Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Branched DNA Signal Amplification Assay: A molecular probe technique that utilizes branched DNA (bDNA) as a means to amplify the hybridization signal. One end of the bDNA molecule is designed to bind a specific target, while the other end of the bDNA molecule contains many branches of DNA that are designed to bind a probe used for signal detection.Genetic Load: The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Polyomavirus Infections: Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Benzoxazines: OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Human papillomavirus 18: A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 126.96.36.199.Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Lopinavir: An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Dried Blood Spot Testing: Techniques for using whole blood samples collected on filter paper for a variety of clinical laboratory tests.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cyclohexanes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean: A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Human papillomavirus 31: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS associated with high risk for anogenital neoplasms.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Herpesviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Macaca nemestrina: A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.Roseolovirus Infections: Infection with ROSEOLOVIRUS, the most common in humans being EXANTHEMA SUBITUM, a benign disease of infants and young children.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Didanosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Varicellovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE. Its species include those causing CHICKENPOX and HERPES ZOSTER in humans (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN), as well as several animal viruses.Human bocavirus: A member of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, originally isolated from human nasopharyngeal aspirates in patients with respiratory disease.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo: A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Cercocebus atys: A species of Old World monkeys from the genera CERCOCEBUS that is important in AIDS research. They may be naturally or experimentally infected with the SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS. They inhabit African forests from Sierra Leone to the Congo Republic.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Vaginal Douching: The washing of the VAGINA cavity or surface with a solution. Agents or drugs can be added to the irrigation solution.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Indinavir: A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.PyrimidinonesHIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Penile Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.Herpesvirus 6, Human: The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.Stavudine: A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Bocavirus: A genus in the subfamily PARVOVIRINAE comprising three species: Bovine parvovirus, Canine minute virus, and HUMAN BOCAVIRUS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Allostasis: Biological adaptation, such as the rise of EPINEPHRINE in response to exercise, stress or perceived danger, followed by a fall of epinephrine during RELAXATION. Allostasis is the achievement of stability by turning on and turning off the allostatic systems including the IMMUNE SYSTEM; the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM and NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEMS.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.HIV Enteropathy: A syndrome characterized by chronic, well-established DIARRHEA (greater than one month in duration) without an identified infectious cause after thorough evaluation, in an HIV-positive individual. It is thought to be due to direct or indirect effects of HIV on the enteric mucosa. HIV enteropathy is a diagnosis of exclusion and can be made only after other forms of diarrheal illness have been ruled out. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, pp1607-8; Haubrich et al., Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed, p1155)Dideoxynucleosides: Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Herpesvirus 2, Human: A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
If a patient's viral load becomes undetectable after 2 years then CD4 counts might not be needed if they are consistently above ... It is not necessary to schedule CD4 counts with viral load tests and the two should be done independently when each is ... Viral load testing provides more information about the efficacy for therapy than CD4 counts. For the first 2 years of HIV ... While CD4 counts are not a direct HIV test-e.g. they do not check the presence of viral DNA, or specific antibodies against HIV ...
Prognosis varies between people, and both the CD4 count and viral load are useful for predicted outcomes. Without treatment, ... The viral load of an infected person is an important risk factor in both sexual and mother-to-child transmission. During the ... Although most HIV-1 infected individuals have a detectable viral load and in the absence of treatment will eventually progress ... Stage I: HIV infection is asymptomatic with a CD4+ T cell count (also known as CD4 count) greater than 500 per microlitre (µl ...
HIV and pregnancy
It is recommended that all pregnant women begin ART regardless of CD4 counts or viral load to reduce the risk of transmission. ... The viral load helps determine which mode of delivery is safest for the mother and the baby. In cases where the viral load is ... Untreated mothers with a viral load >100,000 copies/ml have a transmission risk of over 50%. For women with a viral load < 1000 ... The recommendation is stronger under the following conditions: CD4 count below 350 cells/mm3 High viral load (>100,000 copies/ ...
HIV set point
"Fluctuations in HIV-1 viral load are correlated to CD4+ T-lymphocyte count during the natural course of infection". Journal of ... The higher the viral load of the set point, the faster the virus will progress to AIDS; the lower the viral load of the set ... The HIV set point is the viral load of a person infected with HIV, which stabilizes after a period of acute HIV infection. The ...
There is conflicting information about whether deworming reduces HIV progression and viral load and increases CD4 counts in ... Hunt P. W.; Lello J. (2012). "How to make DNA count: DNA-based diagnostic tools in veterinary parasitology". Veterinary ... "Empiric Deworming and CD4 Count Recovery in HIV-Infected Ugandans Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy". PLOS Neglected Tropical ...
Tuberculosis in relation to HIV
If not on medication, a person's viral load starts to go up and the CD4 cell count begins to go down. Stage 3 of HIV infection ... People with AIDS can have a high viral load and be very infectious. See HIV HIV/TB infection is a bi-directional interaction of ... Regarding patients with higher CD4 counts (more than 0.050 x 109 cells/L), the evidence is not sufficient to make a conclusion ... it is important to note that the risk of tuberculosis progresses as the CD4 cell count decreases along with the progression of ...
HIV/AIDS in China
... and have CD4+ counts within the normal range. Most people with HIV not on medication have viral loads which are much higher. It ... who maintain a CD4 count greater than 500 without antiretroviral therapy with a detectable viral load. Many of these patients ... Long-term nonprogressors typically have viral loads under 10,000 copies RNA/ml blood, do not take antiretrovirals, ... These people may carry high quantities of a protein called APOBEC3G that disrupts viral replication in cells. APOBEC3G, or "A3 ...
HIV/AIDS in Lesotho
In 2010, WHO recommended providing ART to all pregnant women regardless of CD4 count or viral load, causing the Ministry of ... Malaria is estimated to increase HIV viral load by seven to ten times. Consequently, people with malaria are at increased risk ... Starvation allows rapid progression of HIV by undermining the body's natural defense mechanisms and promoting viral replication ... regardless of CD4 count. Lesotho is the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to implement this program. There are various ...
van Leth F, Andrews S, Grinsztejn B (Mar 2005). "The effect of baseline CD4 cell count and HIV-1 viral load on the efficacy and ... concerns have been raised about nevirapine-based regimens in those starting therapy with high viral load or low CD4 count, some ... Nevirapine in triple combination therapy has been shown to suppress viral load effectively when used as initial antiretroviral ... an essential viral enzyme which transcribes viral RNA into DNA. Unlike nucleoside RTIs, which bind at the polymerase active ...
Middle East respiratory syndrome
... sputum sample or tracheal aspirate as these have the highest viral loads. There have also been studies utilizing upper ... "MERS death count up to 29". HiDoc. 25 June 2015. "Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) summary and ... MERS cases have been reported to have low white blood cell count, and in particular low lymphocytes. For PCR testing, the WHO ... Chest X-ray findings tend to show bilateral patchy infiltrates consistent with viral pneumonitis and ARDS. Lower lobes tend to ...
Signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS
People who maintain CD4+ T cell counts and also have low or clinically undetectable viral load without anti-retroviral ... However, most have detectable viral load and will eventually progress to AIDS without treatment. These individuals are ... that occur after years of HIV infection and are associated with low CD4+ T cell levels and high plasma viral loads. Prevalence ... A strong immune defense reduces the number of viral particles in the blood stream, marking the start of secondary or chronic ...
Division of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
... such as CD4+ counts and viral load for predicting a drug's effectiveness and disease progression, and demonstrated the use of ... In order to foster drug development of new HIV therapies, DAIDS supports research on potential new cellular and viral ... therapy-regimens including reverse transcriptase and potent protease inhibitors-are capable of suppressing HIV viral load to ... For example, in recent years, DAIDS-funded investigators have identified new structures for viral components of HIV, additional ...
