Retrovirally encoded accessary proteins that play an essential role VIRUS REPLICATION. They are found in the cytoplasm of host cells and associate with a variety of host cell proteins. Vif stands for "virion infectivity factor".
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the vif (virion infectivity factor) protein that is important for the generation of infectious virions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The former name of this gene was sor (short open reading frame).
Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A non-DNA binding transcription factor that is a subunit of core binding factor. It forms heterodimeric complexes with CORE BINDING FACTOR ALPHA SUBUNITS, and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a variety of GENES involved primarily in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce immunodeficiencies in primates, including humans.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by variable reproductive cycles. The genera include: LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS and RHADINOVIRUS.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting New World primates and other species. HERPESVIRUS 2, SAIMIRIINE is the type species.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the HIV-1 regulatory protein vpu (viral protein U) that greatly increases the export of virus particles from infected cells. The vpu genes are not present in HIV-2 or SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Trans-acting protein that combines with host factors to induce immediate early gene transcription in herpes simplex virus.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A family of insect viruses isolated from endoparasitic hymenopteran insects belonging to the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The two genera are Ichnovirus and Bracovirus.
Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A species of RUBULAVIRUS originally isolated from cultured primary monkey cells. Its natural host is the DOG in which it causes kennel cough, but it can also infect humans.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.
A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The type species of RHADINOVIRUS, in the subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from squirrel monkeys. It produces malignant lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, MALIGNANT) in inoculated marmosets or owl monkeys.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Family of rod-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA. They lack viral envelopes or lipids.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.
Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a relatively long replication cycle. Genera include: CYTOMEGALOVIRUS; MUROMEGALOVIRUS; and ROSEOLOVIRUS.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the protein responsible for trans-activation of transcription (tat) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
An auxiliary gene, vif (viral infectivity factor), is also encoded. However, the number and role of auxiliary genes varies by ... The function of the auxiliary gene vif is not fully known. The vif gene product, a 29 kDa protein, induces a weak immune ... The viral tat gene encodes a 94-amino acid protein. Tat is the most enigmatic of the proteins of the visna virus. Most studies ... The viral rev gene encodes a post-transcriptional regulatory protein. Rev is required for expression of unspliced or partially ...
Other accessory genes include vif (viral infectivity factor), tat (transcription activator), and rev (protein expression ... These genes are surrounded by and 5' and 3' LTR. It also contains at least five non-structural accessory gene open reading ... the viral structural proteins assemble the virus particle at the plasma membrane and form a complex with the viral RNA as the ... The virus matures after proteolytic processing by the viral protease (PR). The virus is then ready to infect another cell and ...
An additional short ORF termed orfA (also known as orf2) precedes the env gene. The function of OrfA in viral replication is ... It has the typical genomic structure of retroviruses and includes LTR, vif, pol, gag, orfA, env, and rev genes. The Gag ... Like HIV-1, FIV has been engineered into a viral vector for gene therapy. Like other lentiviral vectors, FIV vectors integrate ... This interaction causes the viral and cellular membranes to fuse, allowing the transfer of the viral RNA into the cytoplasm, ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... However, lentiviruses such as HIV have evolved the Viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein in order to counteract this effect. ... thus leading to aberrant viral 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) DNA ends. These viral DNA ends are inefficient substrates for ... appears to be particularly important for APOBEC3G interactions with Vif because a D128K point mutation prevents Vif-dependent ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... Moreover, the UPS regulates the degradation of tumor suppressor gene products such as adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) in ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... The human PSMD1 gene has 25 exons and locates at chromosome band 2q37.1. The human protein 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... This gene encodes a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 1. The proteasome ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... This gene encodes a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator. The proteasome and its subunits are of clinical significance for ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... Intrinsic viral restriction factors recognize specific viral components, but unlike other pattern recognition receptors that ... Though this will not necessarily stop viral integration, the resulting progeny viral genomes are too riddled with mutations to ... intrinsic antiviral factors block viral replication immediately and directly. Eukaryotic organisms have been exposed to viral ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ... The gene PSMB6 encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-Jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ... This gene encodes a protein that inhibits the activation of the proteasome by the 11S and 19S regulators. Alternative ... "Entrez Gene: PSMF1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) inhibitor subunit 1 (PI31)". Goff SP (Aug 2003). "Death by deamination: a ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". J. Virol. ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... The gene PSMD4 encodes one of the non-ATPase subunits of the 19S regulator base, subunit Rpn10. Pseudogenes have been ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". J. Virol. ... The gene PSMC1 encodes one of the ATPase subunits, a member of the triple-A family of ATPases which have a chaperone-like ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ... Gene. 203 (2): 241-50. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00524-6. PMID 9426256. "Entrez Gene: PSMD12 proteasome (prosome, macropain) ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". J. Virol. ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... This gene encodes a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator. Two transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An Endogenous Inhibitor of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Human Lymphocytes Is Overcome by the Viral Vif Protein". J. Virol. ... The gene PSMC2 encodes one of the ATPase subunits, a member of the triple-A family of ATPases which have a chaperone-like ... The human PSMC2 gene has 13 exons and locates at chromosome band 7q22.1-q22.3. The human protein 26S protease regulatory ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ... The gene PSMB3 encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit ... The gene has 6 exons and locates at chromosome band 17q12. The human protein proteasome subunit beta type-3 is 23 kDa in size ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". J. Virol. ... "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. II. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0041-KIAA0080) ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... Expression of this gene is induced by gamma interferon, and this gene product replaces catalytic subunit beta2 (proteasome ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ... This gene PSMB10 encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An Endogenous Inhibitor of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Human Lymphocytes Is Overcome by the Viral Vif Protein". J. Virol. ... directed cDNA library improves analysis of gene expression". Gene. 146 (2): 199-207. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90293-3. PMID ... The gene PSMC4 encodes one of the ATPase subunits, a member of the triple-A family of ATPases which have a chaperone-like ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ... "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. II. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0041-KIAA0080) ... "Entrez Gene: PSME4 proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 4". Goff SP (Aug 2003). "Death by deamination: a novel ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ... Gene Structure and Expression. 1219 (2): 361-8. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(94)90060-4. PMID 7918633. "Entrez Gene: PSMB2 proteasome ... The gene PSMB2 encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... The gene PSMA2 encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Using FISH, the human gene HC3 ( ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... The PSMA4 gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. The gene has 9 exons and locates ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ... Gene Structure and Expression. 1089 (1): 95-102. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(91)90090-9. PMID 2025653. "Entrez Gene: PSMA4 proteasome ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "An Endogenous Inhibitor of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Human Lymphocytes Is Overcome by the Viral Vif Protein". J. Virol. ... This gene encodes the beta subunit of the 11S regulator, one of the two 11S subunits that is induced by gamma-interferon. Three ... "Entrez Gene: PSME2 proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 2 (PA28 beta)". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane- ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... PSME3 human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. PSME3 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser. v t e. ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". J. Virol. ... "Characterization of the mouse PA28 activator complex gene family: complete organizations of the three member genes and a ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... The gene PSMA5 encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. The gene has 9 exons and locates ... "Entrez Gene: PSMA5 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 5". "Entrez Gene: PSMA4 proteasome (prosome, macropain ... Mayau V, Baron B, Buttin G, Debatisse M (April 1998). "Twelve genes, including the unassigned proteasome zeta subunit gene, ...
The six remaining genes, tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, and vpu (or vpx in the case of HIV-2), are regulatory genes for proteins that ... The integration of the viral DNA into the host cell's genome is carried out by another viral enzyme called integrase.[67] ... vif, vpr, vpu, and sometimes a tenth tev, which is a fusion of tat, env and rev), encoding 19 proteins. Three of these genes, ... Alternatively, the integrated viral DNA may be transcribed, producing new RNA genomes and viral proteins, using host cell ...
They described these observations in a 1959 publication, naming the responsible factor viral inhibitory factor (VIF).[47] It ... Gene cloning also confirmed that IFN-α was encoded by a family of many related genes.[59] The type II IFN (IFN-γ) gene was also ... elements in gene promoters.[17] Type I IFNs can induce expression of genes with either ISRE or GAS elements, but gene induction ... Binding of molecules uniquely found in microbes-viral glycoproteins, viral RNA, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), ...
They may also have additional accessory genes depending on the virus (e.g., for HIV-1: vif, vpr, vpu, nef) whose products are ... As with all retroviruses, lentiviruses have gag, pol and env genes, coding for viral proteins in the order: 5´-gag-pol-env-3´. ... Protease PR encoded by the pro gene.. *dUTPase DU encoded by the pro gene (part of pol gene in some viruses), the role of which ... Gp120 surface envelope protein SU, encoded by the viral gene env. 120000 Da (Daltons). ...
In molecular biology, Tat is a protein that is encoded for by the tat gene in HIV-1.[1][2] Tat is a regulatory protein that ... A Phase I/IIa study, published in 2016, shows a reduction in viral RNA for one of three doses tested. A dose-dependent response ... Tat then binds to cellular factors and mediates their phosphorylation, resulting in increased transcription of all HIV genes,[4 ... Genes,+tat at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
... the viral matrix is usually called viral tegument and contains many proteins involved in viral entry, early gene expression and ... Viral matrix proteins, like many other viral proteins, can exert different functions during the course of the infection. For ... They play a crucial role in virus assembly, and interact with the RNP complex as well as with the viral membrane. They are ... formation at the membrane of a complex made of the viral ribonucleoprotein at the inner side indirectly connected to the viral ...
The retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) protein is a primary immune system sensor for viral and other invasive RNA in human ... "N-terminal hemagglutinin tag renders lysine-deficient APOBEC3G resistant to HIV-1 Vif-induced degradation by reduced ... Another gene that is a target of gene amplification is SKP2. SKP2 is an F-box protein that roles in substrate recognition for ... The BRCA1 gene is another tumor suppressor gene in human which encodes the BRCA1 protein that is involved in response to DNA ...
"An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". J. Virol. ... "Characterization of the mouse PA28 activator complex gene family: complete organizations of the three member genes and a ... This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the 11S regulator, one of the two 11S subunits that is induced by gamma-interferon. ... "Entrez Gene: PSME1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 1 (PA28 alpha)". Wilkinson FL, Holaska JM, Zhang Z, Sharma ...
The genome encodes the usual retroviral genes pol, gag, and env as well as two additional genes tas or bel-1 and bet. The role ... The first isolate of the "foamy viral agent" was in 1955. Not too long after this, it was isolated from a wide variety of New ... Recently, a novel mechanism was reported where foamy virus accessory protein Bet (unlike HIV-1 Vif) impaired the cytoplasmic ... The structural genes of FV are another one of its unique features. The Gag protein is not efficiently cleaved into the mature ...
"An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ... The gene PMSA6 encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. A pseudogene has been identified ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... The gene has 8 exons and locates at chromosome band 14q13. The human protein proteasome subunit alpha type-6 is also known as ...
In 2006, Hatziioannou showed that if you swap two HIV-1 genes the viral capsid (which is targeted by a restriction factor ... In 2009, she demonstrated that swapping out just the Vif gene allowed HIV-1 to infect pigtail macaque monkeys, whose TRIM5 they ... Her PhD research, carried out under François-Loïc Cosset, involved looking at adapting retroviruses to use as tools for gene ... called TRIM5) and Vif (which counteracts the restriction factor APOBEC) with versions from a related Simian Immunodeficiency ...
