The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
A molecular probe technique that utilizes branched DNA (bDNA) as a means to amplify the hybridization signal. One end of the bDNA molecule is designed to bind a specific target, while the other end of the bDNA molecule contains many branches of DNA that are designed to bind a probe used for signal detection.
The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Techniques for using whole blood samples collected on filter paper for a variety of clinical laboratory tests.
The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.
An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).
A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS associated with high risk for anogenital neoplasms.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Infection with ROSEOLOVIRUS, the most common in humans being EXANTHEMA SUBITUM, a benign disease of infants and young children.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE. Its species include those causing CHICKENPOX and HERPES ZOSTER in humans (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN), as well as several animal viruses.
A member of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, originally isolated from human nasopharyngeal aspirates in patients with respiratory disease.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A species of Old World monkeys from the genera CERCOCEBUS that is important in AIDS research. They may be naturally or experimentally infected with the SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS. They inhabit African forests from Sierra Leone to the Congo Republic.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.
The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.
A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus in the subfamily PARVOVIRINAE comprising three species: Bovine parvovirus, Canine minute virus, and HUMAN BOCAVIRUS.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.
Biological adaptation, such as the rise of EPINEPHRINE in response to exercise, stress or perceived danger, followed by a fall of epinephrine during RELAXATION. Allostasis is the achievement of stability by turning on and turning off the allostatic systems including the IMMUNE SYSTEM; the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM and NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEMS.
The washing of the VAGINA cavity or surface with a solution. Agents or drugs can be added to the irrigation solution.
A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Pyrimidinones are a class of organic compounds that are structurally related to pyrimidine and are used in the treatment of various medical conditions.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.
A syndrome characterized by chronic, well-established DIARRHEA (greater than one month in duration) without an identified infectious cause after thorough evaluation, in an HIV-positive individual. It is thought to be due to direct or indirect effects of HIV on the enteric mucosa. HIV enteropathy is a diagnosis of exclusion and can be made only after other forms of diarrheal illness have been ruled out. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, pp1607-8; Haubrich et al., Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed, p1155)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.

Hybrid capture II, a new sensitive test for human papillomavirus detection. Comparison with hybrid capture I and PCR results in cervical lesions. (1/7028)

AIM: To test a new assay for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, hybrid capture II (HC II), compared with the previous commercialized hybrid capture I (HC I) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results on cervical scrapes from fresh cone excision biopsy samples. METHODS: The three methods were used on cervical scrapes from 42 fresh cone excision biopsy samples. There were nine metaplastic and inflammatory lesions, five low grade lesions, and 28 high grade lesions. PCR was performed using the general primers GP5+/GP6+. The viral load of high risk HPV DNA was estimated by the ratio of relative light units to positive control values in the samples. RESULTS: The sensitivity of HC I for the detection of high grade lesions was 71.4%, while it was 92.8% for HC II and 96.4% for the PCR. Considering only the absence of detectable cervical in situ neoplasia, the specificity was 88.9% for HC I, 66.7% for HC II, and 66.7% for PCR. With HC II, for a ratio of cervical sample to normal control of > 200, the sensitivity for the detection of high grade lesion was only 34.6% with a specificity of 66.7%. CONCLUSIONS: HPV detection with the HC II assay is more sensitive than the previous HC I and represents a more convenient and easier test than PCR for routine use. Nevertheless the viral load estimated with this test cannot be a reliable predictive indicator of high grade lesions.  (+info)

Rapid death of adoptively transferred T cells in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (2/7028)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) probably play the major role in controlling HIV replication. However, the value of adoptive transfer of HIV-specific CTL expanded in vitro to HIV+ patients has been limited: this contrasts with the success of CTL therapy in treating or preventing Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus disease after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We investigated the fate of expanded HIV-specific CTL clones in vivo following adoptive transfer to a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Two autologous CTL clones specific for HIV Gag and Pol were expanded to large numbers (>10(9)) in vitro and infused into an HIV-infected patient whose viral load was rising despite antiretroviral therapy. The fate of one clone was monitored by staining peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with T-cell receptor-specific tetrameric major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide complexes. Although the CTL transfer was well tolerated, there were no significant changes in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts and virus load. By tracking an infused clone using soluble MHC-peptide complexes, we show that cells bearing the Gag-specific T-cell receptors were rapidly eliminated within hours of infusion through apoptosis. Thus, the failure of adoptively transferred HIV-specific CTL to reduce virus load in AIDS may be due to rapid apoptosis of the infused cells, triggered by a number of potential mechanisms. Further trials of adoptive transfer of CTL should take into account the susceptibility of infused cells to in vivo apoptosis.  (+info)

Protection against influenza virus infection of mice fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064. (3/7028)

Mice fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064 and immunized orally with influenza virus were more strongly protected against influenza virus infection of the lower respiratory tract than ones immunized with influenza virus only. The number of mice with enhanced anti-influenza virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum upon oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 and oral immunization with influenza virus was significantly greater than that upon oral immunization with influenza virus only. These findings demonstrated that the oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 increased anti-influenza virus IgG antibodies in serum and protected against influenza virus infection. The oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 may enhance antigen-specific IgG against various pathogenic antigens taken orally and induce protection against various virus infections.  (+info)

Qualitative and semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction testing for cytomegalovirus DNA in serum allows prediction of CMV related disease in liver transplant recipients. (4/7028)

AIM: To identify cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in liver transplant recipients by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques and to separate the cases in which CMV related disease will occur, for whom treatment is indicated, from those in whom infection will remain innocuous. METHODS: The combination of qualitative and semiquantitative PCR of serum and urine was assessed to determine whether these assays can identify those at risk of CMV related disease and compared their performance with conventional approaches to diagnosis. RESULTS: Qualitative PCR of serum had superior specificity, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values compared with urine DEAFF (detection of early antigen fluorescent foci) and PCR of urine. All episodes of CMV related disease were associated with the presence of CMV DNA by PCR in serum or urine; CMV was detected before clinical onset in 70% and 60% of cases, respectively. The period over which CMV DNA could be detected was not correlated with CMV related disease. Both peak viral load and cumulative viral load estimated using a semiquantitative PCR method on serum samples positive by the qualitative method could be used to distinguish asymptomatic infection from CMV related disease with 100% specificity and sensitivity. In contrast semiquantitative PCR of urine was of little value. CONCLUSIONS: An approach based on PCR testing with a combination of qualitative and subsequently semiquantitative serum samples would improve the diagnosis of CMV infection and aid identification of those patients at risk of CMV related disease, allowing treatment to be targeted specifically.  (+info)

Viral burden and disease progression in rhesus monkeys infected with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses. (5/7028)

To determine the role of viral burden in simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-induced disease, cellular provirus and plasma viral RNA levels were measured after inoculation of rhesus monkeys with four different SHIVs. These SHIVs included SHIV-HXBc2 and SHIV-89.6, constructed with env, tat, rev, and vpu derived from either cell line-passaged or primary patient isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1; the viral quasispecies SHIV-89.6P derived after in vivo passage of SHIV-89.6; and a molecular clone, SHIV-KB9, derived from SHIV-89.6P. SHIV-HXBc2 and SHIV-89.6 are nonpathogenic in rhesus monkeys; SHIV-89.6P and SHIV-KB9 cause rapid CD4(+) T cell depletion and an immunodeficiency syndrome. Relative SHIV provirus levels were highest during primary infection in monkeys infected with SHIV-89.6P, the virus that caused the most rapid and dramatic CD4(+) T cell depletion. However, by 10 weeks postinoculation, provirus levels were similar in monkeys infected with the pathogenic and nonpathogenic chimeric viruses. The virus infections that resulted in the highest peak and chronic viral RNA levels were the pathogenic viruses SHIV-89.6P and SHIV-KB9. SHIV-89. 6P uniformly caused rapid and profound CD4(+) T cell depletion and immunodeficiency. Infection with the SHIV-KB9 resulted in very low CD4(+) T cell counts without seroconversion in some monkeys and a substantial but less profound CD4(+) T cell depletion and rapid seroconversion in others. Surprisingly, the level of plasma viremia did not differ between SHIV-KB9-infected animals exhibiting these contrasting outcomes, suggesting that host factors may play an important role in AIDS virus pathogenesis.  (+info)

Detection of human retrovirus 5 in patients with arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. (6/7028)

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether human retrovirus 5 (HRV-5) infection is associated with autoimmune rheumatic disease. METHODS: DNA from patients with various disorders including inflammatory diseases and from normal subjects was tested by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HRV-5 proviral DNA. Positive results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: HRV-5 proviral DNA was detected in 53% of synovial samples from arthritic joints, in 12% of blood samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and in 16% of blood samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. In contrast, it was not detectable by PCR of affected tissues from patients with several other autoimmune diseases and was found in only 1 of >200 tissue specimens obtained at autopsy from non-RA patients. Sequence analysis of the amplified viral segment showed genetic variation between samples with maintenance of the open reading frame, typical of a replicating infectious retrovirus. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the frequent detection of HRV-5 in any disease. We propose that the possible involvement of HRV-5 in autoimmune and rheumatic disease should be investigated further.  (+info)

Vaccination with experimental feline immunodeficiency virus vaccines, based on autologous infected cells, elicits enhancement of homologous challenge infection. (7/7028)

Cats were vaccinated with fixed autologous feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cells in order to present viral proteins to the immune system of individual cats in an MHC-matched fashion. Upon vaccination, a humoral response against Gag was induced. Furthermore, virus-neutralizing antibodies were detected in a Crandell feline kidney cell-based neutralization assay, but not in a neutralization assay based on primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Despite the induction of these FIV-specific responses, vaccinated cats were not protected. Instead, accelerated virus replication was found, an observation similar to what previous experiments using other vaccine candidates have shown. Here, the results of the present study are discussed in the light of enhancement of lentivirus infections as a complicating factor in lentivirus vaccine development.  (+info)

Secretion of beta-chemokines by bronchoalveolar lavage cells during primary infection of macaques inoculated with attenuated nef-deleted or pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus strain mac251. (8/7028)