Beta-Hydroxy beta-methylbutyric acid
Modified vaccinia Ankara
... as measured by a reduced HIV viral load relative to controls and higher CD3+ and CD8+ cell counts. The efficacy of Juven for ... measured by increasing CD3 and CD8 cells and decreasing the HIV viral load. ... These results show that HMB/ARG/GLN can be ... T Cells Determined by Epigenetic Cell Counting and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Prospective Case-cohort Study in Non- ...
"The effects of an HIV-1 immunogen (Remune) on viral load, CD4 cell counts and HIV-specific immunity in a double-blind, ... CD8 T cells by reducing viral load and increasing immunity. The FDA is currently reviewing IRBP's BLA (biologics licensing ... trial proved that a significant difference in clinical benefit between Remune vaccine and placebo with a decline in viral load ... Remune is made of beta-propiolactone inactive HIV-1 which has been irradiated to destroy the viral genome. The vaccine, however ...
According to the researchers, this approach could lead to a dramatic reduction of the viral load in patient cells. In April ... with one animal showing complete suppression of viral replication and preservation of CD4+ T cell count (no virus detected ... The research showed that in animals treated with SupT1 cell infusion, significantly lower plasma viral load (~10-fold) and ... In the study detailed by this report, it was found that nanoparticles loaded with Mellitin, a compound found in Bee venom, ...
CD8 T cells by reducing viral load and increasing immunity. Also, a group of researchers and professionals in the field of HIV ... has completed over 25 clinical studies to date and showed a robust mechanism of action restoring white blood cell counts in CD4 ... AT-2 chemical treatment is used because it does not affect the viral structure and immunogens. This killed virus vaccine ... Creation of highly efficient recombinant viral vectors for development of prime-boost vaccines.  Sheppard, HW (2005). " ...
In 2009, 4 years after starting the clinical trial, Kerr's CD4+ count has significantly improved and his viral load has fallen ... The study also reported a decrease in viral load of less than 20 HIV RNA copies per mL of blood in some patients in the triple ... The percentage of patients in the triple drug therapy group with a viral load below 20 copies per mL after 52 weeks of ... The paper demonstrated their findings of a greater decrease in plasma HIV-1 RNA (an indicator of HIV viral load) in patients ...
Viral load Complete blood count In terms of the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis, oral valganciclovir, intravenous ... The diagnosis of CMV retinitis can be done via the following: Ophthalmic screening frequency is based on CD4 count,(CD4 < 50 ... cells/mL, 0- 35% possibility of CMV retinitis) BUN CD8+ T-lymphocyte count CMV DNA capture ( polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ...
... of vicriviroc found that patients in the 10 mg and 15 mg vicriviroc treatment groups achieved a median decrease in viral load ... ritonavir-containing OBT provided sustained viral suppression in treatment-experienced subjects and increased CD4 cell counts ... However, viral changes from CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor usage have been associated with a faster rate of CD4+ T-cell loss, rapid ... One molecule of each protein associates noncovalently with the other on the viral membrane, and three of these units aggregate ...
Criminal transmission of HIV
In Mabior, the Court found that "significant risk of bodily harm is negated if (i) the accused's viral load at the time of ... On 4 April 2009, Aziga was found guilty of the two counts of first degree murder as well as the lesser counts. The current ... Aziga was charged with two counts of murder and 11 counts of aggravated sexual assault; the prosecution claims that he did not ... and in August 2008 he was found guilty of five counts of aggravated assault and 14 counts of attempted aggravated assault. He ...
... which is converted to a viral count. EDTA plasma is the best source of cell-free viral RNA for RNA-based viral load testing. ... Viral load, also known as viral burden, viral titre or viral titer, is a numerical expression of the quantity of virus in a ... Changes in viral load are usually reported as a log change (in powers of 10). For example, a three log increase in viral load ( ... A higher viral burden, titre, or viral load often correlates with the severity of an active viral infection. The quantity of ...
"Clinical Prognostic Value of RNA Viral Load and CD4 Cell Counts during Untreated HIV-1 Infection-A Quantitative Review". PLoS ... A useful proxy for virulence is the set-point viral load (SPVL), which is correlated with the time until AIDS. SPVL is the ... Fraser, C.; Hollingsworth, T. D.; Chapman, R.; De Wolf, F.; Hanage, W. P. (2007). "Variation in HIV-1 set-point viral load: ... The transmission probability of HIV per sexual act is positively correlated with viral load, thereby providing evidence of the ...
1156 patients with a mean of 87 CD4 cell counts and mean viral load of 100,000 copies/ml were randomized to one of the two ... There were higher CD4 cell counts and less viral load in patients assigned to the three-drug group, proving that a three-drug ... Eligible patients were those who received AZT for at least 6 months and have CD4 cell counts between 50 and 400, viral loads of ... They were able to show that indinavir, when used with two other anti-HIV drugs, could significantly reduce the HIV viral load.[ ...
... glycemic-load diets have been found to have different degrees of effect on acne severity. Multiple randomized ... The Leeds acne grading technique counts acne lesions on the face, back, and chest and categorizes them as inflammatory or non- ... controlled trials and nonrandomized studies have found a lower-glycemic-load diet to be effective in reducing acne. There ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
எயிட்சு - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
2002). "Male viral load and heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 subtype E in northern Thailand". J. Acquir. Immune. Defic. Syndr ... Wood E, Hogg RS, Yip B, Harrigan PR, O'Shaughnessy MV, Montaner JS (2003). "Is there a baseline "சி.டி.4" cell count that ... Hurwitz BE, Klaus JR, Llabre MM, et al. (January 2007). "Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with ... Blankson JN, Persaud D, Siliciano RF (2002). "The challenge of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 infection". Annu. Rev. Med. 53: 557- ...
The central core contains the viral RNA genome and other viral proteins that package and protect this RNA. RNA tends to be ... "W.H.O. Gives Swine Flu a Less Loaded, More Scientific Name". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012 ... no accurate count. N/A. H1N1. N/A 2009 flu pandemic. 2009-2010. 105,700-395,600. 0.03%. H1N1. N/A ... the viral particles of all influenza viruses are similar in composition. These are made of a viral envelope containing two ...
RT-PCR can also be used to quantify the viral load in the blood. Using RT-PCR, diagnostic results can be available in one to ... Laboratory criteria include a decreased lymphocyte count consistent with viremia. However a definitive laboratory diagnosis can ... viral antigen and viral RNA were found in macrophages in the synovial joint of a person experiencing a relapse of ... Viral replication is highly cytopathic, but susceptible to type-I and -II interferon. In vivo, in studies using living ...
Red blood cell
These include a RBC count (the number of red blood cells per volume of blood), calculation of the hematocrit (percentage of ... When these release their oxygen load in the tissues, they become insoluble, leading to mis-shaped red blood cells. These sickle ... as recognized by the presence of giant pronormoblasts with viral particles and inclusion bodies, thus temporarily depleting the ... Anemias (or anaemias) are diseases characterized by low oxygen transport capacity of the blood, because of low red cell count ...
Neutropenia (a decrease of the neutrophil granulocyte count below 0.5 x 109/litre) can be improved with synthetic G-CSF ( ... The susceptibility of an individual to liver damage can be altered by other factors such as the cancer itself, viral hepatitis ... Salvage chemotherapy or palliative chemotherapy is given without curative intent, but simply to decrease tumor load and ... The survivors were later found to have very low white blood cell counts. After WWII was over and the reports declassified ...
