Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Togaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Alphavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.Arbovirus Infections: Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Membrane Fusion Proteins: Proteins that catalyze MEMBRANE FUSION.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Gold Sodium Thiomalate: A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ross River virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Encephalitis, Arbovirus: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Protein PrecursorsGenome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.ThiomalatesCulture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Leporipoxvirus: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, consisting of ether-sensitive viruses of leporids and squirrels. They commonly cause tumors and are usually transmitted mechanically by arthropods. MYXOMA VIRUS is the type species.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Encephalomyocarditis virus: The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Monensin: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Mice, Inbred BALB CCysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
MIDV is classified as an Old World Alphavirus which also includes Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Ndumu virus, Barmah Forest virus ... After being taken in through endocytosis, a low pH triggers a membrane fusion, which delivers the viral RNA genomes into the ... this same study found that the MIDV E1 genes was likely formed through recombination with Semliki Forest virus, or a virus very ... These include: Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These viruses are more ...
Semliki forest virus, Hepatitis E virus, Sindbis virus, and arboviruses (which cause certain types of encephalitis). Many of ... responsible for replication of the viral genome. The dicistronic RNA3 (2.1 kb) encodes for two proteins, the 3a protein ( ... Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ... The alphavirus-like superfamily includes more than 250 plant and animal viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus, ...
Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus have all been used to develop viral vectors for ... The alphaviruses are small, spherical, enveloped viruses with a genome of a single positive sense strand RNA. The total genome ... virus O'nyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus ... virus complex Middelburg virus Ndumu virus complex Ndumu virus Semliki Forest virus complex Bebaru virus Chikungunya virus ...
The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine ... Semliki Forest virus has been used extensively in biological research as a model of the viral life cycle and of viral ... The Semliki Forest virus was first isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest, Uganda by the Uganda Virus Research ... Atkins, G. J.; Sheahan, B. J.; Liljeström, P. (1999). "The molecular pathogenesis of Semliki Forest virus: A model virus made ...
... virus O'nyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus ... Togaviridae Genomes database search results from the Viral Bioinformatics Resource Center Viralzone: Togaviridae ICTV Virus ... Aura virus Barmah Forest virus Bebaru virus Cabassou virus Chikungunya virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus Eilat virus ... virus Fort Morgan virus Getah virus Highlands J virus Madariaga virus Mayaro virus Middelburg virus Mosso das Pedras virus ...
It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... Understanding the evolution and spread of chikungunya virus in the Americas using complete genome sequences. Virus Evol 3(1): ... In the chronic phase, it is suggested that viral persistence (the inability of the body to entirely rid itself of the virus), ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ...
It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... Understanding the evolution and spread of chikungunya virus in the Americas using complete genome sequences. Virus Evol 3(1): ... A phase-II vaccine trial used a live, attenuated virus, to develop viral resistance in 98% of those tested after 28 days and 85 ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ...
"Assembly of viroplasm and virus-like particles of rotavirus by a Semliki Forest virus replicon". Virology. 242 (2): 255-65. doi ... concentrates the viral components required for the genome replication and the morphogenesis of new virus particles, so it ... Viroplasms have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ... where viral products and cell elements are confined. Virosomes are also called 'virus factories', and 'virus inclusions'. ...
Their genome[14] is contained in two RNA segments that code for two proteins each, one in each sense, for a total of four viral ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Omsk hemorrhagic fever *OHFV. *Kyasanur forest disease *KFDV. *AHFV ... Structure and genome[edit]. Lassa viruses[12][13] are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented, ambisense RNA viruses. ... a type of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), in humans and other primates. Lassa virus is an emerging virus and a select agent, ...
The Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus have been used to build recombinant alphavirus replicons. Unlike conventional DNA ... but limit viral infection by down-regulating the expression of viral components. DNA vaccinations can be used to curb viral ... This has been tested with Mycoplasma pulmonis, a murine lung pathogen with a relatively small genome. Even partial expression ... They altered the DNA of cowpox virus by inserting a gene from other viruses (namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and ...
