • Scarified corneas of C57BL/6 or reporter-inducible Rosa mice (Rosa Td/Tm ) were inoculated with HSV-1 and assessed for viral dissemination into the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and CNS by RT-PCR and confocal microscopy. (
  • In infected mice, subcutaneous VCD reaches the brain and suppresses viral replication within the CNS, rescuing the animals from CMV-induced brain defects and neurological problems. (
  • Replication-defective viral vectors have been used for different applications for gene therapy of cancers. (
  • Mueller C, Ratner D, Zhong L, Esteves-Sena M, Gao G. Production and discovery of novel recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors. (
  • Two compounds reduced viral titers in vivo and provided a modest, albeit not statistically significant, degree of protection. (
  • Regulation of T cell exhaustion by various inhibitory pathways was nonredundant, as blockade of the T cell inhibitory receptors PD-1 and LAG-3 simultaneously and synergistically improved T cell responses and diminished viral load in vivo. (
  • Because DENVs may preferentially replicate in CD32-expressing monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells, in vivo , it is possible that CD32 introduced into a conventional DENV neutralization assay might provide results that better correlate with protection. (
  • 1 ) to assess viral replication and persistence in human islets in vivo and 2 ) to assess for the development of hyperglycemia. (
  • Many leading labs in the field of virology have used the Celigo Image Cytometer to directly measure multiplex cell-based assays in real-time. (
  • Improved fluorescent plaque assay method using fluorescently-labeled antibodies and the use of the Celigo image cytometer. (
  • The mortality rate and viral load in the lungs of CHS group were higher than those of TN group. (
  • These data demonstrate that ZIKV elicits mechanisms to counteract host anti-viral stress responses to promote a cellular environment propitious for viral replication. (
  • The primary endpoint of the study is to evaluate the anti-viral effect of treatment measured in nasal swabs. (
  • A novel fluorescence intensity screening assay identifies new low-molecular-weight inhibitors of the. (
  • Viral replication was evaluated using plaque assay and immune fluorescence. (
  • A nonspecific MB, which was not complementary to the viral RNA sequence, produced no visible fluorescence signal. (
  • Viral titers were determined by plaque assay and cytokine expression by Bio-Plex ® assays using the supernatants harvested. (
  • Classic plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) end-point titers were determined by probit analysis. (
  • RNA interference (RNAi) was used to silence a variety of putative mosquito receptors of DENV that were differentially regulated by w AlbB in Aag-2 cells, in order to identify host factors involved in the inhibition of viral binding. (
  • 0.001), but inhibition of Hsp90 ablated this response, reducing viral replication and synergistic cell killing. (
  • Neuraminidase inhibition assay Robust and reproducible assays of drug susceptibility are needed to generate meaningful data on NAI resistance. (
  • Whilst there are a number of different laboratory methods currently available to measure NAI susceptibility, the enzyme inhibition assay is the simplest and most definitive method. (
  • The generation of isobole plots verified that the observed inhibition of HCMV plaque formation and replication in HFFs by IFN-α/β and IFN-γ was a synergistic interaction. (
  • These effects lead to preferential translation of viral proteins and inhibition of host protein synthesis. (
  • Type I IFNs (IFN-α and IFN-β) and type II IFN (IFN-γ) are important components of the host immune response to viral infections. (
  • Studies in animals are problematic because of species-specific differences in host cell susceptibility and immune responses to candidate viral pathogens such as coxsackievirus B (CVB). (
  • NP covers the eight single-stranded segments of the genomic RNA and assembles with the three polymerase subunits in a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) controlling viral transcription and replication ( 1 ). (
  • One of these changes lead to a single amino acid change in the viral RNA polymerase. (
  • By contrast, the E4orf3 protein directs these proteins away from sites of viral DNA replication ( 64 ). (
  • Sometimes, viral products such as dsRNA and viral proteins can trigger NF-κB activation ( 8 ). (
  • CD11b low/neg CD103 + DCs efficiently load viral peptide onto MHC class I complexes and therefore uniquely possess the capacity to potently induce proliferation of naive CD8 T cells. (
  • Collectively, these results show that CD11b low/neg CD103 + DCs are functionally specialized for the transport of Ag from the lung to the lymph node and also for efficient processing and presentation of viral Ags to CD8 T cells. (