Primary infection of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) as a model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection represents a unique opportunity to investigate early lentivirus-host interactions. In order to gain insight into immunopathogenic events taking place in the lung during lentiviral infection, we analysed lymphocyte expansion in the lung and chemokine secretion by mononuclear cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BALMCs) during primary infection by a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic SIV. Two groups of cynomolgus macaques were inoculated intravenously with a fully pathogenic isolate of SIVmac251 or with an attenuated, nef-deleted, molecular clone of SIVmac251. Spontaneous MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES production was assessed by ELISA in supernatants of short-term cultured BALMCs. Kinetics of haematological, virological and immunological parameters were investigated simultaneously. All 11 inoculated animals became infected. Monkeys inoculated with the nef-deleted SIV clone exhibited a significantly reduced plasma virus load and a less pronounced accumulation of lymphocytes in the lung compared to monkeys infected with the pathogenic SIVmac251 isolate. Compared to pre-infection levels, we observed an increase in the levels of RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta production in the two groups of monkeys, by the time of peak viraemia. Strikingly, a greater enhancement of RANTES and MIP-1alpha production was detected in monkeys infected with the attenuated virus. Given the potential influence of beta-chemokines on the immune response and virus replication, such results suggest that RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta could contribute to the singular features of the immune response elicited during infection of macaques with an attenuated SIV.  (+info)

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections refer to the presence of the HIV virus in the body. HIV is a retrovirus that attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases. HIV is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common modes of transmission include unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles or syringes, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to the virus. Once diagnosed, HIV can be managed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), which helps to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). It is important to note that HIV is not the same as AIDS. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, but not everyone with HIV will develop AIDS. With proper treatment and management, individuals with HIV can live long and healthy lives.

RNA, Viral refers to the genetic material of viruses that are composed of RNA instead of DNA. Viral RNA is typically single-stranded and can be either positive-sense or negative-sense. Positive-sense RNA viruses can be directly translated into proteins by the host cell's ribosomes, while negative-sense RNA viruses require a complementary positive-sense RNA intermediate before protein synthesis can occur. Viral RNA is often encapsidated within a viral capsid and can be further protected by an envelope made of lipids and proteins derived from the host cell. RNA viruses include a wide range of pathogens that can cause diseases in humans and other organisms, such as influenza, hepatitis C, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for COVID-19).

Viremia is a medical term that refers to the presence of viruses in the bloodstream. It is a normal part of the viral replication cycle, during which the virus multiplies inside host cells and then enters the bloodstream. In some cases, viremia can be asymptomatic, meaning that the person infected with the virus does not experience any symptoms. However, in other cases, viremia can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of virus and the severity of the infection. Viremia is typically measured by detecting the viral particles or genetic material of the virus in a blood sample using laboratory tests. The level of viremia can be used to monitor the progression of the infection and to determine the effectiveness of antiviral treatments.

In the medical field, "DNA, Viral" refers to the genetic material of viruses, which is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Viruses are infectious agents that can only replicate inside living cells of organisms, including humans. The genetic material of viruses is different from that of cells, as viruses do not have a cellular structure and cannot carry out metabolic processes on their own. Instead, they rely on the host cell's machinery to replicate and produce new viral particles. Understanding the genetic material of viruses is important for developing treatments and vaccines against viral infections. By studying the DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid) of viruses, researchers can identify potential targets for antiviral drugs and design vaccines that stimulate the immune system to recognize and fight off viral infections.

Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (SAIDS) is a disease that affects primates, including monkeys and chimpanzees, and is caused by a virus similar to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). SAIDS is characterized by a weakened immune system, which makes the affected animals more susceptible to infections and diseases. The symptoms of SAIDS are similar to those of HIV in humans, including fever, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. SAIDS is transmitted through contact with bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, and vaginal fluids, and can be spread through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during pregnancy or breastfeeding. SAIDS is a serious and often fatal disease, and there is currently no cure for it.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system, specifically the CD4 cells, which are responsible for fighting off infections and diseases. As the number of CD4 cells decreases, the body becomes more vulnerable to infections and diseases that it would normally be able to fight off. AIDS is typically diagnosed when a person's CD4 cell count falls below a certain level or when they develop certain opportunistic infections or cancers that are commonly associated with HIV. There is currently no cure for AIDS, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) can help to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease. With proper treatment, people with AIDS can live long and healthy lives.

HIV Seropositivity refers to the presence of antibodies against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in a person's blood. These antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of the virus in the body. A positive HIV serology test indicates that the person has been infected with HIV at some point in their life, but it does not necessarily mean that they are currently infected or that they have AIDS. HIV seropositivity is typically diagnosed through a blood test that detects the presence of HIV antibodies in the blood. This test is often used as part of a routine screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or as part of a pre-employment or pre-marriage screening. If a person tests positive for HIV antibodies, they will need to undergo further testing to confirm the diagnosis and determine the stage of their infection.

Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) is a long-term infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is a serious health condition that can lead to liver damage, cirrhosis, and liver cancer if left untreated. CHC is characterized by the persistence of the HCV virus in the liver for more than six months, despite the body's immune system attempting to clear the virus. The virus can remain dormant for years, and symptoms may not appear until significant liver damage has occurred. CHC is primarily transmitted through contact with infected blood, such as through sharing needles or through sexual contact with an infected person. It can also be transmitted from mother to child during childbirth. Treatment for CHC typically involves antiviral medications that can help the body clear the virus and prevent further liver damage. However, some people may not respond to treatment or may experience side effects, so treatment decisions are made on an individual basis.

In the medical field, coinfection refers to the simultaneous presence of two or more infections in an individual's body. These infections can be caused by different types of microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Coinfections can occur when an individual is already infected with one pathogen and then becomes infected with another pathogen, or when two or more pathogens enter the body at the same time. Coinfections can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of infections because the symptoms of one infection may mask or overlap with the symptoms of another infection. In some cases, coinfections can also increase the severity of the illness and the risk of complications. For example, coinfection with HIV and tuberculosis can increase the risk of death from tuberculosis. Doctors may use diagnostic tests to identify coinfections, such as blood tests, cultures, or imaging studies. Treatment for coinfections typically involves treating each infection separately, using antibiotics or antiviral medications as appropriate. In some cases, doctors may also prescribe medications to prevent the spread of infection or to manage symptoms.

Disease progression refers to the worsening or progression of a disease over time. It is a natural course of events that occurs in many chronic illnesses, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Disease progression can be measured in various ways, such as changes in symptoms, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, or imaging studies. In some cases, disease progression can be slowed or stopped through medical treatment, such as medications, surgery, or radiation therapy. However, in other cases, disease progression may be inevitable, and the focus of treatment may shift from trying to cure the disease to managing symptoms and improving quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for healthcare providers to develop effective treatment plans and to communicate with patients about their condition and prognosis. It can also help patients and their families make informed decisions about their care and treatment options.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are a group of viral infections caused by the cytomegalovirus, a member of the herpesvirus family. CMV is a common virus that can infect people of all ages, but it is most commonly transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth, or through breast milk. In healthy individuals, CMV infections are usually asymptomatic or cause mild flu-like symptoms. However, in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, or pregnant women with HIV, CMV infections can cause serious complications, including pneumonia, encephalitis, and retinitis. CMV infections can also be transmitted through blood transfusions, organ transplantation, and from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. Treatment for CMV infections typically involves antiviral medications to help control the virus and prevent complications.

Hepatitis C is a viral infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is transmitted through contact with infected blood or body fluids. The virus can be transmitted through sharing needles or other equipment used to inject drugs, sexual contact, or from mother to child during childbirth. Hepatitis C can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain, and jaundice. In some cases, the virus can cause chronic liver disease, which can lead to liver failure, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. There are several different strains of the hepatitis C virus, and the severity of the infection can vary depending on the strain and the individual's immune system. Treatment for hepatitis C typically involves antiviral medications, which can help to eliminate the virus from the body and prevent further liver damage. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary for people with severe liver damage.

Papillomavirus infections are a group of viral infections caused by human papillomaviruses (HPVs). These viruses are common and can infect both men and women, although they are more commonly associated with cervical cancer in women. There are over 200 different types of HPV, and some types are more likely to cause cancer than others. HPV infections can cause a range of symptoms, including genital warts, respiratory papillomatosis (growth of warts in the throat and airways), and various types of cancer, including cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and vaginal cancer. In most cases, HPV infections are asymptomatic and clear on their own within a few years, but some infections can persist and lead to long-term health problems. HPV infections are typically spread through sexual contact, although they can also be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact or from mother to child during childbirth. HPV vaccines are available to prevent infection with certain high-risk types of HPV, and regular screening tests, such as Pap smears and HPV tests, can help detect and treat precancerous changes in the cervix before they become cancerous.

Pregnancy complications, infectious refers to medical conditions that arise during pregnancy due to infections. These infections can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites and can have serious consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. Some common infectious complications of pregnancy include: 1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These infections can cause discomfort and pain, but with prompt treatment, they usually do not cause harm to the fetus. 2. Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection: This is a type of bacteria that can cause serious infections in newborns, including meningitis and pneumonia. Women who are pregnant or have recently given birth are screened for GBS and treated with antibiotics if they are found to be carrying the bacteria. 3. Toxoplasmosis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta. It can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, or serious birth defects if left untreated. 4. Rubella (German measles): This is a viral infection that can cause serious birth defects if a pregnant woman is infected during the first trimester of pregnancy. 5. Syphilis: This is a bacterial infection that can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta and cause serious birth defects if left untreated. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infectious complications of pregnancy are crucial to ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.

Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) is a long-term infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is characterized by persistent inflammation of the liver, which can lead to liver damage, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. CHB can develop in people who have been infected with HBV for more than six months. The virus can remain in the body for years or even decades, causing ongoing liver damage. Symptoms of CHB may include fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. However, many people with CHB do not experience any symptoms and may not know they have the infection. CHB is typically diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus and measure liver function. Treatment options for CHB include antiviral medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, liver transplantation. It is important to diagnose and treat CHB early to prevent liver damage and reduce the risk of complications.

