Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
A galectin found abundantly in smooth muscle (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) and SKELETAL MUSCLE and many other tissues. It occurs as a homodimer with two 14-kDa subunits.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A family of RNA viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, containing filamentous virions. Although they resemble RHABDOVIRIDAE in possessing helical nucleocapsids, Filoviridae differ in the length and degree of branching in their virions. There are two genera: EBOLAVIRUS and MARBURGVIRUS.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A highly contagious herpesvirus infection affecting the central nervous system of swine, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, and other animals.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A genus of plant viruses in the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the type species. Transmission occurs by at least nine species of thrips.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.
An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.
A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A strong oxidizing agent.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Glycoproteins with the electrophoretic mobility of BETA-GLOBULINS, secreted by the placental TROPHOBLASTS into the maternal bloodstream during PREGNANCY. They can be detected 18 days after OVULATION and reach 200 mg/ml at the end of pregnancy. They are associated with fetal well-being.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Lozach PY, Burleigh L, Staropoli I, Amara A (2007). The C type lectins DC-SIGN and L-SIGN: receptors for viral glycoproteins. ... "High-Affinity Glycopolymer Binding to Human DC-SIGN and Disruption of DC-SIGN Interactions with HIV Envelope Glycoprotein". J. ... A cluster of genes in both humans and mice contains three related members of the "DC Receptor" class, so named because of their ... DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin receptor present on the surface of both macrophages and dendritic cells. DC-SIGN on macrophages ...
Specifically, CD150 acts as a receptor for viral entry into the cell. The receptor itself is often expressed on dendritic cells ... Replication occurs in the cytoplasm of the host cell; it begins by the viral H glycoprotein attaching to the surface of the ... Morbilliviruses enter into the cell through attaching onto the host cell via viral glycoproteins. ... It enters using the cell's own receptors, which were not originally designed for viral entry. Specifically, the receptors CD150 ...
Exposed on the surface of the viral envelope, the glycoprotein gp120 binds to the CD4 receptor on any target cell that has such ... The SU domain therefore determines the specificity of the virus for a single receptor molecule. The retroviral glycoproteins ... It is originally buried within the viral envelope, but when gp120 binds to a CD4 receptor, gp120 changes its conformation ... The env gene of Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) codes for the 71,000-dalton glycoprotein, gp71. This membrane receptor was isolated ...
Viral glycoprotein-receptor interactions are required to initiate membrane fusion of the virus and cell. The surface ... glycoproteins anchor the surface glycoproteins to the virus membrane. The TM glycoproteins are directly involved in the fusion ... vr3 region contributing to receptor recognition but not to binding specificity of the viral glycoprotein and cellular receptor ... Viral specificity is determined by five hyper variable regions, vr1, vr2, hr1, hr2, and vr3, on the surface glycoproteins. ...
On the viral envelope, there are originally two of these glycoprotein receptors, P62 and E1, which form a dimer. P62 is ... Alphavirus virions are composed of the lipid envelope in which the E2 and E1 glycoproteins are located, and the nucleocapsid, ... The viral genomic +ssRNA is used both to translate proteins and to transcribe (+)ssRNA copies of the viral genome. The viral ... has glycoprotein receptors, called E proteins, on its envelope. which recognize cellular receptors in order to perform membrane ...
The viral membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins are responsible for receptor recognition and entry into target cells through ... The alphaviral glycoprotein E1 is a class II viral fusion protein, which is structurally different from the class I fusion ... The E1 and E2 viral glycoproteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer. Single E1 and E2 molecules associate to form heterodimers ... where virus-encoded surface glycoproteins E2 and E1 are assimilated. These two glycoproteins are the targets of numerous ...
The attached virus enters the cell by one of two ways, receptor mediated endocytosis or viral envelope-cell membrane fusion. ... the virus takes the membrane as it buds and then inserts viral glycoproteins into its envelope. The core of the virus contains ... it is initiated by high affinity of the virus envelope glycoprotein with a specific cell receptor. ... the viral structural proteins assemble the virus particle at the plasma membrane and form a complex with the viral RNA as the ...
The receptor on the vertebrate host cell is sialic acid, which is bound by the viral glycoprotein. Entry is by endocytosis, ... which acts as the virus receptor. The thogotovirus glycoprotein is not similar to the influenza virus glycoproteins ( ... which binds the viral genome; matrix protein (M1), which lines the envelope; and an envelope glycoprotein (GP), ... "The glycoprotein of Thogoto virus (a tick-borne orthomyxo-like virus) is related to the baculovirus glycoprotein GP64", ...
L glycoproteins line the surface of the envelope and play a role in viral attachment to cell receptors. The virions are small, ... L glycoprotein), the external core antigen, protein P (polymerase), and protein x (multifunctional protein). The polymerase ... Inside, the viral polymerase protein is released and ligates the DNA so that it becomes covalently closed circular DNA, or ... The woolly monkey hepatitis B virus (WMHBV) is a viral species of the Orthohepadnavirus genus of the Hepadnaviridae family. Its ...
E2 binds to cellular receptors in order to enter the host cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis. E1 contains a fusion ... viral antigen and viral RNA were found in macrophages in the synovial joint of a person experiencing a relapse of ... December 2010). "Glycoprotein organization of Chikungunya virus particles revealed by X-ray crystallography". Nature. 468 (7324 ... The structural proteins are the capsid and two envelope glycoproteins: E1 and E2, which form heterodimeric spikes on the viron ...
A retrovirus has a membrane containing glycoproteins, which are able to bind to a receptor protein on a host cell. There are ... The host cell then treats the viral DNA as part of its own genome, transcribing and translating the viral genes along with the ... The first step of replication is the binding of the glycoprotein to the receptor protein (2). Once these have been bound, the ... This step will also make viral enzymes and capsid proteins (8). Viral RNA will be made in the nucleus. These pieces are then ...
Two viral envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, are embedded in the lipid envelope.[11] They take part in viral attachment and ... especially through their glycoproteins, and cell-surface molecules CD81, LDL receptor, SR-BI, DC-SIGN, Claudin-1, and Occludin. ... A hypervariable region, the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) can be found on the E2 glycoprotein.[9] HVR1 is flexible and quite ... NS5B has the key function of replicating the HCV's viral RNA by using the viral positive sense RNA strand as its template and ...
... also known as the viral spike), which is proteolytically cleaved into the envelope glycoproteins GP1 and GP2 that bind to the ... use the transferrin receptor 1. A small aliphatic amino acid at the GP1 glycoprotein amino acid position 260 is required for ... Receptors[edit]. The Lassa virus gains entry into the host cell by means of the cell-surface receptor the alpha-dystroglycan ( ... The receptor used for cell entry is alpha-dystroglycan, a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed cell surface receptor for ...
