Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Catalytic: RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA Folding: The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA, Antisense: RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.RNA, Small Nuclear: Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA Caps: Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Patient Transfer: Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.Phospholipid Transfer Proteins: A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).RNA, Guide: Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.Transfer Factor: Factor derived from leukocyte lysates of immune donors which can transfer both local and systemic cellular immunity to nonimmune recipients.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.DEAD-box RNA Helicases: A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Herpesvirus 8, Human: A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.RNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.RNA, Nuclear: RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Genes, Immediate-Early: Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Tendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.RNA, Transfer, Met: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met: Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Herpesviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.RNA Transport: The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.RNA, Spliced Leader: The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLGammaherpesvirinae: A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by variable reproductive cycles. The genera include: LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS and RHADINOVIRUS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Gene Products, tat: Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mice, Inbred BALB CTranscriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Adenovirus E1 Proteins: The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Muromegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.HIV Long Terminal Repeat: Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.RNA Cleavage: A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.RNA, Heterogeneous Nuclear: Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
  • For example, positive strand RNA viruses and certain double strand DNA viruses that utilize host polymerases contain nucleic acids that can produce infectious forms of the viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • The researchers also produced variations of the virus for comparison, with certain Spanish flu genes replaced by the corresponding genes from other flu viruses. (scienceagogo.com)
  • They studied the viruses' effects in mice, chick embryos and human lung cells and identified the combination of genes that was responsible for the Spanish flu virus' extreme virulence. (scienceagogo.com)
  • But the reverse genetics technique allows researchers to custom build viruses to meet their needs. (scienceagogo.com)
  • The revolutionary potential of adeno-associated viruses (AAV) is undisputed and underlined by the growing number of clinical trials using them as a central gene delivery tool. (samedanltd.com)
  • In viruses with a membrane envelope the nucleocapsid (capsid plus nucleic acid) enters the cell cytoplasm by a process in which the viral envelope merges with a host cell membrane, often the membrane delimiting an endocytic structure (see endocytosis endocytosis , in biology, process by which substances are taken into the cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The impact of parasite exposure on HIV-1 transcriptional/translational events is monitored by using single cycle pseudotyped viruses in which a luciferase reporter gene has replaced the Env gene while the effect on the quantity of virus released by the infected macrophages is determined by measuring the HIV-1 capsid protein p24 by ELISA in cell supernatants. (jove.com)
  • Here, we summarize and compare different currently used viral delivery systems, give examples of in vivo applications, and indicate trends for new developments, such as replicating viruses for shRNA delivery to cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scientific reports of virus crossing from pig to human cells (2), and of viral infections in humans subjects transplanted with baboon livers (3), are being ignored or dismissed, while inconclusive, widely faulted papers are taken as evidence that no viruses are found in xenotransplant patients (4). (iatp.org)
  • In a similar manner, FN Nano Inc., USA, developed a photocatalytic coating (light mediated) based on titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which can decompose organic compounds including viruses on the surface upon exposure to light, damaging the viral membrane 12 . (nature.com)
  • Transcriptional analysis revealed that HDF genes were enriched for high expression in immune cells, suggesting that viruses evolve in host cells that optimally perform the functions required for their life cycle. (sciencemag.org)
  • We plan to meet these goals by developing new detection technologies and studying how viruses spread, replicate, and cause disease. (fda.gov)
  • These microarrays enabled us to infect the target cells in a parallelized and miniaturized procedure without significant cross-contamination: Viruses were reversibly immobilized in spots in such a way that the seeded cells were confined to the area of the viral spots, thus simplifying the subsequent addressing of genetically modified cells for analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • exploring an true know-how in subject as a toxin, he was the Female Federal Institute of Technology( ETH) in Zurich, and was a lysine of viruses in Brussels at the Free University of Brussels in 1922, the elevated gene his e Jacques Piccard constructed introduced. (be-mindful.de)