This section needs expansion with: Viral sepsis. You can help by adding to it. (March 2020) ... However, platelet transfusion is suggested for platelet counts below (10 × 109/L) without any risk of bleeding, or (20 × 109/L ... Meanwhile, for antibiotics with low volume distribution (vancomycin, teicoplanin, colistin), loading dose is required to ... Infections leading to sepsis are usually bacterial but may be fungal or viral. Gram-positive bacteria were the primary ...
... although the American Diabetes Association recommends that diabetics not count alcohol as carbohydrates. Fructose (for ... "International Table of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Ajcn.org. 76 (1): 5- ... as stating that the circumstances of his death from an epidural hematoma had nothing to do with his diet or history of viral ...
Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections. *Viral load. *Virus-like particle. *Viral quantification ... Feline panleukopenia is common in kittens and causes fever, low white blood cell count, diarrhea, and death. Infection of the ... The viral capsid of a parvovirus is made up of two to four proteins, known as VP1-4 that form an icosahedral symmetry that is ... Thus, in order for viral replication to take place the infected cells must be non-quiescent (i.e. must be actively mitotic). ...
In general, they do not carry as much pollen load as bees, but they are capable of moving pollen over greater distances. ... Caterpillars are also affected by a range of bacterial, viral and fungal diseases, and only a small percentage of the butterfly ... while also teaching children how to count (to five) and the days of the week. ...
Mannan oligosaccharide-based nutritional supplements
The cause can be viral or bacterial, however, E. coli is often involved. As MOS can bind E. coli (see Effects of MOS on the ... This resulted in a reduction in faecal E. coli counts and improvements in faecal score in calves fed MOS. These improvements ... MOS supplementation has also been shown to reduce the overall cultivable intestinal microbial load and to enhance species ... MOS incorporation into live feeds has been studied to assess the impact on the microbial load, particularly with regards to ...
University of Scranton
Honors courses count toward general education requirements and the tutorials count toward major, minor, cognate or general ... in order to find and treat viral diseases and cancer as well as to be able to engineer a patient's immune system to avoid these ... and the humanities in addition to their normal course load. ...
Antigen exposure also has effect on the course of exhaustion because longer exposure time and higher viral load increases the ... induction of T cell exhaustion can be beneficial for transplantation it also carries disadvantages among which can be counted ... Sepsis also carries high antigen load and inflammation. In this stage of sepsis T cell exhaustion increases. Currently ... "CD4+ T cells are required to sustain CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell responses during chronic viral infection". Journal of Virology. 68 ...
母乳哺育 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Colony collapse disorder
... hives that are moved to different states to produce honey are counted in each state's total and summed in total counts. ... Viral and fungal combination. A University of Montana and Montana State University team of scientists headed by Jerry ... Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with more pathogens than control populations, suggesting ... A widespread occurrence of viral infections within a beehive can lead to colony collapse. Researchers state that although the ...
Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections. *Viral load. *Virus-like particle. *Viral quantification ... Counting these areas and multiplying by the dilution factor allowed him to calculate the number of viruses in the original ... viral protein synthesis, possible assembly of viral proteins, then viral genome replication mediated by early or regulatory ... Several highly lethal viral pathogens are members of the Filoviridae. Filoviruses are filament-like viruses that cause viral ...
Infections leading to sepsis are usually bacterial, but may be fungal or viral. Gram-positive bacteria was the predominant ... However, platelet transfusion is suggested for platelet counts below (10 × 109/L) without any risk of bleeding, or (20 × 109/L ... Meanwhile, for antibiotics with low volume distribution (vancomycin, teicoplanin, colistin), loading dose is required to ... platelet count , 80,000/mm3 or 50% drop from maximum in chronically thrombocytopenic, or ...
AIDS bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
2007). "Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with selenium supplementation: a randomized controlled ... "Is there a baseline CD4 cell count that precludes a survival response to modern antiretroviral therapy?". AIDS. 17 (5): 711-720 ... "Male viral load and heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 subtype E in northern Thailand". J. Acquir. Immune. Defic. Syndr. 29 (3 ... "Maternal viral load, zidovudine treatment, and the risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from mother to ...
Factors such as the viral load in the mother's milk complicate breastfeeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers. ... "Counting on Mother's Love: The Global Politics of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Eastern Africa". In ... Expressed milk is the feeding method of choice for premature babies. Viral disease transmission can be prevented by ...
Net neutrality in the United States
"10 states and counting are suing Trump for censoring the internet". Retrieved December 16, 2017.. "New Mexico joins multi-state ... The episode went viral with 13 million views on YouTube and prompted 45,000 comments on the FCC website. Former FCC ... Users with faster Internet connectivity (e.g., fiber) abandon a slow-loading video at a faster rate than users with slower ... Their research studied the patience level of millions of Internet video users who waited for a slow-loading video to start ...
As these filters load, the internal fan is required to do more work to push/pull the same volume of air through them. Newer ... Particle counting within the work zone. *Gas tightness. *Leak testing of the work zone (work zone integrity testing) ... and drifts as the internal HEPA filters load with particulate. ...
In February 2007, Beatport launched the Beatport Player, a viral marketing web widget to play back relevant content by Artist, ... On August 7, 2006 Beatport released Beatport 3.0 Fully Loaded, the third version of its original store, which featured ... Music Recording called for an investigation into allegations that third-parties had artificially inflated the download counts ...
Total Eclipse of the Heart
Streaming Counts. Site Count Worldwide (YouTube) (Official and unofficial counts included; as of October 2018) 9 million ... Time magazine listed it as the 6th best viral video of 2009. This was also the 6th literal video produced by professional ... "My Guns Are Loaded". Goodbye to the Island. *"I'm Just a Woman" ... "The Top 10 Viral Videos of 2009". Time. Retrieved 17 August ... "Britain Counts On Bonnie Tyler to Play Eurovision Hero". Billboard. Retrieved 19 August 2014 ...
please explain viral load and cd4 counts.. | TheBody
Your viral load count measures the amount of HIV per milliliter (mL) of your blood. Current viral load tests can detect as few ... 21 and second lab read cd4 376 and viral load 13,000 and %25 and my last lab read cd461 and viral load 20,000 and %21... my ... based on an HIV plasma viral load of 29,000. This is still considered a low viral load. And, as you suggested, your current ... affect your HIV viral load? Yes, its possible. Any intercurrent illness could cause a transient rise in HIV viral load. This ...
HIV & AIDS Information :: CD4, viral load & other tests - CD4 cell counts
This section provides information on having your CD4 count monitored, variations in CD4 cell counts and CD4 percentages. ... If you have had an undetectable viral load and a CD4 cell count over 350 for at least a year, then CD4 cell counts are not ... If you have an undetectable viral load and your CD4 cell count is over 200, your CD4 cell count will normally be checked once a ... Your CD4 cell count when youre taking HIV treatment. Once you start taking HIV treatment, and your viral load starts to fall, ...
Low cd4 count and viral load - Forum on Understanding Your Labs -- TheBody.com
That is a very low CD4 count and indicates an AIDS diagnosis, which puts you at risk for developing serious opportunistic ... Low cd4 count and viral load. Jun 6, 2009. I was diagnosed a few weeks ago, my viral load is 4006 and my cd4 count is 139? i am ... I would suggest you have a HIV resistance test performed to make sure your viral strain doesnt already have evidence of HIV ... That is a very low CD4 count and indicates an AIDS diagnosis, which puts you at risk for developing serious opportunistic ...
CD4 cell count and viral load monitoring in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: cost effectiveness study |...
