Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Herpesvirus 1, Suid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins: Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.GlucosamineCricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.FucoseHydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Electron Microscope Tomography: A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.PolysaccharidesLysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Isopropyl Thiogalactoside: A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.Galactose Oxidase: An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase: A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Receptors, Concanavalin A: Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Blood Platelet Disorders: Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Vaccinia: The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Glycoside HydrolasesN-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Tunicamycin: An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase: An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Bunyaviridae: A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Monensin: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Protein PrecursorsCell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases: A subclass of exopeptidases that includes enzymes which cleave either two or three AMINO ACIDS from the end of a peptide chain.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.TritiumHexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Uukuniemi virus: A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE, infecting vertebrates and vectored by ticks. It has not been associated with human disease though antibodies have been isolated from human sera.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.
... the capsid is contained within a host-derived membrane altered by two viral glycoproteins. The prime method of spread of the ... these genes encode seven nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. The RNA strand is held within a nucleocapsid ... West Nile fever is a viral infection typically spread by mosquitoes. In about 75% of infections people have few or no symptoms ... Vertical transmission, the transmission of a viral or bacterial disease from the female of the species to her offspring, has ...
Viral enveloped nucleocapsids utilize membrane glycoproteins on their surface to mediate entry into host cells. Averaging of ... proteins. The M segment encodes the virion surface glycoproteins (Gn, Gc) and non-structural proteins (NSm). The L segment ... they display a locally ordered lattice of glycoprotein spikes. Each spike protrudes 18 nanometers from the viral membrane and ... These newly assembled viral particles will mature over a period of time inside of the hosts cell in the membranes of the Golgi ...
These glycoproteins allow for attachment and fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Fusion of these membranes allows the viral ... These viruses also contain proteins on the surface of the cell membrane called glycoproteins. Type A and B have two ... effect of influenza virus glycoproteins on the membrane association of M1 protein". J. Virol. 74 (18): 8709-19. PMC 116382 . ... Subtype C has 7 RNA segments and encodes 9 proteins, while types A and B have 8 RNA segments and encode at least 10 proteins. ...
... and the envelope proteins P62 and E1 that associate as a heterodimer. The viral membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins are ... The alphaviral glycoprotein E1 is a class II viral fusion protein, which is structurally different from the class I fusion ... The E1 and E2 viral glycoproteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer. Single E1 and E2 molecules associate to form heterodimers ... The first is non structural and encodes proteins (nsP1-nsP4) necessary for transcription and replication of viral RNA. The ...
There are prominent "spikes" (projections) of 6 nm composed of the viral envelope proteins E1 and E2 embedded in the membrane. ... The E1 glycoprotein is considered immunodominant in the humoral response induced against the structural proteins and contains ... it interacts with the membrane proteins E1 and E2 and binds the human host-protein p32 which is important for replication of ... The sequences for the structural proteins are first replicated by the viral RNA polymerase (Replicase) via a complementary (-) ...
The F protein fuses the viral membrane with the host cell membrane, releasing the virion contents into the cell. It also causes ... a highly conserved protein present in many mammals. The structure of the attachment glycoprotein has been determined by X-ray ... They possess a lipid membrane overlying a shell of viral matrix protein. At the core is a single helical strand of genomic RNA ... Embedded within the lipid membrane are spikes of F (fusion) protein trimers and G (attachment) protein tetramers. The function ...
Envelope fusion with the plasma membrane of the host cell causes separation of the nucleocapsid from viral DNA and proteins. ... After entering the host organism a virion begins the process of replication by first attaching to cells using glycoprotein ... Multiple necessary viral proteins are located within the envelope. DNA and proteins enter the host cell nucleus and turn-off ... L genes are transcribed "after the synthesis of DNA and viral protein onset". Virion DNA maturation occurs as the nucleocapids ...
... they disabled the virus by deleting the viral gene encoding the membrane protein glycoprotein H (gH). This product is not ... in particular how the viral membrane proteins cooperate to induce fusion, as well as assembly, in particular of the viral ... membrane proteins. Minson has also worked in collaboration with Margaret Stanley on another DNA virus, human papillomavirus, ... His work has contributed to understanding the processes by which HSV fuses with the cell membrane and acquires its envelope. As ...
Transport of viral proteins to the apical membranes and interaction of matrix protein with glycoproteins in the assembly of ... The attachment causes the viral protein to change its configuration and thus fuse with the host's cell membrane; thereby ... The process includes the transcription of mRNA, synthesis, and assembly of viral proteins and is regulated by protein ... or virus-attachment proteins) and cellular receptors molecules such as (glyco)proteins. The host range of a virus is determined ...