In this paper, we will review the interaction of the lentiviral Vif proteins with the APOBEC3 proteins, with an emphasis on ... These inhibitors are counteracted by the Vif proteins encoded by most lentiviruses. ... It is becoming increasingly clear that organisms have developed a variety of mechanisms to fight against viral infection. The ... sheep APOBEC3 and maedi-visna virus (MVV) Vif. ... The A3 genes are located between two conserved flanking genes, ...
... help/gene_ontology target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>GO - Biological processi. *viral life cycle Source: InterPro ... Gene namesi. Name:vifImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p ... Belongs to the primate lentivirus group Vif protein family.UniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the ... p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source ...
RETRO VIRAL GENESvif • The virus infectivity factor gene required for infectivity • nef • The negative regulator factor ... RETRO VIRAL GENES • Tat The Trans activator gene influences the function of genes some distance away. • Rav The differential ... RETRO VIRAL GENES • gag (group-specific antigen): makes the cone shape viral capsid • pol (polymerase): codes for viral enzymes ... GENES IN HIV 1 AND HIV 2 • vpu • Virus protein U gene is required for efficient viral replication • Found only in HIV-1 • vpx ...
Codon-optimization of HIV-1 Viral Infectivity Factor (VIF) Gene. Expression of the HIV-1 Vif protein in the absence of other ... Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) forms an icosahedral structure containing the viral genome... ... Viral hepatitis is the seventh leading cause of death worldwide. ... viral factors such a Tat and Rev is extremely inefficient due ...
... in which gene transfer counteracts HIV proteins without eliminating the viral LTRs or blocking viral entry (26). ... Arrows denote transcriptional start sites; Ψ, packaging signal; Ψ+, extended Ψ; Gag, group-specific antigen; vif, virulence ... Gene therapy requires efficient gene delivery to cure or prevent disease by modifying the genome of somatic cells. However, ... factor; vpr, viral protein R; vpu, viral protein U; rev, regulator of expression of viral proteins; tat, transactivator; nef, ...
Viral diversity and diversification of major non-structural genes vif, vpr, vpu, tat exon 1 and rev exon 1 during primary HIV-1 ... To assess the level of intra-patient diversity and evolution of HIV-1C non-structural genes in primary infection, viral ... The study details the dynamics of the non-structural viral genes during the early stages of HIV-1C infection. ... No associations between levels of viral diversity within the non-structural genes and HIV-1 RNA load during primary infection ...
Animal cells have developed many ways to suppress viral replication, and viruses have evolved diverse strategies to resist ... Gene Products, vif * Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins * vif Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus ... This anti-viral phenotype is shown by human T cells, the principal in vivo targets for HIV-1, and, based on our present ... Animal cells have developed many ways to suppress viral replication, and viruses have evolved diverse strategies to resist ...
Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein. Nature418:646-650. ... The wild-type and vif-deficient (Δvif) HIV-1 proviruses, pIIIB and pIIIB/Δvif; the HIV-1 Vif expression vector, pcVIF; and its ... Complementation of vif-defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by primate, but not nonprimate, lentivirus vif genes. J. ... Vif-resistant A3G proteins do not interact with HIV-1 Vif. (A) Analysis of the stability of wild-type (WT) or mutant A3G ...
Gene vectors are also used extensively in basic biomedical research. ... Vectors derived from lentiviruses can be used for treatment strategies dependent on both transgene expression and gene ... For example, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has 6 regulatory or auxiliary genes: vif, vpr, vpu, tat, rev and nef. ... The complex lentiviruses contain other accessory genes as well, responsible for precise orchestration of viral replication, ...
... and the function of Vif had been a mystery for a long time. However, the research on Vif has finally lead to the identification ... and the function of Vif had been a mystery for a long time. However, the research on Vif has finally lead to the identification ... We still have many questions on Vif and APOBEC3 and should continue to work on these proteins in the future in order to better ... We still have many questions on Vif and APOBEC3 and should continue to work on these proteins in the future in order to better ...
An auxiliary gene, vif (viral infectivity factor), is also encoded. However, the number and role of auxiliary genes varies by ... The function of the auxiliary gene vif is not fully known. The vif gene product, a 29 kDa protein, induces a weak immune ... The viral tat gene encodes a 94-amino acid protein. Tat is the most enigmatic of the proteins of the visna virus. Most studies ... The viral rev gene encodes a post-transcriptional regulatory protein. Rev is required for expression of unspliced or partially ...
Codon-optimization of HIV-1 Viral Infectivity Factor (VIF) Gene. Expression of the HIV-1 Vif protein in the absence of other ... This technology relates to methods for lowering a viral load of a virus where the virus causes a chronic viral infection and is ... While T-cell therapies can work in some patients, the use of these cells to treat cancer and viral diseases is often limited by ... viral factors such a Tat and Rev is extremely inefficient due to the presence of inhibitory sequences on its mRNA. This ...
... and the env gene supplies the proteins essential for viral attachment and entry into a target cell. The accessory proteins tat, ... rev, nef, vif, vpr, and vpu enhance virus production. Although called accessory proteins, tat and rev are essential for virus ... Two copies of this gene provide strong protection against HIV infection, although the protection is not absolute. This gene is ... genes that are unique to HIV. The gag gene provides the physical infrastructure of the virus; pol provides the basic enzymes by ...
... target genes in order generate genomic region that display both active and repressive chromatin properties, an important ... Microbial infection) Substrate adapter protein can be a viral protein such as HIV Vif.1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated ... vif. P12504. 5. EBI-301231,EBI-779991. From Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate NY5). ... R-HSA-180585. Vif-mediated degradation of APOBEC3G. R-HSA-674695. RNA Polymerase II Pre-transcription Events. R-HSA-6796648. ...
However, SIVs have acquired accessory viral proteins, i.e. Vif, Vpu and Nef, to overcome cellular restriction factors. Thus, ... SIVs appear to have coevolved with their hosts and acquired new genes to evade cellular restrictions for optimal replication. ...
Other accessory genes include vif (viral infectivity factor), tat (transcription activator), and rev (protein expression ... These genes are surrounded by and 5 and 3 LTR. It also contains at least five non-structural accessory gene open reading ... the viral structural proteins assemble the virus particle at the plasma membrane and form a complex with the viral RNA as the ... The virus matures after proteolytic processing by the viral protease (PR). The virus is then ready to infect another cell and ...
2002) Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein. Nature 418(6898):646- ... In particular, we note that wild-type HIV-1 is resistant to restriction by A3G, due to the viral Vif protein (Fig. 4B) (19⇓-21 ... A3B induced a similar level of C-to-T mutations in the presence and absence of the viral Vif protein (HIV-1WT compared with HIV ... Whereas the induced A3G and A3B proteins both blocked infection by an HIV-1 variant lacking a functional vif gene by inducing ...
2002) Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein. Nature 418:646-650. ... in which the HIV-1 vif gene was replaced by the vif genes from SIVMAC239 and HIV-2ROD, respectively (Fig. 1A). These vif genes ... the HIV-1 vif gene was also replaced with SIVMAC239 vif and HIV-2ROD vif, respectively (see Fig. 1A and SI Text for detailed ... In particular, the presence of the vif genes from SIVMAC and HIV-2 gave a substantial advantage to stHIV-1 in terms of the ...
Vaccination with Gag, Vif, and Nef gene fragments affords partial control of viral replication after mucosal challenge with ... Reduction of viral loads by multigenic DNA priming and adenovirus boosting in the SIVmac-macaque model. ... Gag-specific cellular immunity determines in vitro viral inhibition and in vivo virologic control following simian ... gag DNA-vaccinated rhesus monkeys develop secondary cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses and control viral replication after ...
... the differences in STAT-1 and APOBEC3G expression in liver tissues were also observed in patients with different anti-viral ... gene transcription and to study the molecular mechanisms of interferon resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), ... Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein. Nature 2002, 418, 646-650 ... lacking the viral accessory protein Vif [3,4]. Recently, it has been revealed that APOBEC3G also inhibits hepatitis B virus ( ...
Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein *Ann M. Sheehy ... Rights & permissionsfor article Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif ... The antiretroviral enzyme APOBEC3G is degraded by the proteasome in response to HIV-1 Vif *Ann M Sheehy ... Rights & permissionsfor article The antiretroviral enzyme APOBEC3G is degraded by the proteasome in response to HIV-1 Vif . ...
Vif-mediated degradation of APOBEC3G, organism-specific biosystemThe HIV-1 accessory protein Vif (Viral infectivity factor) is ... Vif vif HIV-1 Vif binds to the cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G and targets it for degradation through an interaction with ... Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystemGene Expression covers ... Gene neighbors Overlapping genes and two nearest non-overlapping genes on either side ...
Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein. Nature418:646-650. ... Moreover, HIV-2 Vif did not inhibit as wide a range of APOBEC3 proteins as SIVMAC Vif, even though these viruses are closely ... Inhibition of HIV-1 infectivity by APOBEC3 proteins and ability of Vif proteins to overcome inhibition. (A) Viral stocks were ... 4A). Restriction was overcome by SIVMAC, SIVAGM, and, surprisingly, HIV-1 Vif but not HIV-2 or HIV(SEMQ) Vif proteins (Fig. 4 ...
The six remaining genes, tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, and vpu (or vpx in the case of HIV-2), are regulatory genes for proteins that ... Three of these genes, gag, pol, and env, contain information needed to make new viral particles. Processing of pol gene results ... The genome carries nine genes (gag, pol, env, tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, and vpu) that encode 19 proteins; the coding sequence is ... Translation of env gene produces glycoprotein 160 (Gp160) that further is processed to give Gp120 and Gp41. Gag gene ensures ...
Conversely, the efficient release of virions is promoted by the HIV-1 Vpu protein and other viral antagonists. Our group and ... Our group and others provided evidence from mutational analyses indicating that Vpu antagonism of BST-2-mediated viral ... the current advances in our understanding of the structural basis for BST-2 antiviral function as well as BST-2-specific viral ... others provided evidence from mutational analyses indicating that Vpu antagonism of BST-2-mediated viral restriction requires a ...
... or viral infectivity factor, gene." HIV attacks APOBEC3G through its Vif protein. GIVI scientists were the first to show that ... Vifs combined effects effectively overcome the antiviral action of APOBEC3G. The fact that Vif must bind to APOBEC3G and ... even in the presence of Vif. "HIV biologists agree that the Vif-APOBEC3G axis forms the single most promising drug target since ... Combinations of inhibitors acting at each of the three steps in the viral entry sequence could soon form a new "triple cocktail ...
HIV-1 structural gene expression requires binding of the Rev trans-activator to its RNA target sequence MALIM M. H. ... A role for Rev in the association of HIV-1 gag mRNA with cytoskeletal β-actin and viral protein expression KIMURA T. ... Rev is necessary for translation but not cytoplasmic accumulation of HIV-1 vif, vpr and env/vpu 2 RNAs ARRIGO S. J. ... Rev Protein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Facilitates Translation of rev-dependent Viral Messenger RNAs * * HASHIMOTO ...
Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein. Nature 418:646. ... gene conversion consists of the introduction of templated mutations in the V region of Ig genes by copying into the active gene ... suggesting that the enzyme plus the viral RNA direct APOBEC3G catalysis on viral cDNA. Because mutation of viral cDNA ... Uracil-containing cDNA may be cleaved by UNG, causing degradation of viral cDNA, defective production of early gene products, ...