Scrophularia mottle virus Sea trout perhabdovirus Semliki Forest virus Sendai virus Senecavirus A Senecio yellow mosaic virus ... Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Bovine torovirus Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 ... International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses - Index of Viruses List of viruses by family and group Viruses by genome type. ... virus A Potato virus H Potato virus M Potato virus P Potato virus S Potato virus T Potato virus U Potato virus V Potato virus X ...
Model af Semliki Forest virus, prototypen på en ssRNA(+)-virus. Model af Poliovirus, prototypen på en ssRNA(+)-virus ... Hvad er virus' rolle i naturen? Videnskab.dk 2020 *^ ‭‭‭ Re-‬‬Emerging Human Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers: ‭ ‭A Review. ‬‬‬American ... The Genome Sequence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2. J. Virology 1998 ... Sygdomme forårsaget af virus[redigér , redigér wikikode]. Mange sygdomme forårsages af virus.[2][13][14] Nogle virus forårsager ...
Semliki Forest virus. *Sindbis fever. Reoviridae. *Banna virus encephalitis. Tick-borne. Bunyavirales. *Viral hemorrhagic ... Louis encephalitis virus. The positive sense single-stranded RNA genome is packaged in the capsid which is formed by the capsid ... and four known to infect humans including West Nile virus.[9] The enveloped virus is closely related to the West Nile virus and ... Japanese encephalitis virus JEV is a virus from the family Flaviviridae, part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of 9 ...
Semliki Forest virus. *Sindbis fever. Reoviridae. *Banna virus encephalitis. Tick-borne. Bunyavirales. *Viral hemorrhagic ... The genome is circular, negative sense RNA in three parts - Small (S), Medium (M) and Large (L). The L segment is 11-14.4 ... Detecting antibodies, the virus's RNA, or the virus itself[1]. Differential diagnosis. Dengue fever, Q fever,[2] Ebola virus ... the virus's RNA, or the virus itself.[1] It is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever.[1] ...
Semliki Forest virus. *Sindbis fever. Reoviridae. *Banna virus encephalitis. Tick-borne. Bunyavirales. *Viral hemorrhagic ... This virus has a both a large and a small genome section, with four lineages identified to date: Josiah (Sierra Leone), GA391 ( ... Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus.[1] Many of those infected by the virus do not develop symptoms. ...
Semliki Forest virus(英语:Semliki Forest virus). *Sindbis fever(英语:Sindbis virus) ... Holy Bat Virus! Genome Hints At Origin Of SARS-Like Virus. NPR. 2012-09-28 [2012-09-29].. ... 克麦罗沃蜱传病毒热(英语:Kemerovo tickborne viral fever) ... 科萨努尔森林病(英语:Kyasanur forest disease) *KFDV(英语:Kyasanur
Semliki Forest virus. *Sindbis fever. Reoviridae. *Banna virus encephalitis. Tick-borne. Bunyavirales. *Viral hemorrhagic ... syndrome coronavirus quasispecies that include homologues of human isolates revealed through whole-genome analysis and virus ... the genetic sequence of the virus[97] based on the virus's RNA obtained from the Qatari case.[8][98] ... "Camels in Kenya test positive for MERS virus". Informer East Africa.. *^ "MERS antibody shows promise in rabbits; signs of ...
Replication of the viral genome results in full-length, positive-strand antigenomes that are, in turn, transcribed into genome ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
Semliki Forest virus. *Sindbis fever. Reoviridae. *Banna virus encephalitis. Tick-borne. Bunyavirales. *Viral hemorrhagic ... Main article: Marburg virus. Genome[edit]. Like all monomegaviruses, marburgvirions contain non-infectious, linear nonsegmented ... Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ... MVD is caused by two viruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV)family Filoviridae[16] ...