VPg may also play an important role in specific recognition of viral genome by movement protein (MP). Movement proteins are non ... These acids form a pore in the cell membrane through which RNA is injected [2]. Once inside the cell, the RNA un-coats and the ... For example, poliovirus receptor is glycoprotein CD155 which is special receptor for human and some other primate species. For ... It has both icosahedral virus particles, viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and protease and viral replication proteins. But ...
The measles virus has two envelope glycoproteins on the viral surface-hemagglutinin (H) and membrane fusion protein (F). These ... Wertheim, J. O.; Kosakovsky Pond, S. L. (2011). "Purifying Selection Can Obscure the Ancient Age of Viral Lineages". Molecular ... Three receptors for the H protein have been identified to date: complement regulatory molecule CD46, the signaling lymphocyte ... Antibodies to measles bind to the haemagluttinin protein, therefore antibodies against one genotype (such as the vaccine strain ...
... to allow the virus to bind to cellular proteins enabling it to fuse with internal cellular membranes and release the viral ... The virions taken up by the cell then travel to acidic endosomes and lysosomes where the viral envelope glycoprotein GP is ... EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by preventing the STAT1 signaling protein in the ... EBOV proteins blunt the human immune system's response to viral infections by interfering with the cells' ability to produce ...
These genes code for nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G) and the viral RNA polymerase ( ... Inside the endosome, the low pH value induces the membrane fusion process, thus enabling the viral genome to reach the cytosol ... Two other viral proteins, the phosphoprotein and the large protein (L-protein or polymerase) are associated with the RNP. The ... The rabies genome encodes five proteins: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G) and ...
Glycoproteins on the surface of the envelope serve to identify and bind to receptor sites on the host's membrane. The viral ... phospholipids and proteins), but include some viral glycoproteins. They may help viruses avoid the host immune system. ... Some viruses (e.g. influenza and many animal viruses) have viral envelopes covering their protective protein capsids. The ... envelope then fuses with the host's membrane, allowing the capsid and viral genome to enter and infect the host. The cell from ...
... the proteins rotate to form trimers, and the fusion peptide is directed toward the cell membrane The viral envelope protein E ... In flavivirus virions, the fusion peptide is buried in dimmers of the fusion glycoprotein E. At low pH, the dimmers are ... The mechanism by which the contacts between the viral nucleocapsid and M protein, which forms a shell beneath the lipid bilayer ... These are products of viral transcription. The NS3 protein encodes a RNA triphosphatase within its helicase domain. It uses the ...
HMPV is thought to attach to the target cell via the glycoprotein (G) protein interactions with heparan sulfate and other ... then mediates fusion of the cell membrane and viral envelope in a pH-independent fashion, likely within endosomes. The ... directed by the viral attachment protein, variously called G, H (hemagglutinin) or HN (hemagglutinin-neuraminidase). Human ... "Prevalence of viral respiratory tract infections in children with asthma". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 119 (2 ...
One molecule of each protein associates noncovalently with the other on the viral membrane, and three of these units aggregate ... Membrane fusion begins with the binding of gp120 to CD4, a glycoprotein which is expressed on the surface of the target cell. ... The bundle allows the viral and cellular membranes to approximate and eventually fuse together, leading to the release of the ... the only two proteins that are currently known to be exhibited on the surface of the viral envelope. ...
The CCR5 protein belongs to the beta chemokine receptors family of integral membrane proteins. It is a G protein-coupled ... The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein structure is essential in enabling the viral entry of HIV-1 into a target host cell. The ... The formation of this complex stimulates the release of a fusogenic peptide inducing the fusion of the viral membrane with the ... envelope glycoprotein structure consists of two protein subunits cleaved from a Gp160 protein precursor encoded for by the HIV- ...
Viral membrane fusion proteins act as catalysts to overcome this high energy barrier. Following viral glycoprotein binding to ... The viral envelope is made up of a lipid bilayer embedded with viral proteins, including viral glycoproteins. These viral ... An example of a Class III viral fusion protein is the rabies virus glycoprotein, G. Class IV: Class IV viral fusion proteins ... Many copies of a single viral protein or a number of different viral proteins make up the capsid, and each of these viral ...
The capsid protein derived from the polyprotein Gag is assembled into a viral core (the protein shell of a virus) and the ... This interaction causes the viral and cellular membranes to fuse, allowing the transfer of the viral RNA into the cytoplasm, ... The Env polyprotein encodes the surface glycoprotein (SU) and transmembrane glycoprotein (TM). Both SU and TM glycoproteins are ... First the SU glycoprotein binds to CD134, a receptor on the host cell. This initial binding changes the shape of the SU protein ...
An example is the M1 protein of the influenza virus, showing affinity to the glycoproteins inserted in the host cell membrane ... Viral matrix proteins, like many other viral proteins, can exert different functions during the course of the infection. For ... In herpesviruses, the viral matrix is usually called viral tegument and contains many proteins involved in viral entry, early ... the membrane of a complex made of the viral ribonucleoprotein at the inner side indirectly connected to the viral glycoproteins ...