Jolly, D: Viral vector systems for gene therapy. Cancer Gene Ther 1, 51-64 (1994) 64. Miller, A D & Rosman, G J: Improved ... In addition, HIV-1 contains regulatory (tat, rev, tev, vpr, nef) and accessory (vpu, vif) genes (12, 13) (figure 1). HIV ... Ribozymes have been shown to inhibit expression of genes encoding enzymes, structural genes and genes encoding cytokines, as ... there is fusion of the viral and target cell membranes. Following viral uncoating, genomic RNA (in a complex with the viral ...
HIV-1 encodes a viral infectivity factor (Vif) that degrades APOBEC3 proteins. In vitro APO-BEC3F (A3F) anti-HIV-1 activity is ... To assess the effect of A3F gene on host susceptibility to HIV-acquisition and disease progression, we performed a genetic ... An in vitro assay revealed that the A3F I231V variant may influence Vif mediated A3F degradation. Our results provide genetic ... was associated with significantly lower set-point viral load and slower rate of progression to AIDS (Relative Hazards (RH) = ...
  • These inhibitors are counteracted by the Vif proteins encoded by most lentiviruses. (mdpi.com)
  • In this paper, we will review the interaction of the lentiviral Vif proteins with the APOBEC3 proteins, with an emphasis on sheep APOBEC3 and maedi-visna virus (MVV) Vif. (mdpi.com)
  • One of the accessory proteins is Vif, which is found in all lentiviruses, except equine infectious anemia viurs (EIAV). (mdpi.com)
  • Vif does not have a sequence resemblance to known proteins, and sequence similarity between the Vif proteins of lentiviruses is rather limited. (mdpi.com)
  • Despite limited similarity, all Vif proteins have a conserved region in the C-terminal half, T/SLQXLA, which is necessary for their function [ 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Vif serves to neutralize the human antiviral proteins apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G [A3G]) and A3F. (asm.org)
  • Expression of APOBEC3 proteins can lead to their encapsidation into progeny virions through recruitment to substrate viral or transposon capsid structures, and this appears to involve interactions with both Gag (or Gag-like) proteins and RNA ( 6 , 12 , 14 , 28 , 43 , 54 , 63 ). (asm.org)
  • It contains the elements required for vector packaging such as structural proteins, HIV genes (except the gene env because its presence would enable the virus to infect T-cells) and the enzymes that generate vector particles. (news-medical.net)
  • In the foresight, combinations between specific envelope proteins, viral proteins that target certain cell types and the use of specific promoters could aid in the selectivity of the whole gene transfer process. (news-medical.net)
  • We still have many questions on Vif and APOBEC3 and should continue to work on these proteins in the future in order to better regulate HIV-1. (frontiersin.org)
  • have independently shown that Vif forms E3 ligase complexes with cellular proteins including Cullin 5, Elongin B, and C (Vif-Cul5-EloB/C complex) using mass-spectrometry techniques. (frontiersin.org)
  • After translation, the viral structural proteins assemble the virus particle at the plasma membrane and form a complex with the viral RNA as the virus buds and is released from the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was considerable variation in the ability of a panel of Vif proteins to induce degradation of rhAPOBEC3 proteins, and mutations within HIV-1 Vif that render it capable of degrading rhAPOBEC3G did not confer activity against other antiviral rhAPOBEC3 proteins. (asm.org)
  • Engineering HIV-1 to avoid and counteract these factors by replacing HIV-1 capsid and Vif proteins with their SIV MAC counterparts results in a virus that can replicate in primary rhesus macaque cells almost as efficiently as SIV MAC ( 12 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Mutant HIV-1 Vif proteins that are capable of counteracting rhesus macaque APOBEC3G (rhAPOBEC3G) have recently been described ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • This change did not have a significant effect on the ability of the virus to replicate in human CEMx174 cells, and its replication was only marginally slower than that of viruses expressing SIV MAC capsid and wild-type HIV-1 or SIV MAC Vif proteins (Fig. 1B ). (asm.org)
  • However, SIVs have acquired accessory viral proteins, i.e. (asp.org)
  • In the piece, Greene points out that basic research on HIV, a relatively simple pathogen with only nine genes encoding 15 proteins, are leading to compelling new therapies that deny the initial entry of HIV into its cellular host. (innovations-report.com)
  • Additionally, APOBEC3 proteins infiltrate virions during their assembly and inactivate viral genomes during subsequent reverse transcription, largely by catalyzing the deamination of cytidines in nascent retroviral DNA ( 17 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • While primate lentiviruses encode Vif proteins that antagonize APOBEC3 proteins by inducing their degradation ( 21 - 23 ), resistance to Vif-induced degradation often occurs as a result of species-specific variation in APOBEC3 proteins ( 24 - 28 ). (pnas.org)
  • By virtue of its particular capsid and Vif protein sequences, HIV-1 avoids and antagonizes the human forms of TRIM5α and APOBEC3 proteins. (pnas.org)
  • The HIV-1 accessory proteins Vpr, Vpu, and Vif are essential for viral replication, and their cytoplasmic production suggests that they should be processed for recognition by CTLs. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, CTL responses against HIV-1 Vpr, Vpu, and Vif were analyzed in 60 HIV-1-infected individuals and 10 HIV-1-negative controls using overlapping peptides spanning the entire proteins. (nih.gov)
  • These data indicate that despite the small size of these proteins Vif and Vpr are frequently targeted by CTL in natural HIV-1 infection and contribute importantly to the total HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. (nih.gov)
  • As a result of exposure to viral pathogens over millions of years, humans and other mammals evolved intrinsic immunity proteins that provide resistance to infection by directly interfering with different stages of the viral life cycle. (frontiersin.org)
  • HIV-1, in turn, evolved countermeasures to overcome the antiviral activity of their host restriction factors, mainly by acquiring a series of trans -acting viral accessory proteins, including Vif and Vpu. (frontiersin.org)
  • Vif blocks the above-described APOBEC3 proteins that mediate extensive deamination of cytosines in single-stranded viral DNA, thus halting HIV replication. (frontiersin.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV1) Rev has been reported to act by inducing the nucleocytoplasmic transport of unspliced and singly spliced RNAs that encode viral structural proteins. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Uncontrolled cytidine deamination might generate misfolded polypeptides, dominant-negative proteins, or mutations in tumor suppressor genes, and thus contribute to tumor formation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, our analysis reveals a significantly lower than expected frequency of epitopes in early regulatory proteins, suggesting a possible evolutionary- and/or immunoselection directed against variants of viral products that contain CTL epitopes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Following viral uncoating, genomic RNA (in a complex with the viral proteins integrase, polymerase and reverse transcriptase) enters the host cell cytoplasm (12-15). (bioscience.org)
  • However, HIV-1 encodes a viral infectivity factor (Vif) that degrades APOBEC3 proteins. (epfl.ch)
  • The genome consists of several major genes that code for structural and functional proteins . (wikidoc.org)
  • HIV has several major genes coding for structural proteins that are found in all retroviruses , and several nonstructural ("accessory") genes that are unique to HIV. (wikidoc.org)
  • Codes for viral enzymes , the most important of which are reverse transcriptase , integrase , and protease which cleaves the proteins derived from gag and pol into functional proteins. (wikidoc.org)
  • In order to individuate the gene(s) involved in F12-HIV-induced interference, vectors expressing each of the nine F12-HIV proteins were transfected in HIV-susceptible HeLa CD4 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • These data indicate that F12-HIV homologous viral interference is the consequence of the synergistic anti-HIV effects of Gag, Vif, and Nef proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • For the first time, an inhibitory effect on the HIV life cycle in both acutely and chronically infected cells induced by mutated Vif and Nef HIV-1 proteins is described. (elsevier.com)
  • Further repair of uracil-containing DNA through proteins that include the Y family DNA polymerases causes mutations, induce gene conversion, and class switch recombination. (deepdyve.com)
  • Viral infections, including HIV, trigger the production of type I interferons (IFNs), which in turn, activate a signalling cascade that ultimately culminates with the expression of anti-viral proteins. (springer.com)
  • Vif proteins are produced by HIV-1 and other primate immunodeficiency viruses, although how they precisely work is still a mystery. (the-scientist.com)
  • Current Drug Targets aims to cover the latest and most outstanding developments on the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of molecular drug targets e.g. disease specific proteins, receptors, enzymes, genes. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The cap gene encodes viral capsid proteins and the rep gene product is involved in viral replication and integration. (powershow.com)
  • We show that both proteins bind to multiple different RNAs, including viral RNA as well as cellular coding and non-coding RNAs, with relatively little evidence of selectivity. (prolekare.cz)
  • Specifically, HIV-1 Vif counteracts APOBEC3 proteins by inducing their proteasomal degradation through the direct recruitment of CBF-β and a cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase comprising CUL5, ELOB/C, and RBX2 [ 12 - 15 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • When Vif is absent or defective, APOBEC3 proteins are packaged into progeny virions and transferred to target cells during new infections, where they inhibit reverse transcription and hypermutate nascent cDNAs through excessive cytidine-to-uridine editing [ 5 , 7 , 16 - 19 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Thus, the encapsidation of APOBEC3 proteins into viral particles is essential for their antiviral activity, and a complete description of APOBEC3 protein function will require a full understanding of the packaging mechanism. (prolekare.cz)
  • HIV-1 also has regulatory genes ( tat and rev ) and genes that encode for accessory proteins ( vpu , vpr , vif , and nef ) that are important in viral replication and interaction with the host. (medscape.com)
  • HIV infection can be diagnosed based on detection of antibodies that are directed against the proteins encoded by the 3 major genes, the detection of the p24 antigen, the viral nucleic acid, and, finally, by means of culturing the virus. (medscape.com)
  • We identified a combination of mutations in the HIV-1 promoter that increased basal transcriptional activity and modifications in viral Nef and Vpr proteins that increased NF-κB activity. (asm.org)
  • Attachment of the viral Env glycoprotein spike to the cell surface proteins CCR5 or CXCR4 is inhibited by coreceptor antagonists. (els.net)
  • Recently, the recruitment of multiple transcription activation domains by a single sgRNA, modified to contain MS2-derived stem loops that recruit fusion proteins consisting of the MS2 coat protein linked to transcription activation domains, was reported to induce otherwise silent cellular genes. (pnas.org)
  • Whereas the induced A3G and A3B proteins both blocked infection by an HIV-1 variant lacking a functional vif gene by inducing extensive dC-to-dU editing, only the induced A3B protein inhibited wild-type HIV-1. (pnas.org)
  • The precursor is the p55 myristoylated protein, which is processed to p17 (MAtrix), p24 (CApsid), p7 (NucleoCapsid), and p6 proteins, by the viral protease. (lanl.gov)
  • Alternatively, the integrated viral DNA may be transcribed , producing new RNA genomes and viral proteins, using host cell resources, that are packaged and released from the cell as new virus particles that will begin the replication cycle anew. (wikipedia.org)
  • This Section also focuses on the structure and function of Vif and host restriction APOBEC3 proteins, and development of lentiviral vectors for delivery of Vif-resistant APOBEC3 proteins to HIV-1 target cells as a gene therapy strategy for treatment and functional cure. (cancer.gov)
  • The various viral proteins are synthesized from unspliced, monospliced, or multispliced forms of this major transcript and then assume their functional roles in infected cells. (chuv.ch)
  • More than twenty distinct IFN genes and proteins have been identified in animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • A family of human proteins called APOBEC3 effectively restrict the growth of HIV and other viruses, but this action is fully counteracted by the viral infectivity factor gene (vif) in HIV. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • They found that the most commonly transmitted strains of HIV are completely neutralized by APOBEC3 proteins when vif is removed from the virus. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Predicting PPIs between viral and host proteins has contributed substantial knowledge to the drug design area. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mammalian APOBEC3 proteins inhibit lentiviral replication by enzymatically inserting G-to-A hypermutations in the viral genome, whereas lentiviral Vif proteins degrade host APOBEC3 via the ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent investigations provide evidence that lentiviral vif genes evolved to combat mammalian APOBEC3 proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vif antagonizes the antiviral activity of human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3 proteins that confer the non-permissive phenotype by tethering them (APOBEC3DE/3F/3G) to the Vif-CBF-β-ElonginB-ElonginC-Cullin5-Rbx (Vif-CBF-β-EloB-EloC-Cul5-Rbx) E3 complex to induce their proteasomal degradation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Every component of the Vif-Cul5 E3 ligase is indispensable for degradation of APOBEC3 proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The multidomain HIV-1 Vif protein recruits several cellular partners to achieve neutralization of the antiviral activity of APOBEC3 proteins. (meta.org)