  • Performs transfections of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells, confirmation of plasmid expression to include immunofluorescence assays, gel electrophoresis and western blot analysis. (
  • In this study, we have carried out viral binding assays to investigate the impact of the Wolbachia strain w AlbB on the attachment of DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) and ZIKV to Aedes aegypti Aag-2 cells. (
  • Our results showed that, in addition to suppression of viral replication, Wolbachia strongly inhibited binding of both DENV-2 and ZIKV to Aag-2 cells. (
  • They also observed that S-F was incorporated into the viral particles much better than the WTS, but the S protein was successfully expressed by infected cells. (
  • Early viral gene expression is not impaired in E1B-55K/E4orf3 double mutant virus-infected cells. (
  • Cells infected with the double mutant virus accumulated concatemers of viral DNA. (
  • However, the E1B-55K/E4orf3 double mutant virus did not replicate any better in MO59J cells, in which viral DNA concatemers did not accumulate, than in MO59K cells, in which viral DNA concatemers were produced, suggesting that viral DNA concatenation is not the primary growth defect of the E1B-55K/E4orf3 double mutant virus. (
  • Fast track vaccine development process by conducting assays in 96- or 384-well plates based on enumeration of foci, plaque or single infected cells. (
  • Direct cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays are required to assess the killing capability of the engineered CAR T cells. (
  • Traditionally, these assays are conducted by measuring the amount of released Chromium, calcein AM, or LDH molecules after the target cancer cells are killed with CAR T cells. (
  • Cytotoxicity of PMM-034 on RD cells was determined using WST-1 assay. (
  • Dose- and time-dependent effects of PMM-034 on EV71 replication in RD cells were determined using plaque reduction assay. (
  • PV1 was enumerated in secondary concentrates by plaque assay on BGMK cells. (
  • Transgene expression, viral replication capacity, and cytotoxicity have been studied in tumor and normal cells. (
  • The substitution of 6.7K/gp19K of E3 genes with transgenes did not affect viral replication in tumor cells. (
  • We hypothesize that CSF1R plays a critical role in myeloid cell responses that restrict viral replication and locally restimulate recruited antiviral T cells within the CNS. (
  • CSFR1 antagonism reduced B7 co-stimulatory signals on peripheral and CNS antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by depleting CNS cellular sources, which limited local reactivation of CNS-infiltrating virus-specific T cells and reduced viral clearance. (
  • Signs of viral budding-vesicular appearance of cells. (
  • Viral occlusions-few cells will contain occlusion bodies, which appear as refractive crystals in the nucleus of the insect cell. (
  • The researchers performed MTT and neutral red uptake assays to assess the survival rates of MERS-infected Vero E6 cells. (
  • We describe microneutralization assays that used automated 96-well enzyme-linked immunospot (ELI-SPOT) readout instrumentation to measure human anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies in CV-1 cells that were stably transfected to express human FcγRIIA (CD32) using conventional Vero cells as a comparator. (
  • In addition, the cell viability of gastric cancer stem cells treated with Ad.AChE or ZD55-AChE were evaluated by MTT assay. (
  • A total of 881 plaques from 90 individual cells were analyzed in this way. (
  • The number of changes identified in the 7-10 plaques isolated from each cell, between 0 and 17, shows that some cells produce more diverse progeny than others. (
  • These advances came together in 1981 when it was shown that cloned DNA copies of RNA viral genomes (a bacteriophage, a retrovirus, and poliovirus), carried in a bacterial plasmid, were infectious when introduced into mammalian cells. (
  • The Support Researcher will monitor disease states in animal models, as well as perform microbiological and virology-based assays supporting research studies investigating host/pathogen interactions of high consequence viral pathogens at the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Integrated Research Facility located at Fort Detrick in Frederick, Maryland. (
  • During this webinar, Dr. Suzanne Riches highlights a variety of approaches for conducting virology assays in a high-throughput format. (
  • Assay Viral culture Virus Virus quantification Virology Finter, N. B (1969-10-01). (
  • Present address: Research Group Viral Zoonosis and Adaptation, Heinrich Pette Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology, Hamburg, Germany. (
  • Counting the number of plaques can be used as a method of virus quantification. (
  • Many laboratories choose to assay the presence of viral genomes by PCR. (
  • Replication in a single cell imposes a genetic bottleneck, as few viral genomes are present. (
  • I would be very interested to know if the conclusions of this work would be changed by the ability to determine the sequences of all the viral genomes recovered from a single infected cell . (