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infections are a group of viral infections caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. EBV is a member of the herpes virus family and is one of the most common viruses in humans, with nearly 90% of adults showing evidence of past or present infection. EBV infections can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe. The most common symptoms of EBV infection include fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, and fatigue. In some cases, EBV can cause more serious illnesses, such as infectious mononucleosis (also known as "mono"), which is characterized by swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, and a sore throat that lasts for several weeks. EBV infections can also cause a variety of long-term health problems, including certain types of cancer, such as Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. EBV is also associated with an increased risk of developing certain autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In the medical field, EBV infections are typically diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies to the virus or by identifying the virus itself in a sample of blood or saliva. Treatment for EBV infections typically involves supportive care, such as rest and fluids, to help the body fight off the infection. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help control the symptoms of the infection.

Antibodies, viral, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to a viral infection. They are also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies. Viral antibodies are specific to a particular virus and can help to neutralize and eliminate the virus from the body. They are typically detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or immunofluorescence assays. The presence of viral antibodies can be used as a diagnostic tool to confirm a viral infection or to determine the immune status of an individual.

Polyomavirus infections are a group of viral infections caused by polyomaviruses, which are small, non-enveloped viruses that can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans. There are several different types of polyomaviruses, including JC virus, BK virus, and Merkel cell polyomavirus. Polyomavirus infections can cause a range of different symptoms, depending on the type of virus and the severity of the infection. In some cases, polyomavirus infections may be asymptomatic and may not cause any noticeable symptoms. In other cases, symptoms may include fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Polyomavirus infections can also cause more serious health problems, particularly in people with weakened immune systems. For example, JC virus can cause a rare brain disorder called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), which can be fatal. BK virus can cause kidney problems in people with weakened immune systems, and Merkel cell polyomavirus can cause a rare type of skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma. Diagnosis of polyomavirus infections typically involves testing for the presence of the virus in bodily fluids, such as blood, urine, or spinal fluid. Treatment of polyomavirus infections may involve antiviral medications, although there are no specific antiviral drugs that are effective against all types of polyomaviruses. In some cases, supportive care may be necessary to manage symptoms and complications of the infection.

Ribavirin is an antiviral medication that is used to treat a variety of viral infections, including hepatitis C, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and some types of influenza. It works by inhibiting the replication of the virus, which can help to reduce the severity and duration of the infection. Ribavirin is typically administered orally or intravenously, and it can be used alone or in combination with other antiviral medications. It is important to note that ribavirin can cause side effects, including anemia, nausea, and headache, and it may not be suitable for everyone. It is always important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of any medication with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling protein produced by immune cells in response to viral infections or other stimuli. IFN-alpha has antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects, and is used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including viral infections such as hepatitis B and C, certain types of cancer, and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. IFN-alpha is typically administered as an injection or infusion, and can cause a range of side effects, including flu-like symptoms, fatigue, and depression.

Organophosphonates are a class of chemical compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to an organic group. They are commonly used as insecticides, herbicides, and as a nerve agent in chemical warfare. In the medical field, organophosphonates are used as medications to treat conditions such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease, and certain types of cancer. They work by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase, which is involved in bone metabolism. Organophosphonates can also be used as a diagnostic tool to measure the activity of alkaline phosphatase in the body.

Nevirapine is an antiretroviral medication used to treat HIV/AIDS. It is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) that works by blocking the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which is essential for the replication of HIV. Nevirapine is typically used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to help suppress the virus and prevent the progression of HIV to AIDS. It is usually taken as a pill once a day, although the dosage and frequency may vary depending on the individual and the specific regimen being used.

AIDS vaccines are vaccines designed to prevent the acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These vaccines aim to stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack HIV, thereby preventing infection or reducing the severity of the disease if infection occurs. There are several types of AIDS vaccines being developed, including preventive vaccines that aim to prevent initial infection and therapeutic vaccines that aim to treat already infected individuals. Preventive vaccines typically use antigens from HIV to stimulate an immune response, while therapeutic vaccines aim to boost the immune system's ability to fight off the virus. Despite significant progress in the development of AIDS vaccines, no vaccine has yet been approved for widespread use. However, several vaccines are currently in clinical trials, and researchers continue to work on developing effective vaccines to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.

Ritonavir is an antiretroviral medication used to treat HIV/AIDS. It is a protease inhibitor, which means it works by blocking the enzyme HIV uses to replicate itself in the body. Ritonavir is often used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to increase their effectiveness and reduce the risk of drug resistance. It is typically taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules. Ritonavir can also be used to treat other viral infections, such as hepatitis C, and to prevent organ transplant rejection.

HIV Core Protein p24 is a protein that is produced by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during the early stages of infection. It is a component of the viral core, which is the innermost part of the virus that contains the genetic material. The p24 protein is an important marker for the presence of HIV in the blood and is often used in diagnostic tests to detect the virus. It is also used as an indicator of the level of virus replication and the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy.

Lamivudine is an antiviral medication that is used to treat HIV/AIDS and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. It works by inhibiting the activity of the reverse transcriptase enzyme, which is essential for the replication of both HIV and HBV. Lamivudine is usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules, and it is often used in combination with other antiviral medications to increase its effectiveness and reduce the risk of drug resistance. Common side effects of lamivudine include nausea, headache, and fatigue. In rare cases, it can also cause more serious side effects such as liver damage or allergic reactions. Lamivudine is an important medication in the treatment of HIV/AIDS and chronic HBV infections, and it has been shown to be effective in reducing viral load and preventing the progression of these diseases. However, it is important to take the medication as prescribed and to monitor for any potential side effects.

Benzoxazines are a class of organic compounds that contain a benzene ring with an oxygen atom attached to a nitrogen atom. They are commonly used as dyes, pigments, and photoresists in various industries, including the pharmaceutical and medical fields. In the medical field, benzoxazines have been studied for their potential applications in drug discovery and development. Some benzoxazines have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-cancer properties, making them potential candidates for the treatment of various diseases and conditions. For example, benzoxazines have been investigated as potential treatments for inflammatory bowel disease, where they have been shown to reduce inflammation and improve symptoms in animal models. They have also been studied for their potential use in the treatment of cancer, where they have been shown to inhibit the growth of cancer cells and induce apoptosis (cell death) in some cases. Overall, benzoxazines are a promising class of compounds with potential applications in the medical field, and ongoing research is exploring their potential uses in drug discovery and development.

Lopinavir is an antiretroviral medication used to treat HIV/AIDS. It is a protease inhibitor, which means it works by blocking the enzyme that the virus uses to replicate itself. Lopinavir is usually taken in combination with another antiretroviral medication to increase its effectiveness and reduce the risk of drug resistance. It is typically prescribed to people with HIV who have not yet developed resistance to other antiretroviral medications. Lopinavir is available in tablet form and is usually taken twice a day with food.

SAIDS Vaccines refer to vaccines that are designed to prevent or treat HIV/AIDS, the virus that causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a highly infectious virus that attacks the immune system, leading to a weakened immune response and making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. There are currently no vaccines that can completely prevent HIV infection, but there are several vaccines that are being developed and tested in clinical trials. These vaccines aim to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that can neutralize the virus and prevent it from infecting cells. Some of the most promising HIV vaccine candidates are based on a protein called gp120, which is found on the surface of the virus. These vaccines are designed to stimulate the production of antibodies that can recognize and bind to gp120, preventing the virus from entering cells. Other HIV vaccine candidates are based on viral vectors, which are modified viruses that are used to deliver genetic material into cells. These vaccines aim to stimulate the immune system to produce a broad range of antibodies that can recognize and attack different strains of the virus. While there is still much work to be done in the development of effective HIV vaccines, these vaccines hold great promise for preventing and treating this devastating disease.

HLA-B antigens are a group of proteins that are expressed on the surface of cells in the human immune system. These proteins play a crucial role in the immune response by helping to identify and recognize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. HLA-B antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6, and there are many different variations of these antigens, each with a slightly different structure and function. HLA-B antigens are an important component of the immune system and are involved in many different types of immune responses, including the development of autoimmune diseases and the recognition of cancer cells.

Alanine transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids in the liver. It is also known as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and is found in high concentrations in liver cells. When liver cells are damaged or destroyed, ALT is released into the bloodstream, where it can be measured in a blood test. Elevated levels of ALT in the blood are often an indication of liver damage or disease, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or fatty liver disease. ALT is also found in other tissues, including the heart, skeletal muscle, and kidneys, but in lower concentrations than in the liver. In these tissues, elevated levels of ALT can indicate injury or disease. Overall, ALT is an important biomarker for liver function and can be used to diagnose and monitor liver diseases.

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections (AROIs) are infections that occur when the immune system is weakened due to HIV/AIDS. The immune system is responsible for fighting off infections and diseases, but when it is weakened, it is unable to effectively fight off these infections. As a result, people with HIV/AIDS are more susceptible to a variety of infections that would not normally cause illness in people with a healthy immune system. These infections are called opportunistic infections because they take advantage of the weakened immune system to cause illness. Some common AROIs include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and yeast infections. Treatment for AROIs typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART) to control the HIV infection and medications to treat the specific infection.

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) is a term used in the medical field to describe abnormal cell growth in the lining of the cervix. It is a precursor to cervical cancer and is usually detected through a Pap smear or a cervical biopsy. CIN is classified into three grades: CIN 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3, with CIN 3 being the most severe and indicating a higher risk of progression to invasive cervical cancer. Treatment options for CIN include observation, cryotherapy, laser therapy, and surgery.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of the HIV virus. These antibodies are specific to the HIV virus and can be detected in the blood or other bodily fluids of an individual who has been infected with the virus. The presence of HIV antibodies in the blood is a diagnostic indicator of HIV infection. However, it is important to note that the presence of HIV antibodies does not necessarily mean that an individual is currently infected with the virus. It is possible for an individual to test positive for HIV antibodies if they have previously been infected with the virus, even if they are no longer infected. HIV antibodies can also be used to monitor the progression of HIV infection and the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART). As an individual with HIV receives ART, their HIV viral load (the amount of virus present in the blood) should decrease, and their CD4 T-cell count (a type of white blood cell that is important for fighting infections) should increase. These changes can be monitored through regular blood tests that measure HIV viral load and CD4 T-cell count, as well as through the detection of HIV antibodies.