HIV proteins decrease the amount of CD4 glycoprotein marker present on the cell membrane. Released viral particles and proteins ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein. Some viruses ... The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... to bind strongly to the HIV protein PR55Gag, they were able to suppress viral budding. By suppressing viral budding, the ...
... obtained by budding through membranes of the ER and/or Golgi apparatus, invariably contains two virus-specified (glyco)protein ... Coronaviruses bind to host cells primarily through interactions between viral spike glycoproteins and specific host cell ... requires the selection of viral genomic RNA from a cellular pool that contains an abundant excess of non-viral and viral RNAs. ... while the M protein is a triple-spanning transmembrane protein. Toroviruses and a select subset of coronaviruses (in particular ...
... to allow the virus to bind to cellular proteins enabling it to fuse with internal cellular membranes and release the viral ... After infection, a secreted glycoprotein, small soluble glycoprotein (sGP or GP) is synthesized. EBOV replication overwhelms ... which code for proteins with antiviral properties.[45] EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by ... meningitis and other viral hemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD.[1] Blood samples are tested for viral RNA, viral antibodies or ...
The fusion peptide inserts itself in the host cell membrane and brings the host cell membrane very close to the viral membrane ... The envelope glycoprotein of subgroup A is called EnvA and its env gene codes for precursor protein known as Pr95. This ... Env is a viral gene that encodes the protein forming the viral envelope. The expression of the env gene enables retroviruses to ... The mature product of the env gene is the viral spike protein, which has two main parts: the surface protein (SU) and the ...
The Semliki Forest virus was first isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest, Uganda by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in 1942 and described by Smithburn & Haddow. It is known to cause disease in animals including humans. It is an Alphavirus found in central, eastern, and southern Africa. The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine proteins. The 5' two thirds of the genome encode four non-structural proteins concerned with RNA synthesis and the structural proteins are encoded in the 3' third. Of the structural proteins, the C proteins makes up the icosahedral capsid which is enveloped by a lipid bilayer, derived from the host cell. The outermost surface of the virus is almost entirely covered by heterodimers of glycoproteins E1 and E2, arranged in interconnective trimers, which form an outer shell. Trimers are ...
... (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus Bromovirus, family Bromoviridae, in the alphavirus-like superfamily. BMV commonly infects Bromus inermis (see Bromus) and other grasses, can be found almost anywhere wheat is grown, and thrives in areas with heavy foot or machinery traffic. It is also one of the few grass viruses that infects dicotyledonous plants; however, it primarily infects monocotyledonous plants, such as barley and others in the family Gramineae. BMV was first isolated in 1942 from bromegrass (Bromus inermis), had its genomic organization determined by the 1970s, and was completely sequenced with commercially available clones by the 1980s. The alphavirus-like superfamily includes more than 250 plant and animal viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus, Semliki forest virus, Hepatitis E virus, Sindbis virus, and arboviruses (which cause certain types of encephalitis). Many of the positive-strand RNA viruses ...
Humans have generally decreased the amount of forest worldwide. Anthropogenic factors that can affect forests include logging, urban sprawl, human-caused forest fires, acid rain, invasive species, and the slash and burn practices of swidden agriculture or shifting cultivation. The loss and re-growth of forest leads to a distinction between two broad types of forest, primary or old-growth forest and secondary forest. There are also many natural factors that can cause changes in forests over time including forest fires, insects, diseases, weather, competition between species, etc. In 1997, the World Resources Institute recorded that only 20% of the world's original forests remained in large intact tracts of undisturbed forest.[41] More than 75% of these intact forests lie in three countries-the boreal forests of Russia and Canada and the rainforest of Brazil. In 2010, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization[42] reported that world deforestation, mainly the conversion of tropical ...
The Ziika Forest ( /ˈziːkə/), better known as the Zika Forest, is a tropical forest near Entebbe in Uganda.[1] Ziika means "overgrown" in the Luganda language. As the property of the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) of Entebbe, it is protected and restricted to scientific research.[1] The forest covers an area of about 25 hectares (62 acres) next to the swamps of Waiya Bay, an inlet of Lake Victoria. Easily accessible and combining several ecosystems, the Zika Forest is well suited to the study of mosquitoes.[1] According to the UVRI, the size of the research area of the forest is about 12 hectares (30 acres).[2] The forest has a rich biodiversity in plants and moths, and is home to about 40 types of mosquitoes. The UVRI also maintains an insectarium. The forest is also accessible to visitors for bird watching. Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter once visited the forest for that purpose.[2] The Zika virus as well as the moths Sidisca zika and Milocera zika are named after the forest. The ...