  • The F 117S mutation in the F protein cleavage site improved F protein cleavage efficiency while the HN 169R mutation located at the second receptor binding site of the HN protein contributed to a complex phenotype consisting of a modest increase in fusion and cell killing, lower neuraminidase activity, and reduced viral growth. (
  • Viral antigen was sufficient for PD-1 upregulation, but induction of PD-L1 was required for impairment. (
  • From these, TOSV appears to be 1 of the 3 major viral pathogens involved in aseptic meningitis acquired during the summer in these countries. (
  • The conclusion from these results is very important: a single plaque-forming unit can contain multiple, genetically diverse particles. (
  • The researchers said the results show that coughing flu patients emit aerosols that contain flu virus and that respirable particles (smaller than 4 microns) contain much of the viral RNA. (
  • The subsequent effect of CSF1R antagonism on virologic control was assessed by measuring mortality and viral titers in the CNS and peripheral organs. (
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging viral pathogen that causes severe morbidity and mortality. (
  • The viral nonstructural protein 3 contains methyltransferase [ 1 ] and 5′ RNA triphosphatase activity [ 2 , 3 ] to generate a 5′ capped genomic viral RNA. (
  • For viral productivity, we utilized plaque assays to confirm the antiviral properties of resveratrol against MERS-CoV. (
  • Signal transduction pathways are essential for normal viral immunity and for virus replication. (
  • We examined transmission dynamics of S. pneumoniae in an infant mouse model and here show that S. pneumoniae colonization of the upper respiratory tract stimulates host inflammatory pathways commonly associated with viral infections. (
  • We examined cytokine expression, viral susceptibility and production, cell viability, and apoptosis in the infected neurons. (
  • The H5N1 Inventory supports a molecular-based approach for surveillance and should be used to identify genetic mutations that determine viral phenotypic characteristics of importance. (
  • Thus, CD8+ T cell responses during chronic viral infections are regulated by complex patterns of coexpressed inhibitory receptors. (
  • Viral infections induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. (
  • The NF-κB complex is activated in response to viral and bacterial infections, and the binding of the virion to its receptor can trigger membrane-proximal signaling cascades to activate NF-κB ( 7 ). (
  • We report that acute viral LRI causes rapid pulmonary CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocyte (T CD8 ) functional impairment via programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) signaling, a pathway previously associated with prolonged antigenic stimulation during chronic infections and cancer. (
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infections and the leading viral cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children worldwide. (
  • Western-blot assays were used to evaluate induction of ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). (
  • A SARS-CoV-2 NP specific antibody was used for IHC to detect viral antigens. (
  • To understand the dynamics of sexual transmission, the authors measured Zika virus shedding in seminal fluid - by both PCR, to detect viral RNA, and by plaque assay, to detect infectious virus. (
  • Viral clearance testing is necessary by regulatory authorities for investigational new drug (IND) submission and is mainly critical in process development for biologicals including tissue and tissue products, stem cell products, cellular and gene therapy products, blood and blood products, and vaccine and therapeutics. (
  • We have shown in the past that the expression of MICA and MICB is controlled by cellular and by viral miRNAs [19] - [21] . (
  • Our work demonstrates that ZIKV prevents a host stress response in order to maintain a cellular environment propitious for viral replication. (
  • On the other hand, inappropriate expression of therapeutic genes with cytotoxicity during viral replication cycle may impair viral replication efficacy ( 20 , 21 ). (
  • We now show that WNV growth and protein expression are dependent on mTORC1 mediated-regulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP/eIF4E) interaction and eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex formation to support viral growth and viral protein expression. (
  • In addition, quantitative PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescent assays determined the intracellular viral RNA and protein expression. (
  • The microneutralization assay is a powerful, high-throughput screening tool crucial to the efficient development of novel vaccines and the discovery of compounds that can prevent or treat viral disease. (
  • A method for large‐scale production of viral stocks is described and methods for titration of virus are provided (a plaque assay and an end‐point assay). (