In immunocompetent mice, virus infectivity in the brain was undetectable after the first week of infection, but virus RNA ... In μMT mice, which have no antibodies, infectious virus persisted in both the serum and the brain for several weeks, indicating ... the laboratory mouse provides a well-characterized tractable system to study the pathogenesis of virus encephalitis and virus ... that antibodies are required to eliminate infectious virus. ... of the Long Unique Region in the Genome of Herpes Simplex Virus ...
... implying that anticipating any viral evolutionary response remains essential. Finally, hints at the associations between HPV ... Polyprotein Processing as a Determinant for in Vitro Activity of Semliki Forest Virus Replicase ... Subcellular Trafficking of the Papillomavirus Genome during Initial Infection: The Remarkable Abilities of Minor Capsid Protein ... Viruses 2017, 9, 293. AMA Style. Alizon S, Murall CL, Bravo IG. Why Human Papillomavirus Acute Infections Matter. Viruses. 2017 ...
The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus, which has infected millions of people in Africa, Asia, ... Structure and interactions at the viral surface of the envelope protein E1 of semliki forest virus. Structure, 14: 75-86. ... Genome microevolution of chikungunya viruses causing the indian ocean outbreak. PLoS Medicine, 3: e263.CrossRefPubMed ... Mutagenesis of the putative fusion domain of the semliki forest virus spike protein. J Virol, 65: 4292-4300.PubMedPubMedCentral ...
... such as Sindbis virus ( 19), Semliki Forest virus (SFV; ref. 14), and Venezuelan Equine encephalytis virus ( 20), have served ... A helper-dependent adenovirus vector system: removal of helper virus by Cre-mediated excision of the viral packaging signal. ... Alphaviruses are RNA-enveloped viruses that contain a single positive-strand RNA molecule as genome ( 18). Different ... The Semliki Forest virus vector induces p53-independent apoptosis. J Gen Virol 1998; 79: 2405-10. ...
... characterization and the in vivo immunotherapeutic potential of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expressing the HPV16 E6 ... The induced CTL lysed murine tumor cells transformed with the HPV16 genome and EL4 cells loaded with an immunodominant class I- ... The transforming potential of these high-risk HPVs depends on the expression of the E6 and E7 early viral gene products. Since ... Integration of the viral DNA in the genome of the host cell, which is an essential step in HPV16- or HPV18-induced development ...
... along the length of the viral genome with a slight bias toward the production of genome-derived viRNAs over antigenome-derived ... Antiviral RNA interference responses induced by Semliki Forest virus infection of mosquito cells: characterization, origin, and ... 2011) Antiviral RNA interference responses induced by Semliki Forest virus infection of mosquito cells: characterization, ... the processes underlying antiviral RNAi in Aedes albopictus-derived U4.4 mosquito cells infected with Semliki Forest virus (SFV ...
Viral vectors reviewed are adenovirus, influenza virus, rabies virus, Semliki Forest virus, and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis ... DNA-based vaccines include plasmids or viral vectors containing the gene encoding one of the BoNT heavy chain receptor binding ... virus. Among the potential recombinant protein vaccines reviewed are HC, light chain-heavy chain translocation domain, and ... These vaccines include DNA-based, viral vector-based, and recombinant protein-based vaccines. ...
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and Semliki Forest virus (SFV), were developed that support self-amplification via ... of an H1N1 influenza virus (A/WSN/33) or the Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) protects mice against lethal viral infection ... 2014) Efficient genome engineering of Toxoplasma gondii using CRISPR/Cas9. PLoS One 9(6):e100450. ... 1991) A new generation of animal cell expression vectors based on the Semliki Forest virus replicon. Biotechnology (N Y) 9(12): ...
MIDV is classified as an Old World Alphavirus which also includes Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Ndumu virus, Barmah Forest virus ... After being taken in through endocytosis, a low pH triggers a membrane fusion, which delivers the viral RNA genomes into the ... this same study found that the MIDV E1 genes was likely formed through recombination with Semliki Forest virus, or a virus very ... These include: Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These viruses are more ...