... are HIV viral coat proteins.. Soluble glycoproteins often show a high viscosity, for example, in egg white and blood plasma. ... Miraculin, is a glycoprotein extracted from Synsepalum dulcificum a berry which alters human tongue receptors to recognize sour ... Glycoproteins are important for white blood cell recognition.[citation needed] Examples of glycoproteins in the immune system ... Some important methods used to study glycoproteins Method Use Periodic acid-Schiff stain Detects glycoproteins as pink bands ...
This may facilitate viral ability to bind host cell receptors. As the host immune system develops antibodies against gp120, ... "Tracking global patterns of N-linked glycosylation site variation in highly variable viral glycoproteins: HIV, SIV, and HCV ... Gp120 is anchored to the viral membrane, or envelope, via non-covalent bonds with the transmembrane glycoprotein, gp41. Three ... Envelope glycoprotein GP120 (or gp120) is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope. It was discovered by ...
Glycoprotein Viral attachment to ciliated cells of the host airway F and G glycoproteins are the two major surface proteins ... G protein also alters host immune response by inhibiting signaling from several toll-like receptors, including TLR4.[4][23] ... Following fusion of the viral and host cell membranes, the viral nucleocapsid (containing the viral genome) and the associated ... Surface protein G (glycoprotein) is primarily responsible for viral attachment to host cells.[23] This protein is highly ...
To enter B cells, viral glycoprotein gp350 binds to cellular receptor CD21 (also known as CR2).[26] Then, viral glycoprotein ... and surface projections of glycoproteins, which are essential to infection of the host cell.[21] In July 2020, a team of ... epithelial-cell entry is actually impeded by viral glycoprotein gp42.[26] Once EBV enters the cell, the viral capsid dissolves ... The viral three-part glycoprotein complexes of gHgL gp42 mediate B cell membrane fusion; although the two-part complexes of ...
The virions taken up by the cell then travel to acidic endosomes and lysosomes where the viral envelope glycoprotein GP is ... When a cell is infected with EBOV, receptors located in the cell's cytosol (such as RIG-I and MDA5) or outside of the cytosol ( ... The breakdown of endothelial cells leading to blood vessel injury can be attributed to EBOV glycoproteins. This damage occurs ... meningitis and other viral hemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD.[1] Blood samples are tested for viral RNA, viral antibodies or ...
T cells by the adsorption of glycoproteins on its surface to receptors on the target cell followed by fusion of the viral ... which consists of a cap made of three molecules known as glycoprotein (gp) 120, and a stem consisting of three gp41 molecules ... The nef protein (p27) down-regulates CD4 (the major viral receptor), as well as the MHC class I and class II molecules.[39][40] ... However, the use of co-receptors alone does not explain viral tropism, as not all R5 viruses are able to use CCR5 on ...
Viral pathogenesis • Preventive and therapeutic vaccines. 11: 63-9. doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2015.02.002. PMC 4827424. PMID ... Glycoprotein diversity[edit]. Glycosylation increases diversity in the proteome, because almost every aspect of glycosylation ... Mannose has recently been reported in a vertebrate, the mouse, Mus musculus, on the cell-surface laminin receptor alpha ... glycosylation is a very prevalent form of glycosylation and is important for the folding of many eukaryotic glycoproteins and ...
Binding of molecules uniquely found in microbes-viral glycoproteins, viral RNA, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), ... Interferon type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) that ... They showed that human beta interferon was an unusually hydrophobic glycoprotein. This explained the large loss of interferon ... such as membrane bound Toll like receptors or the cytoplasmic receptors RIG-I or MDA5, can trigger release of IFNs. Toll Like ...
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CLEAVAGE; GLYCOPROTEINS; INFECTIVITY; MEMBRANES; MUTAGENESIS; RECEPTORS; VIRAL DISEASES; VIRUSES. ... viral envelope glycoproteins is activated by proteloytic cleavage of the precursor glycoprotein to generate the mature receptor ... Although the coronavirus (CoV) S glycoproteins share membership in this class of envelope glycoproteins, cleavage to generate ... Title: Furin cleavage of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein enhances cell-cell fusion but does not affect virion entry ...
In Vivo Analysis of Infectivity, Fusogenicity, and Incorporation of a Mutagenic Viral Glycoprotein Library Reveals Determinants ... Deep Mutational Scanning of Viral Glycoproteins and Their Host Receptors.. Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences ... Genes, Viral. Laboratory. Membrane Fusion. Influenza A virus. Viral Fusion Glycoproteins. Virus. Vitreous Body Structure. ... Viral glycoproteins: biological role and application in diagnosis.. Mar 1, 2016·Virusdisease·Nilotpal Banerjee, Sumi ...
These data also indicate that other unknown cellular factors are functioning as viral receptors for filovirus glycoprotein- ... the glycoproteins bind to specific receptors on the cell surface to initiate membrane fusion; these envelope-receptor ... Blocking transduction of filovirus glycoprotein-pseudotyped FIV with FRα inhibitors.To examine the role of FRα as a receptor ... In addition to MRB/ampho chimeric glycoproteins, we pursued a parallel approach by using the native FIV envelope glycoprotein ...
HIV-1-envelope-glycoprotein-mediated fusion and viral infection. HIV-1-envelope-glycoprotein (env)-mediated fusion assays were ... Fusogenic mechanisms of enveloped-virus glycoproteins analyzed by a novel recombinant vaccinia virus-based assay quantitating ... G-protein-coupled chemoattractant receptors including chemokine receptors and the receptors for classic chemotactic factors ... The N-formyl peptide chemotactic receptors. Chemoattractant ligands and their receptors. CRC Press; Boca Raton, FL; 1996. p. ...
Receptor-mediated viral entry to endothelial/epithelial cells requires a glycoprotein H (gH) complex comprising five viral ... Proteomics analysis of the vaccine virions has shown similar compositions for major viral glycoproteins, including gM, gB, and ... Pentameric complex of viral glycoprotein H is the primary target for potent neutralization by a human cytomegalovirus vaccine. ... Pentameric complex of viral glycoprotein H is the primary target for potent neutralization by a human cytomegalovirus vaccine ...
... is accomplished by the glycoproteins (gs) in the virion envelope and is thought of as a two-step process. First, virions bind ... The structure of the viral glycoproteins has most likely evolved to optimize their role in infection. HSV-1 virions contain ... First, virions bind to host cells via a surface receptor molecule. Second, they enter cells by fusion of the virion envelope ... Although gB and gD are the most abundant glycoproteins in HSV-1-infected cells, the topography of the glycoproteins assembled ...
The spike glycoprotein (S) mediates virus entry and is a primary determinant of cell tro … ... Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism* * Receptors, Virus / metabolism * Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus * Viral Envelope ... and is responsible for binding to the receptor on the host cell as well as mediating the fusion of host and viral membranes-A ... Mechanisms of coronavirus cell entry mediated by the viral spike protein Viruses. 2012 Jun;4(6):1011-33. doi: 10.3390/v4061011 ...