Uterine cervical neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Cervical neoplasms can be classified into different types based on their characteristics and degree of malignancy. The most common type of cervical neoplasm is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), which is a precancerous condition that can progress to invasive cervical cancer if left untreated. Cervical cancer is a serious health concern worldwide, and it is the fourth most common cancer in women globally. However, with regular screening and appropriate treatment, the prognosis for cervical cancer is generally good when it is detected early.

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is transmitted through contact with infected blood or body fluids, such as semen, vaginal fluids, and saliva. Hepatitis B can range from a mild illness that resolves on its own to a chronic infection that can lead to serious liver damage, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. The severity of the infection depends on the age of the person infected, the immune system's response to the virus, and the presence of other liver diseases. Symptoms of hepatitis B can include fatigue, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). In some cases, there may be no symptoms at all. Treatment for hepatitis B depends on the severity of the infection and the presence of any complications. Antiviral medications can help to control the virus and prevent liver damage, while a vaccine is available to prevent infection. It is important for people who are infected with hepatitis B to receive regular medical care and to follow their treatment plan to prevent complications and improve their quality of life.

Zidovudine, also known by its brand name AZT, is an antiretroviral medication used to treat HIV/AIDS. It works by inhibiting the activity of the reverse transcriptase enzyme, which is essential for the replication of the HIV virus. Zidovudine is typically used in combination with other antiretroviral medications to help suppress the virus and prevent the progression of HIV/AIDS. It is usually taken orally in tablet form, and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual patient's condition and response to the medication. Zidovudine can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, headache, and fatigue. It may also interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting treatment with zidovudine.

In the medical field, "Gene Products, gag" refers to the proteins that are produced by the gag gene in retroviruses such as HIV. The gag gene encodes for several structural proteins that are essential for the replication and assembly of the virus. These proteins include the capsid protein (CA), the nucleocapsid protein (NC), and the matrix protein (MA). The capsid protein is responsible for forming the viral capsid, which encloses the viral RNA genome. The nucleocapsid protein helps package the viral RNA into the capsid and also plays a role in viral transcription and replication. The matrix protein is involved in the assembly of new virus particles and also helps the virus to bud from the host cell. The gag gene products are important for the replication and survival of the virus, and they are also targets for antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV infection.

Lentivirus infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by lentiviruses, which are a type of retrovirus. Lentiviruses are characterized by their slow replication rate and ability to infect cells of the immune system, including CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Lentiviruses are responsible for several serious diseases, including HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Other lentiviruses include equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) in horses, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in cats, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in non-human primates. Lentivirus infections can be transmitted through various means, including sexual contact, blood transfusions, and mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy or breastfeeding. The symptoms of lentivirus infections can vary depending on the specific virus and the stage of the infection. In some cases, there may be no symptoms at all, while in others, symptoms can range from mild to severe and can include fever, fatigue, weight loss, and opportunistic infections. Treatment for lentivirus infections typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which involves taking a combination of medications to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease. In some cases, supportive care may also be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean (also known as Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever or CCHF) is a viral infection caused by the Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus (CCHFV). It is a tick-borne disease that is found in various parts of the world, including Africa, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. The symptoms of CCHF can range from mild to severe and may include fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bleeding from the nose, mouth, and gums. In severe cases, the infection can lead to internal bleeding, shock, and organ failure, which can be fatal. CCHF is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks, as well as through contact with infected animal blood or tissues. The virus can also be transmitted from person to person through contact with bodily fluids, such as blood, saliva, or urine. There is no specific treatment for CCHF, but supportive care, such as fluid replacement and treatment of symptoms, can help manage the disease. Vaccines are available for some tick-borne diseases, but there is currently no vaccine for CCHF. Prevention measures include avoiding tick bites and taking precautions when handling animals or animal products.

The gag gene products of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a group of proteins that are encoded by the gag gene in the HIV genome. These proteins play important roles in the replication and survival of the virus. The gag gene products include the capsid protein (CA), the matrix protein (MA), the nucleocapsid protein (NC), and the protease (PR). The capsid protein forms the viral capsid, which protects the viral RNA genome and is essential for viral assembly. The matrix protein is involved in the budding of new virus particles from infected cells. The nucleocapsid protein helps package the viral RNA genome into the capsid. The protease is responsible for cleaving the viral polyproteins into their individual components, which are necessary for viral replication. HIV gag gene products are important targets for antiretroviral therapy, as they are essential for the survival and replication of the virus. Inhibitors of the protease can block the cleavage of the viral polyproteins, preventing the formation of functional virus particles.

Cyclohexanes are a group of organic compounds that consist of a six-membered ring of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached to them. They are commonly used in the medical field as solvents for various drugs and as intermediates in the synthesis of other pharmaceuticals. Cyclohexanes are also used as anesthetic agents, particularly in veterinary medicine. They are generally considered to be safe and non-toxic, but high doses can cause dizziness, drowsiness, and other side effects.

Adenine is a nitrogenous base that is found in DNA and RNA. It is one of the four nitrogenous bases that make up the genetic code, along with guanine, cytosine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). Adenine is a purine base, which means it has a double ring structure with a six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring. It is one of the two purine bases found in DNA and RNA, the other being guanine. Adenine is important in the function of DNA and RNA because it forms hydrogen bonds with thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA) to form the base pairs that make up the genetic code.

Herpesviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Herpesviridae. These viruses are characterized by their ability to establish lifelong infections in their hosts, with periods of latency and reactivation. There are eight known herpesviruses that infect humans, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), and human herpesvirus 36 (HHV-36). Herpesviridae infections can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the location of the infection. Common symptoms include fever, headache, sore throat, skin rashes, and genital sores. Some infections can also cause more serious complications, such as encephalitis, meningitis, and pneumonia. Herpesviridae infections are typically diagnosed through laboratory tests, such as viral culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. Treatment options for herpesviridae infections include antiviral medications, which can help to reduce symptoms and prevent complications. However, there is currently no cure for herpesviridae infections, and the viruses can remain dormant in the body for long periods of time before reactivating.

Roseolovirus infections are a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the genus Roseolovirus. The most common member of this genus is the human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), which is also known as roseola virus. HHV-6 is a common virus that can cause mild to severe illness in both children and adults. Roseolovirus infections are typically characterized by a fever, a rash, and swollen lymph nodes. The fever and rash usually start a few days after the initial symptoms, which may include fatigue, headache, and body aches. The rash typically starts on the face and spreads to the trunk and limbs, and it may be accompanied by itching. Roseolovirus infections are usually self-limiting, meaning that they will resolve on their own without treatment. However, in some cases, particularly in immunocompromised individuals, the infection can be more severe and may require hospitalization. Treatment is typically supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and preventing complications. Roseolovirus infections are highly contagious and can be spread through respiratory droplets, direct contact with infected individuals, or contact with contaminated surfaces. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with infected individuals.

Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a group of water-soluble polymers that are commonly used in the medical field as solvents, dispersants, and stabilizers. They are made by polymerizing ethylene oxide and have a hydroxyl (-OH) group at each end of the molecule. PEGs are used in a variety of medical applications, including as a carrier for drugs and other therapeutic agents, as a lubricant for medical devices, and as an ingredient in various medical products such as ointments, creams, and lotions. They are also used in diagnostic imaging agents, such as contrast agents for X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PEGs are generally considered to be safe for use in humans, although high doses or prolonged exposure may cause irritation or allergic reactions. They are also used in food and personal care products, and are generally recognized as safe for these applications as well.

Receptors, CCR5, are a type of cell surface receptor protein that are expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as T cells and macrophages. These receptors are part of the chemokine receptor family and are activated by certain chemokines, which are signaling molecules that help to regulate the movement and function of immune cells. The CCR5 receptor plays an important role in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys CD4+ T cells, a type of immune cell that expresses CCR5 on its surface. HIV uses the CCR5 receptor to enter and infect these cells. As a result, individuals who lack functional CCR5 receptors (due to a genetic mutation) are resistant to HIV infection. In addition to its role in HIV infection, the CCR5 receptor has been implicated in a variety of other immune-related disorders, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. As such, the CCR5 receptor is an important target for the development of new therapies for these conditions.

Antibodies, neutralizing are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a virus or bacteria. Neutralizing antibodies are a specific type of antibody that can bind to and neutralize the harmful effects of a pathogen, preventing it from infecting cells or causing damage to the body. Neutralizing antibodies are an important part of the immune response and are often used in medical treatments to help the body fight off infections.

The "pol gene products, human immunodeficiency virus" refers to the proteins encoded by the pol gene of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The pol gene encodes three enzymes that are essential for the replication of the HIV virus: reverse transcriptase, protease, and integrase. Reverse transcriptase is an enzyme that converts the viral RNA genome into DNA, which can then integrate into the host cell's genome. Protease is an enzyme that cleaves the viral polyproteins into individual proteins, which are necessary for the assembly and maturation of new virus particles. Integrase is an enzyme that integrates the viral DNA into the host cell's genome. The pol gene products are therefore critical for the replication and spread of the HIV virus, and are important targets for antiretroviral therapy, which is used to treat HIV infection.

Tumor virus infections refer to the presence of viruses that can cause cancer in infected individuals. These viruses are also known as oncoviruses or tumor-inducing viruses. They can infect various types of cells in the body and alter their normal functioning, leading to the development of tumors. There are several types of tumor viruses, including human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). These viruses can cause various types of cancers, such as cervical cancer, liver cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, and Kaposi's sarcoma, respectively. Tumor virus infections can be transmitted through various means, including sexual contact, blood transfusions, and mother-to-child transmission. Diagnosis of tumor virus infections typically involves the detection of viral antigens or antibodies in the blood or other bodily fluids. Treatment for tumor virus infections depends on the type of virus and the stage of cancer. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to control the virus and prevent further spread. In other cases, surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy may be necessary to treat the cancer. Vaccines are also available for some tumor viruses, such as HPV, to prevent infection and reduce the risk of cancer.