... clinical/CD4/viral load (quarterly HIV viral loads and CD4 cell counts, and weekly home visits), clinical/CD4 (quarterly CD4 ... clinical monitoring with quarterly CD4 cell counts and viral load measurement (clinical/CD4/viral load); clinical monitoring ... CD4 cell count and.... *CD4 cell count and viral load monitoring in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: cost ... and cost per DALY averted of adding CD4 counts to clinical monitoring and of adding viral load testing to CD4 counts and ...
CD4 count and viral load tied to atherogenic cholesterol in people with HIV
In an analysis with the interaction terms CD4 count and viral load at or above 200 copies, a CD4 count below 200 (versus above ... CD4 count and viral load tied to atherogenic cholesterol in people with HIV ... In an analysis with the interaction terms viral load and age, a viral load at or above 200 copies was significantly associated ... While 8% had a CD4 count below 200 cells, 18% had a viral load at or above 200 copies. One quarter of these people (28%) were ...
U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected...
The Effect of High-Dose Saquinavir on Viral Load and CD4+ T-Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Patients Annals of Internal Medicine; ... HIV-infected adults with 1 or more HIV RNA plasma viral load (HIV VL) or CD4 T-lymphocyte (CD4) cell count measured in any ... U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected ... U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected ...
Plasma HIV-1 RNA (Viral Load) and CD4 Count Monitoring | Laboratory Testing | Adult and Adolescent ARV | AIDSinfo
Viral load is a marker of response to ART. A patients pre-ART viral load level and the magnitude of viral load decline after ... Recommendations on the Indications and Frequency of Viral Load and CD4 Count Monitoringa. Clinical Scenario. Viral Load ... every 4 to 8 weeks until viral load is suppressed (BIII). If viral suppression is not possible, repeat viral load every 3 ... Plasma HIV-1 RNA (Viral Load) Monitoring. Viral load is the most important indicator of initial and sustained response to ART ( ...
Association of CD4+ T-cell Count, HIV-1 RNA Viral Load, and Antiretroviral Therapy With Kaposi Sarcoma Risk Among HIV-infected...
Association of CD4+ T-cell Count, HIV-1 RNA Viral Load, and Antiretroviral Therapy With Kaposi Sarcoma Risk Among HIV-infected ... we comprehensively examined a variety of CD4 T-cell count and HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) measures, as well as antiretroviral ... We observed no evidence for direct anti-KS activity of ART, independent of CD4 count and VL. ... and cumulative CD4 count or VL measures, as well as ART use. We used Akaikes information criterion and global P values to ...
Brief | Plasma HIV-1 RNA (Viral Load) and CD4 Count Monitoring | Laboratory Testing | Adult and Adolescent ARV | AIDSinfo
Recommendations on the Indications and Frequency of Viral Load and CD4 Count Monitoringa. Clinical Scenario. Viral Load ... every 4 to 8 weeks until viral load is suppressed (BIII). If viral suppression is not possible, repeat viral load every 3 ... Plasma HIV-1 RNA (Viral Load) and CD4 Count Monitoring (Brief). The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from ... Plasma HIV-1 RNA (Viral Load) and CD4 Count Monitoring. Last Updated: May 1, 2014; Last Reviewed: May 1, 2014 ...
Unstable housing associated with low CD4 cell count and detectable viral load for HIV-positive women in US | aidsmap
detectable viral load. When viral load is detectable, this indicates that HIV is replicating in the body. If the person is ... Viral load was suppressed at 48% of visits, with CD4 cell count was above 350 cells/mm3 at 56% of visits. ... Unstable housing is associated with an increased risk of a detectable viral load and low CD4 cell count among HIV-positive ... Unstable housing associated with low CD4 cell count and detectable viral load for HIV-positive women in US ...
PRIME PubMed | CD4+ cell count, viral load, and highly active antiretroviral therapy use are independent predictors of body...
... viral load, and highly active antiretroviral therapy use are independent predictors of body composition alterations in HIV- ... Baseline viral load, CD4+ cell count, and change in CD4+ cell count predicted alterations in trunk fat, extremity fat, and lean ... Baseline viral load, CD4+ cell count, and change in CD4+ cell count predicted alterations in trunk fat, extremity fat, and lean ... CD4+ cell count, viral load, and highly active antiretroviral therapy use are independent predictors of body composition ...
Ongoing HIV Infection Could Explain Low CD4 Counts Despite Undetectable Viral Loads, Study Suggests - TheBodyPRO.com
Ongoing HIV Infection Could Explain Low CD4 Counts Despite Undetectable Viral Loads, Study Suggests. ... HIV infection of CD4+ cells may be the reason why some individuals with undetectable viral loads exhibit poor CD4+ cell count ... Average CD4+ cell count trends were lower in these 10 individuals (-4 CD4+ cells per month) than in the other 23 individuals (+ ... While these findings could lead to better ways of increasing CD4+ cell counts in people living with HIV, more research needs to ...
Switching HIV Treatment in Adults Based on CD4 Count Versus Viral Load Monitoring: A Randomized, Non-Inferiority Trial in...
... if a CD4-based monitoring and treatment switching strategy provides a similar clinical outcome compared to the standard viral ... load-based strategy for adults with HIV in Thailand. Please see later in the article for the Editors Summary ... 2011) CD4 cell count and viral load monitoring in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: cost effectiveness ... 2013) Switching HIV Treatment in Adults Based on CD4 Count Versus Viral Load Monitoring: A Randomized, Non-Inferiority Trial in ...
Viral load, CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and antibody titres in HIV-1 infected untreated children in Kenya; implication for...
CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and antibody titres in HIV-1 infected untreated children in Kenya; implication for immunodeficiency ... Viral load, CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and antibody titres in HIV-1 infected untreated children in Kenya; implication for ... The increase in viral load was 10-fold higher for asymptomatic compared to other categories and 2-fold faster for children less ... Conclusions: Viral load is lower in older than younger children and correlates significantly with percentage CD4+ T-lymphocytes ...
Malaria Parasitemia and CD4 T Cell Count, Viral Load, and Adverse HIV Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Tanzania
... ... We then followed women to investigate whether or not baseline parasitemia predicted CD4 T cell counts or viral loads , 90 days ... "Malaria Parasitemia and CD4 T Cell Count, Viral Load, and Adverse HIV Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Tanzania." ... We examined the cross-sectional relationships between malaria parasitemia and CD4 T cell count and viral load among human ...
Switching HIV Treatment in Adults Based on CD4 Count Versus Viral Load Monitoring: A Randomized, Non-Inferiority Trial in...
Switching HIV Treatment in Adults Based on CD4 Count Versus Viral Load Monitoring: A Randomized, Non-Inferiority Trial in ... "Switching HIV Treatment in Adults Based on CD4 Count Versus Viral Load Monitoring: A Randomized, Non-Inferiority Trial in ... monitoring versus viral-load (VL). Consenting participants were antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected adults (CD4 count 50-250/mm3 ... Background: Viral load (VL) is recommended for monitoring the response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) but is ...
Association of viral load and CD4+ count with infection of intestinal emerging parasites... > MPH Journal Club | Infectious...
Association of viral load and CD4+ count with infection of intestinal emerging parasites in HIV patients. J. AIDS Clin Res 7:12 ... Association of viral load and CD4+ count with infection of intestinal emerging parasites.... ... Eligio-Garcia L, Cano-Estrada Ap, Cruz C, Jimenez-Cardoso E. Association of viral load and CD4+ count with infection of ...
Welcome to CDC stacks | Utility of routine viral load, CD4 cell count, and clinical monitoring among adults with HIV receiving...