The viral membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins are responsible for receptor recognition and entry into target cells through ... Together the E1, E2, and sometimes E3 glycoprotein "spikes" form an E1/E2 dimer or an E1/E2/E3 trimer, where E2 extends from ... The Fusion glycoprotein shell of Semliki Forest virus: an icosahedral assembly primed for fusogenic activation at endosomal pH. ... The proteolytic maturation of P62 into E2 (IPR000936) and E3 causes a change in the viral surface. ...
... we asked whether or not the mRED-DN-myoVa constructs could preclude viral glycoprotein transport to the cell surface. We ... Motor protein-dependent transport of AMPA receptors into spines during long-term potentiation. Nat. Neurosci. 11:457-466. ... Myosin Va Enhances Secretion of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Virions and Cell Surface Expression of Viral Glycoproteins. Kari L. ... Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids transit by the trans-Golgi network, where viral glycoproteins accumulate independently of ...
We summarize current knowledge of viral factors that determine host range restriction and pathogenicity of influenza A viruses. ... Pandemics are caused by viruses that contain a hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein to which human populations are ... Viral Proteins Responsible for Host Range Restriction. Viral Glycoproteins. The HA protein mediates virus binding to sialic ... Receptor determinants of human and animal influenza virus isolates: differences in receptor specificity of the H3 hemagglutinin ...
... interaction between viral glycoproteins and Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 have been reported (41), and interaction ... The HA glycoprotein of influenza A virus is a type I transmembrane protein that binds to sialic acid residues on target-cell ... There has been evidence suggesting that viral glycoproteins may interact with pattern recognition receptors to induce ... 1A). The results suggest that the HA glycoproteins of VN1203 contribute to viral spread from the respiratory tract. ...
Although pSn has been shown to be a critical entry receptor for PRRSV on macrophages, viral envelope glycoproteins that act as ... To identify viral ligands for the PRRSV receptor pSn, pSn4D-Fc was used in an immunoprecipitation reaction. PSn4D-Fc was coated ... Although sialic acids are present on the GP3, GP4 and GP5 envelope glycoproteins, only the M/GP5 glycoprotein complex of PRRSV ... Although sialic acids are present on the GP3, GP4 and GP5 envelope glycoproteins, only the M/GP5 glycoprotein complex of PRRSV ...
Understanding viral vector binding and entry pathways is fundamental for developing cystic fibrosis gene therapy applications. ... Recently, folate receptor alpha (FR alpha), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked surface protein, was reported to be a ... independent entry by filovirus glycoprotein-pseudotyped FIV-based vectors in airway epithelia. Of particular interest, entry ... In an attempt to target these apical receptors, we pseudotyped feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based vectors by using ...
Although glycoproteins and proteoglycans have been a subject of re- search for many years, it is only during the last five or ... many cell surface recep- tors, and viral coat proteins are but a few examples. Thus, investigators with interests as diverse as ... Cross section Mammalia biological functions biosynthesis cell chemistry development glycoprotein immunoglobulin interferon ... Although glycoproteins and proteoglycans have been a subject of re- search for many years, it is only during the last five or ...
This unit describes quantitation of functional interactions between HIV envelope glcoprotein and target cell receptors, using ... Chemokine receptors as HIV‐1 coreceptors: Roles in viral entry, tropism, and disease. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 17:657‐700. ... Functional interaction of paramyxovirus glycoproteins: Identification of a domain in Sendai virus HN which promotes cell fusion ... Utilization of chemokine receptors, orphan receptors, and herpesvirus‐encoded receptors by diverse human and simian ...
... are HIV viral coat proteins.. Soluble glycoproteins often show a high viscosity, for example, in egg white and blood plasma. ... Miraculin, is a glycoprotein extracted from Synsepalum dulcificum a berry which alters human tongue receptors to recognize sour ... Glycoproteins are important for white blood cell recognition.[citation needed] Examples of glycoproteins in the immune system ... Some important methods used to study glycoproteins Method Use Periodic acid-Schiff stain Detects glycoproteins as pink bands ...
viral glycoproteins in their native, viral surface forms can be difficult to achieve as they are oligomeric, metastable, and ... Insight into receptor binding and entry: This structure, the first near-complete structure of any filovirus glycoprotein, ... Through production of some 140 versions of the viral glycoprotein, alone or in complex with one of seven different antibodies, ... This work explains how the glycoprotein, termed GP, mediates host recognition, drives fusion of the viral and host membranes ...
Lozach PY, Burleigh L, Staropoli I, Amara A (2007). The C type lectins DC-SIGN and L-SIGN: receptors for viral glycoproteins. ... "High-Affinity Glycopolymer Binding to Human DC-SIGN and Disruption of DC-SIGN Interactions with HIV Envelope Glycoprotein". J. ... A cluster of genes in both humans and mice contains three related members of the "DC Receptor" class, so named because of their ... DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin receptor present on the surface of both macrophages and dendritic cells. DC-SIGN on macrophages ...
Sometimes a mutation that enhances one viral property, such as binding to a receptor, can reduce another property, such as ... It should also be noted that viral glycoproteins are subject to evolutionary trade-offs. ... Eight of the mutations of the B.1.1.7 lineage are in the gene for glycoprotein S. The most important are the substitution of an ... The 501Y variants are likely to have higher affinity for the human ACE2 receptor. A different variant, also with the N501Y ...
... processing of the pro-protein or replication of the viral genome. Since its identification as the first putative receptor for ... Following the discovery of the E2 glycoproteins role in HCV infection and disease progression, several approaches have been ... and the lack of a resolved crystal structure for the HCV E2 glycoprotein. Recently, two crystal structures have been reported ... In addition, this interaction has also been shown to down regulate T-cell receptors and suppress the activity of natural killer ...
... the Fc receptors UL117/UL118; the viral CXC chemokine homologue UL147; as well as the tumor necrosis element receptor homologue ... This area in HCMV encodes several eight glycoproteins which were originally grouped into two family members US2 and US6 (11) ... is a 55 kD single chain transmembrane glycoprotein and belongs to immunoglobulin superfamily. CD4 is found on most thymocytes ... This list contains homologues from the viral inhibitor of caspase activation UL36; the viral mitochondrial inhibitor of ...
... which is composed of the two glycoproteins gp120 and gp41). "These viral proteins interact with cellular proteins to allow the ... We found 4 insertions in the spike glycoprotein (S) which are unique to the 2019-nCoV and are not present in other ... 3D-modelling of the 2019-nCoV suggests that they converge to constitute the receptor binding site. The finding of 4 unique ... A few interesting viral things have recently caught my eye: - Scott Gottlieb, former FDA commissioner, points out that many of ...
Frantz P.N., Teeravechyan S., Tangy F. Measles-derived vaccines to prevent emerging viral diseases. Microbes Infect., 2018, Vol ... Lassa virus entry requires a trigger-induced receptor switch. Science, 2014, Vol. 344, no. 6191, pp. 1506-1510. ... Enhanced efficacy of a codon-optimized DNA vaccine encoding the glycoprotein precursor gene of Lassa virus in a guinea pig ... A recombinant yellow fever 17D vaccine expressing Lassa virus glycoproteins. J. Virol., 2006, Vol. 345, no. 2, pp. 299-304. ...