The structure of the Institute (4 departments, 10 laboratories and a branch in Novosibirsk) provides development of fundamental and applied research in a wide range: biospherical role, ecologic functions and biodiversity of forest ecosystems, monitoring of their condition, and rational use of forest resources. The scientific schools formed at the Institute: taiga forestry and productivity of forests, permafrost forestry, taxation and forest exploitation, forest morphology, cartography, aerospace information usage, forest genetics and selection, pyrology, zoology, microbiology, physiology and biochemistry of wood plants, dendrology and dendroclimatology and other spheres of forest biological science are the basis for mutual investigations with the scientists of the United States, Canada, England, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Belarus, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Japan, China, Korea, Mongolia. In 1992 there has been founded Siberian international center of ecological investigations of boreal forests ...
An urban forest is a forest or a collection of trees that grow within a city, town or a suburb. In a wider sense it may include any kind of woody plant vegetation growing in and around human settlements. In a narrower sense (also called forest park) it describes areas whose ecosystems are inherited from wilderness leftovers or remnants. Care and management of urban forests is called urban forestry. Urban forests may be publicly-owned municipal forests, but the latter may also be located outside of the town or city to which they belong. Urban forests play an important role in ecology of human habitats in many ways: they filter air, water, sunlight, provide shelter to animals and recreational area for people. They moderate local climate, slowing wind and stormwater, and shading homes and businesses to conserve energy. They are critical in cooling the urban heat island effect, thus potentially reducing the number of unhealthful ozone days that plague major cities in peak summer months. In many ...
Some 84% of the 60,000 hectares (150,000 acres) of Polish forest is outside the national park;[22] almost half of all the wood in the forest is dead - 10 times more than in managed forests - with half the 12,000 species depend on decaying logs, including the near-threatened beetle Cucujus cinnaberinus.[22] Traditional forest management would remove the dead wood, as a fire risk. In 2011, Zdzisław Szkiruć, director of the Białowieża National Park, told British newspaper The Guardian that cutting and replanting allows for re-establishment of the forest in 50 years, rather than the 300-400 years that nature would require;[22] environmentalist Janusz Korbel argued that the unique nature of the primeval forest demands a lighter style of management.[22] Andrzej Kraszewski, Poland's Environment Minister from February 2010 to November 2011, sought to increase protection over the whole forest, starting with a more modest 12,000-14,000-hectare (30,000-35,000-acre) expansion, against opposition from ...
The Black Forest Horse, also called the Black Forest cold blood or Schwarzwälder Kaltblut, is a rare draft horse breed originating in southern Germany. Features of the Black Forest Horse include a dark chestnut coat with a flaxen mane and tail, a short head, strong neck, well laid back shoulders, wide croup (hindquarters) and expansive gaits. It stands from 14.2 to 15.3 hands (58 to 63 inches, 147 to 160 cm) and weighs approximately 650 kg. It has very strong hooves and joints. Developed in Germany, today a major center of breeding is the Marbach stud. Black Forest Horses were originally used for work in the forest and pulling carriages and carts. They are good-natured and gentle and recently have become popular riding horses. "Black Forest Horse". Breeds of Livestock. Oklahoma State University. Retrieved 10 November 2010. (German) Black Forest Cold Bloods - History and Stories, Volume I by Thomas Armbruster, Wolf Brodauf and Gerhard Schröder, Schillinger-Verlag, 2007 Freiburg, ISBN ...
... (/ʃoʊˈʃoʊniː/ shoh-SHOH-nee) is the first federally protected National Forest in the United States and covers nearly 2,500,000 acres (1,000,000 ha) in the state of Wyoming. Originally a part of the Yellowstone Timberland Reserve, the forest is managed by the United States Forest Service and was created by an act of Congress and signed into law by U.S. President Benjamin Harrison in 1891. Shoshone National Forest is one of the first nationally protected land areas anywhere. Native Americans have lived in the region for at least 10,000 years, and when the region was first explored by European adventurers, forestlands were occupied by several different tribes. Never heavily settled or exploited, the forest has retained most of its wildness. Shoshone National Forest is a part of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a nearly unbroken expanse of federally protected lands encompassing an estimated 20,000,000 acres (8,100,000 ha). The Absaroka and Beartooth Mountains are ...
In the Amazon Basin of Brazil, a seasonally flooded forest is known as a várzea, a use that now is becoming more widespread[citation needed] for this type of forest in the Amazon (though generally spelled varzea when used in English). Igapó, another word used in Brazil for flooded Amazonian forests, is also sometimes used in English. Specifically, varzea refers to whitewater-inundated forest, and igapó to blackwater-inundated forest.. Peat swamp forests are swamp forests where waterlogged soils prevent woody debris from fully decomposing, which over time creates a thick layer of acidic peat.. ...