A common feature shared by these viruses is their ability to rearrange cellular membranes to serve as platforms for genome ... a process known as virus-host cell co-evolution. Positive-single stranded RNA (+sRNA) viruses are an important group of viral ... a process known as virus-host cell co-evolution. Positive-single stranded RNA (+sRNA) viruses are an important group of viral ... A common feature shared by these viruses is their ability to rearrange cellular membranes to serve as platforms for genome ...
Studies of other alphaviruses, such as Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), ... which is transcribed by the viral replicase from a promoter in the genome-length minus-strand RNA. ... The virus is a single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA virus with a genome of about 11.5 kb (11) (Fig. 1). The 5′ two- ... Togaviridae: the viruses and their replication, p. 1000-1022. In D. M. Knipe and P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields virology, vol. 1, ...
Semliki Forest virus (SFV), vaccinia], or promoter shut-off, a poorly understood phenomenon by which promoters within viral ... Lentiviruses are a subclass of retroviruses whose genomes contain additional viral proteins. Two of these virion proteins, ... These phases of virus replication are associated with host cell cycle progression to S1, onset of viral DNA replication, as ... A helper-dependent adenovirus vector system: Removal of helper virus by Cre-mediated excision of the viral packaging signal. ...
... most notably Sindbis virus (SIN) (1, 9), Semliki Forest virus (6, 19), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (15). The ... The RUB genome is roughly 10,000 nucleotides (nt) long and is capped and polyadenylated. In infected cells, three viral RNA ... Stable alphavirus packaging cell lines for Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus-derived vectors.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 ... A new generation of animal cell expression vectors based on the Semliki Forest virus replicon.Bio/Technology 9 1991 1356 1361 ...
The membrane proteins of Semliki Forest virus have a hydrophobic part attached to the viral membrane, FEBS Lett. 28: 179-182. ... The core protein of the alphavirus Sindbis virus assembles into core-like nucleoproteins with the viral genome RNA and with ... Influenza Virus Lipid Bilayer Transmembrane Segment Semliki Forest Virus Sindbis Virus These keywords were added by machine and ... 1. The most extensive structural studies have been carried out on Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus (SFV). It is on these ...
Semliki Forest virus (27), vesicular stomatitis virus (18), influenza virus (30), ecotropic murine leukemia virus (2, 34, 44), ... In situ hybridization of DNA probes specific for viral RNA demonstrated the trafficking of uncoated viral RNA genomes to the ... yellow fever virus, dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus (49). Flavivirus RNA genome ... On the entry of Semliki Forest virus into BHK-21 cells. J. Cell Biol.84:404-420. ...
Sequestration of G3BP by Semliki Forest Virus nsP3 Inhibits the Assembly of Stress Granules on Viral mRNAs. ... Dengue Virus Genome Plasticity and Host-Specific Functions of Viral RNA Structures. ... The Roles of Template RNA and Replication Proteins in the Formation of Semliki Forest Virus Replication Spherules. ... Dengue Virus (DENV) Inhibits Type I Interferon (IFN) in Infected Cells via the Cleavage of Human STING by the NS2B3 Viral ...
The presence of a target sequence for either miR-142-3p or IEC miR-215 significantly reduced viral secretion during the early ... through insertion of microRNA target sequences into the MNV genome. We demonstrated the utility of this approach for MNV in ... Recent work has linked replication in IECs to viral persistence in vivo. MNV provides a model to assess the relative ... and now provides a model to dissect the contribution of replication in each cell type to viral pathogenesis and transmission in ...
The entry pathway of fowl plague virus thus resembles tht earlier described for Semliki Forest virus. ... After a brief lag period, degraded viral material was released into the medium. The neuraminidase-resistant virus was capable ... is transported to the lysosome where the low pH initiates a fusion reaction ultimately resulting in the transfer of the genome ... At physiological pH, no fusion of the virus with the plasma membrane was observed. When prebound virus was incubated at a pH of ...