The newfound receptors indicate the effect and degree of susceptibility of the host and support the statistical data of HSV-1 ... systems can be the only way to prevent future viral epidemics or pandemics. Therefore, early detection of the virus with ... To mitigate its pervasive nature that greatly affects both men and women, a thorough understanding of the viral genome and ... Lu Z, Brans R, Akhrameyeva NV, Murakami N, Xu X, Yao F. High-level expression of glycoprotein D by a dominant-negative HSV-1 ...
... and complete size replicons and viral pseudoparticles holding HCV envelop glycoproteins on the capsid backbone of vesicular ... EDG Receptors *EGFR *Elastase *Elk3 *ENaC *Encephalitogenic Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein *Encephalitogenic Myelin ... In that situation, it is usually difficult to determine the exact date of infection or exposure and the infecting viral strain( ... We draw parallels between HCV and the current knowledge about protective memory in other models of chronic viral attacks. ...
A peplomer is a glycoprotein spike on a viral capsid or viral envelope. Many virions are spheroidal-actually icosahedral-the ... Bilayer and glycoproteins, um capsídeo é uma das duas partes de vírus!, inorganic solid substance that has a membranous layer ... integrity of the viral RNA when the virion is outside the host cell and to initiate the infectious process when a receptor on a ... A viral capsid or viral envelope ба худ ҷамъ шуда, капсидро ташкил медиҳанд patients multiple!, viruses can not carry out their ...
A Cryptic Site of Vulnerability on the Receptor Binding Domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein. bioRxiv. 10.1101/2020.03. ... Viral "Molecular Scissor" is Next COVID-19 Drug Target 9 months 6 hours ago ... crystal structures of the Nipah G attachment glycoprotein and its complex with ephrin-B3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 105, 9953-8 ... Crystal Structure of the Pre-fusion Nipah Virus Fusion Glycoprotein Reveals a Novel Hexamer-of-Trimers Assembly. PLoS Pathog. ...
A Cryptic Site of Vulnerability on the Receptor Binding Domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein. bioRxiv. 10.1101/2020.03. ... Viral "Molecular Scissor" is Next COVID-19 Drug Target 9 months 1 week ago ... crystal structures of the Nipah G attachment glycoprotein and its complex with ephrin-B3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 105, 9953-8 ... Crystal Structure of the Pre-fusion Nipah Virus Fusion Glycoprotein Reveals a Novel Hexamer-of-Trimers Assembly. PLoS Pathog. ...
A Cryptic Site of Vulnerability on the Receptor Binding Domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein. bioRxiv. 10.1101/2020.03. ... Viral "Molecular Scissor" is Next COVID-19 Drug Target 9 months 5 days ago ...
Structures of netrin-1 bound to two receptors provide insight into its axon guidance mechanism. Science. 344, 1275-9 ... crystal structures of the Nipah G attachment glycoprotein and its complex with ephrin-B3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 105, 9953-8 ... Viral "Molecular Scissor" is Next COVID-19 Drug Target 9 months 1 week ago ... Ligand recognition by A-class Eph receptors: crystal structures of the EphA2 ligand-binding domain and the EphA2/ephrin-A1 ...
  • We also highlight commonalities between coronavirus S proteins and other class I viral fusion proteins, as well as distinctive features that confer distinct tropism, pathogenicity and host interspecies transmission characteristics to coronaviruses. (nih.gov)
  • Little is known about the host or viral proteins involved. (asm.org)
  • interferon, immunoglobulins, certain hormones, many cell surface recep- tors, and viral coat proteins are but a few examples. (springer.com)
  • Glycoproteins are proteins which contain oligosaccharide chains ( glycans ) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates are attached to some proteins to form glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoproteins are also often important integral membrane proteins , where they play a role in cell-cell interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. (mdpi.com)
  • It is known that the SARS-CoV-2 antagonizes interferon (signaling proteins released in response to viral infection) induction. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers reported that the spike-specific antibodies played only a minor role in ADNKA compared to antibodies to other viral proteins, including ORF3a, Membrane, and Nucleocapsid. (news-medical.net)
  • While viral entry glycoproteins are often found on the infected cell surface and can mediate ADCC when expressed alone, other viral proteins may be the principal mediators of ADCC during infection. (news-medical.net)
  • The structural proteins of HCV are believed to comprise the core protein and two predicted envelope glycoproteins (gps), E1 and E2. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CHIKV surface envelope proteins, E2 and E1, function as receptor binding and fusion protein, respectively. (portlandpress.com)
  • The viral surface envelope-anchored proteins, E2 and E1, perform receptor binding and membrane fusion functions, respectively. (portlandpress.com)
  • This interplay between viral and host proteins is evident at virtually every step in the HIV replication cycle, from binding and entry to particle release. (drexel.edu)
  • While acidification of viral type II fusion proteins is required for rearrangement to the post-fusion form, the trigger for HAP2 is not known. (virology.ws)
  • These viral and cell proteins are so similar that it is highly improbable that they arose by convergent evolution. (virology.ws)
  • The 9.6-kb genome encodes one large polyprotein that is processed by viral and cellular proteinases to produce the virion structural proteins (core and glycoproteins E1 and E2) as well as nonstructural (NS) proteins (p7 through NS5B) ( Fig. 1A ). (sciencemag.org)
  • They have developed small molecules called effector proteins that bind to PAMPs, in effect hiding them from the plant receptors. (elifesciences.org)
  • GP1 subunit serves a putative role in receptor binding, while the structure of GP2 subunit is consistent with viral transmembrane fusion proteins. (prospecbio.com)
  • While less explored, deep mutational scans of host receptors further assist in understanding virus-host protein interactions. (meta.org)
  • Recently, folate receptor alpha (FRα), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked surface protein, was reported to be a cellular receptor for the filoviruses. (asm.org)
  • In contrast to other enveloped RNA viruses such as paramyxoviruses, both retroviruses and filoviruses have a single type 1 transmembrane structural protein that assembles into homotrimers and mediates both receptor binding and fusion ( 30 ). (asm.org)
  • In this study, it is shown that a classic chemotactic factor, the bacterial chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenyl-alanine (fMLF), rapidly induced a protein-kinase-C-mediated serine phosphorylation and down-regulation of the chemokine receptor CCR5, which serves as a major human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 coreceptor. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 6-10 Human monocytes express a wide variety of 7-transmembrane (STM), G-protein-coupled chemoattractant receptors including chemokine receptors and the receptors for classic chemotactic factors such as the bacterial chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF), activated complement component 5 (C5a), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). (bloodjournal.org)
  • It is classified as a class I fusion protein, and is responsible for binding to the receptor on the host cell as well as mediating the fusion of host and viral membranes-A process driven by major conformational changes of the S protein. (nih.gov)
  • This review discusses coronavirus entry mechanisms focusing on the different triggers used by coronaviruses to initiate the conformational change of the S protein: receptor binding, low pH exposure and proteolytic activation. (nih.gov)