Most forest Sami people used Swedish as their main language, but the Sami language was also used to a certain degree. In Luleå[when?], both the forest Sami and other Sami people also spoke the Lule Sami language. In Piteå[when?] the fell Sami spoke Pite Sami language, while the local forest Sami spoke mostly Swedish or the Ume Sami language. The forest Sami in Malå and eastern Sorsele also spoke Ume Sami.[17]. In Lycksele and Åsele, the forest Sami were almost entirely assimilated into Swedish society during the 19th century. Their old language was permanently lost. Sami literature from the 17th and 18th centuries, by Olaus Stephani Graan and Pehr Fjällström respectively, demonstrate at that time there were still many speakers of Ume Sami. The spread of the Ume Sami language is discussed by J. A. Nensen in the 19th century, when the forest Sami in Åsöee used a dialect considered a variety of Ume Sami. Nensen specified that their language was clearly separate from the southern dialect of ...
... is a 15,625 acre (57 km²) arboretum, forest, and nature preserve located in Clermont, Kentucky (25 miles south of Louisville, Kentucky, United States). Bernheim was founded in 1929 by Isaac Wolfe Bernheim, a German immigrant and successful brewer whose whiskey distillery business established the I.W. Harper brand. He purchased the land in 1928 at $1 an acre because most of it had been stripped for mining iron ore. The Frederick Law Olmsted landscape architecture firm started work on designing the park in 1931 and it opened in 1950. Bernheim Forest was given to the people of Kentucky in trust and is the largest privately owned natural area in the state. Bernheim, his wife, daughter, and son-in-law are buried in the forest. In 1988, at least one outside consulting firm was engaged and work on a new long-range plan for the forest was begun. One of the directives of the new strategic plan was to make the arboretum a primary focus. In addition, the forest ...
Wake Forest's undergraduate education consists of a liberal arts curriculum in Wake Forest College and classes in the School of Business. The university offers 40 majors[45] and 57 interdisciplinary minors[45] across various fields of study. Students initially declare a major the second semester of their sophomore year.[46] In order to graduate, a Wake Forest student must finish three requirements for 120 hours of credit: a core set of classes, a course of study related to a major, and electives. The core set of classes includes basic requirements (a first-year seminar, a writing seminar, health and PE classes, and foreign language literature) and divisional requirements (at least two classes in each of the humanities, social sciences and math/natural sciences and at least one in the fine arts and literatures).[47] Wake Forest also offers an "Open Curriculum" option, in which a small number of students, approved by a committee, may design a course of study with an adviser that follows a liberal ...
... lateral interactions between the two membrane glycoproteins determine the structure of the viral particles. In the most regular ... This finding is reminiscent of the fusion proteins of alpha-, flavi-, and influenza viruses, in which conformational changes ... These negative-strand RNA viruses possess a membrane envelope covered by glycoproteins. The virions are pleiomorphic and thus ... occur in the low pH of the endosome to facilitate fusion of the viral and host membrane during viral entry. ...
membrane fusion involved in viral entry into host cell Source: UniProtKB-KW ... Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A0K1DER1. P03377. Q73394. Q73393. O40491. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A0K1DER1. P04578. M4XZC0. A9Q0G3. Q80549. ...
Host membrane, Membrane, Viral envelope proteinUniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q07374. P08810. Q7ZR84. Q7ZRL2. Q7ZR95. Q7ZR94. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q07374. P08810. Q7ZR84. Q7ZRL2. Q7ZR95. Q7ZR94. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
... glycoprotein B (gB) ectodomain were expressed in a novel heat-shock expression system. The putative e ... Doms RW, Lamb RA, Rose JK, Helenius A (1993) Folding and assembly of viral membrane proteins. Virology 193: 545-562 ... Sequence of a bovine herpesvirus type-1 glycoprotein gene that is homologous to the herpes simplex gene for glycoprotein B. ... Their production were heat-inducible and the purified proteins were able to elicit antibody responses in mice of a comparable ...
0/Antibodies, Viral; 0/DNA, Viral; 0/Membrane Glycoproteins; 0/Viral Envelope Proteins; 0/gp120 protein, Simian ... Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Molecular Sequence Data. Phylogeny. Pregnancy. Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / ... Antibodies, Viral / analysis. Base Sequence. Cameroon. DNA, Viral / genetics. Disease Transmission, Infectious / veterinary. ... Intrahost molecular evolution in one gorilla over a 5-year period showed viral adaptations characteristic of escape mutants, i. ...
Class III viral membrane fusion proteins. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 19:189-196. [PubMed] ... Fusion of epithelial cells by Epstein-Barr virus proteins is triggered by binding of viral glycoproteins gHgL to integrins { ... Quantitation of membrane glycoprotein IIIa on intact human platelets using the monoclonal antibody, AP-3. Blood 65:227-232. [ ... Glycoproteins gB, gD, and gHgL of herpes simplex virus type 1 are necessary and sufficient to mediate membrane fusion in a Cos ...