Utility of routine viral load, CD4 cell count, and clinical monitoring among adults with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy ... After adjustment for age, sex, baseline CD4 count, viral load, and body mass index, the rate of new AIDS defining events or ... Implementation and Operational Research: CD4 Count Monitoring Frequency and Risk of CD4 Count Dropping Below 200 Cells Per ... There was no significant difference between the CD4 arm and the viral load arm (1.23, P = 0.31).,In patients receiving ART for ...
How Often to Have Your CD4 Count and Viral Load Tested
... while the viral load is most useful after the initiation of therapy. ... Monitoring a patients CD4 count is most useful before the initiation of therapy, ... Frequency of Viral Load Monitoring For patients newly diagnosed with HIV, viral load testing should be performed at the time of ... How Often to Have Your CD4 Count and Viral Load Tested Guidelines Suggest CD4 Monitoring May Be Optional. By ...
Welcome to CDC stacks | The effect of opportunistic illness on HIV RNA viral load and CD4+ T cell count among HIV-positive...
HIV RNA Viral Load Humans Male Opportunistic Infections Plasma Research Article RNA, Viral Uganda Viral Load ... The effect of opportunistic illness on HIV RNA viral load and CD4+ T cell count among HIV-positive adults taking antiretroviral ... HIV RNA viral load (VL) has been shown to increase during opportunistic illnesses (OIs), suggesting active HIV replication in ... CD4 Lymphocyte Count CD4+ T Cell Lymphocyte Count Female HIV HIV-1 HIV Infections ...
The Clinical Use of Coriolus versicolor Supplementation in HIV+ patients and the Impact on CD4 Count and Viral Load | Mycology...
Coriolus versicolor supplementation as low as 1.5 grams per day can increase CD4 levels and decrease viral loads in HIV+ ... The Clinical Use of Coriolus versicolor Supplementation in HIV+ patients and the Impact on CD4 Count and Viral Load ... The Clinical Use of Coriolus versicolor Supplementation in HIV+ patients and the Impact on CD4 Count and Viral Load. by ... Results: Coriolus versicolor supplementation as low as 1.5 grams per day can increase CD4 levels and decrease viral loads in ...
JCDR - Correlation of CD4 T Cell Count and Plasma Viral Load with Reproductive Tract Infections/Sexually Transmitted...
CD4 cell count and plasma viral load estimation.. Results: Mean CD4 count of females with bacterial vaginosis, vaginal ... Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation of CD4 T lymphocyte cell count, HIV-1 plasma viral load with ... Correlation of CD4 T Cell Count and Plasma Viral Load with Reproductive Tract Infections/Sexually Transmitted Infections in HIV ... STIs irrespective of CD4 cell count and plasma viral load. ... compared to other HIV infected cases and mean plasma viral load ...
Short-term changes in HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count | Immunopaedia
... and with a higher current viral load. With a current viral load showing to be a ... A faster rise in viral load was significantly associated with older age, ... With a current viral load showing to be a stronger predictor of CD4+ cell count depletion than baseline viral load. Factors ... changes in viral load and CD4+ cell count in a large cohort collaboration.The study measured viral loads and CD4+ cell counts ...
Understanding Care | Living With HIV | HIV Basics | HIV/AIDS | CDC
This will help keep your viral load low and your CD4 count high. ... Viral Load Test. *Viral load is the amount of HIV in your blood ... Your health care provider will use a viral load test to determine your viral load. ... When your viral load is high, you have more HIV in your body. This means your immune system is not fighting HIV very well. ... CD4 Count. *Your CD4 count is the number of CD4 cells you have in your blood. CD4 cells help your body fight infections. ...
Relationships of PBMC microRNA expression, plasma viral load, and CD4+ T-cell count in HIV-1-infected elite suppressors and...
HCV RNA viral load is independent from CD4 cell count and plasma HIV RNA viral load in immunocompetent HIV-HCV co-infected...
CD4+ cell count, HCV viral load, HIV RNA (plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were measured from blood samples every three months at least ... We investigated on possible influence of clinical and viro-immunological variables on HCV viral load in HIV-HCV co-infected ... A mixed mode (ME) maximum likelihood linear regression model was constructed to evaluate the dependence of HCV viral load. HCV ... The HCV RNA load, a known pretreatment predictor of response to antiviral therapy, was independent of the two main parameters ...
Vaccine Protection Against Functional CTL Abnormalities in Simian Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Monkeys | The...
CD4 counts and viral loads. Peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocyte counts were determined by multiplying the total lymphocyte count ... These monkeys had been infected for more than 2 years, had maintained low viral loads and relatively normal CD4+ T cell counts ... CTL in the cohort of animals that had high viral loads and low CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, these data do not differentiate ... Plasma SIV RNA viral load determination by real-time quantification of product generation in reverse transcriptase-polymerase ...
CD4 vs. Viral Load: What They Mean for People with HIV
CD4 count and viral load are important indicators of health status. Learn what they measure and how they affect HIV treatment ... viral load are desirable. The higher the CD4 count, the healthier the immune system. The lower the viral load, the likelier it ... CD4 count and viral load. If someone has received an HIV diagnosis, there are two things theyll want to know: their CD4 count ... The time of day, any illnesses, and recent vaccinations can all affect CD4 count and viral load. Unless the CD4 count is very ...
CD4 Count: The Test
... along with an HIV viral load, to evaluate the immune system of a person diagnosed with a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ... A CD4 count is usually ordered along with an HIV viral load when a person is first diagnosed with HIV infection as part of a ... CD4 counts are most often used, along with an HIV viral load, to evaluate the immune system of a person diagnosed with human ... Formal name: CD4 Lymphocyte Count; CD4 Percent. Related tests: HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24); HIV Viral Load; HIV ...
A Study to Evaluate the Effects of Giving Proleukin (rIL-2) to HIV-Positive Patients With CD4 Counts Greater Than 300 Cells/mm3...
CD4 Lymphocyte Count. RNA, Viral. Quality of Life. Anti-HIV Agents. Viral Load. ... on Viral Burden and CD4+ Cell Count in Patients With HIV-1 Infection and CD4+ Cell Counts Greater Than or Equal to 300/mm3. ... This study examines the effect of two different rIL-2 doses on HIV viral burden and CD4+ cell count and provides additional ... This study examines the effect of 2 different amounts of rIL-2 on CD4 cell count and the amount of HIV in the blood (viral ...