  • To offer technologies to assist in rodent colony management, including mouse strain cryopreservation and recovery, conversion of mice to SPF status by embryo transfer, and in vitro fertilization (IVF) for genetic lines that are not reliably producing progeny. (grantome.com)
  • 2. The purpose of the Viral Vector Program is to facilitate the use of viral vectors for in vitro and in vivo gene transfer into mammalian cells. (grantome.com)
  • The embryos obtained by superovulation or by in vitro fertilisation receive the foreign genes and are developed in foster mothers. (els.net)
  • Let's say you have one or several great gene candidates, you are done with all the in vitro studies and you have been asked to validate your results in vivo. (vectalys.com)
  • After demonstrating naturally occurring RNA could stimulate in vitro protein synthesis, Nierenberg and Matthaei used synthetic RNA homopolymers to stimulate homopeptides synthesis in vitro. (pnas.org)
  • The identification of the triplet codons was made by a second in vitro assay (P. Leder and S. Peska), which measured the binding of radioactive aminoacyl transfer RNA (tRNA) to ribosomes by a triplet (not doublet) synthetic RNA molecule (codon) ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Aoki C. Host gene response to HCV replication in vitro. (rcaid.jp)
  • CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) loci, together with cas (CRISPR-associated) genes, form the CRISPR/Cas adaptive immune system, a primary defense strategy that eubacteria and archaea mobilize against foreign nucleic acids, including phages and conjugative plasmids. (prolekare.cz)
  • The transfer should be stable and cell-type-specific, allowing a high and controllable expression of the gene product without causing an immune response or other toxicity (2). (samedanltd.com)
  • The main effect of the propolis envelope was a decreased and more uniform baseline expression of immune genes in bees during summer and autumn months each year, compared with the immune activity in bees with no propolis envelope in the colony. (biologists.org)
  • Prednisone May Improve Effectiveness of AAV-Based Gene Therapy by Reducing Immune Response. (liebertpub.com)
  • Debate Continues Over Human Immune System's Role in Blocking Therapeutic Genes Delivered Using AAV Vectors. (liebertpub.com)
  • To actively assist Center investigators with the design, performance and analysis of gene expression profiling experiments using oligonucleotide- and cDNA-based microarray technology. (grantome.com)
  • Our promising results showed that transfer of the gene encoding POMC by electroporation is a new and effective method for its expression in vivo , and the analgesic effects of POMC cDNA with electroporation in a rat model of rheumatoid arthritis are reversed by naloxone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To identify new diagnostic markers and drug targets for pancreatic cancer, we compared the gene expression patterns of pancreatic cancer cell lines growing in tissue culture with those of normal pancreas using cDNA microarray analysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They process precursors to ribosomal RNA, small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) Yeast nucleases with the Class 2 RNase III domain: RNT1 (UniProtKB Q02555) - S. cerevisiae - this RNase III is involved in the transcription and processing of rDNA, the 3' end formation of U2 snRNA via cleavage of the terminal loop, cell wall stress response and degradation, and regulation of morphogenesis checkpoint genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This first-strand transfer (or jump) is facilitated by the complementarity of the terminal R regions and furthermore by the reverse transcriptase RNase H-mediated degradation of 5′ R and U5 RNA in the RNA-DNA hybrid generated ( 3 , 11 , 29 , 40 , 57 ). (asm.org)
  • The method can be conducted under nonsterile conditions, is applicable to all nucleic acids regardless of size, and is useful for introducing foreign genes into cells of both monocots and dicots. (google.com)
  • Knowledge about the in vivo phenotype after knocking out gene products is a prerequisite to assess the therapeutic potential of inhibitors against specific targets, so in drug development knock-out animal models have become very important. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consistent with these observations, the T cell response to vaccination was unaffected by in vivo treatment with the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose, whereas the response to viral challenge was markedly lowered. (sciencemag.org)
  • These techniques include transferring genes to cells inside a patient's body (in vivo) or modifying a patient's cells outside of the body and re-introducing them into a patient's body (ex vivo). (motards-online.com)
  • In this study, we established a muscular electroporation method for the gene transfer of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in vivo and investigated its effect on inflammatory pain in a rat model of rheumatoid arthritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vivo delivery of siRNAs can be carried out by injection into tissues or blood vessels or use of synthetic and viral vectors. (bio-medicine.org)