Model for priming and triggering of the Ebola virus glycoprotein. The figure is modified from in (). GP1 is the receptor ... Diversity of viral fusion proteins. The major differences among viral fusion proteins are their structural class (left) and ... Receptor activation of viral fusion proteins. Many viral fusion proteins are activated by host cell receptors, but there are ... attached to the viral membrane, into close proximity thereby facilitating the union of viral and target membranes. During these ...
The enveloped surface of HNVs displays 2 viral glycoproteins, a receptor binding protein (G) and fusion glycoprotein (F), which ... N-glycans on Nipah virus fusion protein protect against neutralization but reduce membrane fusion and viral entry. J. Virol. 80 ... and PIV5 fusion proteins, specifically group 1 (most distal region from viral membrane [DIII]), group 2 (middle region [DI, DII ... The 2 glycoproteins displayed on the surface of the virus, NiV-G and NiV-F, mediate host-cell attachment and membrane fusion, ...
... the viral envelope also contains membrane protein 2 (M2) (20). In addition to the envelope glycoproteins, the genome of ... Additionally, the viral particle contains an internal core, composed of the viral genome associated with specific proteins (20 ... viral polymerase proteins, the nucleoprotein (NP), and a number of non-structural proteins (20). ... is composed of an external envelope derived from plasma membrane of the infected cell that contains viral surface glycoproteins ...
The HIV envelope glycoprotein is a challenging protein to study by X-ray crystallography as it sits in a membrane, it is ... Gp41 on the other hand drives the huge changes in shape needed to fuse the viral and host membranes. Ebola glycoprotein, a ... Gp160 associates with two other copies of itself to form trimers on the surface of the viral membrane, a location in which it ... Because the envelope glycoprotein is critical for infection, it is an obvious target for HIV therapy and thus the subject of ...
Viral membrane fusion glycoprotein (8 families) 1.G (TCDB). *Family: 1.2.43.02. Alphavirus E1 glycoprotein (5 proteins) 1.G.4 ( ... Comments on 1rer » E1 envelope glycoprotein. E1 is a class II viral fusion protein. This trimeric (low-pH-iduced) form is ... Conformational change and protein-protein interactions of the fusion protein of Semliki Forest virus. Nature. 427: 320-5. ... and promotes release of viral nucleocapsid in cytoplasm after cell and viral membrane fusion. Efficient fusion requires the ...
Here we describe a new family of viral inhibitors (v-FLIPs) which interfere with apoptosis signalled through death receptors ... Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein * Membrane Glycoproteins * Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor * Receptors, Tumor Necrosis ... Viral FLICE-inhibitory proteins (FLIPs) prevent apoptosis induced by death receptors Nature. 1997 Apr 3;386(6624):517-21. doi: ... v-FLIPs contain two death-effector domains which interact with the adaptor protein FADD, and this inhibits the recruitment and ...
Polarized distribution of viral envelope proteins in the plasma membrane of infected epithelial cells.Cell 20 1980 45 54 ... A membrane-proximal tyrosine-based signal mediates internalization of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein via interaction with the ... The targeting of membrane proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane or to compartments of the endosomal system ... Endocytosis of membrane proteins gives rise to the formation of similar transport vesicles at the plasma membrane. Selection of ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... The viral membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins are responsible for receptor recognition and entry into target cells through ... Alphaviruses consist of three structural proteins: the core nucleocapsid protein C, and the envelope proteins P62 and E1 ( ...
M, membrane protein required for virus budding; S, viral spike glycoprotein that has receptor binding and membrane fusion ... small membrane protein that plays a role in coronavirus assembly; N, nucleocapsid phosphoprotein associated with viral RNA ... Conformational changes are induced in S that probably lead to fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane (23-25 ... Viral mRNAs made by discontinuous transcription are shown in the cytoplasm with the protein that each encodes indicated at the ...
Buy a discounted Hardcover of Fusion of Biological Membranes and Related Problems online from Australias leading online ... Booktopia has Fusion of Biological Membranes and Related Problems, Subcellular Biochemistry by Herwig J. Hilderson. ... Protein Thiols in Viral-Glycoprotein-Mediated Membrane Fusion and Virus Entry. p. 496. ... Annexins and Membrane Fusion in Exocytosis. p. 81. A Membrane Fusion Protein Activated by Ca[superscript 2+], GTP and Protein ...
Membrane receptors for murine leukemia viruses: characterization using the purified viral envelope glycoprotein, gp71. DeLarco ... Membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is a widely distributed C3b/C4b-binding cell surface glycoprotein which serves as an ... The amyloid beta-protein is a small fragment of a membrane-associated glycoprotein, encoded by a gene on human chromosome 21 ... These properties suggest that the 140 kd glycoprotein is a membrane-embedded cell surface protein directly involved in the ...