AntiretroviralInfection100,000 copiesMaintained a suppressed viral loadBaseline viral loadIncreasesHepatitisClinicalLymphocyte countsCell counts and viralReduction in the viral loadSignificantlyDeclineBelow 200CONCLUSIONSBlipsMonitoringMeasurementInfectionsBurdenTreatment naive individualsAssayIncreasePlasma viralPatient'sTestCopies per mlImmunityLowerImmune functionResultsUndetectable levelLevelsPerson's CD4 count
- Your rising HIV plasma viral load is also not unexpected, as you are not on antiretroviral therapy. (thebody.com)
- Objective To examine the cost and cost effectiveness of quarterly CD4 cell count and viral load monitoring among patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). (bmj.com)
- HIV RNA (viral load) and CD4 T lymphocyte (CD4) cell count are the two surrogate markers of antiretroviral treatment (ART) responses and HIV disease progression that have been used for decades to manage and monitor HIV infection. (nih.gov)
- In the United States, ART is now recommended for all patients with HIV regardless of their viral load or CD4 count (AI) (see Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy ). (nih.gov)
- To better understand KS etiology and to help target prevention efforts, we comprehensively examined a variety of CD4 T-cell count and HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) measures, as well as antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, to determine independent predictors of KS risk. (nih.gov)
- With use of data from the Nutrition For Healthy Living Study, we performed multivariate analyses using longitudinal models to evaluate the relationship of CD4+ cell count, viral load, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or antiretroviral therapy (ART) with changes in trunk and extremity composition for 110 men and 42 women who provided data relating to 194 study intervals (i.e., intervals of time between 2 assessment visits). (unboundmedicine.com)
- Viral load (VL) is recommended for monitoring the response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) but is not routinely available in most low- and middle-income countries. (plos.org)
- Consenting participants were antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected adults (CD4 count 50-250/mm 3 ) initiating non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based therapy. (plos.org)
- Then, in 1996, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-combined drugs regimens that suppress viral replication and allow restoration of the immune system-became available. (plos.org)
- CD4+ Cell Count, Viral Load, and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy " by Ann Y. McDermott, Norma Terrin et al. (calpoly.edu)
- With the increased efficacy of modern antiretroviral therapy (ART) , the emphasis should no longer be placed on using CD4 counts as the measure of ART success. (verywellhealth.com)
- In issuing the updated guidelines, the DHHS concluded that 'a poor CD4 response in a patient with viral suppression is rarely an indication for modifying an (antiretroviral) regime. (verywellhealth.com)
- HIV RNA viral load (VL) has been shown to increase during opportunistic illnesses (OIs), suggesting active HIV replication in response to infection among patients not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). (cdc.gov)
- Viral load (VL) testing is highly important for detection of antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure in AIDS patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- The importance of CD4 count, viral load and highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). (mysciencework.com)
- A case is reported of HIV-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with normal CD4 count but high HIV viral load, developing neurological and cardiac complications up to 36 days after initiation of plasma exchange, but remitting within 18 days of the start of highly active antiretroviral therapy and steroids. (mysciencework.com)
- In addition to plasma exchange, prompt initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura may be justified despite a normal CD4 count. (mysciencework.com)
- HIV infection in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive individuals is typically characterized by a rise in plasma HIV RNA ( viral load ) and a decline in CD4 + cell count. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- 2014. Factors associated with short-term changes in HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in antiretroviral-naive individuals. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- CD4 counts are most often used, along with an HIV viral load , to evaluate the immune system of a person diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and to monitor effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART or ARV), also called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (labtestsonline.org)
- Previous treatment guidelines recommended that antiretroviral therapy (ART) be initiated in patients with a CD4 count under 500 cells/µL or in the presence of an AIDS-defining illness . (verywellhealth.com)
- While the CD4 count is an indicator of immune status and treatment efficacy, the viral load is arguably the more important measure when antiretroviral therapy begins. (verywellhealth.com)
- The goal of antiretroviral therapy is to suppress a person's viral load down to an undetectable level and subsequently increase one's CD4 count. (prevention.nyc)
- Objectives: Among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive individuals, viral load levels tend to increase and CD4þ cell counts decline over time. (ucl.ac.uk)
- We observed that immunological non-responders (INRs) had a low number of DN T cells after long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART), and the number of these cells positively correlated with the CD4 + T cell count. (frontiersin.org)
- Ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor based therapy will have equivalent antiviral efficacy over 48 weeks compared to NNRTI based therapy in patients who are antiretroviral therapy naïve and initiate therapy with CD4 counts ≤ 200/mm3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Comparison: The efficacy of ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor based therapy versus NNRTI based therapy in patients who are antiretroviral therapy naïve and initiate therapy with a CD4 count ≤ 200/mm3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- CD4 T-cell counts may be a better predictor of disease progression and improvement in growth than viral burden in HIV-infected children who receive a protease inhibitor as part of a highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen. (aappublications.org)
- 4 , 5 On the basis of these parameters, antiretroviral therapy that suppresses viral replication to undetectable levels provides the best opportunity to delay progression to AIDS and to prolong life. (aappublications.org)
- As a result, measurements of plasma viral load and CD4 T-cell counts form the basis of the current principles and guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-infected adults and children. (aappublications.org)
- Monitoring plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in addition to CD4+ lymphocyte count improves assessment of antiretroviral therapeutic response. (nih.gov)
- CD4+ lymphocyte counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels predict progression of HIV-related disease, but the relative importance of these and other virological factors in defining response to antiretroviral therapy is not yet clear. (nih.gov)
- Monitoring HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4+ lymphocytes before a change in antiretroviral treatment and monitoring HIV-1 RNA levels shortly thereafter improves prediction of disease progression and decline in CD4+ counts for 1 year compared with monitoring CD4+ counts of HIV-1 RNA levels alone. (nih.gov)
- By the end of 2017, there were more than 28,000 individuals living with HIV in Cuba, over 80% receiving antiretroviral therapy, which dramatically reduces viral replication, improves immune status and decreases risk of transmission. (scielosp.org)
- The 90-90-90 target is that 90% of all people living with HIV will have been diagnosed, 90% of all people with known HIV infection will be receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 90% of all people receiving ART will have a suppressed viral load. (scielosp.org)
- In people who are antiretroviral naive (have not started HIV treatment), HIV infection usually involves a steady increase in viral load accompanied by a fall in CD4 cell count. (nyaa.org.uk)
- METHODS: Viral loads, CD4(+) T-cell counts, and enzyme-linked immunospot assay-determined anti-HIV-1 CD8(+) T-cell responses for a subset of infected antiretroviral-naive Phambili participants, selected according to sample availability, were analyzed. (ox.ac.uk)
- Recently, new antiretroviral therapies combining two inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) and one inhibitor of HIV protease, usually called triple combination therapy (TCT) or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), have been successful in leading to a significant reduction of plasmatic viral load and an increase in CD4 counts ( 17 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
- Viral load and CD4 cell tests provide critical information for decisions on antiretroviral therapy (ART). (aidsinfonet.org)
- Main outcome measures Exposure to individual antiretroviral drugs and drug classes, CD4 count, plasma HIV RNA burden. (bmj.com)
- Ongoing HIV infection of CD4+ cells may be the reason why some individuals with undetectable viral loads exhibit poor CD4+ cell count responses, according to study results presented at ICAAC 2012. (thebodypro.com)
- Duration of HIV infection averaged 7 years (range 1 to 18), and CD4 count averaged 491 (95% confidence interval [CI] 408 to 552). (thebodypro.com)
- Association of viral load and CD4+ count with infection of intestinal emerging parasites. (pitt.edu)