Cytoplasmic replication of the RNA genome is mediated by four viral-encoded nonstructural proteins and proceeds through a full- ... Semliki Forest virus;. SIN,. Sindbis virus;. RCV,. replication-competent virus;. PCL,. packaging cell line;. SV40,. simian ... Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus are among the alphaviruses being exploited ... Stable alphavirus packaging cell lines for Sindbis virus- and Semliki Forest virus-derived vectors. John M. Polo, Barbara A. ...
This review will discuss viral vector and nucleic acid-based vaccines (DNA and mRNA vaccines) as new approaches that might be ... This review will discuss viral vector and nucleic acid-based vaccines (DNA and mRNA vaccines) as new approaches that might... ... human papilloma virus) vaccine in 2006. However, radical changes in the density, age distribution and traveling habits of the ... human papilloma virus) vaccine in 2006. However, radical changes in the density, age distribution and travelling habits of the ...
... virus particles was used by Huang and Baltimore [31] to define a class of virus particles which possess the following ... Influenza Virus Polymerase Gene Semliki Forest Virus Internal Deletion Human Influenza Virus These keywords were added by ... Although all of the DI genomes studied to date are shorter than the standard viral genome and are deletion mutants, it is ... Amesse, L. S., Pridgen, C.L., Kingsbury, D. W.: Sendai virus DI RNA species with conserved virus genome termini and extensive ...
Semliki forest virus, Hepatitis E virus, Sindbis virus, and arboviruses (which cause certain types of encephalitis). Many of ... responsible for replication of the viral genome. The dicistronic RNA3 (2.1 kb) encodes for two proteins, the 3a protein ( ... Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ... The alphavirus-like superfamily includes more than 250 plant and animal viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus, ...
Such a doublet is also observed in cells infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a virus closely related to HIV-2. ... are detectable in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infected cells. The gp125 and gp36 are the external and ... of Viral Membrane Proteins from Medial to Trans Golgi Cisternae in Baby Hamster Kidney Cells Infected with Semliki Forest virus ... Their proviral genomes contain two long terminal repeats (LTRs) and three essential genes required for virus replication ...
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda from a sentinel monkey in 1947. Mosquito and sentinel ... Louis encephalitis virus, YFV, Powassan virus, Semliki Forest virus, onyong-nyong virus, chikungunya virus, and Spondweni ... If one assumes a ratio range of 200-500 genome copies per infectious virus particle, a range reported for several flaviviruses ... Table 4 shows estimated viral concentrations of the 17 ZIKV-positive specimens. The viral RNA concentrations were ≈900-729,000 ...
  • The first open reading frame in their positive strand RNA genome encodes for the non-structural polyprotein, a precursor to four separate subunits of the replicase. (itg.be)
  • In contrast, the human herpes simplex virus 8 encodes different analogs of IRF with negative dominant activity, allowing it to interfere with the activity of cellular IRFs [ 11 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • An improved viral vector for cancer gene therapy should be capable of infecting tumors with high efficiency, inducing specific and high-level expression of transgene in the tumor and selectively destroying tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The transforming potential of these high-risk HPVs depends on the expression of the E6 and E7 early viral gene products. (nature.com)
  • Recognition of viral double-strand RNA (dsRNA) molecules by intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or retinoic acid inducible gene I-like receptors (RLRs) is a central event which entails the early steps of the immune response elicited during viral infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • The RLRs family, including the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I), the melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) and laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2), represent another powerful anti-viral tool parallel to that comprised by TLR3. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, expression of the reporter genes, as exemplified by GFP expression by dsRobo/GFP virus, was unstable during passaging, apparently due to homologous recombination between the subgenomic promoters leading to deletion of the GFP gene. (asm.org)
  • Examples include a vector virus to prime a T-cell response with a subunit (peptide) booster or DNA vaccine to produce antibodies, or two different vector viruses expressing the same gene sequence. (aidsmap.com)
  • Virus-like replicon particles (VRP) of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus containing the gene for HER2/ neu (VRP- neu ) were tested by an active immunotherapeutic approach in tumor prevention models and in a metastasis prevention model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • First, we brie¯y review current knowledge of RNA virus recombination and describe new methods for detecting its occurrence using gene sequence data. (biology-online.org)