  • Vif neutralizes APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F predominantly by forming an E3 ubiquitin ligase with Cullin5, ElonginB and ElonginC that targets these proteins for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (meta.org)
  • The viral envelope consists of two layers of lipid molecules and contains proteins taken from the host cell. (benjaminbarber.org)
  • Three of these genes (gag, pol, and env) contain information regarding the manufacture of structural proteins and new virus particles. (benjaminbarber.org)
  • Three regulatory genes (tat, rev, and nef) and three auxiliary genes (vif, vpr and vpu) contain information regarding the production of proteins that allows HIV to infect a cell, produce new copies of the virus or cause disease. (benjaminbarber.org)
  • The genetic material contains nine genes that encode for proteins that make up the structure of the virus. (doctortipster.com)
  • Each gene has a specific role, for example, the genes tat, rev , nef , vif encode for proteins that are involved in viral replication or the ability to infect other cells. (doctortipster.com)
  • Infectious lentiviruses have three main genes coding for the viral proteins in the order: 5´-gag-pol-env-3´ (see figure 2). (genetherapynet.com)
  • Viral proteins involved in early stages of replication include Reverse Transcriptase and Integrase. (genetherapynet.com)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Vif targets both proteins for proteasomal degradation. (elsevier.com)
  • Although the broad outlines of FV3 replication have been elucidated, the precise roles of most viral proteins remain unknown. (oalib.com)
  • Current studies using knock down (KD) mediated by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMO) and small, interfering RNAs (siRNA), knock out (KO) following replacement of the targeted gene with a selectable marker by homologous recombination, ectopic viral gene expression, and recombinant viral proteins have enabled researchers to systematically ascertain replicative- and virulence-related gene functions. (oalib.com)
  • Indeed, while some of the 95-100 predicted ranavirus genes encode putative evasion proteins (e.g., vIFα, vCARD), roughly two-thirds of them do not share significant sequence identity with known viral or eukaryotic genes. (oalib.com)
  • HIV-1 Vif was initially shown to be essential for HIV-1 replication in human lymphocytes and a number of T-cell-derived cell lines termed non-permissive (e.g. (mdpi.com)
  • however, replication is restricted in these cells-that is, the majority of cells containing viral RNA do not produce infectious virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex lentiviruses contain other accessory genes as well, responsible for precise orchestration of viral replication, biosynthesis and pathogenesis. (news-medical.net)
  • Animal cells have developed many ways to suppress viral replication, and viruses have evolved diverse strategies to resist these. (nih.gov)
  • These observations indicate that the inhibition of virion infectivity factor function in vivo may prevent HIV-1 replication by 'unmasking' an innate anti-viral phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • This is at least in part due to blocks in the viral replication cycle that have been identified in macaque-derived cells in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Thus, SIVs appear to have coevolved with their hosts and acquired new genes to evade cellular restrictions for optimal replication. (asp.org)
  • A major reason underlying the inability of HIV-1 to replicate in nonhuman primate cells is the existence therein of gene products that have evolved to inhibit retroviral replication. (pnas.org)
  • APOBEC3G has been identified as an intrinsic factor able to restrict replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) lacking the viral accessory protein Vif [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The disease course of AIDS consists of four stages - initial infection, acute syndrome, clinical latency, and eventually clinical disease (1-9) with viral replication found at all of these stages (9-11). (bioscience.org)
  • Conversely, expression of either the tat, rev, or vpu F12-HIV gene increased the rate of HIV release, and no apparent effects on HIV replication were observed in cells expressing either the F12-HIV vpr, pol, or env gene. (elsevier.com)
  • Retrovirus vectors expressing F12-HIV vif or nef allowed us to further establish that the expression of each mutated protein (i) inhibits the replication of clinical HIV-1 isolates as well, (ii) impairs the infectivity of the virus released by cells chronically infected with HIV-1, and (iii) limitedly to F12-HIV Vif protein, induces HIV resistance in both vif- permissive and vif-nonpermissive cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Most retroviruses that are capable of replication contain only three genes--env, gag and pol (Varmus, 1988). (thebody.com)
  • The inhibition of viral replication is either due to the degradation of the minus strand before its integration or to the lethality of the hypermutations. (proteopedia.org)
  • Recent advances regarding the utility of RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) to specifically inhibit HIV-1 replication have opened new possibilities for the development of gene-based therapies against HIV-1 infection. (springer.com)
  • This feature of HIV-1 infection places it in sharp contrast with almost all other viral infections, in which the initial rounds of viral replication do not establish a permanent reservoir of infection. (springer.com)
  • Some believe that Vif operates during the late stages of HIV virus replication, somehow overcoming some cells' seemingly innate resistance to the virus--this innate resistance stems from the newly discovered CEM15 gene. (the-scientist.com)
  • The cytoplasmic singlestranded DNA cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F block HIV replication by introducing premature stop codons into the viral genome. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Further, we show that the 9AA could significantly inhibit virus replication in activated PBMCs, likely through a mechanism of inhibiting the viral replication machinery. (springer.com)
  • Replication-deficie nt adenovirus vectors can be generated by replacing the E1 or E3 gene, which is essential for replication. (powershow.com)
  • Cells infected with recombinant adenovirus can express the therapeutic gene, but because essential genes for replication are deleted, the vector cant replicate. (powershow.com)
  • Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are the latest class of antiretroviral drugs approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, and they inhibit HIV-1 replication by blocking the strand transfer step of viral DNA integration into the host genome ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
  • The viral replication strategy is highly similar to that of HIV, and is initiated by interaction of the viral Env glycoprotein with CD134, a molecule up-regulated on activated CD4 + T cells [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Several T cell-based vaccine trials have currently shown primary viremia control in macaque AIDS models of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, but residual viral replication may occur, followed by accumulation of viral CD8+ T-cell escape mutations, possibly leading to eventual viremia rebound. (prolekare.cz)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection induces chronic, persistent viral replication leading to AIDS onset in humans and rhesus macaques, respectively. (prolekare.cz)
  • However, aviremic HIV/SIV control is rare, and even in those with undetectable viremia, residual viral replication can occur and allow accumulation of viral genome mutations resulting in viral escape from CD8 + T-cell recognition, possibly leading to eventual viremia rebound [ 22 - 25 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • However, both induced factors blocked the replication of a Vif-deficient HIV-1 mutant. (pnas.org)
  • These data demonstrate that Cas9-derived transcription factors can effectively induce human genes that regulate virus replication, thus setting the scene for their use in genomic screens to identify such factors. (pnas.org)
  • A potential method to inhibit viral replication might therefore be to use synthetic transcription factors to induce restriction factor expression. (pnas.org)
  • These data demonstrate that Cas9-derived transcriptional activators have the potential to be used for screens for endogenous genes that affect virus replication and raise the possibility that synthetic transcription factors might prove clinically useful if efficient delivery mechanisms could be developed. (pnas.org)
  • The Viral Recombination Section, directed by Wei-Shau Hu , focuses on mechanisms used by HIV-1 to transfer its genetic information during replication, including RNA genome packaging, virus assembly, reverse transcription, and recombination. (cancer.gov)
  • The Viral Mutation Section, headed by Vinay K. Pathak , focuses on elucidating the early stage of HIV-1 replication, which include nuclear import, capsid disassembly, the timing and location of reverse transcription, intranuclear transport and localization, and integration site selection. (cancer.gov)
  • [2] Interferons are named for their ability to "interfere" with viral replication [2] by protecting cells from virus infections . (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients treated with potent ART showed precipitous decreases in the amount of HIV RNA circulating in their serum, indicating interference with HIV replication (which, unimpeded, can produce more than 10 billion viral particles per day). (ucsf.edu)
  • Additionally, after successful inhibition of viral replication, CD4 T-cell counts began to increase in treated individuals, demonstrating the regenerative capacity of the damaged immune system. (ucsf.edu)
  • 28 ) Corroborating this understanding of the dynamic interaction between viral replication and the host immune system, studies began to show the value of HIV RNA measurement (viral load) as both a predictor of disease progression and a measure of treatment success. (ucsf.edu)
  • In this review, the consequence of HIV/HCV co-infection on host immune response, viral replication, disease progression, mortality and morbidity, viral load, persistence and current treatment options have been discussed. (springer.com)
  • However, other unique mutants were identified in HIV controllers, both within and flanking TW10, that were associated with an even greater reduction in viral replication capacity in vitro. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These data suggest a dual mechanism for durable control of HIV replication, consisting of viral fitness loss resulting from CTL escape mutations together with strong CD8 T-cell immune responses to the arising variant epitopes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Viral replication usually requires that innate intracellular lines of defence be overcome, a task usually accomplished by specialized viral gene products. (epfl.ch)
  • Historically, detailed genetic analyses of viral functions and evolution have identified key viral determinants for the successful completion of each stage in the replication cycle. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • The HIV‐1 Vif protein suppresses the inhibition of viral replication caused by the human antiretroviral factor APOBEC3G. (embopress.org)
  • As a result, HIV‐1 mutants that do not express the Vif protein are replication incompetent in 'nonpermissive' cells, such as primary T cells and the T‐cell line CEM, that express APOBEC3G. (embopress.org)
  • Simon et al , 1998a ) led to the hypothesis that nonpermissive cells express an inhibitor of HIV‐1 replication, lacking in permissive cells, that is blocked by the viral Vif protein. (embopress.org)
  • Overexpression of these cellular miRNAs increased viral replication in the astrocytes, through SAMHD1 modulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overcoming the blocks in HIV replication can lead to the upregulation of the gene expression, making these cells available to immune surveillance and HAART targeting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A great diversity is evident in their physical properties, genome size, gene contents, replication mode and infectivity. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These functions are restricted to: (i) recognition of the host cell, (ii) replication according to the viral group, and (iii) capsid building. (beds.ac.uk)
  • FV3 study has provided insights into the replication of other family members, and has served as a model of viral transcription, genome replication, and virus-mediated host-shutoff. (oalib.com)
  • Collectively, these and future efforts will elucidate molecular events in viral replication, intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to disease outbreaks, and the role of the host immune system in protection from disease. (oalib.com)
  • Transgenic and infectious models of HIVAN faithfully recapitulate the human disease and are important tools in advancing our understanding of disease pathogenesis, genetic susceptibility, and therapeutic intervention beyond the inhibition of viral replication. (asnjournals.org)