Parvoviridae infections are a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Parvoviridae. These viruses are small, non-enveloped, and have a single-stranded DNA genome. They are highly contagious and can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and plants. In humans, parvoviridae infections are most commonly associated with two viruses: human parvovirus B19 (B19) and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4). B19 is responsible for a range of illnesses, including erythema infectiosum (fifth disease), which is a mild rash that affects children, and aplastic crisis, which is a severe form of anemia that can be life-threatening in people with weakened immune systems. PARV4 is a newly discovered human parvovirus that has been linked to a range of health problems, including liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of PARV4 in human health. Other members of the Parvoviridae family include the canine parvovirus, which causes severe diarrhea and vomiting in dogs, and the feline panleukopenia virus, which causes a highly contagious and often fatal disease in cats. Parvoviridae infections are typically spread through contact with infected bodily fluids or feces, and can be prevented through vaccination and good hygiene practices. Treatment for parvovirus infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (FIV) is a viral infection that affects cats. It is caused by the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), which weakens the immune system of infected cats, making them more susceptible to other infections and diseases. FIV is transmitted through bites and scratches from infected cats, and it is most commonly found in wild and stray cats. The symptoms of FIV can vary, but they may include weight loss, fever, weakness, and anemia. FIV is not contagious to humans, and there is no cure for the virus. However, there are treatments available to help manage the symptoms and improve the quality of life for infected cats.

AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) is a neurological disorder that occurs in people with advanced HIV/AIDS. It is characterized by a gradual decline in cognitive function, memory loss, confusion, and changes in personality. ADC is caused by the damage to the brain and nervous system that occurs as a result of HIV infection and the immune system's response to the virus. The symptoms of ADC can range from mild to severe and can affect a person's ability to perform daily activities. Treatment for ADC typically involves managing the underlying HIV infection and addressing the specific symptoms of the disorder.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is produced by various immune cells, including T cells, natural killer cells, and macrophages, in response to viral or bacterial infections, as well as in response to certain types of cancer. IFN-γ has a wide range of effects on the immune system, including the activation of macrophages and other immune cells, the inhibition of viral replication, and the promotion of T cell differentiation and proliferation. It also plays a role in the regulation of the immune response, helping to prevent excessive inflammation and tissue damage. In the medical field, IFN-γ is used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other conditions, such as autoimmune diseases and viral infections.

Didanosine, also known by its brand name Videx, is an antiretroviral medication used to treat HIV/AIDS. It is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), which means it works by blocking the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which is essential for the replication of the HIV virus. Didanosine is typically used in combination with other antiretroviral medications to help control the virus and prevent the progression of HIV to AIDS. It is usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules. Common side effects of didanosine include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache.

In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.

Penile diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the structure or function of the penis. These conditions can range from minor to severe and can affect both the physical and sexual health of a person. Some common penile diseases include: 1. Erectile dysfunction: A condition where a person is unable to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual activity. 2. Peyronie's disease: A condition where the penis becomes curved due to the formation of scar tissue. 3. Phimosis: A condition where the foreskin of the penis is too tight to be retracted over the glans (head) of the penis. 4. Balanitis: An inflammation of the glans or foreskin of the penis. 5. Chlamydia: A sexually transmitted infection (STI) that can cause inflammation of the urethra, prostate, and other reproductive organs. 6. Gonorrhea: Another STI that can cause inflammation of the urethra, prostate, and other reproductive organs. 7. Herpes: A viral infection that can cause sores or blisters on the penis. 8. Cancer: Rarely, penile cancer can occur, which can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. It is important to note that penile diseases can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and should be treated promptly by a healthcare professional.

Stavudine, also known by its brand name Zerit, is an antiretroviral medication used to treat HIV/AIDS. It is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), which means it works by blocking the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which is essential for the replication of HIV. By inhibiting this enzyme, stavudine slows down the replication of HIV and helps to control the virus in the body. Stavudine is typically used in combination with other antiretroviral medications to provide a more effective treatment for HIV/AIDS. It is usually taken orally in the form of tablets, although it can also be given by injection. Stavudine can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, and fatigue. It can also cause more serious side effects, such as liver damage, pancreatitis, and peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage). Because of these potential side effects, stavudine is typically only prescribed to people with HIV/AIDS who have not responded to other antiretroviral medications or who have certain other medical conditions that make them unable to tolerate other treatments.

HIV Reverse Transcriptase is an enzyme that is produced by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It plays a critical role in the replication of the virus within infected cells. The enzyme converts the viral RNA genome into a complementary DNA (cDNA) molecule, which can then be integrated into the host cell's genome. This process is known as reverse transcription and is a key step in the viral life cycle. HIV Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors are a class of antiretroviral drugs that target this enzyme and are used in the treatment of HIV infection.

Sarcoma, Kaposi is a type of cancer that affects the connective tissue, which is the tissue that supports and binds other tissues in the body. It is named after Dr. Moritz Kaposi, a Hungarian dermatologist who first described the condition in 1872. Kaposi's sarcoma is most commonly found in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, and in older adults. It can also occur in people who have received organ transplants and are taking immunosuppressive medications. The symptoms of Kaposi's sarcoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumors. Common symptoms include skin-colored or red, raised bumps or patches on the skin, swelling in the lymph nodes, and weight loss. Treatment for Kaposi's sarcoma typically involves a combination of medications, such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy, and surgery to remove the tumors. In some cases, radiation therapy may also be used. The prognosis for Kaposi's sarcoma depends on the stage of the cancer and the overall health of the person.

Cytokines are small proteins that are produced by various cells of the immune system, including white blood cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. They play a crucial role in regulating immune responses and inflammation, and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cytokines can be classified into different groups based on their function, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and regulatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), promote inflammation and recruit immune cells to the site of infection or injury. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), help to dampen the immune response and prevent excessive inflammation. Regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13), help to regulate the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Cytokines play a critical role in many diseases, including autoimmune disorders, cancer, and infectious diseases. They are also important in the development of vaccines and immunotherapies.

The "nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus" refers to the proteins encoded by the nef gene of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The nef gene is a regulatory gene that is expressed during the late stages of HIV replication and is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of HIV infection. The nef gene products are multifunctional proteins that have been shown to modulate various cellular processes, including cell signaling, trafficking, and apoptosis. They have been implicated in the ability of HIV to evade the immune system, as well as in the development of certain HIV-related complications, such as cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive disorders. The nef gene products are not essential for the survival of HIV in vitro, but they have been shown to enhance viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo. As a result, they are considered to be important targets for the development of new antiretroviral therapies for the treatment of HIV infection.

Pyrimidinones are a class of organic compounds that are derived from the pyrimidine ring. They are commonly used in the medical field as drugs and are known for their antifungal, antiviral, and anticancer properties. Some examples of pyrimidinones that are used in medicine include: * Allopurinol: used to treat gout and kidney stones * Cytarabine: used to treat leukemia and other types of cancer * Pentamidine: used to treat African sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis * Pyrimethamine: used to treat malaria * Trimethoprim: used to treat bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections and respiratory infections Pyrimidinones are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs and as research tools in the study of biological processes.

Nucleic acid probes are specific segments of DNA or RNA that are labeled with a detectable molecule, such as fluorescent dye or radioisotope. These probes are used in various medical applications, including molecular biology, genetic testing, and diagnostic imaging. In molecular biology, nucleic acid probes are used to detect and identify specific DNA or RNA sequences in a sample. This is achieved by hybridizing the probe to the complementary sequence in the sample, which results in a specific binding event that can be detected using various techniques, such as gel electrophoresis or fluorescence microscopy. In genetic testing, nucleic acid probes are used to detect specific genetic mutations or abnormalities that are associated with certain diseases or conditions. This is achieved by designing probes that are complementary to the mutated or abnormal sequence, and then using these probes to detect the presence of the mutation or abnormality in a patient's DNA or RNA sample. In diagnostic imaging, nucleic acid probes are used to detect and visualize specific genes or proteins in living cells or tissues. This is achieved by labeling the probe with a detectable molecule, such as a fluorescent dye or radioisotope, and then injecting it into the patient's body. The probe binds to the specific gene or protein of interest, and the resulting signal can be detected using imaging techniques, such as fluorescence microscopy or positron emission tomography (PET). Overall, nucleic acid probes are a powerful tool in the medical field, allowing researchers and clinicians to detect, identify, and visualize specific genetic sequences and abnormalities with high sensitivity and specificity.

HIV enteropathy is a condition that occurs in people with HIV/AIDS, characterized by damage to the lining of the small intestine. This damage can lead to malabsorption of nutrients, diarrhea, weight loss, and other gastrointestinal symptoms. The exact cause of HIV enteropathy is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to the direct effects of HIV on the gut lining, as well as the immune response to the virus. Treatment for HIV enteropathy typically involves managing symptoms and addressing any underlying nutritional deficiencies. In some cases, antiretroviral therapy (ART) may also be used to help control the virus and reduce the severity of enteropathy.