  • 87. The recombinant viral vector according to claim 86, wherein said heterologous nucleic acid is selected between a gene and a gene fragment that codes a gene product of interest. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The siRNA and piRNA pathways have been shown in insects to be essential for regulation of gene expression and defence against exogenous and endogenous genetic elements (viruses and transposable elements). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, a suicidal DNA vaccine based on a Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon and DTMUV E glycoprotein gene was constructed and the efficacy of this new vaccine was assessed according to humoral and cell-mediated immune responses as well as protection against the DTMUV challenge in ducklings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most CHIKV strains contain a conserved opal stop codon at the end of the viral nsP3 gene. (asm.org)
  • Methods and Material: The APC mutation has been obtained using the 'human gene mutation database-HGMD' and the 'international cancer genome consortium-ICGC' Data Portal. (amrita.edu)
  • Additionally, they sequenced a portion of a gene encoding a membrane glycoprotein in 127 other viral isolates. (aetiologyblog.com)
  • Recently, a reverse transcriptase, RT- PCR technique for diagnosing CHIK virus has been developed using nested primer pairs amplifying specific components of three structural gene regions, Capsid (C ), Envelope E-2 and part of Envelope E1. (weebly.com)
  • Interestingly, this same study found that the MIDV E1 genes was likely formed through recombination with Semliki Forest virus, or a virus very similar to SFV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunization with a RUB vector would result in induction of immunity against both RUB and the heterologous virus whose genes were expressed. (asm.org)
  • Creating live attenuated vaccines normally involves deleting genes that protect the virus against the immune system, but which are not essential for its reproduction. (aidsmap.com)
  • As already mentioned, the replicon RNA does not contain the structural genes from the parent virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over the last two decades it has become increasingly clear that many RNA viruses add the capacity to exchange genetic material with one another, and to acquire genes from their hosts, to this evolutionary repertoire. (biology-online.org)
  • Here we compare three cell-based HTS assays for West Nile virus (WNV) drug discovery: (i) an assay that uses a cell line harboring a persistently replicating subgenomic replicon (containing a deletion of viral structural genes), (ii) an assay that uses packaged virus-like particles containing replicon RNA, and (iii) an assay that uses a full-length reporting virus. (asm.org)
  • 7. Co-transfer of multiple p lasmids/viruses to introduce several genes in mammalian cells (F. Wurm). (booktopia.com.au)
  • Fewer than 80 genes responded differentially to the presence of CHIKV in midguts of mosquitoes that had acquired the virus along with SM or PM. SM feeding induced differential expression (DE) of 479 genes at day 1 and 314 genes at day 2 when compared to midguts of sugarfed mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After being taken in through endocytosis, a low pH triggers a membrane fusion, which delivers the viral RNA genomes into the cell's cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin filaments are shown to be essential during the initial penetration of the virus across the plasma membrane, whereas microtubules are involved in the trafficking of internalized virus from early endosomes to lysosomes for uncoating. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ( 33 , 34 ), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus ( 43 ), and amphotrophic murine leukemia virus ( 34 ) are observed to fuse at the plasma membrane and the nucleocapsids are released into the cytoplasm. (asm.org)
  • At physiological pH, no fusion of the virus with the plasma membrane was observed. (rupress.org)
  • The viral membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins are responsible for receptor recognition and entry into target cells through membrane fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses which bud from the plasma membrane . (deepdyve.com)
  • In order to deliver their genomes into the host cells for their own purposes, viruses have to overcome the barrier of the cell, the plasma membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • There are several viral entry ways that have been identified, like genetic injection including phages and membrane fusion such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Many viruses are low-pH-dependent for their conformation change [ 16 , 17 ] that is required for membrane fusion or viral particle uncoating, and the endosomes provide this acidic compartment. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, the viruses that entry the host cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in most cases will form the clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) by triggering the clathrin to the plasma membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • The entry procedure of most enveloped viruses involves endocytosis and membrane fusion. (hindawi.com)