  • Vif was implicated in a number of functions, but its precise role in viral infectivity remained elusive for a long time. (mdpi.com)
  • Lentiviruses, such as HIV-1, encode a virion infectivity factor (Vif) protein that prevents the antiviral effects of APOBEC3 family members, in particular, A3G and A3F ( 3 , 47 , 58 , 65 ). (asm.org)
  • What remains are different plasmids required for viral particle formation and infectivity (the packaging and the envelope constructs) and sequences for mobilization of viral genome. (news-medical.net)
  • This anti-viral phenotype is shown by human T cells, the principal in vivo targets for HIV-1, and, based on our present understanding of virion infectivity factor action, is presumed to act by interfering with a late step(s) in the virus life cycle. (nih.gov)
  • The research on virion infectivity factor (Vif) protein had started in late 1980s right after HIV-1 was cloned, and the function of Vif had been a mystery for a long time. (frontiersin.org)
  • HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif) was identified as an accessory gene right after the HIV-1 genome was sequenced. (frontiersin.org)
  • one is that permissive cells have a vif-like cellular factor which facilitates virion infectivity, another is that non-permissive cells possess an anti-HIV-1 host factor which is antagonized by Vif. (frontiersin.org)
  • Other accessory genes include vif (viral infectivity factor), tat (transcription activator), and rev (protein expression regulator). (wikipedia.org)
  • It's quite potent, and it can halt the growth of HIV dead in its tracks, provided the virus lacks its Vif, or viral infectivity factor, gene. (innovations-report.com)
  • This antiviral activity is neutralized by the virion infectivity factor (VIF), that prevents the incorporation of APOBEC3G into progeny HIV-1 virions by both inhibiting its translation and/or by inducing its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. (proteopedia.org)
  • Kao S, Khan MA, Miyagi E, Plishka R, Buckler-White A, Strebel K. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif protein reduces intracellular expression and inhibits packaging of APOBEC3G (CEM15), a cellular inhibitor of virus infectivity. (proteopedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, HIV has evolved to counter A3G with viral infectivity factor (Vif), a protein that "grabs" A3G and tricks the body into destroying it. (innovations-report.com)
  • 1 Yet, the wiseguy mien has not completely disappeared: While the protein encoded by the newly discovered gene normally protects certain T cells against HIV-1 infection, its antithesis, Vif (viral infectivity factor), overcomes CEM15 and establishes the disease. (the-scientist.com)
  • Our data showed that codon modification of HIV-1 sequences led to a suppression of virus infectivity by 5-100-fold, and this defect does not correlate with, viral entry, viral protein expression levels, viral protein profiles or virion packaging of genomic RNA. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • VIF Viral infectivity factor, a basic protein typically 23 kD. (lanl.gov)
  • Promotes the infectivity but not the production of viral particles. (lanl.gov)
  • To antagonize APOBEC3-mediated antiviral action, lentiviruses have acquired viral infectivity factor (Vif) as an accessory gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • APOBEC3F binds the HIV‐1 Vif protein specifically and Vif suppresses both the inhibition of virus infectivity caused by APOBEC3F and virion incorporation of APOBEC3F. (embopress.org)
  • Analysis of HIV-1 viral infectivity factor-mediated proteasome-depende" by Michael J. Wichroski, Kozi Ichiyama et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • To study how HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) mediates proteasome-dependent depletion of host factor APOBEC3G, functional and nonfunctional Vif-APOBEC3G interactions were correlated with subcellular localization. (umassmed.edu)
  • 2004). Analysis of HIV-1 viral infectivity factor-mediated proteasome-dependent depletion of APOBEC3G: correlating function and subcellular localization. (umassmed.edu)
  • The vif gene encodes a small and highly basic protein rich in tryptophans [ 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • Expression of the HIV-1 Vif protein in the absence of other viral factors such a Tat and Rev is extremely inefficient due to the presence of inhibitory sequences on its mRNA. (federallabs.org)
  • However, gene vectors, which insert themselves into the host genome in order to achieve persistent protein expression, can trigger oncogenesis by upregulating cellular protooncogenes. (jci.org)
  • In general, SRLVs enter the cell through the interaction of their glycosylated envelope protein with a cellular receptor on the cell's plasma membrane facilitating fusion of the viral and cellular membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome is organized from the 5′ to the 3′ end, and major protein components are contained in gag , pol and env genes. (news-medical.net)
  • Specifically, changing amino acids 14 to 19 (from DRMR to SEMQ) resulted in an HIV-1 Vif protein that is capable of counteracting rhAPOBEC3G-mediated restriction. (asm.org)
  • HIV attacks APOBEC3G through its Vif protein. (innovations-report.com)
  • APOBEC3G, a protein member of the APOBEC superfamily, has been suggested to play an important role in innate anti-viral immunity. (mdpi.com)
  • Conversely, the efficient release of virions is promoted by the HIV-1 Vpu protein and other viral antagonists. (frontiersin.org)
  • Vpu is another viral antagonist of the transmembrane BST-2 protein that blocks the release of enveloped viruses by physically binding the budding viral particles to the membrane of infected cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Viral reverse transcriptase and polymerase enzymes convert the genomic RNA to cDNA, and a dsDNA copy is transported to the cell nucleus and then integrated into the host genome by the action of the viral integrase protein. (bioscience.org)
  • HIV-1 is composed of two copies of single-stranded RNA enclosed by a conical capsid comprising the viral protein p24. (wikidoc.org)
  • HIV-1 is composed of two copies of single-stranded RNA enclosed by a conical capsid comprising the viral protein p24 , typical of lentiviruses (Figure 1). (wikidoc.org)
  • A matrix composed of an association of the viral protein p17 surrounds the capsid , ensuring the integrity of the virion particle . (wikidoc.org)
  • Pools of cell clones stably producing each viral protein were infected with HIV-1, and virus release was measured in terms of reverse transcriptase activity in supernatants. (elsevier.com)
  • Differently, we observed that expression of F12-HIV Nef protein affects the HIV life cycle at the level of viral assembling and/or release. (elsevier.com)
  • HIV is closely related to SIV, as evidenced by viral protein cross-reactivity and genetic sequence similarities (Franchini et al. (thebody.com)
  • Malim's group and another at Oregon Health Sciences University simultaneously published the existence of an unidentified cellular factor that could inhibit HIV-1 infection, but could be overcome by the presence of Vif protein. (the-scientist.com)
  • 1 They studied HIV-1 infection in T cells where the Vif protein was either fully functional or deleted. (the-scientist.com)
  • After identifying the candidate gene ( CEM15 ), Malim's team transferred it to permissive cells and found that the CEM15 protein could confer resistance to HIV-1 infection as found in nonpermissive cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • Human cells contain at least one gene that has natural anti-HIV activity," says Malim, but the virus encodes its own countermeasure, the Vif protein, and infection proceeds. (the-scientist.com)
  • Vif, an accessory protein encoded by HIV, counteracts APOBEC3G/F action. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • We suggest that an artificial dHIV construct carrying a mutated vif gene (coding for a Vif protein unable to block APOBEC3G/F) could have a therapeutic effect as well in HIV infected individuals and AIDS patients. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • A mechanism study reveals that the phosphorylated p53ser15 may be dissociated from binding to HIV-1 Tat protein, thereby activating the p21/waf1 gene. (springer.com)
  • Viruses have developed assorted strategies to evade A3-mediated inhibition, the most prominent of which is the expression of the dedicated regulatory protein, Vif, by most lentiviruses. (prolekare.cz)
  • CBFβ interacts with the viral protein VIF and triggers assembly of a ubiquitin ligase complex that targets the retroviral inhibitor APOBEC3G for degradation (9,10). (cellsignal.com)
  • Phylogenetic (evolutionary) relationships among human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 (HIV‐1) and type 2 (HIV‐2) and simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs), including three main groups of HIV‐1 (M, N and O) and the recognised viral subtypes within group M (subtypes A-K). The phylogeny is based on amino acid sequences from the Pol protein. (els.net)
  • A3G is susceptible to degradation by the HIV-1 Vif protein, whereas A3B is resistant to Vif. (pnas.org)
  • Found in almost all lentiviruses, Vif is a cytoplasmic protein, existing in both a soluble cytosolic form and a membrane-associated form. (lanl.gov)
  • The latter form of Vif is a peripheral membrane protein that is tightly associated with the cytoplasmic side of cellular membranes. (lanl.gov)
  • In 2003, it was discovered that Vif prevents the action of the cellular APOBEC-3G protein, which deaminates DNA:RNA heteroduplexes in the cytoplasm. (lanl.gov)
  • VPR Vpr (viral protein R) is a 96-amino acid (14-kD) protein, which is incorporated into the virion. (lanl.gov)
  • The Retrovirus Assembly Section, led by Alan Rein , studies structure-function relationships in viral RNA and cellular defense mechanisms against retroviruses and other viral pathogens, focusing primarily on the roles of Gag protein elements, nucleic acids, and host factors in virus assembly. (cancer.gov)
  • Recently, several data have suggested that another gene, encoding a product named HIV antisense protein (ASP), may be expressed through an antisense transcript. (chuv.ch)
  • However, despite all efforts, very little information is available for this new viral protein, due to the difficulties related to its detection. (chuv.ch)
  • HIV Tat is a regulatory protein encoded by tat gene of HIV-1, which not only promotes the transcription of HIV, but it is also involved in the pathogenesis of HIV-related complications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tat stands for "trans-activator of transcription", which is a small nuclear protein encoded by the tat gene in HIV-1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The prediction of possible viral-host interactions is one of the major tasks in Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) research for antiviral drug discovery and treatment optimization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Microbial infection) Substrate adapter protein can be a viral protein such as HIV Vif. (rcsb.org)
  • Inside the viral core there is a capsid that is made of 2000 copies of a viral protein called p24. (benjaminbarber.org)
  • The p17 protein called the HIV matrix protein, lies between the viral core and the viral envelope. (benjaminbarber.org)
  • Terphenyl, the new synthetic molecule created by a team of Spanish researchers, inhibits the viral protein Rev. Terphenyl, the new drug, binds to the receptor Rev of viral RNA and blocks the interaction between the protein and its RNA receptor. (doctortipster.com)
  • In a mature virion, the viral genome is encapsulated and protected by a capsid shell, a complex structure built of multiple (usually identical) protein subunits. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Gene therapy requires efficient gene delivery to cure or prevent disease by modifying the genome of somatic cells. (jci.org)
  • Gene vectors that insert themselves into the host genome would allow for a long-lasting phenotypic correction even if the target cells undergo repeated rounds of cell division. (jci.org)
  • To assess the level of intra-patient diversity and evolution of HIV-1C non-structural genes in primary infection, viral quasispecies obtained by single genome amplification (SGA) at multiple sampling timepoints up to 500 days post-seroconversion (p/s) were analyzed. (ub.bw)
  • Some of the other additional genes that are important are psi-sequence near the 5' end of the RNA-genome (essential for packaging viral RNA into virus capsid), the polypurine tract required for reverse transcription, and the long-terminal repeats (LTRs) which are part of the promoter for transcription of the viral genes. (news-medical.net)
  • The genome contains the usual retroviral structural genes including gag, pol, and env. (wikipedia.org)
  • APOBEC3G can induce nucleoside mutations from deoxycytidine to deoxyuridine in the viral genome [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The HIV-1 genome (approximately 9.8 kb in size) contains the same three replicative genes (gag, pol, env) found in the genomes of all simple retroviruses. (bioscience.org)
  • This proviral DNA is then a stable component of the host cell genome and it may remain dormant or become actively transcribed to genomic or subgenomic viral RNA yielding mature virions which are released by budding (12, 13). (bioscience.org)
  • Rajarapu G (2014) Genes and Genome of HIV-1. (omicsonline.org)
  • [2] A major requirement for all retroviruses is reverse transcriptase that transcribes the viral RNA into double-stranded DNA and integrase that integrates this newly formed DNA into the host genome . (wikidoc.org)
  • The first drugs approved in the United States to treat HIV-1 infection inhibit the specific activity of the virally encoded reverse transcriptase, the viral enzyme essential for conversion of the viral RNA genome into a DNA provirus that integrates itself into the host genome. (hindawi.com)