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"The Viral Loads , Lakes International Comic Art Festival". www.comicartfestival.com. Retrieved 27 October 2020. "Pass the Panel ...
"Viral Load Exposure Factors". ReallyCorrect.com. Danovaro-Holliday MC, LeBaron CW, Allensworth C, Raymond R, Borden TG, Murray ... Epperly, David E.; Rinehart, Kristopher R.; Caney, David N. (2020). "COVID-19 Aerosolized Viral Loads, Environment, Ventilation ...
"Viral Load Exposure Factors". ReallyCorrect.com. Cirillo, Pasquale and Nassim Nicholas Taleb (2020). "Tail Risk of Contagious ... Epperly, David E.; Rinehart, Kristopher R.; Caney, David N. (2020). "COVID-19 Aerosolized Viral Loads, Environment, Ventilation ... The zero-COVID approach aims to prevent viral transmission, using a number of different measures, including vaccination and non ... when the goal is to prevent reestablishment of viral transmission within the community. Experts differentiate between zero- ...
"Viral Load Exposure Factors". ReallyCorrect.com. "Tracking every case of COVID-19 in Canada". CTV News. Retrieved 23 March 2022 ... "COVID-19 Aerosolized Viral Loads, Environment, Ventilation, Masks, Exposure Time, Severity, And Immune Response: A Pragmatic ... First non-draft version release of COVID-19 Aerosolized Viral Loads, Environment, Ventilation, Masks, Exposure Time, Severity, ...
"Viral Load Exposure Factors". ReallyCorrect.com. "Policy Responses to COVID19". IMF. Retrieved 13 April 2020. "COVID-19 Policy ... Epperly, David E.; Rinehart, Kristopher R.; Caney, David N. (2020). "COVID-19 Aerosolized Viral Loads, Environment, Ventilation ...
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XXIX: 1-3. "Viral Load and Covid-19 Risk". Setopati newspaper on line. 21 April 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2021. "Is Nepal Getting ...
One study found that severe cases of illness had higher viral loads than milder cases, and that concentrations peaked in the ... "Viral Load Kinetics of MERS Coronavirus Infection". New England Journal of Medicine. 375 (13): 1303-1305. doi:10.1056/ ... sputum sample or tracheal aspirate as these have the highest viral loads. There have also been studies utilizing upper ... Chest X-ray findings tend to show bilateral patchy infiltrates consistent with viral pneumonitis and acute respiratory distress ...
Severity of symptoms depends on the viral load. Like Dobrava-Belgrade virus, Hantaan virus has a mortality rate of 10 to 12%. ... "Hantaan Virus RNA Load in Patients Having Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome: Correlation With Disease Severity". Journal of ... "The Murine Model for Hantaan virus-Induced Lethal Disease Shows Two Distinct Paths in Viral Evolutionary Trajectory with or ... Viral diseases, Hantaviridae, Hemorrhagic fevers, Rodent-carried diseases). ...
All patients had stable or decreased viral load; four of the five patients had stable or increased CD4 T cell counts. All five ... Non-viral vectors for gene therapy present certain advantages over viral methods, such as large scale production and low host ... Problems with viral vectors - Viral vectors carry the risks of toxicity, inflammatory responses, and gene control and targeting ... Non-viral techniques offer the possibility of repeat dosing and greater tailorability of genetic payloads, which in the future ...
... a sufficiently low viral load, and a lack of any other sexually transmitted diseases. While lacking the backing of complete, ... in the mid-2000s had produced evidence that antiretroviral therapy regimes could be sufficient to suppress HIV viral load such ... blood viral load has consistently been undetectable (. ...
... might be discontinued depending on their viral load. For instance, if the patient's viral load is detectable (>25 ... Appropriate dosing of Simeprevir is dependent upon the patient's liver function, kidney function, viral load, and HCV genotype ... In vitro, the viral infection of Sars-CoV-2 could be stopped, and in addition it could be observed that further proteases of ... Remdesivir alone only inhibits the polymerase itself; in order to stop viral synthesis, an approved hepatitis C drug is also ...
"AVN - Viral Load Results Indicate James was 'Patient Zero'". Archived from the original on July 7, 2012. Retrieved September 27 ...
Weidmann, M.; Hufert, F. T.; Sall, A. A. (2007). "Viral load among patients infected with Marburgvirus in Angola". Journal of ... Animal viral diseases, Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrhagic fevers, Biological weapons, Hemorrhagic fevers, ... Marburg virus disease (MVD; formerly Marburg hemorrhagic fever) is a viral hemorrhagic fever in human and non-human primates ... At the time, serologic testing was negative for viral hemorrhagic fever. She was discharged on January 19, 2008. After the ...
Relationship Between Antiviral Activity and Viral Load". Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research. 21 (8): 575-81. doi:10.1089 ... During the viral replication cycle, spikes proteins mature in the host cell Golgi complex with a high mannose glycosylation. ... For SARS CoV, it binds to ACEs It also binds to DC-SIGN of macrophages, The lactoferrin anti-viral activity is sialic-acid- ... The APN is a glycoprotein.) The anti-viral effect of lactoferrin is increased by the removal of sialic acid. Mannan-binding ...
A*68 is associated with higher viral load in HIV. A68 may be protective against symptomatic heart disease in Chaga's ...
Coreplication and Viral Load". Current Genomics. 16 (5): 327-335. doi:10.2174/1389202916666150707160613. PMC 4763971. PMID ... Choi, Kyung H. (2012), Rossmann, Michael G.; Rao, Venigalla B. (eds.), "Viral Polymerases", Viral Molecular Machines, Advances ... The delta protein on its own is involved in nonlytic viral egress. Influenza viruses, also called the "flu" and known for the ... Tao discovered that the nucleoprotein for influenza A has a distinctive loop that is necessary for the viral genome to be ...
"NACO partners with Metropolis Healthcare for HIV Viral Load Testing". Retrieved 23 November 2018. K. Tiwari, Ashish (3 October ...
However it leads to faster recovery and reduced viral load. COVID-19 drug development RECOVERY Trial Solidarity trial " ...
However it results in faster recovery and reduced viral load. In February 2023, Merck reported that the phase 3 MOVe-AHEAD ... Molnupiravir inhibits viral reproduction by promoting widespread mutations in the replication of viral RNA by RNA-directed RNA ... When the viral RNA polymerase attempts to copy RNA containing molnupiravir, it sometimes interprets it as C and sometimes as U ... "The Anti-Viral Drug Lagevrio (Molnupiravir) for the Treatment of COVID-19 Has Been Approved". Archived from the original on 4 ...
Pegylated interferon and ribavirin are useful in reducing viral load. Diffuse proliferative nephritis Colville D, Guymer R, ...
"Maraviroc reduces viral load in naive patients at 48 weeks". AIDS Patient Care and STDs. 21 (9): 703-4. September 2007. PMID ... of the twice-daily maraviroc group had a viral load of less than 50 copies/mL compared with about 23% of those who received ... of participants receiving the drug twice daily achieved a viral load of less than 400 copies/mL compared with 26% of those ...
This causes rapid infectivity, and an increase in viral load. "SERINC5 (Gene)". GeneCards. Retrieved April 24, 2019. GRCh38: ... Nef, glycoGag, and S2 viral proteins are located throughout HIV-1 virions that aid in the facilitation of retrovirus release. ... the restriction factor has the ability to greatly decrease viral infectivity in the early stages of infection. It has been ...
Radiographic testing is often paired with EBV viral load measuring. A biopsy can also be conducted in order to find where the ... Another test involves screening for the measurement of EBV viral loads in peripheral blood. ...
"YouTube adds crazy loading bar to Nyan cat viral video". VentureBeat. June 17, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2022. "YouTube Made a ... loads with icons from all previous versions of Android. It appears to be a mock of the Windows Phone interface. In 5.x ( ...
Eventually, the viral load decreases because of the lack of reproduction. The official start to its development started in ... 1156 patients with a mean of 87 CD4 cell counts and mean viral load of 100,000 copies/ml were randomized to one of the two ... There were higher CD4 cell counts and less viral load in patients assigned to the three-drug group, proving that a three-drug ... After 24 weeks of treatment, 24 patients of the 28 patients who were treated with the three drugs were able to have viral load ...
Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. The study concluded that viral load is the ... The study established that higher viral load and genital ulceration are the main determinants of HIV-1 transmission per coital ... "Viral Load and Heterosexual Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1". New England Journal of Medicine. 342 (13): ...
An HIV viral load is a blood test that measures the amount of HIV in a sample of your blood. It can determine how well your HIV ... Youll need to have regular viral load tests to see whether your viral load is dropping enough. HIV viral load tests are ... What is an HIV Viral Load?. An HIV viral load is a blood test that measures the amount of HIV in a sample of your blood. HIV ... A high viral load means the virus is growing and your treatment is not working well. The higher the viral load, the more risk ...
This report describes how Sub-Saharan African countries have overcome challenges to initiate and scale up HIV viral load ... This report describes how Sub-Saharan African countries have overcome challenges to initiate and scale up HIV viral load ... Percentage of HIV viral load tests indicating viral suppression* before and after viral load testing scale-up - eight sub- ... the number of ART patients with at least one viral load test result, the percentage of viral load tests results showing viral ...
And to effectively monitor viral load, people living with HIV need access to viral load testing every 12 months. ... 19.4 million people living with HIV still do not have suppressed viral loads. To remain healthy and to prevent transmission, ... with HIV who are not aware they have the virus and the estimated 19.4 million people who do not have suppressed viral loads ...
... maintained undetectable viral loads for at least four years after stopping therapy (a baby has, so far, only managed a year off ... French study: Viral loads remain undetectable in absence of ARVs. Posted by Health-e News , Mar 18, 2013 , News , 0 , ... maintained undetectable viral loads for at least four years after stopping therapy (the baby has, so far, only managed a year ...
CDC Division of Global HIV/TB International Laboratory Branch Viral Load and Early Infant Diagnosis Team ... CDC Division of Global HIV/TB International Laboratory Branch Viral Load and Early Infant Diagnosis Team ...
... as we had a case with a low viral load who had a three-fold elevation in ALT level and another case with a high viral load and ... The mean viral load on PCR was 1.38 (SD 1.46) × 106 IU/mL. HCV RNA values were categorized as: low viraemia (HCV-RNA level 2 × ... The mean viral load of HCV-RNA-positive cases was 1.38 × 106 (SD 1.46 × 106) IU/mL, which supports our observation that HCV-RNA ... The correlation between viral load and HCVcAg values among the samples of all the study participants is shown in Figure 3. ...
... localities to collect data to calculate community viral load". Guidance on Community Viral Load: A Family of Measures, ... "Guidance on community viral load : a family of measures, definitions, and method for calculation" (2011). National Center for ... "Guidance on community viral load : a family of measures, definitions, and method for calculation" , 2011. Export RIS Citation ... Guidance on community viral load : a family of measures, definitions, and method for calculation. ...
SSUCTVL - Cytomegalovirus viral load Copies/mL. Variable Name: SSUCTVL. SAS Label: Cytomegalovirus viral load Copies/mL. ... Cytomegalovirus viral load Copies/mL. Target: Both males and females 6 YEARS - 49 YEARS. Code or Value. Value Description. ... VirLoad: CMV urinary viral load Measured in copies/mL. Continuous variable - Values range from 68 to 707687. ... PCR: The detection of CMV DNA was performed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the viral immediate early 2 (IE-2) ...