- Eligio-Garcia L, Cano-Estrada Ap, Cruz C, Jimenez-Cardoso E. Association of viral load and CD4+ count with infection of intestinal emerging parasites in HIV patients. (pitt.edu)
- The objective of this work is to estimate the HIV-1 viral load from CD4 cell count using an hybrid artificial intelligence technique known as the coupled bacterial foraging/jumping frogs optimization algorithm and the three dimensional mathematical model of HIV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- A CD4 count is usually ordered along with an HIV viral load when a person is first diagnosed with HIV infection as part of a baseline measurement. (labtestsonline.org)
- There is strong evidence that rIL-2 increases CD4 cell counts (cells of the immune system that fight infection). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- If an HIV infection has been confirmed, tests are routinely performed to determine the status of a person's immune system and the level of viral activity in the body. (verywellhealth.com)
- The loss of CD4 count makes it difficult for a person's body to fight infection. (prevention.nyc)
- Syphilis increases the recruitment of HIV-1 susceptible inflammatory cells, such as activated macrophages and CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, to the infection site ( 25 ), leading to an increase in HIV viral load, a decrease in CD4 + T-cell counts, and high TNF-α and IL-10 levels ( 26 ). (frontiersin.org)
- CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the known enhancement of HIV-1 acquisition resulting from the MRKAd5 HIV-1 vaccine, these findings in a nonrandomized subset of enrollees show an HLA-specific vaccine effect on the time to CD4(+) T-cell count decline and viremia level after infection and the potential for vaccines to differentially alter disease outcome according to population HLA composition. (ox.ac.uk)
- In a multivariate analysis, high maternal viral load and maternal acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were independently associated with shorter time to category c disease or death in infants with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- To further assess the state of viral activity in latent infection we have tested the activity of monoclonal antibodies against putative latent viral proteins. (duke.edu)
- Medical professionals refer to the CD4 count to decide when to begin treatment during HIV infection, although recent medical guidelines have changed to recommend treatment at all CD4 counts as soon as HIV is diagnosed. (wikipedia.org)
- HIV viral load - 28,000 copies/mL (Note that 20% of participants had a viral load of 100,000 copies/mL. (catie.ca)
- Recent data suggests that the rate of response to PI based therapy may be slightly compromised if the baseline CD4 count is ≤ 200/mm3 and the plasma HIV-1-RNA ≥ 100,000 copies/mL. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- A high viral load is generally considered about 100,000 copies, but you could have 1 million or more. (webmd.com)
Maintained a suppressed viral load1
Baseline viral load4
- Pre-treatment viral load level is also an important factor in the selection of an initial ARV regimen because several currently approved ARV drugs or regimens have been associated with poorer responses in patients with high baseline viral load (see What to Start ). (nih.gov)
- Baseline viral load, CD4+ cell count, and change in CD4+ cell count predicted alterations in trunk fat, extremity fat, and lean mass. (unboundmedicine.com)
- With a current viral load showing to be a stronger predictor of CD4+ cell count depletion than baseline viral load. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- Current viral load was a stronger predictor of CD4þ cell count depletion than baseline viral load. (ucl.ac.uk)
- These include reductions in viral load, increases in CD4 cell count, reduced incidence of opportunistic infections, decreased mortality, and improvements in wellbeing and functioning. (bmj.com)
- When HIV remains untreated, the CD4 count decreases and the viral load increases. (healthline.com)
- These are temporary, oftentimes small increases in viral load. (healthline.com)
- There is substantial evidence that rIL-2 increases CD4+ cell count. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- HIV medication increases a person's CD4 count and reduces their viral load. (nat.org.uk)
- VS/IS and VF/IS groups displayed similar sustained increases in CD4 T cells, although viral levels rebounded by 48 and 96 weeks posttherapy to pretherapy levels in the discordant group. (aappublications.org)
- However, increases in viral load were significantly greater in older patients. (nyaa.org.uk)
- Increases in adherence rate should also be advocated for a better response as non adherence to the treatment regime may present a decrease in CD4 count and an increase in viral load. (guardian.ng)
- Objectives To investigate whether there is evidence that an increasing proportion of HIV infected patients is starting to experience increases in viral load and decreases in CD4 cell count that are consistent with exhaustion of available treatment options. (bmj.com)
- The researchers screened 204,507 people with chronic hepatitis B, excluding those with other types of viral hepatitis. (aidsmap.com)
- In contrast, the second phase, 'HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B,' is characterised by high viral load, elevated ALT, moderate to severe liver necroinflammation and progressive fibrosis. (aidsmap.com)
- Clinical/CD4/viral load monitoring compared with clinical/CD4 monitoring adds $142 458, and averts 27.5 DALYs ($5181 per DALY). (bmj.com)
- The superior ICER for clinical/CD4 monitoring is robust to uncertainties in input values, and that strategy is dominant (less expensive and more effective) compared with clinical/CD4/viral load monitoring in one quarter of simulations. (bmj.com)
- If clinical inputs are based on the as treated analysis starting at 90 days (after laboratory monitoring was initiated), then clinical/CD4/viral load monitoring is dominated by other strategies. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions Based on this trial, compared with clinical monitoring alone, monitoring of routine CD4 cell count is considerably more cost effective than additionally including routine viral load testing in the monitoring strategy and is more cost effective than ART. (bmj.com)
- In the past, clinical practice, which was supported by treatment guidelines, was generally to monitor both CD4 cell count and viral load concurrently. (nih.gov)
- c The following are examples of clinically indicated scenarios: changes in a patient's clinical status that may decrease CD4 count and thus prompt initiation of prophylaxis for opportunistic infections (OI), such as new HIV-associated symptoms, or initiation of treatment with medications which are known to reduce CD4 cell count. (nih.gov)
- The Programs for HIV Prevention and Treatment (PHPT-3) non-inferiority randomized clinical trial compared a treatment switching strategy based on CD4-only (CD4) monitoring versus viral-load (VL). (plos.org)
- The study found that after five years, 83% of the simulated HIV-positive people who were monitored with the viral load tests survived, compared with 82% for those who received CD4+ monitoring and 82% for those who were received clinical monitoring. (blogspot.com)
- Clinical, viral, and immune outcomes were assessed during the subsequent 72 weeks. (aappublications.org)
- Use of HIV viral load in clinical practice: back to the future. (nih.gov)
Cell counts and viral1
Reduction in the viral load1
- In an analysis with the interaction terms CD4 count and age, a CD4 tally below 200 (versus above 500) was significantly associated with higher (worse) non-HDL cholesterol (adjusted beta 2.4, P = 0.0030). (natap.org)
- In an analysis with the interaction terms viral load and age, a viral load at or above 200 copies was significantly associated with higher non-HDL cholesterol (adjusted beta 2.4, P (natap.org)
- Median viral load correlated significantly with median CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage in children above 6 years (p=0.026) but not below. (ajol.info)
- Viral load is lower in older than younger children and correlates significantly with percentage CD4+ T-lymphocytes. (ajol.info)
- They found that a faster rise in viral load was significantly associated with older age, and with a higher current viral load. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- A faster rise in viral load was significantly associated with older age, such that for every 10 years older, it was a mean 0.022 log10 copies/ml per year greater. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Although there was no significant difference in the mean of the HIV viral load between the GBV-C positive and GBV-C negative groups, the significantly higher CD4 mean in the GBV-C positive group compared with the GBV-C negative group suggests a beneficial effect of this coinfection. (hepatmon.com)
- 95%CI-0.026, - 0.003) were significantly were associated with a lower rate of viral load increase over time . (bvsalud.org)
- Increasing cocaine use, based on self-reports and laboratory values, significantly exacerbates the immunopathology of HIV-1 in a dose-response manner, confirmed by a non-linear drop in CD4+ cell number for a given viral load in HIV+ AAW. (elsevier.com)
- People living with HIV who have a CD4 cell count below 200 are at significant risk of developing serious illnesses. (aidsmap.com)
- In an analysis with the interaction terms CD4 count and viral load at or above 200 copies, a CD4 count below 200 (versus above 500) was associated with lower (worse) HDL cholesterol level (adjusted beta -4.9, P = 0.0013). (natap.org)
- These generally happen in people who have a CD4 count below 200. (webmd.com)
- Measurement of CD4 count is particularly useful before initiation of ART. (nih.gov)
- Measurement of the viral load provides information about the person's health status and the effect, if any, that HIV medicines are having in controlling the virus, reports the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (reference.com)