  • Most alphaviruses lose the peripheral protein E3, but in Semliki viruses it remains associated with the viral surface. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The HA protein mediates virus binding to sialic acid (SA)-containing host cell surface molecules and promotes the release of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes through membrane fusion. (cdc.gov)
  • The HA of influenza virus is a receptor-binding and fusion protein that is required to initiate infection. (pnas.org)
  • The HA glycoprotein of influenza A virus is a type I transmembrane protein that binds to sialic acid residues on target-cell glycoproteins or glycolipids ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • GP2 forms the protein machinery which drives fusion of the viral membrane with the host cell. (stanford.edu)
  • Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 protein (DMBT1), salivary agglutinin (DMBT1 SAG ), and lung glycoprotein-340 (DMBT1 GP340 ) are three names for glycoproteins encoded by the same DMBT1 gene. (mdpi.com)
  • Viral surface receptor-binding protein associates with membrane fusion protein and masks its structure, to prevent pre-mature fusion activity. (portlandpress.com)
  • Dissociation of receptor-binding protein from fusion protein is an essential step before membrane fusion. (portlandpress.com)
  • Mechanism of receptor binding leading to dissociation of receptor binding and fusion protein is poorly understood in alphaviruses. (portlandpress.com)
  • The Gag polyprotein is a structural protein that plays a central role in the late stages of viral replication. (drexel.edu)
  • The HIV-1 MA protein, encoded as the N-terminal portion of Gag, is a small, multifunctional protein responsible for regulating various stages of the viral replication cycle. (drexel.edu)
  • Functional studies have revealed that the matrix protein (MA) of HIV-1 is critically involved in key processes including the intracellular localization of the Gag polyprotein, the incorporation of the viral envelope glycoprotein into virus particles, and early post-entry events. (drexel.edu)
  • Given the breadth of functions of the HIV-1 MA protein in both the early and late stages of the viral life cycle, we believe that MA may participate in a larger number of interactions with host cell factors than previously appreciated and that each interaction may itself modulate the interactions that the HIV-1 MA protein is capable of by alteration of the structure of the protein. (drexel.edu)
  • Developed in 2007, the chemokine receptor antagonist blocks entry of certain specific strains of HIV, which attach to a particular protein on the immune cell's surface known as chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). (medicinenet.com)
  • The RNA is covered in an envelope known as capsid which has two glycoproteins (a kind of protein molecule that incorporates a sugar molecule), gp120 and gp41, embedded in its surface. (medicinenet.com)
  • Homology modeling shows that the HAP2 protein looks very much like a class II viral fusion protein (illustrated). (virology.ws)
  • The HAP2 protein also has what looks to be a viral fusion loop. (virology.ws)
  • This modulation is mediated through CXCR4, the receptor of SDF-1, and a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein-coupled signaling pathway that induces an elevation of cAMP. (jneurosci.org)
  • Both full-length chimeras and the subgenomic RNA were competent for RNA replication, as seen by the accumulation of NS5A protein and viral RNA 48 hours after RNA transfection into the Huh-7.5 cell line ( Fig. 1B ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In the case of ecotropic MLV, the process is initiated by interaction with the 622 amino acid transmembrane receptor protein mouse cationic amino acid transporter (mCAT-1) located on the cell surface. (hubpages.com)
  • The tomato fungus Cladosporium fulvum , for example, secretes an effector protein called Ecp6, which contains lysin motifs just like those in the plant receptors. (elifesciences.org)
  • This can outcompete the plant receptors, which use only a single lysin domain to bind the fungal protein. (elifesciences.org)
  • while, the L segment encodes the viral polymerase (L protein) and RING finger Z matrix protein. (prospecbio.com)
  • NP is a virion protein which binds and protects the viral RNA. (prospecbio.com)
  • The E1 glycoprotein (red-orange) participates in cell fusion, whereas the E2 glycoprotein (yellow) binds to cellular receptors. (sciencephoto.com)
  • it binds to the human host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, enabling viral entry. (news-medical.net)
  • A truncated soluble form of the hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein, E2 661 , binds specifically to the surface of cells expressing human CD81 (hCD81) but not other members of the tetraspanin family (CD9, CD63, and CD151). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The latest ART drug to be approved by FDA in 2018, the post-attachment inhibitor prevents the viral envelope fusion with the cell membrane after it binds to the cell. (medicinenet.com)
  • The HIV glycoprotein gp120 binds to the CD4 receptor on the T-cell's surface. (medicinenet.com)
  • The fusion inhibitor binds to the HIV glycoprotein gp41, alters its structure and prevents the completion of fusion. (medicinenet.com)
  • The chemokine receptor antagonist binds to the CCR5 receptor and stops the HIV's gp120 from attaching to it. (medicinenet.com)
  • The post-attachment inhibitor binds to the T-cell's CD4 receptor and alters its structure. (medicinenet.com)
  • We demonstrate that cleavage exposes a site at the top of GP and that this site binds the critical domain C of the receptor, termed Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). (asm.org)
  • Previous work in the model plant Arabidopsis has shown that chitin binds to a single lysin motif within each plant receptor. (elifesciences.org)
  • The fold of Bundibugyo virus glycoprotein, not previously visualized, is similar to the fold of Ebola virus GP, and ADI-15878 binds to each virus's GP with a similar strategy and angle of attack. (asm.org)
  • Upon exposure of the virus to the acidity of the endosome, E1 dissociates from E2 to form an E1 homotrimer, which is necessary for the fusion step to drive the cellular and viral membranes together [ PMID: 11301009 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This work explains how the glycoprotein, termed GP, mediates host recognition, drives fusion of the viral and host membranes and masks itself from immune surveillance. (stanford.edu)
  • Of these, GP1 is responsible for receptor engagement while GP2 mediates fusion of viral and host membranes. (stanford.edu)
  • The TM subunit functions to anchor the complex into the viral envelope and is critical for fusion between cellular and viral membranes. (hubpages.com)
  • The CD4-gp120 complex undergoes a structural change with a loop that attaches to one of the other two receptors (CCR5 or CXCR4) found on the T-cell surface. (medicinenet.com)
  • The chemokine receptor antagonist is ineffective against those virus strains that bind with CXCR4. (medicinenet.com)
  • Mutational landscapes of viral glycoproteins for host cell attachment and membrane fusion reveal extensive epistasis and potential escape mutations to neutralizing antibodies or other therapeutics, as well as aiding in the design of optimized immunogens for eliciting broadly protective immunity. (meta.org)
  • By utilizing phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) treatment and FRα-blocking antibodies, we demonstrated FRα-dependent and -independent entry by filovirus glycoprotein-pseudotyped FIV-based vectors in airway epithelia. (asm.org)
  • Chemokine ligands specific for CCR5 and antibodies recognizing this receptor have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 entry and replication. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Previous vaccines lacked an antigen called pentameric glycoprotein H (gH) complex, essential for the virus to infect epithelial/endothelial cells, and these vaccines induced poor neutralizing antibodies. (pnas.org)