  • Nucleic acid as the carrier of viral activity. (
  • The lesson from this study is very clear - in novel experimental or epidemiological studies it is important to prove that any viral nucleic acid detected by PCR is actually infectious virus. (
  • Although Wolbachia is known to inhibit flaviviruses in mosquitoes, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), it remains unclear how the endosymbiont interferes with viral replication cycle. (
  • Several viral vector vaccines are being developed for the current virus, including measles virus and Modified Ankara vaccinia. (
  • More recently, the geographic distribution of the virus has been extended to France, Spain, Slovenia, Greece, Cyprus, and Turkey, according to results from viral isolation and serologic surveys ( 5 - 9 ). (
  • In an E1B-55K-deficient background, the E4orf3 protein promotes viral replication by increasing both the burst size and the probability that an infected cell will produce virus. (
  • Presumably, the action of these viral oncoproteins on cell cycle progression establishes a favorable environment for virus replication ( 7 , 66 ). (
  • Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i.) but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. (
  • Serum neutralizing activity was virus-specific as plasma from viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) survivors demonstrated only negligible reactivity to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, a closely related rhabdovirus. (
  • Viral clearance study is carried out by manufacturers to detect virus contaminations in biologics and other products. (
  • The virus will replicate and spread, generating regions of cell destruction known as plaques. (
  • The appearance of the plaque depends on the host strain, virus and the conditions. (
  • Viral RNA is not infectious virus! (
  • Why Zika viral RNA and not infectious virus would persist for so long is an important and unanswered question that should definitely be studied. (
  • However, in most cases the assays were done by PCR, not by plaque assay, and therefore we do not know if infectious virus is present. (
  • Viral RNA would not constitute a threat to transmission, while infectious virus would. (
  • Even if your virus doesn't form plaques there are alternatives for measuring infectious virus. (
  • A plaque reduction test for dengue virus neutralizing antibodies. (
  • Virus-containing culture fluids were then subjected to plaque assay, during which 2 viral replication cycles took place. (
  • Greater virus yields means more viral RNA replication, and more change for diversity. (
  • Excision of wild-type simian virus 40 DNA by homologous recombination was scored by the viral plaque assay. (
  • For hepatitis A virus (HAV), viral replication in cell culture has been reported to be nonlytic and relatively slow. (
  • Then the virus in the supernatant was quantitated via a viral plaque assay, reflecting the release of the virus. (
  • Among the subgroups of coxsackie virus, CVB3 is the main pathogen of human viral myocarditis [ 2 ]. (
  • The candidate will be involved in supporting foreign research activities by deploying to necessary locations and perform various molecular, virologic, microscopic and immunologic assays. (
  • The efficacy of this vaccine has brought it to the attention of several researchers who have used YF-17D as a viral vector to develop novel vaccines against other infectious diseases. (
  • Cell culture-based assays (e.g. plaque reduction, yield reduction or EIA) are not currently recommended for reliable assessment of NAI susceptibility due to specific technical problems which limit their usefulness (reviewed by Tisdale, 2000). (
  • 8. The method according to claim 6, wherein the subject is suffering from H1N1 and the pharmaceutical composition reduces H1N1 viral production. (
  • We conclude that the induction of IFN-I signaling appears to be a common factor driving viral and bacterial respiratory contagion. (
  • The inactivated transformed bacteria carrying dsRNA were tested for their capacity to silence the target ISAV genes, and the dsRNA that were able to inhibit gene expression were subsequently tested for their ability to attenuate the cytopathic effect (CPE) and reduce the viral load. (
  • Thus, in an E1B-55K mutant background, the E4orf3 protein promotes the accumulation of late viral RNA and enhances late gene expression. (
  • This activity facilitates viral gene expression. (
  • Our findings show that the phospho-regulated conversion of NP between mono- and oligomeric states is important for RNP formation, gene expression and viral replication. (
  • Viral titers in the lung homogenates were determined by plaque assay. (
  • Plaque-forming units (PFU) per lung lobe was calculated. (
  • Based on plaque size, yield assays, and NA activity, the impaired viral fitness of the E119V mutant was partially restored by the I222V NA mutation. (
  • The viral yield per cell varied greatly, from 0 to over 3000 PFU. (