Viral load and sensitivity of NAATs. The timing of patient testing in the course of the disease can also impact the sensitivity ... Viral loads in patients who are pre-symptomatic (ie, who are asymptomatic at the time of the test but who subsequently develop ... 16] with detection capabilities for this gene being far below the estimated viral load for SARS-CoV-2-positive patients; [17] ... The viral loads for pre-symptomatic patients and those with subclinical infections are currently a topic of intense research. ...
Next-Generation Molecular Testing for Monitoring Viral Load and HIV-1 Infection ... Xpert HIV-1 Viral Load (CE-IVD only) & HBV Viral Load (RUO only) MSDS/SDS ... Xpert HIV-1 Viral Load is a quantitative test that provides on-demand molecular testing.. Based on the GeneXpert® technology, ... Assessment of viral load levels. is a strong predictor of the rate of disease progression and, by itself or in combination with ...
Viral Load Testing. The viral load can be quantified by using several HIV assays. The number of virions in the peripheral blood ... Certain viral-load tests are not sensitive to non-B subtypes of HIV-1. Therefore, viral loads can seem to be considerably ... the viral load rapidly decreases 6-12 months after the primary viremia. Neonates have high viral loads that persist throughout ... Reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) of plasma RNA reveal a viral load 2 ...
Viral Load Testing Dismally Absent in Africa By Miriam Gathigah. As Africa scales up lifesaving antiretroviral therapy for HIV ... concerns are rife that the absence of mass routine viral load testing will hamper extending treatment to the millions who need ...
Viral load: On lockdowns, lives and livelihoods The road ahead in Indias augmented vaccination drive Sharmila Mary Joseph ...
Digital Test Measures HIV Viral Load. DNA editing tool CRISPR-Cas13 helps diagnose and signal the presence of HIV antibodies in ...
The study showed that during the week of April 4, 49% of COVID patients had intermediate viral loads. By the fifth week of ... 2020 shows that viral loads of COVID-19 patients are declining over time. ... of positive swab tests were in the low viral load category. The researchers also highlight that the decrease in the viral load ... New Study: Viral loads in COVID-19 patients declining. admin October 3, 2020 0 ...
In addition, there is no FDA-approved plasma viral load assay to monitor disease progression and therapeutic efficacy. To ... Can In-house HIV-2 Viral Load Assay be a Reliable Alternative to Commercial Assays for Clinical and Therapeutic Monitoring?. ... No significant (p = 0.99 and p = 0.13) difference in quantifying viral load between the three assays. Based on clinical and ... we have developed and evaluated an in-house quantitative HIV-2 viral load assay. METHODS:. Blood samples were collected from 28 ...
Performance of short-term repeat HPV testing, HPV viral load and HPV16/18 genotyping for triage of HPV positive women in Latin ... We aimed to evaluate the performance of short-term repeat HPV testing, semi-quantitative HPV viral load, and HPV16/18 ... We evaluated the performance of short-term repeat HPV test done at colposcopy ~2 months after enrolment, viral load reflected ... high viral load) had a higher PPV (20.0% [95%CI 17.3-22.7]) and lower referral rate (28.8% [95%CI 24.5-33]) but sensitivity was ...
Viral load suppression and acquired HIV drug resistance in adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Viet Nam: results from a ... Objective: The purpose of this survey was to estimate the prevalence of viral load (VL) suppression and emergence of HIV drug ... Factors associated with HIV viral load suppression on antiretroviral therapy in Vietnam. J Virus Erad. 2016;2(2):94-101. ... Viral load suppression and acquired HIV drug resistance in adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Viet Nam: results from a ...
CHI_31004: HIV viral load suppression. ID within subdomain: 4. Domain: Service coverage. ...
... and almost 60-times more load, especially in northern Chile. The viral load was lower only in treated colonies located in the ... Occurrence, prevalence and viral load of deformed wing virus variants in Apis mellifera colonies in Chile. dc.contributor. ... Occurrence, prevalence and viral load of deformed wing virus variants in Apis mellifera colonies in Chile. es_CL. ... We also compared the viral load in each region in colonies that were treated or untreated against Varroa destructor. Using real ...
... or Four-drug Regimens as Maintenance Therapy in Patients who have Already Achieved Viral Suppression ... "viral load") that is no more than 100,000 copies/mL. Your healthcare professional will measure your viral load. ... of further medicines to treat HIV more simply and to help all those living with HIV to achieve an undetectable viral load and ... The dolutegravir and rilpivirine regimen achieved non-inferior viral suppression (HIV-1 RNA ,50 c/mL) at 48 weeks compared with ...
5] The goal of ART is to reduce the HIV viral load (RNA PCR) below the level of detection by commercial assays. Viral ... NOT recommended as initial ART if viral load ,500,000 copies/mL, if Hepatitis B co-infected, or in rapid-start setting (i.e., ... indicated by preserved CD4 cell counts and undetectable viral load) despite being off antiretroviral therapy. Elite controllers ... prior to results of HIV genotypic testing, HIV viral load, and HBV testing are known.) ...
Viral load is an indicator of relative infectiousness, if you will. If somebody has a viral load of 6 million, theyre much ... Saag: That is underscored by the fact that usually during acute infection, the viral load or the amount of RNA in the ... If you have someone who is suppressed on oral therapy (ie, their viral load is undetectable), they have an option of switching ... but I usually dont use it in someone with a very high viral load, where it hasnt been studied, or a very low CD4 count, where ...
Finger Stick HIV-1 Viral Load Assay, now in development, builds on Cepheids existing plasma-based test for HIV viral load, and ... Home » Home » Cepheid Targets Development of a Point of Care HIV Viral Load Test From a Few Drops of Blood. Cepheid Targets ... Enabling Accurate and Fast Molecular HIV Viral Load Test from Finger Stick Whole Blood. Posted on September 11, 2016 by Admin ... "Coupled with Cepheids innovative Omni point of care system[2], we believe the Xpert® Finger Stick HIV-1 Viral Load Assay has ...
Current approaches to viral load monitoring are poorly implemented and the response to high viral load measurements is ... Scaling up viral load monitoring. Breastfeeding women are a priority population for repeated plasma viral load measurements. ... Both maternal breast milk viral load and plasma viral load are predictors of breast milk HIV transmission.23 When single dose ... WHO guidelines for HIV plasma viral load monitoring are not specific to pregnancy and lactation: a plasma viral load test is ...
Undetectable viral load 6 months after starting cART. The PROMISE study did not provide data informing viral load outcomes at ... Forest plot of risk ratio for detectable serum viral load 26 weeks after antiretroviral initiation as a proxy for viral load at ... detectable viral load 6 months after starting cART as a proxy for viral load at delivery, AIDS-defining illnesses, hepatitis B ... failure to suppress HIV viral load at 6 months after starting therapy to approximate viral load suppression at delivery for a ...
New research shows asymptomatic carriers have similar viral load, infection spreads via aerosol Amit Syal August 6, 2020 ...
Please note that both the HIV-1 and HCV viral load assays require 1 mL plasma for testing. ... Customer Notification:Introduction of Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) & Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Viral Load ...
  • Now a study from France has found 14 adult patients who also started a course of ART soon after infection, who subsequently stopped it, and have not had to re-start because they have largely ' and in eight cases completely ' maintained undetectable viral loads for at least four years after stopping therapy (the baby has, so far, only managed a year off therapy). (health-e.org.za)
  • As HIV is increasingly treated as a life-long condition, we remain committed to ongoing research and development of further medicines to treat HIV more simply and to help all those living with HIV to achieve an undetectable viral load and have an improved quality of life. (jnj.com)
  • Objective: The purpose of this survey was to estimate the prevalence of viral load (VL) suppression and emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) among individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for 36 months or longer in Viet Nam using a nationally representative sampling method. (who.int)
  • CD8 cells with altered tetramer binding appear to have a specificity restricted to envelope antigen and not to other HBV antigens, suggesting that mechanisms of CD8 cell dysfunction are differentially regulated according to the antigenic form and presentation of individual viral antigens. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Since virtually all undifferentiated NPCs are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), this tumor is an attractive candidate for cellular immunotherapy targeted against tumor-associated viral antigens. (nih.gov)
  • This injury appears to be a consequence of the host's immunological response to viral antigens that have penetrated the endothelium by means of the cells' own integrins. (medscape.com)
  • The industry-leading simplicity and scalability of this new test, when successfully completed, could support efforts to enable the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target, with the goal to assure, by the year 2020, that 90% of individuals worldwide with HIV know their status, 90% of diagnosed individuals have initiated antiretroviral treatment, and 90% of those on treatment achieve viral suppression. (cytofluidix.com)
  • Title : Guidance on community viral load : a family of measures, definitions, and method for calculation Corporate Authors(s) : National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (U.S.). Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Entry of enveloped viruses into cells requires fusion of viral and cell membranes to allow release of the viral genome into the cytoplasm. (phoenixrising.me)
  • Two classes of approved drugs against influenza A virus infections have been available for years: adamantane-based M2 ion channel blockers, which prevent acidification of the endosome and therefore release of the viral particles into the cytosol ( 10 ), and neuraminidase inhibitors, which prevent the release of newly formed viral particles from infected cells ( 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Currently, there are three basic types of tests to determine if an individual has been infected with SARS-CoV-2: viral nucleic acid (RNA) detection, viral antigen detection, and detection of antibodies to the virus. (medscape.com)
  • Viral tests (nucleic acid or antigen detection tests) are used to assess acute infection, whereas antibody tests provide evidence of prior infection with SARS-CoV-2. (medscape.com)
  • Escaping high viral load exhaustion: CD8 cells with altered tetramer binding in chronic hepatitis B virus infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we characterize a low frequency population of CD8 cells present in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which survive in the face of a high quantity of viral antigen. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There are three well-defined master variants described as DWV-A, DWV-B (or VDV-1) and DWV-C. We studied the prevalence, load and recombinant genotypes among DWV variants in honey bees from Chilean apiaries. (umayor.cl)
  • Using real-time PCR with specific primers enabled us to determine that DWV-A was the most prevalent (71%) throughout Chile, with a higher level than DWV-B (circa 3% prevalence), and almost 60-times more load, especially in northern Chile. (umayor.cl)
  • But viral load tests can find HIV sooner after an infection than screening tests. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A viral load test is needed to see how well treatment is working and to monitor your HIV infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Today, some of those data were published in CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) , demonstrating that Delta infection resulted in similarly high SARS-CoV-2 viral loads in vaccinated and unvaccinated people. (yubanet.com)