  • Through production of some 140 versions of the viral glycoprotein, alone or in complex with one of seven different antibodies, Jeffrey Lee, Marnie Fusco and Erica Ollmann Saphire of The Scripps Research Institute were able to crystallize the trimeric, prefusion form of GP, in complex with a neutralizing antibody derived from a human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit, Zaire outbreak. (stanford.edu)
  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoprotein E2 is the major target of neutralizing antibodies and is therefore highly relevant for vaccine design. (rcsb.org)
  • The viral glycoprotein E2 contains regions that are crucial for virus entry into the host cell, and antibodies that bind to these regions can neutralize infection. (rcsb.org)
  • Using cryo-electron microscopy, we describe the contrasting structural outcomes of trimeric Env binding to soluble CD4, to the broadly neutralizing, CD4-binding site antibodies VRC01, VRC03 and b12, or to the monoclonal antibody 17b, a co-receptor mimic. (fei.com)
  • This effect on the cell-cell fusion activity by the S glycoprotein is not, however, reflected in the infectivity of pseudotyped lentiviruses bearing the cleaved glycoprotein. (osti.gov)
  • The lack of effect of furin cleavage on virion infectivity mirrors that observed in the normally cleaved S glycoprotein of the murine coronavirus and highlights an additional level of complexity in coronavirus entry. (osti.gov)
  • The infectivity of herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) is accomplished by the glycoproteins (g's) in the virion envelope and is thought of as a two-step process. (springer.com)
  • Expression of dominant negative myoVa isoforms reduced secretion of HSV-1 infectivity into the medium by 50 to 75%, reduced surface expression of glycoproteins B, M, and D, and increased intracellular virus infectivity to levels consistent with increased retention of virions in the cytoplasm. (asm.org)
  • Jeremy Luban, Aaron Lin, and Ted Diehl join the TWiV team to discuss their work on identifying a single amino acid change i n the Ebola virus glycoprotein from the West African outbreak that increases infectivity in human cells. (virology.ws)
  • In an attempt to target these apical receptors, we pseudotyped feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based vectors by using envelope glycoproteins (GPs) from the filoviruses Marburg virus and Ebola virus. (asm.org)
  • Together Ebola virus (EBO) and Marburg virus (MRB) comprise the two members of the viral family Filoviridae . (asm.org)
  • The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa is unique because viral genome sequences were obtained early and throughout the epidemic. (virology.ws)
  • IMPORTANCE Ebola virus uses its glycoprotein (GP) to enter new host cells. (asm.org)
  • Here we present two crystal structures of this rare, pan-ebolavirus neutralizing human antibody in complex with Ebola virus and Bundibugyo virus glycoproteins (GPs), respectively. (asm.org)
  • To investigate the folate receptor dependence of gene transfer with the filovirus pseudotypes, we compared gene transfer efficiency in immortalized airway epithelium cell lines and primary cultures. (asm.org)
  • This structure, the first near-complete structure of any filovirus glycoprotein, allowed identification of a putative receptor-binding site on GP. (stanford.edu)
  • The filovirus surface glycoprotein (GP) mediates viral entry into host cells. (asm.org)
  • The viral membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins are responsible for receptor recognition and entry into target cells through membrane fusion. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In enveloped virus cell entry, viral and host membrane fusion follows receptor binding. (portlandpress.com)
  • Coupled with any of a number of selection strategies, deep mutagenesis can explore the mutational diversity available to viral glycoproteins, which mediate critical roles in cell entry and are exposed to the humoral arm of the host immune response. (meta.org)
  • The glycoprotein GP is the sole resident of the ebolavirus surface and is responsible for attaching to and entering new host cells, shielding of the viral surface from immune surveillance, and maintenance of viral stability between hosts (often in caves for long periods of time). (stanford.edu)
  • The successful viral pathogens can antagonize these immune pathways with genes that inhibit the key players in the immune system. (news-medical.net)
  • Research Interests: Our research project is focused on the host immune response to viral infections. (unl.edu)
  • Following viral internalization into endosomes, GP is cleaved by host cysteine proteases to expose a receptor-binding site (RBS) that is otherwise hidden from immune surveillance. (asm.org)
  • While host immune receptors detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns to activate immunity, pathogens attempt to deregulate host immunity through secreted effectors. (elifesciences.org)
  • Fungi employ LysM effectors to prevent recognition of cell wall-derived chitin by host immune receptors, although the mechanism to compete for chitin binding remained unclear. (elifesciences.org)
  • Conceivably, the perturbation by this LysM domain is not established through chitin sequestration but possibly through interference with the host immune receptor complex. (elifesciences.org)
  • The fMLF binding to its receptor, formyl peptide receptor (FPR), resulted in significant attenuation of cell responses to CCR5 ligands and in inhibition of HIV-1-envelope-glycoprotein-mediated fusion and infection of cells expressing CD4, CCR5, and FPR. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The structure of the viral glycoproteins has most likely evolved to optimize their role in infection. (springer.com)
  • These data suggest that myoVa is activated during HSV-1 infection to help transport virion- and glycoprotein-laden vesicles from the TGN, through the cortical actin, to the plasma membrane. (asm.org)
  • The soluble sialoadhesin could bind PRRSV in a sialic acid-dependent manner and could neutralize PRRSV infection of macrophages, thereby confirming the role of sialoadhesin as an essential PRRSV receptor on macrophages. (prolekare.cz)
  • As there was a clear gap in the knowledge of PRRSV ligands that bind to specific receptors, it was difficult to aim for specific blocking of crucial steps in PRRSV infection of the porcine macrophage. (prolekare.cz)
  • HIV-1 infection begins with the binding of trimeric viral envelope glycoproteins (Env) to CD4 and a co-receptor on target Tcells. (fei.com)
  • HIV infection has no cure but ART can contain the viral growth and keep the patient healthy and active for many years. (medicinenet.com)
  • Retrovirus infection is initiated by the binding of the surface (SU) portion of the viral envelope glycoprotein to specific cellular receptors expressed on the cell surface. (hubpages.com)
  • these envelope-receptor interactions dictate cellular tropism. (asm.org)
  • To overcome these barriers to gene transfer, an improved understanding of receptor biology and virus-cell interactions is essential. (asm.org)
  • Interactions between cell surface receptors are important regulatory elements in the complex host responses to infections. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This unit describes quantitation of functional interactions between HIV envelope glcoprotein and target cell receptors, using assay of cell fusion‐dependent reporter gene activation. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Antigenic characterization of secreted E2 661 suggests that it folds in a way comparable to that observed in E1-E2 complexes and therefore makes an ideal soluble mimic of a viral ligand to study cellular receptor interactions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our studies indicate that binding of GP to its endosomal receptor Niemann-Pick C1 occurs in two distinct stages: the initial electrostatic interactions are followed by specific interactions with a hydrophobic trough that is exposed on the endosomally cleaved GP 1 subunit. (asm.org)