... and clinical studies on viruses and viral diseases. Articles on viral structure, function, and genetics will be considered, as ... well as articles focusing on virus-host interactions, viral disease outbreaks, and antiviral therapeutics. ... the F glycoprotein was involved in the localization of the glycoproteins with the other viral proteins at the plasma membrane. ... must associate with the viral matrix protein and glycoproteins to form newly infectious particles prior to budding. The viral ...
... the capsid is contained within a host-derived membrane altered by two viral glycoproteins. The prime method of spread of the ... these genes encode seven nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. The RNA strand is held within a nucleocapsid ... West Nile fever is a viral infection typically spread by mosquitoes. In about 75% of infections people have few or no symptoms ... Vertical transmission, the transmission of a viral or bacterial disease from the female of the species to her offspring, has ...
The major envelope glycoprotein, E, mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion. Antibodies that bind but fail to ... thereby acquiring an envelope that contains the major envelope glycoprotein, E, and the so-called precursor membrane protein, ... The conformational change induces fusion of the viral and host-cell membranes, allowing the viral genome to enter the cytoplasm ... Visualization of membrane protein domains by cryo-electron microscopy of dengue virus. Nat. Struct. Biol. 10:907-912. ...
In recent years membrane structure and function have become a central issue in molecular biology, and viruses provide valuable ... Klenk, H.-D.: Glycoproteins and glycolipids in viral envelopes. In: Membrane mediated Information (P. W. Kent, ed.), vol. 1, p ... Organization of the lipid phase in viral membranes. Effects of independent variation of the lipid and the protein composition. ... Klenk, H.-D.: Structure and biosynthesis of viral membranes. In: The dynamic structure of cell membranes (D. F. Hölzl Wallach, ...
Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase (DNA) are glycoproteins (a protein that contains a short chain of sugar as part of its ... the outer surface of the influenza virus and neuraminidase is a constituent of the enveloping membrane that surrounds the viral ... in either the protein structure or in protein configuration (the proteins shape in three dimensional space) can, however, ... The avian flu viruses attack human cells by first attaching themselves to the outer cell membrane with pointed probelike ...
... a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral ... a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral ... acid sequence that enhance the stability of the complex formed between the viral surface protein and transmembrane protein. ... acid sequence that enhance the stability of the complex formed between the viral surface protein and transmembrane protein. ...
Viral enveloped nucleocapsids utilize membrane glycoproteins on their surface to mediate entry into host cells. Averaging of ... proteins. The M segment encodes the virion surface glycoproteins (Gn, Gc) and non-structural proteins (NSm). The L segment ... they display a locally ordered lattice of glycoprotein spikes. Each spike protrudes 18 nanometers from the viral membrane and ... These newly assembled viral particles will mature over a period of time inside of the hosts cell in the membranes of the Golgi ...
The F-protein is responsible for fusion of the virus and host cell membranes, viral penetration, and hemolysis. The H-protein ... that was studded with glycoprotein tubercles. Those tubercular studs colorized maroon, are known as H-proteins (hemagglutinin ... The spherical viral particles, colorized blue, contain cross-section through the viral genome, seen as black dots. ... The spherical extracellular viral particles contain cross-sections through the viral genome, seen as black dots. ...
  • Cells expressing v-FLIPs are protected against apoptosis induced by CD95 or by the related death receptors TRAMP and TRAIL-R. The herpesvirus saimiri FLIP is detected late during the lytic viral replication cycle, at a time when host cells are partially protected from CD95-ligand-mediated apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Env's position in the viral replication cycle is thus pivotal not only because it controls viral entry but also because it regulates when and where exactly virus will be released during the late phase of the viral life cycle. (asm.org)
  • The viral replication cycle can produce dramatic biochemical and structural changes in the host cell, which may cause cell damage. (oercommons.org)
  • Glycoprotein B facilitates fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell's membrane, allowing viral genes to enter the cell, where replication occurs. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Here, we will review our knowledge on the glycoprotein biogenesis and the role of Gn and Gc proteins in the phlebovirus replication cycle. (mdpi.com)
  • Increases in gp120 variability result in significantly elevated levels of viral replication, indicating an increase in viral fitness in individuals infected by diverse HIV-1 variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lower number of bulky glycans improves viral replication efficiency and higher number on the exposed loops aids host immune evasion via disguise. (wikipedia.org)
  • A viral particle or virion contains a single nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) core surrounded by a protein coat and sometimes enzymes that are required to initiate viral replication. (news-medical.net)