  • As a retrovirus, HIV is an RNA virus that codes for the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which transcribes the viral genomic RNA into a DNA copy that ultimately integrates into the host cell genome (Fauci, 1988). (thebody.com)
  • My favored idea, and it is the only sensible one I have heard, apart from the one I came up with on a previous post but have only just come to appreciate in answering this question, is that these retroelements (themselves derived from retroviruses and/or the founders of retroviruses) jumped in to the genome, and interuppted the genes. (biology-online.org)
  • Codon modification of HIV-1 pol correlated with an enhanced dimer stability of the viral RNA genome, which was associated with a reduction of viral cDNA synthesis both during HIV-1 infection and in a cell free reverse transcription assay. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Upon entry into the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted (reverse transcribed) into double-stranded DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase , that is transported along with the viral genome in the virus particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of HIV-1 harbors the three common retroviral genes (gag, pol, and env), in addition to two regulatory genes (tat and rev) and four accessory genes (vif, vpr, vpu, and nef). (chuv.ch)
  • The enzyme uses the viral RNA genome as a template for the synthesis of a complementary DNA copy. (genetherapynet.com)
  • Processing of the LTR by IN is performed prior to insertion of the viral genome into the host DNA. (genetherapynet.com)
  • The lentivirus FIV, responsible for a progressive and debilitating immune deficiency syndrome in domestic cats, similar to that caused by the human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), is a complex retrovirus with a tightly-packed genome, containing the structural genes gag, env and pro-pol and the accessory genes vif, rev and ORF-A/2. (novusbio.com)
  • We sought a unified evolutionary explanation that accounts for their genome sizes, gene overlapping and capsid properties. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, although viruses span three orders of magnitude in genome length, they almost never have over 1500 overlapping nucleotides, or over four significantly overlapping genes per virus. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In this state, the viral genome is known as a prophage, and the host is said to be lysogenized or a lysogen. (writework.com)
  • Therefore, based on the sequences of APOBEC3 genes identified in humans, we have isolated cDNAs encoding their counterparts from rhesus macaque 221 T cells. (asm.org)
  • Based on an understanding of species-specific variation in primate TRIM5 and APOBEC3 antiretroviral genes, we constructed simian-tropic (st)HIV-1 strains that differ from HIV-1 only in the vif gene. (pnas.org)
  • In corollary, mammalian APOBEC3 genes are under Darwinian selective pressure to escape from antagonism by Vif. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on these observations, it is widely accepted that lentiviral Vif and mammalian APOBEC3 have co-evolved and this concept is called an "evolutionary arms race. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the research on Vif has finally lead to the identification of APOBEC3G, which opens up a new era in the research field of host restriction factors in HIV-1 infection followed by TRIM5α, Tetherin/BST-2, and SAMHD1. (frontiersin.org)
  • As described above, the main function of Vif is to antagonize APOBEC3G. (frontiersin.org)
  • The inability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) to replicate in rhesus macaque cells is in part due to the failure of HIV-1 Vif to counteract the restriction factor APOBEC3G. (asm.org)
  • GIVI scientists were the first to show that Vif not only targets intracellular APOBEC3G for accelerated destruction, but also impairs new production of this antiviral factor. (innovations-report.com)
  • The fact that Vif must bind to APOBEC3G and recruit enzymes triggering APOBEC3G degradation provides an exciting window of opportunity for future drug development. (innovations-report.com)
  • The goal is to block the assembly or ensuing action of Vif on APOBEC3G, thereby preserving intracellular expression of APOBEC3G. (innovations-report.com)
  • If these molecules can be identified and successfully developed into drugs, they would unleash potent antiviral effects of APOBEC3G, even in the presence of Vif. (innovations-report.com)
  • HIV biologists agree that the Vif-APOBEC3G axis forms the single most promising drug target since the discovery of chemokine receptors," explains Greene. (innovations-report.com)
  • In addition, the differences in STAT-1 and APOBEC3G expression in liver tissues were also observed in patients with different anti-viral responses to IFN-α. (mdpi.com)
  • Crystal structure of the anti-viral APOBEC3G catalytic domain and functional implications. (proteopedia.org)
  • When packaged into HIV-1 particles, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F both inhibit reverse transcription and induce destructive hypermutation in viral DNA. (prolekare.cz)
  • When produced in the presence of APOBEC3G, vif-defective virus is non-infectious. (epfl.ch)
  • The HIV-1 Vif-Cullin5-ElonginBC complex is then able to ubiquitinate the APOBEC3G factor bound to Vif by its N-terminal domain. (meta.org)
  • In contrast, Vif‐defective HIV‐1 replicates effectively in 'permissive' cell lines, such as a derivative of CEM termed CEM‐SS, that do not express APOBEC3G. (embopress.org)
  • Sheehy et al (2002) were able to identify a single human gene product, termed CEM15 or APOBEC3G(h3G), that fully satisfied these criteria. (embopress.org)
  • APOBEC3G localized throughout the cytoplasm and co-localized with gamma-tubulin, 20 S proteasome subunit, and ubiquitin at punctate cytoplasmic bodies that can be used to monitor the Vif-APOBEC3G interaction in the cell. (umassmed.edu)
  • When co-expressed, Vif exhibited more pronounced localization to the cytoplasm and reduced the total cellular levels of APOBEC3G but rarely co-localized with APOBEC3G at cytoplasmic bodies. (umassmed.edu)
  • On the contrary, Vif(C114S), which is inactive but continues to interact with APOBEC3G, stably associated with APOBEC3G in the cytoplasm, resulting in complete co-localization at cytoplasmic bodies and a dose-dependent exclusion of Vif(C114S) from the nucleus. (umassmed.edu)
  • Furthermore in the presence or absence of APOBEC3G, Vif localization was significantly altered by proteasome inhibition, suggesting that aberrant localization may also contribute to the loss of Vif function. (umassmed.edu)
  • Finally mutations at Vif Ile(9) disrupted the ability of Vif or Vif(C114S) to coimmunoprecipitate and to co-localize with APOBEC3G, suggesting that the N terminus of Vif mediates interactions with APOBEC3G. (umassmed.edu)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate that cytoplasmic Vif-APOBEC3G interactions are required but are not sufficient for Vif to modulate APOBEC3G and can be monitored by co-localization in vivo. (umassmed.edu)
  • It is becoming increasingly clear that organisms have developed a variety of mechanisms to fight against viral infection. (mdpi.com)
  • No associations between levels of viral diversity within the non-structural genes and HIV-1 RNA load during primary infection were found. (ub.bw)
  • The study details the dynamics of the non-structural viral genes during the early stages of HIV-1C infection. (ub.bw)
  • This technology relates to methods for lowering a viral load of a virus where the virus causes a chronic viral infection and is resistant to an antiviral drug. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a main cytokine induced in the innate immune response directed against viral infection [ 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • IFN-α is rapidly induced with a high expression level and secreted into the blood circulation in response to viral infection in many types of cells, and then binds to a specific cell surface receptor and triggers intracellular reactions that lead to the transcriptional induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) [ 11 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • These so-called host restriction factors are normally induced by interferon-α (IFN-α) during induction of the innate immune response by viral infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cytidine deamination of nucleic acids underlies diversification of Ig genes and inhibition of retroviral infection, and thus, it would appear to be vital to host defense. (jimmunol.org)
  • Ribozyme gene therapy for HIV-1 infection is a therapeutic approach that offers several potential advantages over conventional therapies in that it can potentially impact on both viral load and restoration of the immune system. (bioscience.org)
  • On infection, there is fusion of the viral and target cell membranes. (bioscience.org)
  • We hereby demonstrate that HeLa CD4 cells expressing the F12-HIV gag, vif, or nef gene were resistant, to different degrees, to infection with T-cell-line-adapted HIV-1 strains. (elsevier.com)
  • A third class of HIV-1 therapeutics inhibits viral infection by preventing virus attachment to the host cell CCR5 chemokine receptor or prevents the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • ABC3G_HUMAN ] DNA deaminase (cytidine deaminase) that mediates a form of innate resistance to retroviral infections (at least to HIV-1 infection) by triggering G-to-A hypermutation in the newly synthesized viral DNA. (proteopedia.org)
  • We have previously described efficient infection of conventional mice using EcoHIV/NL4-3 and EcoHIV/NDK, chimeric HIV molecular clones constructed to express all HIV structural and regulatory genes except envelope, which is replaced by a rodent-tropic envelope gene. (biologists.org)
  • Physiological factors that can influence viral sexual transmission that are absent from these formats are semen as the inoculum, female hormonal cycle changes in susceptibility to infection, and the responses of the FRT to copulation. (biologists.org)
  • But a team at King's College, London, has shown that in the case of HIV-1 infection, some human T cells are not completely vulnerable to an HIV-1 viral attack. (the-scientist.com)
  • Michael Malim and colleagues have found a human gene, CEM15 , whose product actually inhibits HIV-1 infection and may eventually provide a potential new target for drug therapy. (the-scientist.com)
  • But scientists do know that without Vif, viruses like HIV-1 are crippled and cannot replicate sufficiently to establish infection. (the-scientist.com)
  • The London team and one from the University of Pennsylvania suspected that such a gene existed after they discovered a previously unknown phenotype that resists HIV-infection and other retroviruses. (the-scientist.com)
  • In cells classified as permissive, HIV-1 could replicate and set up infection whether or not Vif was present. (the-scientist.com)
  • Cells have all sorts of measures that are not immune-based to overcome viral infection, but this is the first instance of a gene like this. (the-scientist.com)
  • However, it is difficult to obtain sterile protection from virus infection by T cell-based vaccines, and whether vaccine-based, primary non-sterile viral control can be stably maintained is debatable. (prolekare.cz)
  • Time course of HIV infection showing correlation of viral load, CD4 + T cell, and CD8 + T cell counts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The phylogenetic analysis of C2V4 suggested viral evolution or co-infection or superinfection in two out of the four patients analysed. (pasteur.fr)
  • The typical course of untreated HIV‐1 infection showing the change in CD4 cell counts (blue line) and plasma HIV‐1 RNA levels ('viral load', red line) over time. (els.net)
  • Infection with one genotype does not confer immunity against other GTs, and concurrent infections with two viral strains have been reported. (springer.com)
  • The HIV-1 accessory factor Vif is necessary for efficient viral infection in non-permissive cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the case of the flying lemur, the extinct virus pushes back the origins of HIV's family of viruses by tens of millions of years - and along with it, the viral iterations that scientists can study to learn how viral infection strategies originated, how they've changed, and how host immune defenses adapted in response. (statnews.com)
  • Lentiviral infection have advantages over other gene therapy methods including high-efficiency infection of dividing and non-dividing cells, long-term stable expression of a transgene, and low immunogenicity. (genetherapynet.com)
  • Frogs and other amphibians are sentinels of environmental health and their disappearance following viral or fungal (chytrid) infection is a cause for alarm. (oalib.com)
  • For example, cells of the macrophage lineage represent important combatants of RV infections while themselves serving as targets for viral infection, maintenance and possibly dissemination. (oalib.com)
  • Vectors derived from lentiviruses can be used for treatment strategies dependent on both transgene expression and gene correction. (news-medical.net)
  • One feature that distinguishes lentiviruses from other retroviruses is the remarkable complexity of their viral genomes. (thebody.com)
  • FIV is an enveloped virus and, similar to other lentiviruses, has a virion diameter of 105-125 nm and includes a host cell-acquired membrane with viral glycoproteins protruding as spike-like projections [ 1 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The shaded regions are the structural genes common to all primate lentiviruses ( gag , pol and env ). (els.net)