  • Thus, efficient virus replication requires the balanced actions of HA receptor-binding specificity and NA sialidase activity. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to the terminal sialic-acid linkages, internal linkages, as well as fucosylation, sulfation, and sialylation at the inner oligosaccharides, also determine receptor-binding affinity and specificity ( 2 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The SU portion of the viral glycoprotein harbors the determinants of the specificity of the virus for its cognate cellular receptor and therefore is vital to viral tropism. (hubpages.com)
  • Studies have shown that the first two variable regions (VRA and VRB) determine the receptor specificity of the ecotropic Fr-MLV gp70. (hubpages.com)
  • These regions confer specificity to different receptors and this specific interaction is the major determinant of the tropism of retroviruses as cells lacking the receptor are nonpermissive for viral entry. (hubpages.com)
  • Pandemics are caused by viruses that contain a hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein to which human populations are immunologically naive. (cdc.gov)
  • We summarize current knowledge of viral factors that determine host range restriction and pathogenicity of influenza A viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • The HA receptor-binding domain determines the species of sialyl receptors recognized by influenza viruses. (pnas.org)
  • they also suggest that a minor change in receptor binding domain may modulate the virulence of H5N1 viruses. (pnas.org)
  • Despite their preferential recognition of α2,3-linked sialyl receptors, highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses are able to infect humans and cause severe disease. (pnas.org)
  • Surface glycoproteins have also been reported to play a role in the pathogenicity of H5N1 viruses isolated in Hong Kong in 1997 ( 11 , 25 ), H7N7 virus isolated in the Netherlands ( 26 ), and the H1N1 1918 pandemic virus ( 27 ). (pnas.org)
  • Similar to other enveloped viruses, CHIKV enters cells in a sequential, two-step process: (i) virus binding to cell surface receptor, followed by endocytosis and (ii) fusion of viral envelope with endocytic vesicle membrane that leads to opening of a fusion pore. (portlandpress.com)
  • Found in dengue virus and many related viruses, dimers of these viral glycoproteins lie flat on the viral membrane, and are comprised largely of beta-strands. (virology.ws)
  • Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis viruses with HAP2 in place of the viral glycoprotein cannot enter cells. (virology.ws)
  • Identifying such mutations in human viruses is extremely difficult: we cannot conduct the appropriate experiments in humans, and often do not have viral isolates spanning the time from spillover through prolonged circulation. (virology.ws)
  • For example, the receptors for serotype 2 and serotype 5 adenovirus (CAR) and AAV-2 (heparin sulfate proteoglycan) are predominantly expressed on the basolateral surface of airway epithelia ( 6 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • First, virions bind to host cells via a surface receptor molecule. (springer.com)
  • The proteolytic maturation of P62 into E2 ( IPR000936 ) and E3 causes a change in the viral surface. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A team of researchers have recently determined the crystal structure of the oligomeric, viral surface glycoprotein in complex with a rare antibody derived from a human survivor. (stanford.edu)
  • viral glycoproteins in their native, viral surface forms can be difficult to achieve as they are oligomeric, metastable, and heavily glycosylated. (stanford.edu)
  • GP1 forms a hydrophobic clamp on GP2, holding it in this metastable, prefusion conformation on the viral surface. (stanford.edu)
  • Using a proteomic approach, the researchers systematically analyzed the changes happening in the receptors on the cell surface. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers demonstrated that this is evident from 1) the lack of significant MHC-I cell surface downregulation, 2) the emergence of ADNKA with humoral immunity, and 3) the inability of infected cells to bind human IgG from seronegative donors (i.e., the virus does not encode Fc receptors as ADNKA decoys). (news-medical.net)
  • The envelope glycoprotein complexes of retroviruses are expressed as a trimer of two polypeptides, an external glycosylated hydrophilic surface domain (SU) and a membrane-spanning transmembrane domain (TM). (hubpages.com)
  • Together they form a knob or knobbed spike on the surface of the virus and both are required for viral entry. (hubpages.com)
  • Both the SU and TM domains are encoded by the viral env gene and are translated from spliced mRNA as a single polyprotein precursor that must be proteolytically cleaved by host proteases during transport to the cell surface. (hubpages.com)
  • The SU subunit contains domains responsible for the interaction with cell surface receptors including the receptor binding domain (RBD). (hubpages.com)
  • Evidence also suggests that the VRA region of Mo-MLV recognizes the receptor, while downstream regions such as VRB and proline-rich regions are important for stabilization of the receptor-specific structure on the surface of the virion. (hubpages.com)
  • These molecular signatures are known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and they are detected by specialized receptors on the surface of plant cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • To determine whether proteolytic cleavage of the S glycoprotein might be important for the newly emerged SARS-CoV, we introduced a furin recognition site at single basic residues within the putative S1-S2 junctional region. (osti.gov)
  • Viral entry was dependent on cellular expression of a putative HCV receptor, CD81. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although gB and gD are the most abundant glycoproteins in HSV-1-infected cells, the topography of the glycoproteins assembled into the virion envelope has not been elucidated. (springer.com)
  • The spike glycoprotein (S) mediates virus entry and is a primary determinant of cell tropism and pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • This superfamily includes the chemokine receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Virus particles were filterable and neutralized with a monoclonal antibody against the viral glycoprotein E2. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although the coronavirus (CoV) S glycoproteins share membership in this class of envelope glycoproteins, cleavage to generate the respective S1 and S2 subunits appears absent in a subset of CoV species, including that responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). (osti.gov)
  • however, the cellular receptors for many of envelope glycoproteins available to pseudotype lentiviral vectors are unknown or poorly characterized. (asm.org)
  • The fusogenic potential of Class I viral envelope glycoproteins is activated by proteloytic cleavage of the precursor glycoprotein to generate the mature receptor-binding and transmembrane fusion subunits. (osti.gov)
  • The chemokine receptor CCR5 is a major fusion cofactor used by most of the primary isolates of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Structural localization of the E3 glycoprotein in attenuated Sindbis virus mutants. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The Fusion glycoprotein shell of Semliki Forest virus: an icosahedral assembly primed for fusogenic activation at endosomal pH. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Here, we demonstrate that changes in the HA receptor-binding domain alter the ability of the H5N1 virus to spread systemically in mice. (pnas.org)
  • HA is a host-range determinant, because human and avian influenza virus HAs preferentially recognize α2,6- and α2,3-linked sialyl receptors, respectively ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major threat to swine health worldwide and is considered the most significant viral disease in the swine industry today. (prolekare.cz)