  • instead, they are grouped into different families based on whether the nucleic acid is single- or double-stranded, whether a viral envelope is present and their mode of replication. (news-medical.net)
  • The L protein produces nascent genomes by replication via a positive-sense RNA intermediate. (cdc.gov)
  • During RNA synthesis, the N-RNA template is recognized by viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that carries out two distinct processes: (i) transcription to yield 6-10 capped, methylated and polyadenylated messenger RNAs and (ii) replication to yield full-length antigenomic and subsequently genomic RNA. (osu.edu)
  • We will focus on the two major components of RdRp, the large protein catalytic subunit (L) and the cofactor phosphoprotein (P). We will use biochemical and genetic approaches to define functional domains in the RdRd that regulate replication and transcription. (osu.edu)
  • 90. Bittame A, Effantin G, Pètre G, Ruffiot P, Travier L, Schoehn G, Weissenhorn W, Cesbron-Delauw MF, Gagnon J, Mercier C. (2015) Toxoplasma gondii : Biochemical and biophysical characterization of recombinant soluble dense granule proteins GRA2 and GRA6. (ibs.fr)
  • DNA vaccines have distinct advantages: They can be manufactured far more easily than vaccines composed of an inactivated pathogen, subcellular fraction, or recombinant protein. (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, DIII expression in bacterial cultures often leads to the formation of inclusion bodies, which requires a cumbersome solubilization and refolding process to yield a recombinant DIII protein that resembles its native structure [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The E.Coli derived recombinant protein contains the West-Nile N-terminus Envelope Virus immunodominant regions. (prospecbio.com)
  • The HA gene is often used as an affinity tag for target proteins in recombinant expression vector systems. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this section, we will summarize some key concepts related to the safe use of recombinant and synthetic nucleic acid molecules, as well as viral vectors, in research. (uvm.edu)
  • Some examples of recombinant nucleic acids frequently used in research include plasmids, viral vectors, and shRNAs. (uvm.edu)
  • The E.Coli derived HSV-2 gD recombinant protein (31-335) is fused to a Six histidine tag at C-terminus. (prospecbio.com)
  • 88. M.V. Hamann, E. Müllers, J. Reh, N. Stanke, G. Effantin, W. Weissenhorn and D. Lindemann (2014) The cooperative function of arginine residues in the Prototype Foamy Virus Gag C-terminus mediates viral and cellular RNA encapsidation. (ibs.fr)
  • Rhomboid intramembrane proteases are bound to lipid membranes, where they dock and cleave other transmembrane substrates. (bioportfolio.com)
  • M. Tang, A. J. Waring and M. Hong, "Phosphate-Mediated Arginine Insertion Into Lipid Membranes and Pore Formation by a Cationic Membrane Peptide from Solid-State NMR", J. Am. Chem. (mit.edu)
  • This project employs several novel procedures to overcome such difficulties and produce eligible samples of alphavirus in complex with lipid membranes at acidic pH. (umn.edu)
  • R. Mani, S.D. Cady, M. Tang, A.J. Waring, R.I. Lehrer, and M. Hong, Membrane-dependent oligomeric structure and pore formation of a β-hairpin antimicrobial peptide in lipid bilayers from solid-state NMR", Proc. (mit.edu)
  • Structures and mechanisms of viral membrane fusion proteins: multiple variations on a common theme. (nih.gov)
  • A) The model depicts a Class I fusion protein, but related structures ( e.g ., prehairpins and trimers-of-hairpins) form for Class II and III proteins, which also promote membrane merger through stages of close apposition (iv), hemifusion (v), small fusion pores (not shown), and large fusion pores (vi). (nih.gov)
  • While well-established methods for structure determination such as X-ray crystallography have provided detailed structures of fusion proteins in the pre- and post-fusion fusion states, to understand mechanistically how these fusion glycoproteins perform their structural calisthenics and drive membrane fusion requires new analytical approaches that enable dynamic intermediate states to be probed. (mdpi.com)
  • Taken together, our results indicate that {alpha}-helical coiled-coil structures are likely critical in promoting arenavirus membrane fusion. (osti.gov)
  • The Jardetzky laboratory is studying the structures and mechanisms of macromolecular complexes important in viral pathogenesis, allergic hypersensitivities and the regulation of cellular growth and differentiation, with an interest in uncovering novel conceptual approaches to intervening in disease processes. (stanford.edu)
  • Although the crystal structures of the E1 ecto-domain in pre- and post-fusion conformations were determined, the structural details of the intermediate organizations of the fusion protein during the course of membrane fusion are poorly understood. (umn.edu)
  • Fitting the crystal structures of the E1 protein into the reconstruction map will lead to discovery of the conformation, oligomerization, and organization of E1 when it inserts into a target membrane upon acidification. (umn.edu)
  • It's well established that IBVs with completely different spike proteins do not cross protect and that homologous (similar) attenuated, live vaccines provide the best protection. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Having a complete map of viral epitopes and their immunogenicity is critical to researchers attempting to design new or improved vaccines to protect against COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. (jcvi.org)
  • In preferred embodiments, a segment of genomic DNA is inserted between 5′ and 3′ viral long terminal repeats (LTRs) in a vector (e.g., a plasmid, cosmid, or artificial chromosome vector). (google.com)