  • Dynamin has been suggested to act both as a regulatory GTPase by controlling the early stages of CME, which is an important endocytic pathway used by many viruses, and as a chemical enzyme that induces membrane fission and pinches endocytic vesicles off from the cellular plasma membrane in later stages in several endocytic pathways, including CME. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to its involvement in virus entry, dynamin has also been proposed to participate in membrane fusion between the virus and endosomes following endocytosis [ 22 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Membrane fusion and budding are key steps in the life cycle of all enveloped viruses. (rupress.org)
  • Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is an enveloped alphavirus that requires cellular membrane cholesterol for both membrane fusion and efficient exit of progeny virus from infected cells. (rupress.org)
  • SFV infects cells by cell surface receptor binding, uptake via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and low pH-triggered fusion of the virus membrane with that of the endosome. (rupress.org)
  • Virions located on the surface of the cell membrane enter the host cells by fusion and endocytosis of the viral envelope. (chikungunyavirusnet.com)
  • Subsequently, viruses are released from the cell when the virus-containing vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane. (asmscience.org)
  • In tissue culture cells, SFV requires cholesterol in the cell membrane both for virus membrane fusion and for the efficient exit of progeny virus from the cell. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 1) Lipids (fats): These store energy, but also (and more importantly) they also are the basic fabric of the cell membrane and viral envelope. (airliners.net)
  • Interestingly, this particular mutation has previously been found to release the cholesterol dependence of the related Semliki Forest virus -in other words, it no longer needed cholesterol in order to fuse its virus membrane with the host cell membrane. (aetiologyblog.com)
  • Membrane fusion activity of Semliki Forest virus in a liposomal model system: specific inhibition by Zn2+ ions. (nih.gov)
  • Several steps can be distinguished in this process, including low-pH-induced irreversible binding of the virus to the liposomes, facilitated by target membrane cholesterol, and subsequent fusion of the viral membrane with the liposomal bilayer, specifically catalyzed by target membrane sphingolipid. (nih.gov)
  • We used single genome amplification and phylogenetic analyses to characterize transmitted/founder SIVs both in the inoculum and in immunized-infected rhesus monkeys. (duke.edu)
  • Partitioning the genome alignments almost doubled the observed branch lengths in the phylogenetic tree when compared to the more common approach of applying one model of substitution across the genome and significantly increased the statistical fit of the best-fitting models of nucleotide substitution. (bvsalud.org)
  • Genome sequence was partly determined, and phylogenetic studies were conducted. (cdc.gov)
  • Portion of thesis entitled Characterization of Brome Mosaic Virus RNA3 interaction with GCD10, a tRNA binding host factor from yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • For that reason, characterization of clade C viruses is one of the top priorities both for diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic purposes. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The characterization of host immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV controllers and individuals with high exposure but seronegativity to HIV (HESN) is needed to guide the development of effective preventive and therapeutic vaccine candidates. (jove.com)
  • Our analysis found that 2 of 2 gag-env vaccinated but infected macaques exhibited single but distinct virus envelope lineages whereas rhesus vaccinated with gag-env-GM-CSF or HA control exhibited both single and multiple env lineages. (duke.edu)
  • Virions are more resistant to physical stress than genomes but are susceptible to humoral immune control. (intechopen.com)
  • We constructed a hybrid viral vector composed of a helper-dependent adenovirus containing an SFV replicon under the transcriptional control of AFP promoter and a transgene driven by SFV subgenomic promoter. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To improve the stability of the vector, the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of a picornavirus, encephalomyocarditis virus, was used instead of the second subgenomic promoter to eliminate homology. (asm.org)
  • This review will discuss viral vector and nucleic acid-based vaccines (DNA and mRNA vaccines) as new approaches that might be able to tackle these challenges to global health. (frontiersin.org)