  • In past years, studies on the entry of the virus into its host cell have led to the identification of a number of essential virus receptors and entry mediators. (prolekare.cz)
  • The virus resembles other known flavivirus structures with the exception of approximately 10 amino acids surrounding the Asn154 glycosylation site in each of the 180 envelope glycoproteins comprising the icosahedral shell, the carbohydrate moiety of which may be the attachment site of the virus to host cells. (medscape.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the major cause of non-A, non-B viral hepatitis, is an enveloped virus classified in the Flaviviridae family, which also includes the flaviviruses (e.g., tick-borne encephalitis virus and dengue virus) and pestiviruses (e.g., bovine viral diarrhea virus and classical swine fever virus) ( 24 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Interrupting or stopping ART can lead to increase in viral load, and virus mutations that develop resistance to treatment. (medicinenet.com)
  • This drug class works selectively on certain HIV strains such as R5 that attach to chemokine receptor CCR5 (CCR5-tropic virus). (medicinenet.com)
  • Dengue virus E glycoproteins (monomer at top) lie flat on the virus particle as dimers (middle). (virology.ws)
  • The fusion loop of the dengue virus E glycoprotein cannot substitute for the HAP2 sequence. (virology.ws)
  • Lassa virus, which is a member of the Arenaviridae virus family, causes acute viral hemorrhagic fever. (prospecbio.com)
  • Critical residues on the host receptors for engaging with viral spikes are readily identified and may help with structural modeling. (meta.org)
  • The first chapter deals primarily with structural work on the oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins, but it will be apparent in it and in the succeeding two chapters on biosynthesis that not only do structural studies aid biosynthetic investigations, but that studies on biosynthesis often playa major role in elucidation of structure. (springer.com)
  • structural glycoproteins, which occur in connective tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Filoviral envelope glycoproteins have received attention as candidates for pseudotyping retrovirus to target a variety of cell types ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • N-linked, glycosylation can prevent proper glycoprotein folding and full inhibition can be toxic to an individual cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoproteins are important for white blood cell recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, the crystal structure identifies the probable cleavage site of GP and illustrates how cleavage at this site uncaps the receptor binding regions freeing them for interaction with host cell receptor(s). (stanford.edu)
  • Together, our data demonstrate a previously undescribed role for Mtb EsxA in mucosal invasion and identify SR-B1 as the airway M cell receptor for Mtb. (elifesciences.org)
  • The majority of these M cell receptors have been identified on gastrointestinal M cells, while receptor expression by airway microfold cells is less well understood. (elifesciences.org)
  • DAO5 specifically captures retrovirus particles bearing HCV glycoproteins (HCVpp) and infectious cell culture-derived HCV particles (HCVcc). (rcsb.org)
  • Receptor binding is the first step in viral cell entry. (portlandpress.com)
  • It enters the T-cell and releases certain enzymes which enable its integration with the host cell, and creation of more viral particles. (medicinenet.com)
  • The second glycoprotein gp41 inserts itself into the cell membrane. (medicinenet.com)
  • However, a suppressive effect was recently demonstrated for exosomes derived from EBV-transformed B cell lines (LCLs) carrying functional viral microRNAs that repress EBV-targeted genes in noninfected bystander cells ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • a 16 amino acid sequence at the C-terminal end that is cleaved off by the viral protease (PR) after the virion has been released from the cell. (hubpages.com)
  • Together the E1, E2, and sometimes E3 glycoprotein "spikes" form an E1/E2 dimer or an E1/E2/E3 trimer, where E2 extends from the centre to the vertices, E1 fills the space between the vertices, and E3, if present, is at the distal end of the spike [ PMID: 8107141 , PMID: 9445057 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Many species of plants are able to detect chitin using receptors that contain sequences of amino acids called lysin motifs. (elifesciences.org)
  • The E.Coli derived Recombinant Lassa Glycoprotein-1 (strain Mouse/Sierra Leone/Josiah/1976) containing 205 amino acids, having an Mw of 23kDa and the Isoelectric point is 6.7. (prospecbio.com)
  • Its structure features a central immunoglobulin (Ig)-like β-sandwich that contributes to the binding site for the cellular receptor CD81. (rcsb.org)
  • Regions of E2 involved in the CD81 interaction were analyzed, and our data suggest that the binding site is of a conformational nature involving aa 480 to 493 and 544 to 551 within the E2 glycoprotein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A viral polyprotein is produced and modified by the endoplasmic reticulum. (medscape.com)
  • Understanding viral vector binding and entry pathways is fundamental for developing cystic fibrosis gene therapy applications. (asm.org)
  • viral entry. (nih.gov)
  • This entry represents the alphaviral E3 glycoprotein. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Ongoing research projects include studies of paramyxovirus and herpesvirus entry mechanisms, IgE-receptor structure and function and TGF-beta ligand signaling pathways. (stanford.edu)
  • The three classes of entry inhibitor drugs block the viral fusion and entry process in different ways. (medicinenet.com)
  • During entry, GP must be cleaved by human enzymes in order for receptor binding to occur. (asm.org)
  • Thus, investigators with interests as diverse as viral replication. (springer.com)
  • We identify scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) as an EsxA receptor on airway M cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Schematic representation of retroviral envelope glycoprotein precursor. (hubpages.com)
  • HSV-1 virions contain seven envelope glycoproteins (1-6). (springer.com)
  • Deep Mutational Scanning of Viral Glycoproteins and Their Host Receptors. (meta.org)
  • Sequence analysis suggests an evolutionary relationship between the envelope glycoproteins of filoviruses and retroviruses ( 19 , 20 , 30 ), with evidence that filoviruses can infect the host through an airborne mechanism ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • The Jardetzky laboratory is studying the structures and mechanisms of macromolecular complexes important in viral pathogenesis, allergic hypersensitivities and the regulation of cellular growth and differentiation, with an interest in uncovering novel conceptual approaches to intervening in disease processes. (stanford.edu)
  • This is followed by endocytic uptake and then uncoating of the nucleocapsid and release of viral RNA into the cytoplasm. (medscape.com)
  • The receptor-binding domain is located at the HA membrane distal end, where the 130-loop, 220-loop, 190-helix, and other conserved residues (Y98, W153, H183, Y195) form the receptor-binding site ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • We solve the crystal structure of ligelizumab bound to IgE, and report epitope differences between ligelizumab and omalizumab that contribute to their qualitatively distinct IgE-receptor inhibition profiles. (stanford.edu)
  • Although sialic acids are present on the GP 3 , GP 4 and GP 5 envelope glycoproteins, only the M/GP 5 glycoprotein complex of PRRSV was identified as a ligand for sialoadhesin. (prolekare.cz)
  • The TWiVirions reveal bacteriophage genes that control eukaryotic reproduction, and the biochemical basis for increased Ebolavirus glycoprotein activity during the recent outbreak. (virology.ws)
  • Viral vector-mediated gene transfer to airway epithelial cells as therapy for diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF) presents many challenges. (asm.org)