  • Plasma viral load and CD4+ lymphocytes as prognostic markers of HIV-1 infection. (cepheid.com)
  • Objectives: No studies have examined longitudinal patterns of naturally exhaled SARS-CoV-2 RNA viral load (VL) during acute infection. (le.ac.uk)
  • When cells are treated with chloroquine the pH of the endosome is elevated, which prevents fusion and blocks viral infection. (phoenixrising.me)
  • Xpert HIV-1 Viral Load is a quantitative test that provides on-demand molecular testing. (cepheid.com)
  • Based on the GeneXpert ® technology, Xpert HIV-1 Viral Load automates the test process including RNA extraction, purification, reverse transcription and cDNA real time quantitation in one fully integrated cartridge. (cepheid.com)
  • The Xpert® Finger Stick HIV-1 Viral Load Assay, now in development, builds on Cepheid's existing plasma-based test for HIV viral load, and is expected to deliver results within one hour, enabling same-visit test and treat algorithms, even in the most remote and challenging environments. (cytofluidix.com)
  • Coupled with Cepheid's innovative Omni point of care system[2], we believe the Xpert® Finger Stick HIV-1 Viral Load Assay has the potential to revolutionize the management of HIV patients on a worldwide basis," said John Bishop, Cepheid's Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. (cytofluidix.com)
  • Cepheid's current Xpert test menu includes Xpert® HIV-1 Qual, which has been awarded WHO prequalification, and Xpert® HIV-1 Viral Load, both available outside the United States. (cytofluidix.com)
  • A retrospective study utilizing results of positive PCR tests of patients in Detroit, Michigan from April 4 to June 5, 2020 shows that viral loads of COVID-19 patients are declining over time. (covidcalltohumanity.org)
  • The study showed that during the week of April 4, 49% of COVID patients had intermediate viral loads. (covidcalltohumanity.org)
  • Decreasing viral load among COVID-19 positive patients means that the severity of the disease is also decreasing. (covidcalltohumanity.org)
  • A small clinical trial has revealed it to be effective in reducing viral loads in COVID-19 patients . (phoenixrising.me)
  • 12 representative CCHFV strains from distinct CCHF-en- ed PCR on 63 samples from 31 patients with confi rmed in- demic regions was confi rmed initially by gel detection RT- fection. (cdc.gov)
  • low viral loads correlated with IgG detection. (cdc.gov)
  • PCR: The detection of CMV DNA was performed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the viral immediate early 2 (IE-2) region as described by Bopanna et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Initial direct viral detection is typically performed using an upper respiratory tract (URT) specimen. (medscape.com)
  • We evaluated the performance of short-term repeat HPV test done at colposcopy ~2 months after enrolment, viral load reflected by HC2 relative light units (RLU), and HPV16/18 genotyping by Cobas for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or more severe (CIN3+) in screened HPV positive women. (who.int)
  • We identify a relationship between the population-level cross-sectional distribution of Ct values and the growth rate of the epidemic, demonstrating how the skewness and median of detectable Ct values change purely as a mathematical epidemiologic rule without any change in individual level viral load kinetics or testing. (medrxiv.org)
  • A Finger Stick whole blood HIV quantitative assay that can reliably differentiate viral load levels at the 1,000 copies/mL level could dramatically impact the course of the HIV epidemic," said Prof Ian Sanne, Founding Director and Chief Executive Officer of Right to Care. (cytofluidix.com)
  • To overcome these challenges, we have developed and evaluated an in-house quantitative HIV-2 viral load assay. (bvsalud.org)
  • We aimed to evaluate the performance of short-term repeat HPV testing, semi-quantitative HPV viral load, and HPV16/18 genotyping for triage of HPV positive women in the ESTAMPA study. (who.int)
  • Efficacy assessment in mice revealed that dextromethorphan consistently resulted in a significant reduction of viral lung titers and also enhanced the efficacy of oseltamivir. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, there is no FDA-approved plasma viral load assay to monitor disease progression and therapeutic efficacy . (bvsalud.org)
  • The Finger Stick HIV viral load assay is currently in Phase I development by Cepheid, with partial funding from the Gates Foundation. (cytofluidix.com)
  • Can In-house HIV-2 Viral Load Assay be a Reliable Alternative to Commercial Assays for Clinical and Therapeutic Monitoring? (bvsalud.org)
  • Blood samples were collected from 28 HIV-2 treatment -naïve monoinfected individuals and tested using an in-house qPCR HIV-2 viral load assay. (bvsalud.org)
  • In comparison with Altona RealStar HIV-2 RT PCR and Exavir Load RT assay, the results were 96.4% and 69.6% concordant, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mothers taking antiretroviral drugs with low plasma viral loads may still transmit HIV to their breastfeeding children. (bmj.com)
  • The development effort is targeting a new test that is designed to deliver lab-quality results from a few drops of finger stick-collected blood at remote patient sites, in contrast to existing HIV viral load tests that require venipuncture and separation of plasma from venous blood at a limited number of molecular lab locations. (cytofluidix.com)
  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick- probe compatible with all known CCHFV strains was not borne viral zoonosis that occurs widely in Africa, Asia, possible. (cdc.gov)
  • Transmission from mother to child via breast milk is influenced by maternal HIV viral load and occurs through cell-free and cell associated HIV-1. (bmj.com)
  • What increases a surveillance program's ability to estimate viral load? (cdc.gov)
  • Trend report available for patients'™ viral load measured multiple times on the same GeneXpert. (cepheid.com)
  • Millions of patients, including newborns, in primary health care settings could gain access to a potentially life-changing test for HIV viral load monitoring thanks to a new development effort from Cepheid (Nasdaq: CPHD), which is being partially funded by a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. (cytofluidix.com)
  • Patients today in resource-limited settings can wait weeks to months for important HIV viral load test results that could support better anti-retroviral therapy management. (cytofluidix.com)
  • HIV viral load markers in clinical practice. (cepheid.com)
  • Dextromethorphan treatment of ferrets infected with a pandemic H1N1 strain led to a reduction in clinical disease severity, but no effect on viral titer was observed. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Guidance proposes common language for viral load (VL) measurements, which include four measures of viral load for an HIV-infected population. (cdc.gov)
  • The HIV-infected population can be described by five component measures, depending on what information is available on the level of care, viral load, and diagnosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Combining demographic, immune and viral parameters, the best predictive models for mortality comprised IFNB1 or age, viral ORF7a and ACE2 receptor transcripts. (nature.com)
  • A lot of us were pushing for this approach back in the late 1990s because the biology was coming out saying that it was viral replication, this ongoing onslaught to the immune system of 1 to 10 billion viruses produced a day. (medscape.com)
  • Assessment of viral load levels is a strong predictor of the rate of disease progression and, by itself or in combination with CD4 T-cell counts, has great prognostic value. (cepheid.com)
  • In certain cases, an HIV viral load test may be used to diagnose HIV. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As these vesicles move toward the nucleus, their pH drops, which catalyzes fusion of viral and cell membranes. (phoenixrising.me)
  • An HIV viral load is a blood test that measures the amount of HIV in a sample of your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • HIV viral load testing is also used to test newborn babies when they are born to a person who has HIV. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A viral load test is needed to guide treatment decisions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But first, you'll need a viral load test to find out how much virus is in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The need for a rapid HIV viral load test with flexibility to adapt to any throughput requirements and random access for urgent samples is greater than ever because each individual patient deserves better care. (cepheid.com)
  • The research, which is an international collaboration led by Jan Hontelez from Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Netherlands, used nine increasingly sophisticated mathematical models aimed to test the time frames in which expanded access to antiretroviral viral therapy could lead to HIV elimination in South Africa. (medindia.net)
  • 3] The Finger Stick whole blood test from Cepheid is designed to detect HIV viral load levels, the standard method of monitoring the amount of HIV in the blood and is anticipated to be accurate, precise, and conform to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, which defines treatment failure at a HIV viral load of 1,000 copies/mL or above. (cytofluidix.com)
  • Based on the antigenic properties of these viral glycoproteins, influenza A viruses are classified into different subtypes. (frontiersin.org)
  • As resistance against drugs targeting viral proteins emerges rapidly, we assessed the antiviral activity of already approved drugs that target cellular proteins involved in the viral life cycle and were orally bioavailable. (frontiersin.org)
  • High viral loads suggest an increased risk of transmission and raised concern that, unlike with other variants, vaccinated people infected with Delta can transmit the virus. (yubanet.com)
  • RÉSUMÉ L'infection par le virus de l'hépatite C (VHC) est répandue en Égypte. (who.int)
  • Deletion, anergy, and a spectrum of functional impairments can affect virus-specific CD8 cells in chronic viral infections. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Having regular HIV viral load tests is an important part of making sure your HIV medicines are keeping your viral load low, so you stay healthy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • That's because HIV viral load tests are expensive. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You'll need to have regular viral load tests to see whether your viral load is dropping enough. (medlineplus.gov)
  • By the fifth week of the study 70% of positive swab tests were in the low viral load category. (covidcalltohumanity.org)
  • [ 4 ] Swabs are typically placed in 1.5-3 mL of viral transport media (VTM) prior to transport to the laboratory. (medscape.com)
  • Here, we show that the distribution of viral loads, in the form of Cycle thresholds (Ct), from positive surveillance samples at a single point in time can provide accurate estimation of an epidemic's trajectory, subverting the need for repeated case count measurements which are frequently obscured by changes in testing capacity. (medrxiv.org)
  • Sera from 80 suspected HCV-positive individuals were tested simultaneously for HCV-RNA load using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and HCVcAg level using ELISA. (who.int)
  • And to effectively monitor viral load, people living with HIV need access to viral load testing every 12 months. (unaids.org)
  • Ct values or similar viral load data should be regularly reported to public health officials by testing centers and incorporated into monitoring programs. (medrxiv.org)
  • The report, Knowledge is power , reveals that although the number of people living with HIV who are virally suppressed has risen by around 10% in the last three years, reaching 47% in 2017, 19.4 million people living with HIV still do not have suppressed viral loads. (unaids.org)
  • No significant (p = 0.99 and p = 0.13) difference in quantifying viral load between the three assays. (bvsalud.org)