  • Retroviral vectors based on lentiviruses retain these properties, and have been developed as candidate therapeutic agents for gene delivery to cells of the central nervous system, muscle and hepatocytes as well as antigen‐presenting cells in the immune system. (els.net)
  • Lentiviruses can deliver a significant amount of genetic information into the DNA of the host cell, so they are one of the most efficient methods of a gene delivery vector . (genetherapynet.com)
  • Large-scale collaborative efforts are underway to use lentiviruses to block the expression of a specific gene using RNA interference technology in high-throughput formats. (genetherapynet.com)
  • Lentiviruses have also been successfully used for transfection of diabetic mice with the gene encoding PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor), a therapy being considered for use in humans. (genetherapynet.com)
  • This capsid surrounds two strands of HIV RNA, each of which contains nine of the virus' genes. (benjaminbarber.org)
  • Our findings undermine the generality of the compression theory, which emphasizes optimal packing and length dependency to explain overlapping genes and capsid size in viral genomes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The virus matures after proteolytic processing by the viral protease (PR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Also enclosed within the virion particle are Vif , Vpr , Nef , p7 and viral protease (Figure 1). (wikidoc.org)
  • Another approved and marketed class of HIV-1 antiviral therapeutics inhibits the HIV-1 protease, a viral enzyme required to process newly synthesized viral polyproteins into the mature viral gene products, enabling the virus to assemble itself into new infectious virus particles [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Due to the high genetic variability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), treatment of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) patients with inhibitors of reverse trancriptase (RT) and drugs blocking the viral protease regularly results in the accumulation of drug resistant HIV variants and treatment failure. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The pol gene encodes the enzymes reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease. (medscape.com)
  • POL The genomic region encoding the viral enzymes protease, reverse transcriptase, and integrase. (lanl.gov)
  • 18, maturation of virion into infectious particle mediated by viral protease. (els.net)
  • This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. (nih.gov)
  • The env gene encodes for glycoprotein (gp) 120 and gp 41. (medscape.com)
  • HIV-1 encodes three structural genes ( gag , pol , env ), two essential regulatory genes ( tat and rev ), and four accessory genes ( vif , vpr , vpu , and nef ) ( 9 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • In vitro APO-BEC3F (A3F) anti-HIV-1 activity is weaker than A3G but is partially resistant to Vif degradation unlike A3G. (epfl.ch)
  • An in vitro assay revealed that the A3F I231V variant may influence Vif mediated A3F degradation. (epfl.ch)
  • 26. The method of claim 11, further comprising treating said subject with a second anti-viral agent. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 27. The method of 26 , wherein said second anti-viral agent is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • We speculate that small molecule inhibitors of Vif could permit lethal or sublethal mutagenesis of HIV genomes. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The bias of A-rich codons in HIV-1 pol is thought to be a record of hypermutations in viral genomes that lack biological functions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, synonymous codons are rarely used with equal frequency and patterns of codon usage can vary between individual genes and even complete genomes, and the genomes of RNA viruses are no exception. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Vif is dispensable for producing infectious viral particles in permissive cells such as all known adherent cells (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the absence of Vif, the produced viral particles are defective, while the cell-to-cell transmission of virus is not affected significantly. (lanl.gov)
  • A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of reduction of growth in sensitive strains will depend on the viral specificity of the bacteriophage particles in the phage streak and on whether the virus is virulent or temperate. (writework.com)
  • 7821821 ). In embryonic stem cells, the elongin BC complex is recruited by EPOP to Polycomb group (PcG) target genes in order generate genomic region that display both active and repressive chromatin properties, an important feature of pluripotent stem cells (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • The transfer vector plasmid contains cis-acting genetic sequences crucial for vector's ability to infect the target cell and to transfer selected therapeutic (or reporter) genes. (news-medical.net)
  • To assess the effect of A3F gene on host susceptibility to HIV-acquisition and disease progression, we performed a genetic association study in six well-characterized HIV-1 natural cohorts. (epfl.ch)
  • The immune system recognizes the ability of editing enzymes to cause rapid genetic change and unleashes them on viral DNA. (innovations-report.com)
  • We investigated the viral genetic barrier to dCA resistance in vitro . (asm.org)
  • Genetic structure of the DNA provirus of HIV ‐1 showing the major open reading frames, gag , pol and env , and the accessory and regulatory genes, vpu , vif , vpr , nef , tat and rev . (els.net)
  • However, rapid adaptability comes at a price-relatively small increases in the mutation rate can drive the viral population into error catastrophe, during which genetic information cannot be stably maintained and the viral population collapses ( 2 - 4 ). (asm.org)
  • 80%) isolated in Thailand [20, 21], a country regarded as a global hub of viral dispersal [22] because of its egregious sex tourism and location near the world's largest heroin producing region, known as the "Golden Triangle", has led to extensive national and international collaborative efforts to study host-viral interactions and genetic variations that may have contributed to its rise. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This and subsequently other such cloned DNAs became incredibly powerful tools for performing well-controlled experimental infections of monkeys and for dissecting the contribution of individual genes and of individual genetic elements to pathogenic processes. (vaccineenterprise.org)
  • To facilitate such endeavors, we have employed molecular genetics to define features of A3G that are required for its interaction with Vif. (asm.org)
  • Our group and others provided evidence from mutational analyses indicating that Vpu antagonism of BST-2-mediated viral restriction requires a highly specific interaction of their mutual TM domains. (frontiersin.org)
  • Researchers hope that the newly discovered interaction between Vif and CEM15 will help them find ways to inhibit Vif, a quest they have been on for awhile. (the-scientist.com)
  • Both knockdown of endogenous EloB and over-expression of its mutant with a 34-residue deletion in the COOH-terminal tail (EloBΔC34/EBΔC34) impaired the Vif-CBF-β interaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results indicate that the Vif interaction with EloB-EloC may contribute to recruitment of CBF-β to Vif, demonstrating that the EloB C-teminus may play a role in improving Vif function and that the over-expression of EloB results in Vif stabilization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since the Vif open reading frame overlaps with that of integrase, the C-terminal five amino acids of HIV-1 integrase were altered from RQDAD to KRDAD. (asm.org)
  • Integration of the viral DNA is inhibited by integrase strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs) and candidate allosteric integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs). (els.net)
  • The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, integrase , and host co-factors . (wikipedia.org)
  • Integrase (IN) binds both the viral cDNA generated by RT and the host DNA. (genetherapynet.com)
  • Dr. Dick explained by the inhibition of BMI -1 gene, stem cells were unable to self-renew which altered tumor growth. (doctortipster.com)
  • Combinations of inhibitors acting at each of the three steps in the viral entry sequence could soon form a new "triple cocktail" therapy for HIV-infected patients. (innovations-report.com)
  • Fusion of the viral and host cell membranes is blocked by fusion inhibitors. (els.net)
  • Reverse transcription of the viral RNA to double‐stranded DNA is targeted by nucleoside and nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non‐nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). (els.net)
  • the other hypothesis proposed the existence of a positive factor in permissive cells that was able to perform the role of Vif. (mdpi.com)
  • Since HIV(SEMQ) Vif can counteract rhAPOBEC3G, this finding suggests that rhAPOBEC3G is not the only Vif-targeted restriction factor active in rhesus macaque T cells. (asm.org)
  • To locate this anti-HIV cellular factor, researchers looked for genes that are expressed solely in the nonpermissive cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • A large, diverse viral population facilitates rapid evolution in the face of selection pressures, which contributes to persistence and is a major factor in HIV remaining a major global health concern for more than four decades. (eurekaselect.com)
  • For example, a model of mouse hemophillia is corrected by expressing wild-type platlet-factor VIII, the gene that is mutated in human hemophillia. (genetherapynet.com)
  • gene conversion consists of the introduction of templated mutations in the V region of Ig genes by copying into the active gene nucleotide stretches from existent template sequences that remain unaltered ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Single amino acid substitution analogs of the known Mamu A*01 binding peptide gag 181-190 and libraries of naturally occurring sequences of viral or bacterial origin were used to rigorously define the peptide binding motif associated with Mamu A*01 molecules. (jimmunol.org)
  • no repeat sequences in exons of genes? (biology-online.org)
  • Our data provided direct evidence that the HIV-1 A-rich pol sequence is not merely an evolutionary artifact of enzyme-induced hypermutations, and that HIV-1 has adapted to rely on A-rich RNA sequences to support the synthesis of viral cDNA during reverse transcription, highlighting the utility of using 'structurally poor' RNA domains in regulating biological process. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The HIV-1 proviral construct, pNL4-3 was rendered noninfectious by replacing the HIV-1 gag / pol sequences with an EGFP reporter gene (pNL4-3: ΔG/P-EGFP). (asnjournals.org)
  • They then designed a polypeptide sequence covering those T-cell targets (16 segments spanning certain sequences of the HIV genes gag, pol, vif and nef) and integrated it in DNA and Modified Ankara Virus (MVA) vectors. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Together, these data argue that HIV‐1 Vif has evolved to suppress at least two distinct but related human antiretroviral DNA‐editing enzymes. (embopress.org)
  • [2] Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Vif, Vpu and Nef, to overcome cellular restriction factors. (asp.org)
  • This X4 coreceptor usage, along with various mutations in viral genes (gag, vpu, and vif) that increase the transmissibility and drug resistance of the virus and promote viral escape from host restriction factors like TRIM5α might have contributed to the success of CRF01_AE as a pathogen [28-30]. (eurekaselect.com)
  • However, the difficult treatment regimens, the presence of class-specific drug toxicities, and the emergence of drug-resistant virus isolates highlight the fact that improvements in our therapeutic regimens and the identification of new and novel viral and cellular targets for therapy are still necessary. (hindawi.com)
  • Proposed functions for Vpr include the targeting the nuclear import of preintegration complexes, cell growth arrest, transactivation of cellular genes, and induction of cellular differentiation. (lanl.gov)
  • In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the structural determinants of Vif that allow it to interact with cellular and viral partners. (meta.org)
  • There are quite a lot of examples of host genes that act against other viruses. (the-scientist.com)
  • As a result, RNA viruses have been hypothesized to be susceptible to compounds that would elevate the viral mutation rate, a therapeutic strategy referred to as lethal mutagenesis ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Each person has around 8 percent viral DNA, leftovers of millions of years of viruses infecting and integrating with our ancestors. (statnews.com)
  • Viruses are the simplest replicating units, characterized by a limited number of coding genes and an exceptionally high rate of overlapping genes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Instead, we propose that gene novelty and evolution exploration offer better explanations to size constraints and gene overlapping in all viruses. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Viruses deleted in nef, vpr, or vpx, alone or in any combination, replicated in monkeys, persisted in monkeys, but exhibited varying degrees of attenuation based on viral loads, stability of CD4 counts, and absence of clinical signs. (vaccineenterprise.org)
  • HIV has been in humans for maybe 70 years, but the gene has been around a lot longer and is conserved down to mouse. (the-scientist.com)
  • For instance, primates, including humans ( Homo sapiens ), have seven A3 genes, while rodents including mice ( Mus musculus ) have only one ortholog. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Likewise, because aquaculture and mariculture are providing an increasingly large percentage of the "seafood" consumed by humans, viral agents that adversely impact the harvest of cultured fish and amphibians are of equal concern. (oalib.com)