  • 86. A recombinant viral vector comprising an infective clone according to claim 80 modified to contain a heterologous nucleic acid inserted into said infective clone under conditions that allow said heterologous nucleic acid to be expressed. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • An important component of a mosquito's vectorial capacity is its vector competence for a particular virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, virus persists in the mosquito vector with minimal associated pathology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus -vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family. (worldwidescience.org)
  • This topology does not suggest whether vector-borne or non-vectorborne transmission was ancestral, but the basal position of the 'mosquito-only' viruses suggests that mosquito-borne transmission among vertebrates may have preceded the loss of vector transmission. (caister.com)
  • Although all of the DI genomes studied to date are shorter than the standard viral genome and are deletion mutants, it is possible some DI genome may contain an altered nucleic acid sequence(s) rather than a deletion(s) and become defective as well as interfering. (springer.com)
  • A second process, recombination, can occur ineither segmented or unsegmented viruses when `donor'nucleotide sequence is introduced into a single, contiguous ` acceptor ' RNA molecule to produce a new RNA containing genetic information from more than one source. (biology-online.org)
  • In some cases of RNA virus recombination, the donor sequence neatly replaces a homologous region of the acceptor sequence leaving its structure unchanged. (biology-online.org)
  • In this new study, the authors determined most of the genetic sequence from 6 additional viruses taken from patients in different geographic locations, at different time points during the outbreak, and from patients with different clinical presentations. (aetiologyblog.com)
  • One of the reasons for that is certainly the extensive sequence variation between the used antigens that were derived from lab adapted virus strains and the genetically divergent viruses circulating throughout the testing areas such as Thailand. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Antigenic shift in in¯uenza A virus is an example of this sort of genetic exchange and serves as a good illustration of the potential evolutionary significance of such events. (biology-online.org)
  • These species of arboviruses have been classified into 7 antigenic complexes: Barmah Forest (BF), Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), Middelburg (MID), Ndumu (NDU), Semliki Forest (SF), Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), and Western equine encephalitis (WEE). (chikungunyavirusnet.com)
  • Elucidation of antigenic epitopes on the rubella virus. (ubc.ca)
  • The hypothesis underlying the research described here is that genetic manipulation of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can profoundly and permanently reduce their competence to transmit dengue viruses to human hosts. (jove.com)
  • Virus isolation was attempted by incubation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected on the day of onset with C6/36 ( Aedes albopictus ) and Vero (E6 clone) monolayers. (cdc.gov)
  • Yellow fever virus (YFV) is primarily maintained in a sylvatic cycle involving non-human primates and Aedes mosquitoes, but it has shown the capacity to adapt to transmission in urban areas using Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and humans as its primary reservoir. (caister.com)
  • Semliki Forest virus-induced, immune-mediated demyelination: adoptive transfer studies and viral persistence in nude mice. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These defective viruses are harmless to people, but stimulate the body to produce an immune response. (aidsmap.com)
  • During the period of coexistence with their hosts, viruses have learned how to manipulate host immune control mechanism. (intechopen.com)
  • The present review will highlight the different complex mechanisms associated with the host immune evasion by the viruses with special reference to the Classical Swine Fever Virus. (intechopen.com)
  • These results identify RIG-I as a ssRNA sensor and potential target of viral immune evasion and suggest that its ability to sense 5'-phosphorylated RNA evolved in the innate immune system as a means of discriminating between self and nonself. (sciencemag.org)
  • Viral recognition pathways can be targeted as a means of immune escape ( 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • However, so far the development of a successful HIV vaccine is still limited by the complicated biology of the virus and its complex interaction with the host's immune system. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Furthermore, cervical cancer screening and vaccines impose novel iatrogenic pressures on HPVs, implying that anticipating any viral evolutionary response remains essential. (mdpi.com)
  • A multitude of research efforts focuses on the improvement of established and the discovery of new vaccines such as the HPV (human papilloma virus) vaccine in 2006. (frontiersin.org)
  • Vaccines against viral toxins. (aidsmap.com)