- There is no normal range to reference a viral load measurement against because uninfected people do not have any copies of the HIV virus in their blood. (reference.com)
- Oral rinse samples previously reported as positive for a high-risk HPV type by Roche Linear Array were evaluated for measurement of HPV viral load by use of HPV type-specific real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeted to the HPV E6 or E7 gene. (cdc.gov)
- Right after you're diagnosed, you should get a viral load test for a "baseline measurement. (webmd.com)
- The main objective of this study was to measure oral HPV viral load for the subset of oral rinse samples (ORS) that were positive for high-risk or probably high-risk HPV types from the NHANES 2009-2010 study entitled Prevalence of Oral HPV Infections in the United States Population. (cdc.gov)
- When your HIV viral load is undetectable, there is little to no risk of infecting others, but most doctors still advise using condoms to prevent acquiring other strains of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. (webmd.com)
- This study examines the effect of 2 different amounts of rIL-2 on CD4 cell count and the amount of HIV in the blood (viral burden). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This study examines the effect of two different rIL-2 doses on HIV viral burden and CD4+ cell count and provides additional information on optimal dosing, safety, and antiviral activity of rIL-2. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The viral load measures the concentration of virus in the blood, also known as your 'viral burden. (verywellhealth.com)
- In a subset of 50 mother-infant pairs, we also correlated infant outcome with maternal quantitative viral burden as measured by the nucleic acid sequence based amplification system. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- We found that low maternal CD4 + cell count and high viral burden were associated with decreased time to category C disease or death in infants infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (researchwithrutgers.com)
Treatment naive individuals1
- When you take HIV treatment, your CD4 count should gradually increase. (aidsmap.com)
- The increase in viral load was 10-fold higher for asymptomatic compared to other categories and 2-fold faster for children less than 6 years than those above. (ajol.info)
- The drug rIL-2 has been shown to increase CD4 cell counts, which help the body fight off HIV. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- On the other hand, an increase in the viral load can often be an indication of treatment failure , poor drug adherence, or both. (verywellhealth.com)
- Discussion: We found that in ART-naive individuals, viral load continues to increase over time and more sharply in those who are older. (ucl.ac.uk)
- 95%CI0.001, 0.01) were associated with a higher rate of viral load increase over time . (bvsalud.org)
- Overall, there was no association between sex, race or injecting drug use and viral load increase. (nyaa.org.uk)
- High viral load in pregnant women, independent of the presence of advanced maternal disease, appears to increase the risk of rapidly progressive disease in their infected offspring. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- The team found that "after initial cancer treatment, every 100 cell decrease in CD4+ count resulted in a 27% increase [in the risk of death]. (catie.ca)
- Your blood amount of HIV virus is under the limit of detection for the viral load test that can only measure down to 50 copies per ml. (thebody.com)
- Your health care provider will use a viral load test to determine your viral load. (cdc.gov)
- VIRAL LOAD is a blood test that measures the amount of active HIV in your blood. (blogspot.com)
- The higher the value of viral load test, the more active HIV is present. (blogspot.com)
- An HIV viral load test measures the number of HIV particles in a milliliter (mL) of blood. (healthline.com)
- A single CD4 or viral load test result only represents a snapshot in time. (healthline.com)
- An undetectable viral load is when the copies of HIV in the blood sample are fewer than the smallest amount the lab test can detect. (healthline.com)
- An undetectable level is when HIV in the blood is too low to be detected with a viral load (HIV RNA) test. (prevention.nyc)
- Physicians perform the viral load test by drawing a blood sample from a vein in the arm. (reference.com)
- A low viral load count is a good sign because the test measures the number of virus copies present in the blood. (reference.com)
- Doctors usually test the viral load at the beginning of treatment and every three to six months while therapy continues. (reference.com)
- A viral load test will be able to show how much HIV is present in the blood. (ght.org.uk)
- Your doctor should use the same HIV viral load test each time, because tests made by different manufacturers might give you slightly different results. (webmd.com)
- You will probably be tested again every few months to see if your counts have changed since your first test. (medlineplus.gov)
- These results can be used to guide functional studies of specific epitopes and escape mutations, as well as to test, train, and evaluate analytical models of viral escape and fitness. (jimmunol.org)
- The guidelines recommend using a viral tropism test (see fact sheet 129) before starting therapy with a CCR5 inhibitor. (aidsinfonet.org)
Copies per ml1
- The lower the CD4 cell count, the greater the damage to the immune system and the greater the risk of illness. (aidsmap.com)
- Prior research, they added, tied lower CD4 counts and higher viral loads to unhealthy lipid profiles in people with HIV [2, (natap.org)
- In the same analysis there was a nonsignificant association between a CD4 count of 200 to 500 (versus above 500) and lower HDL cholesterol level (adjusted beta -1.5, P = 0.17). (natap.org)
- If an HIV treatment plan is effective, a person will be able to maintain a lower viral load. (healthline.com)
- The lower the viral load, the likelier it is that HIV therapy is working. (healthline.com)
- The lower the viral load, the less HIV in the body. (healthline.com)
- By way of example, the CD4 nadir (the lowest point to which the CD4 count has dropped) is predictive of long-term morbidity, with lower values suggesting an increased risk of HIV-related and non-HIV-related illnesses, as well as slower immune recovery. (verywellhealth.com)
- A lower HIV viral load is below 10,000 copies. (webmd.com)
- ART's goal is to lower your viral load and keep your immune system healthy. (webmd.com)
- The idea is to lower the viral load to "undetectable" and keep it that way, by taking your medicine every day as prescribed. (webmd.com)
- The picture that has emerged from studies investigating HIV infected people with GBV-C viremia is that they have lower plasma HIV viral loads in comparison with HIV-positive people who did not have the GBV-C viremia. (hepatmon.com)
- The scientists stated, "We believe the association between lower CD4+ cell counts after cancer treatment and higher mortality supports the hypothesis that immune status in persons with HIV can influence mortality after cancer diagnosis. (catie.ca)
- Balancing the potential benefits (improved immune function, decreased viral load) with potential side effects (both short- and long-term) and toxicities can be a complex equation, especially because we need to factor in convenience of dosing regimen, number of pills, adherence, cost, etc. (thebody.com)
- The CD4 cell count provides information on the overall immune function of a person with HIV. (nih.gov)
- CD4 count is a measure of immune function. (nat.org.uk)
- This analysis focused on people at least 21 years old who had 1 or more lipid profiles with CD4 and viral load results within 14 days. (natap.org)
- She told her doctor that she no longer wanted her blood monitored and asked not to be told the results from her recent blood counts - this proved to be a timely decision. (aliveandwell.org)
- CD4 counts are most useful when they are compared with results obtained from earlier tests. (labtestsonline.org)
- Results: Viral load continued to rise at a mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] rate of 0.091 (0.086-0.096) log10 copies/ml per year. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Our results also suggest that higher current viral load is strongly associated with ongoing rate of CD4þ cell count depletion. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Your HIV team will have both your CD4 count and your CD4 percentage and if you ask they will be more than happy to tell you your results. (ght.org.uk)
- Results from pilot studies of dual drug regimens have suggested that dolutegravir (Tivicay) and 3TC (lamivudine) can help about 90% of people who initiate treatment with this combination to achieve a viral load less than 50 copies/mL. (catie.ca)
- According to HIV.gov , HIV viral load is typically undetectable below levels of 40 to 75 copies/mL. (healthline.com)
- HIV viral loads can range from undetectable (below the detection levels of current testing assays) to the tens of millions. (verywellhealth.com)
- Treatment is now so effective that it reduces someone's viral load to undetectable levels within about 6 months, maintaining a healthy immune system and ensuring that they cannot pass on the virus. (nat.org.uk)
- The aim of putting people on treatment is to get the viral load count to undetectable levels. (ght.org.uk)
- There was no significant difference in the proportions of participants able to achieve a suppressed viral load at week 48 when analysed by their viral load levels at the start of the study. (catie.ca)
- The effect of baseline CD4 count and HIV-1-RNA levels on the antiviral efficacy of NNRTI based regimens has been less well characterized. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Depending on the immunologic and virologic status of the patient, further testing may be done to determine whether quadruple drug therapy can attain undetectable viral levels. (clinicaltrials.gov)