  • IMPORTANCE HIV-1 Tat enhances viral RNA transcription by binding to TAR and recruiting activating factors. (asm.org)
  • Didehydro-cortistatin A (dCA) is a potent Tat inhibitor, reducing HIV-1 transcription and preventing viral rebound. (asm.org)
  • HIV contains not only these essential genes but also the complex regulatory genes tat, rev, nef, and auxiliary genes vif, vpr and vpu (Greene, 1991). (thebody.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat binds the viral RNA structure transactivation-responsive element (TAR) and recruits transcriptional cofactors, amplifying viral mRNA expression. (asm.org)
  • γ-Retroviral vectors (γRVs), which are commonly used in gene therapy, can trigger oncogenesis by insertional mutagenesis. (jci.org)
  • Gene vectors are also used extensively in basic biomedical research. (news-medical.net)
  • In the case of transfer vectors, a myriad of adjustments can improve the performance of gene transfer. (news-medical.net)
  • Lentiviral vectors are developed with an aim to optimize the efficacy of gene transfer, eliminating at the same time the impending dangers that can arise due to the use of such systems. (news-medical.net)
  • The recombinant vectors are then replicated in cells that express the products of the E1 or E3 gene and can be generated in very high concentrations. (powershow.com)
  • Adeno-associated viral vectors AAV is a simple, non-pathogenic, single stranded DNA virus dependent on the helper virus (usually adenovirus) to replicate. (powershow.com)
  • 2000) Self‐inactivating lentiviral vectors with enhanced transgene expression and potential gene transfer system in Parkinson's disease. (els.net)
  • Conversely, nonpermissive cells are those in which HIV-1 cannot replicate without Vif, indicating an innate defense system in those particular cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • When this gene is removed from the virus, the innate human immune system destroys HIV by mutating it to the point where it can no longer survive. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Thus, while pharmacologic agents that target the acidic motif at residues 128 to 130 have the potential to rescue A3G expression by occluding recognition by Vif, care will have to be taken not to perturb the contributions of the neighboring 124-to-127 region to packaging if such agents are to have therapeutic benefit by promoting A3G incorporation into progeny virions. (asm.org)
  • We observed that HIV virions emerging from the first viral cycle on F12-HIV vif-expressing cells, although released in unaltered amounts, had a strongly reduced ability to initiate the retrotranscription process when they reinfected parental HeLa CD4 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we have dissected the contribution of vector design and viral integration site selection (ISS) to oncogenesis using an in vivo genotoxicity assay based on transplantation of vector-transduced tumor-prone mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. (jci.org)
  • in contrast, Vif is indispensable in non-permissive cells such as physiologically relevant CD4 + T cells and macrophages, and other T cell lines (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • While T-cell therapies can work in some patients, the use of these cells to treat cancer and viral diseases is often limited by the poor survival and proliferation of these cells in vivo. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, only the virus expressing SIV MAC Vif was able to replicate efficiently in rhesus macaque 221 T cells (Fig. 1B ). (asm.org)
  • CD4+ T cells, the cells depleted in AIDS patients, are primary targets of HIV because of the affinity of the gp120 glycoprotein component of the viral envelope for the CD4 molecule (Dalgleish et al. (thebody.com)
  • Gene Therapy The introduction of nucleic acids into cells for the purpose of altering the course of medical condition or disease. (powershow.com)
  • Although the renal epithelial cells appear to be the main targets for HIV-1 pathogenesis, the HIV gene products responsible for tissue-specific renal pathology are not known. (asnjournals.org)
  • The medicine contains three Enzo-developed antisense genes designed to interfere with the functioning of two HIV-1 genes essential for virus growth in human cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • NYSE:ENZ) reported today that new data on the first individual treated in the Phase 1 clinical trial of HGTV-43, the Company's HIV-1 gene medicine product, show that after nine-and-one-half-months Enzo engineered cells have successfully engrafted in the patient's bone marrow and were spawning new differentiated CD4+ cells designed to fight the virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The patients recruited in this study were AIDS stage for their CD4 cells being below 350 counts per microlitre and viral load exceeding 10 3 log. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When this happens in cells that will become sperm or eggs, the inserted viral DNA strand will be inherited by all of the host's descendants, and become "endogenized. (statnews.com)
  • Based on this hypothesis, Sheehy et al (2002) sought to identify a gene expressed in the nonpermissive human T‐cell line CEM, which was not expressed in a permissive clone of CEM termed CEM‐SS that, when expressed in CEM‐SS or other permissive cells, would be sufficient to confer the nonpermissive phenotype. (embopress.org)
  • It seems that disabling the gene that promotes self- renewal of tumor cells may stop not only tumor growth but also relapses and resistance to treatment. (doctortipster.com)
  • it appears that this gene is a key regulator of colon cancer stem cells. (doctortipster.com)
  • Another common application is to use a lentivirus to introduce a new gene into human or animal cells . (genetherapynet.com)
  • The gag gene provides the basic physical infrastructure of the virus , and pol provides the basic mechanism by which retroviruses reproduce, while the others help HIV to enter the host cell and enhance its reproduction. (wikidoc.org)
  • The actions of these additional genes probably contribute to the profound pathogenicity that differentiates HIV from many other retroviruses. (thebody.com)
  • Ribozyme gene therapy may be used as an adjunct to chemotherapeutic drugs, effecting viral suppression, and facilitating immune restoration without problems of patient compliance. (bioscience.org)
  • In addition, investigators have identified CBFβ as one of the most frequently translocated genes in leukemia (8) and research studies have found it to be required for HIV immune evasion (9,10). (cellsignal.com)
  • HLA class I-driven evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype c proteome: immune escape and viral load. (ox.ac.uk)
  • IFNs belonging to all three classes are important for fighting viral infections and for the regulation of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without the vif gene, HIV can be completely destroyed by the body's own immune system, says J. Victor Garcia, PhD, professor of medicine at the UNC School of Medicine and senior author on the study. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The results show that this strain of HIV does continue to replicate, even without vif, but at a much slower rate and without harming the human immune system. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The explanation of such variances may be due to the host immune response, viral genotypes, sub-type and quasi-species distribution. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, the characteristics of virus-specific immune responses as well as the impact of viral escape mutations on in vitro replicative fitness in persons with different disease outcomes remain unclear. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As such, the therapeutic blockade of Vif function represents a logical objective for rational drug design. (asm.org)
  • Lentivirus is primarily a research tool used to introduce a gene product into in vitro systems or animal models. (genetherapynet.com)
  • Lastly, the data suggest that protecting A3G from viral attack may be an important new way to treat AIDS and other viral infections," Jin said. (innovations-report.com)
  • In addition, the application of molecular tools to ecological studies is providing novel ways for field biologists to identify potential pathogens, quantify infections, and trace the evolution of ecologically important viral species. (oalib.com)
  • So we deleted these genes individually and in combinations from the SIVmac239 clone and began examining their relative importance and functional role through experimental monkey infections. (vaccineenterprise.org)
  • The attached virus enters the cell by one of two ways, receptor mediated endocytosis or viral envelope-cell membrane fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The envelope comes from the host cell plasma membrane, the virus takes the membrane as it buds and then inserts viral glycoproteins into its envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has two genes (cap and rep), sandwiched between inverted terminal repeats that define the beginning and the end of the virus and contain the packaging sequence. (powershow.com)
  • Virus VIH-2, second virus du sida isolé en 1985 par l'équipe du Pr. (pasteur.fr)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mutations that confer escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) recognition can sometimes result in lower viral fitness. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To identify these potentially critical recognition points on the virus, we assessed HLA-driven viral evolution using three phylogenetic correction methods across full HIV-1 subtype C proteomes from a cohort of 261 South Africans and identified amino acids conferring either susceptibility or resistance to CTLs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Any of the genes present in the human immunodeficiency virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, the virus has evolved to contain a gene that blocks this ability. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • These viral bits of DNA persist long after the virus itself has gone extinct. (statnews.com)
  • There are additional genes (also called accessory genes) depending on the virus (e.g., for HIV-1: vif, vpr, vpu, tat, rev, nef) whose products are involved in regulation of synthesis and processing viral RNA and other replicative functions. (genetherapynet.com)
  • In this regard, recombination-based technologies are being employed to knock out gene candidates in the best-characterized RV member, Frog Virus (FV3). (oalib.com)
  • Some of them are the use of post-transcriptional regulatory elements that boost the transgene transcriptional expression, the use of heterologous polyadenylation enhancer elements, or the use of diverse internal promoters to express a specific gene of interest. (news-medical.net)
  • Previously, the lack of an in vitro podocyte culture system prevented a detailed analysis of the effects of HIV-1 gene expression on renal podocytes. (asnjournals.org)
  • TAT Transactivator of HIV gene expression. (lanl.gov)
  • One of two essential viral regulatory factors (Tat and Rev) for HIV gene expression. (lanl.gov)
  • pAG131 - the HIV-IRES-GFP expression construct in which env, vif, vpr, vpu genes were deleted, and tat gene was inactivated by inversion of its ORF. (schule.de)
  • 4) The over-expression of EloB or the N-terminal ubiquitin-like (UbL) domain of EloB could significantly improve the stability of Vif/VifΔSLQ/VifΔPPL through the region between residues 9 and 14. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) reduces the expression of a specific gene , thus allowing researchers to examine the necessity and effects of a given gene in a model system. (genetherapynet.com)
  • Research has shown (for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples) that HIV is untransmissable through condomless sexual intercourse if the HIV-positive partner has a consistently undetectable viral load. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, just several years after the implementation of HAART, the increase of HIV-1 drug resistance has required the initiation of a continuous effort in the development of new drugs, therapy strategies and viral targets. (springer.com)
  • Starting from data of more than 1,000 HIV-infected patients in four continents, Drs. Brander and Mothe and their team identified the T-cell targets against which those with lower viral load mounted a protective response. (fiercepharma.com)
  • The transcript is spliced and the viral mRNA is transported to the cytoplasm where it is then translated. (wikipedia.org)
  • the inserted mRNA is long (at least several hundreds of bases), thus the insertion doesn't cause frame shift, but gene knock-out, since the cell is not able to translate it correctly. (biology-online.org)
  • Dude, its sooo much more likely that the mRNA so retrotransposed would lead to the creation of an extra locus for the gene of interest. (biology-online.org)
  • However, we found no correlation in the abundance of either hA3F or hA3G mRNA with either viral load or CD4 counts in HIV-infected subjects. (elsevier.com)
  • Additionally, investigators have found that mutations in the CD79A (MB1) gene are associated with abnormally low levels of functional B cell receptors in some cases of chronic B cell lymphocytic leukemia (9). (cellsignal.com)
  • Ψ is the packaging signal sequence allowing encapsidation of the vector RNA into the viral particle. (els.net)
  • Here, we comprehensively investigated the functions of EloB (together with EloC) in the Vif-CBF-β-Cul5 E3 ligase complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It also contains at least five non-structural accessory gene open reading frames (ORF). (wikipedia.org)

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