  • As a well-known antibody-related service provider, Creative Biolabs is able to provide our worldwide clients the particle-mediated DNA immunization service through the gene gun approach to generate high-quality antibodies against in vivo expressed antigens. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • The safety and efficiency of the gene transfer was assessed with the following parameters: thermal hyperalgesia, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and endorphin levels, paw swelling and muscle endorphin levels at 1, 2 and 3 weeks after electroporation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Electroporation: The best tool for RNA delivery? (vectalys.com)
  • Currently, two nonexclusive control mechanisms of HSV-1 latency are discussed: antiviral CD8 + T cells and viral microRNAs (miRNAs) encoded by the latency associated transcript (LAT). (asm.org)
  • Expression of viral microRNAs in serum and white blood cells of cows exposed to bovine leukemia virus. (usda.gov)
  • We have a specific interest in studying the Wnt signaling pathway and the roles of microRNAs , a small class of non-coding RNAs that serve to regulate gene expression. (purdue.edu)
  • For example, we have designed a study to use viral gene transfer to deliver microRNAs into the drug-damaged mouse cochlea to attempt to induce hair cell regeneration and rescue hearing loss. (purdue.edu)
  • genes that are responsible for disease development ď Ž There are four approaches: 1. (issuu.com)
  • Although gene therapy is a promising tool within disease treatment, progress has been slow in developing effective clinical approaches. (samedanltd.com)
  • Alagna F( 2013) Innovative Transcriptomics Approaches for Large Scale Identification of Genes Involved In Plant initial download design dictionary : perspectives on. (memphisastro.org)
  • The need for new therapeutic approaches is being met by supplementation with tetrahydrobiopterin or large neutral amino acids, whilst development of the use of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and, in the longer term, gene therapy and chaperone treatment holds promise. (nature.com)
  • We aim at understanding the origin and evolution of viral lifestyle diversity by means of experimental and bioinformatic approaches. (ird.fr)
  • Conventional breeding approaches for abiotic stress tolerance in groundnut has met with limited success due to non-availability of desired QTLs and levels of polymorphisms in cultivated varieties. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Both overexpression and knockdown approaches can be informative in revealing the normal function of a candidate gene. (purdue.edu)
  • Transgenesis provides organisms in one generation with exogenous genes having known and potentially useful properties. (els.net)
  • We study blood-borne and/or bioterrorism viral agents belonging to two classes: retroviruses (primarily Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV, but also simple retroviruses) and flaviviruses (primarily West Nile Virus - WNV - and dengue virus - DV). (fda.gov)
  • During the first year we have met each of our key milestones and made significant progress in identifying and testing genetic reagents combined in the context of a lentiviral vector for stable delivery into hematopoietic stem cells. (ca.gov)
  • DPS was recently selected to design two cGMP manufacturing facilities for Brammer Bio , an industry leading viral vector contract development and manufacturing organization (CDMO). (ispeboston.org)
  • Brammer engaged DPS to provide process architecture and engineering services for the design of commercial suites that produce multiple gene transfer vector products in support of late-stage clinical programs leading to commercial supply. (ispeboston.org)
  • hemophilia treatments, for example, a gene-carrying vector could be injected into a muscle, prompting the muscle cells to produce Factor IX and thus prevent bleeding. (issuu.com)
  • Davidson and her colleagues used a viral vector (a stripped-down virus) to deliver small fragments of genetic material (RNA) to critical brain cells of mice with a disorder that mimics the human neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia 1 (SCA1). (innovations-report.com)
  • In this case, the UI team proved that their gene therapy vector, adeno-associated virus 1, specifically targeted Purkinje cells, which are very important for gait and coordination. (innovations-report.com)
  • Choosing the right vector for the right cells could help us limit gene expression to those cells where altering expression will have a beneficial effect," Davidson explained. (innovations-report.com)
  • We will give the normal gene for factor IX by using an inactivated (not able to function) virus called 'the vector. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A method is provided for introducing a foreign gene into a plant cell by means of an Olpidium zoospore vector having associated with it a reassembled nucleoprotein complex comprising the foreign gene and reassociated coat protein of a zoospore-transmissable virus. (google.com)
  • Jeffrey Beekman (UMCU) on CRISPR-CAS9 mediated gene editing of CFTR in intestinal organoids. (genetherapynet.com)
  • CRISPR" is the word in the headline that signals that the piece is going to be about gene editing. (stockgumshoe.com)
  • Doc Gumshoe did not want to put that word - actually, it's not really a word, but an acronym - in the title of this piece because gene editing is a whole lot more than CRISPR, even though the discovery of CRISPR has hugely facilitated gene editing. (stockgumshoe.com)
  • Feng Zhang Discusses CRISPR and Future of Gene Editing in Interview in Human Gene Therapy. (liebertpub.com)
  • The resistance is of ten effects performing enough health stages, and each l frightens Okay a chilling DNA grown by a micronutrient in the fellow west and in the viral enzyme: vegetation of the iceberg, home and information, obligate portholes, and inhibition. (atlantaflyfishingschool.com)
  • A similar inhibition is found in reticulocyte lysates incubated with purified vaccinia cores, confirming the hypothesis that the factor associated with the viral cores is responsible for the inhibition observed in vaccinia virus-infected cells exposed to inhibitors of transcription. (biomedsearch.com)
  • E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, which accepts ubiquitin from specific E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, such as UBE2L3/UBCM4, and then transfers it to substrates. (genecards.org)
  • Here, we present microarrays of infectious adenoviruses encoding short hairpin RNA (shRNA) as a new tool for gene function analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have employed the adenoviral array technology to analyze the contribution of seven protein kinases to cell signalling in HUVEC after viral transfer of validated shRNA expression cassettes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proviral transcription depends on the viral factor Tat, which binds to the transactivation response element (TAR) in the proviral RNA and promotes elongation by recruiting cyclin T1, HIV-1 Tat specific factor 1 (HTATSF1), and Cdk9. (sciencemag.org)
  • Other, less conserved, cis-acting elements and their functional role in different steps of RNA maturation and metabolism will be discussed. (intechopen.com)
  • For example, conditional gene knock-outs utilizing inducible promoters can be used to unravel molecular pathways and investigate functional genomics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DICER-chopped duplexes are incorporated into a protein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and subsequently unwound by the multi-functional protein Argonaut 2, contained within RISC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is the first example of targeted gene silencing of a disease gene in the brains of live animals and it suggests that this approach may eventually be useful for human therapies," said senior study author Beverly Davidson, Ph.D., the Roy J. Carver Chair in Internal Medicine and UI professor of internal medicine, physiology and biophysics, and neurology. (innovations-report.com)
  • During the prior funding period, the services offered were expanded to include lentiviral vectors containing gene silencing technologies. (grantome.com)
  • Optimal viral strategies for bypassing RNA silencing. (genopole.fr)
  • Several methods of gene expression analysis are available and there is still need for sensitive methods of detection of gene expression as a baseline and measurement after gene silencing. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In genes silencing the press for fresh Proof of undesirable crores of future agroecosystems, landscapes about crops that are from the nucleus of development scenario and distances resulted with the had stars of simple way vehicle are possibly well not written. (vontin.net)
  • We are expecting over 200+ professionals in gene therapy, cell-based therapies, RNA therapeutics, biomarkers and related fields to attend. (genetherapynet.com)
  • PEARLAND, Texas, April 10, 2018 /PRNewswire/ - Lonza today is opening the world's largest dedicated cell-and-gene-therapy facility, which was built in anticipation of the rising demand from developers of cell and gene therapies - the next era in medicine - and with the mission of enabling them to deliver these types of treatments to patients around the world more quickly and efficiently. (motards-online.com)
  • He adds: "Outstanding teams of top experts from around the world are gathered here and are empowered to elaborate on innovative concepts, develop and optimize complex processes, and seamlessly deliver cell and gene therapies that adhere to the industry's current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) standards. (motards-online.com)
  • Nanomaterials can be used to promote surface oxidation by releasing toxic ions and therefore preventing viral dissemination by inhibiting binding/penetration of viral particles, either by generation of reactive oxygen species and/or photothermal-based reactions such as heat that destroy viral membranes. (nature.com)
  • DNA-coated gold particles are chosen as microparticles following a modified Bio-Rad protocol for the Helios gene gun. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The concept is that introducing anti-HIV gene therapeutics into hematopoietic stem cells will produce a protected population of T lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages (the cells specifically infected by HIV) in individuals to decrease viral load and maintain stable T lymphocyte counts. (ca.gov)
  • Provides in-depth coverage of the technological advances in cell and gene therapy that promote the development of gene therapy applications into effective therapeutics. (liebertpub.com)
  • Once inside the cell, this material is processed into short 21-23 nucleotide RNAs termed siRNAs that are used in a sequence-specific manner to recognize and destroy complementary RNA. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Both of these cisternae on the termination of the corepressor interact first ankyrinG, and thus leave a viral nucleotide collagen corepressor. (evakoch.com)
  • Transfer experiments involving fractionated HBsAg primed spleen cells obtained from DNA immunised mice into Tg mice showed that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were able to control transgene expression even in the absence of antibody production. (bmj.com)
  • Doctors removed her white blood cells, inserted the missing gene into the WBC, and then put them back into her blood stream. (issuu.com)
  • One gene associated with high virulence was the HA gene, which encodes the hemagglutinin surface protein that helps the virus attach to cells and replicate properly. (scienceagogo.com)
  • The gene therapy also protected brain cells from the destruction normally caused by the disease and prevented the build-up of protein clumps within the cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • In contrast, mice with the SCA1 disease gene that were not treated developed movement problems and lost brain cells in a manner similar to humans with this condition. (innovations-report.com)
  • Although we know how to put genes into cells, the difficulty we face in treating dominant diseases is how to remove or silence genes," Davidson explained. (innovations-report.com)
  • Furthermore, the study revealed that specific properties of different gene therapy vectors can be used to target those cells that are most involved in causing the disease symptoms. (innovations-report.com)
  • The injection of RNA into living cells: The use of frog oocytes for the assay of mRNA and the study of the control of gene expression. (springer.com)
  • The shift is related to the increased interest for gene transfer into stem cell and primary cells that divide infrequently. (grantome.com)
  • Stem cells are currently used for random and targeted gene integration. (els.net)
  • 5) DNA transfer via pluripotent or multipotent cells. (els.net)
  • The foreign gene is introduced into pluripotent cell lines (ESC (embryonic stem cell) lines established from early embryo or iPS, induced pluripotent cells obtained after dedifferentiation of somatic cells) or into multipotent cell lines (EGC (embryonic gonad cell) lines established from primordial germ cells of foetal gonads). (els.net)
  • The pluripotent cells containing the foreign gene are injected into an early embryo to generate chimaeric animals harbouring the foreign gene DNA. (els.net)
  • We now report that the formation of the 40S--Met-tRNAfMet initiation complex is inhibited in cytoplasmic extracts derived from vaccinia virus-infected cells exposed to cordycepin to block viral gene expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This inactivated virus was further altered to carry the factor IX gene and to locate within liver cells where factor IX protein is normally made. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Since DNA and RNA are normally not absorbed by cells, special carriers called vectors are required. (motards-online.com)
  • New Gene Delivery Approach Could Allow Long-Term Persistence in Proliferating Cells. (liebertpub.com)
  • Is gene expression permanent in target cells after several divisions? (vectalys.com)
  • Frequency of bovine viral diarrhea virus detected in subpopulations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in persistently infected animals and health outcome. (usda.gov)
  • The study drug is a gene therapy treatment that produces molecules that destroy the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in infected cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These Rights encompass directly reviewed in often also used RNAs on the download pensamento científico a of an Release that may or may thus mediate unsustainable post-synaptic same cancer cross-links( cells). (evakoch.com)
  • transfer run-of-the-river along blue cells. (evakoch.com)
  • In these cases viral vectors are the only means to genetically manipulate the target cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By choosing an adequate blocking procedure, we managed to strictly confine the cells to the viral spots, preventing adherence to areas without genetic information. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, the BAC transfer clones of CRL-2504 cells displayed characteristics of either senescence as shown by β-galactosidase activity or apoptosis as revealed by positive staining with M30 cytoDeath antibody. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Unsolved populations in mathematicsFrom Wikipedia, the difficult change to: post, are This second offers a program of procedures, totipotent history or present cells, but its plants Are viral because it is maker portholes. (memphisastro.org)
  • The Biolistic DNA transfer technique was first established for plant cells and plant tissues (Sandford et al. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In other cases, deafness is the only known defect, and in those cases the responsible genes are often associated with some specialized function of inner ear sensory cells. (purdue.edu)
  • This technique is usually used for single gene manipulation, but it has limitations to detect interactions and joint effects between genes. (jove.com)
  • Fellay J, Pedergnana V (2020) Exploring the interactions between the human and viral genomes. (ird.fr)
  • 80%) isolated in Thailand [20, a country regarded as a global hub of viral dispersal because of its egregious sex tourism and location near the world's largest heroin producing region, known as the "Golden Triangle", has led to extensive national and international collaborative efforts to study host-viral interactions and genetic variations that may have contributed to its rise. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This is a must-do event for medical researchers and clinicians fascinated by the recent progress in gene therapy and stem cell biology. (genetherapynet.com)
  • In order for this gene transfer to be applied to patients, the hemapoietic progenitor stem cell transduction must be scaled up significantly. (ca.gov)
  • During differentiation of a given B lympho- cyte stem cell, an immunoglobulin gene is assembled containing one L-V, one J, and one C segment, and this gene is transcribed by the lymphocyte and all of its progeny. (damasgate.com)