Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia in the gibbon ape. Natural transmission is by contact.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
A BETARETROVIRUS that causes pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE).
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A family of low molcular-weight proteins that contain PROLINE-RICH PROTEIN DOMAINS. Members of this family play a role in the formation of an insoluble cornified envelope beneath the plasma membrane of stratified squamous epithelial cells.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS that are replication-defective and rapidly transforming. The envelope gene plays an essential role in initiating erythroleukemia (LEUKEMIA, ERYTHROBLASTIC, ACUTE), manifested by splenic foci, SPLENOMEGALY, and POLYCYTHEMIA. Spleen focus-forming viruses are generated by recombination with endogenous retroviral sequences.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
An alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with antiviral action. Derivatives of deoxynojirimycin may have anti-HIV activity.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.

A soluble form of the avian hepatitis B virus receptor. Biochemical characterization and functional analysis of the receptor ligand complex. (1/8277)

Avian hepatitis B virus infection is initiated by the specific interaction of the extracellular preS part of the large viral envelope protein with carboxypeptidase D (gp180), the primary cellular receptor. To functionally and biochemically characterize this interaction, we purified a soluble form of duck carboxypeptidase D from a baculovirus expression system, confirmed its receptor function, and investigated the contribution of different preS sequence elements to receptor binding by surface plasmon resonance analysis. We found that preS binds duck carboxypeptidase D with a 1:1 stoichiometry, thereby inducing conformational changes but not oligomerization. The association constant of the complex was determined to be 2.2 x 10(7) M-1 at 37 degreesC, pH 7.4, with an association rate of 4.0 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 and a dissociation rate of 1.9 x 10(-3) s-1, substantiating high affinity interaction of avihepadnaviruses with their receptor carboxypeptidase D. The separately expressed receptor-binding domain, comprising about 50% of preS as defined by mutational analysis, exhibits similar constants. The domain consists of an essential element, probably responsible for the initial receptor contact and a part that contributes to complex stabilization in a conformation sensitive manner. Together with previous results from cell biological studies these data provide new insights into the initial step of hepadnaviral infection.  (+info)

Development of a Western blot assay for detection of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus using capsid and transmembrane envelope proteins expressed from recombinant baculovirus. (2/8277)

A 120-amino-acid polypeptide selected from the transmembrane protein region (tTM) and the major capsid protein p26 of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) were expressed as fusion proteins from recombinant baculoviruses. The antigenic reactivity of both recombinant fusion proteins was confirmed by Western blot with bovine and rabbit antisera to BIV. BIV-negative bovine sera and animal sera positive for bovine syncytial virus and bovine leukemia virus failed to recognize the recombinant fusion proteins, thereby showing the specificity of the BIV Western blot. One hundred and five bovine serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-BIV antibodies by the recombinant protein-based Western blot and a reference Western blot assay using cell culture-derived virions as test antigens. There was a 100% concordance when the p26 fusion protein was used in the Western blot. However, the Western blot using the tTM fusion protein as its test antigen identified four BIV-positive bovine sera which had tested negative in both the p26 recombinant-protein-based and the reference Western blot assays. This resulted in the lower concordance of 96.2% between the tTM-protein-based and reference Western blot assays. The results of this study showed that the recombinant p26 and tTM proteins can be used as test antigens for the serodetection of BIV-infection in animals.  (+info)

Trimming and readdition of glucose to N-linked oligosaccharides determines calnexin association of a substrate glycoprotein in living cells. (3/8277)

To analyze the role of glucose trimming and reglucosylation in the binding of substrate proteins to calnexin in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of living cells, we made use of the thermosensitive vesicular stomatitis virus tsO45 glycoprotein (G protein). At nonpermissive temperature the G protein failed to fold completely and remained bound to calnexin. When the cells were shifted to permissive temperature, complete folding occurred accompanied by glucosidase-mediated elimination of calnexin-G protein complexes. If release from calnexin was blocked during the temperature shift by inhibiting the glucosidases, folding occurred, albeit at a reduced rate. In contrast, when unfolded by a shift from permissive to nonpermissive temperature, the G protein was reglucosylated rapidly and became capable of rebinding to calnexin. The rate at which calnexin binding occurred showed a 20-min delay that was explained by accumulation of the G protein in calnexin-free exit sites of the ER. These contained the glucosyltransferase responsible for reglucosylation of misfolded glycoproteins but had little or no calnexin. After unfolding and reglucosylation, the G proteins moved slowly from these structures back to the ER where they reassociated with the chaperone. Taken together, these results in live cells fully supported the lectin-only model of calnexin function. The ER exit sites emerged as a potentially important location for components of the quality control system.  (+info)

Specific binding of recombinant foamy virus envelope protein to host cells correlates with susceptibility to infection. (4/8277)

The interaction of simian foamy viruses (FVs) with their putative cellular receptor(s) was studied with two types of recombinant envelope protein (Env). Transient expression of full-length Env in BHK-21 cells induced syncytia formation. However, selected stable transfectants fused with naive cells but not with each other. A soluble fusion protein of the Env surface domain with the Fc fragment of a human IgG1 heavy chain (EnvSU-Ig) was produced in the baculovirus expression system, purified to homogeneity, and used for binding and competition analyses. EnvSU-Ig but not unrelated Ig fusion proteins bound to cells specifically. Neutralizing serum blocked binding of EnvSU-Ig and, vice versa, serum-mediated neutralization was abrogated by the chimeric protein. Concomitant reduction of EnvSU-Ig binding and FV susceptibility was seen in Env-expressing target cells. Although EnvSU-Ig did not inhibit FV infection, very likely due to its displacement by multivalent virus-cell interactions, this divalent ligand should help to characterize functionally and to identify the ubiquitous FV receptor.  (+info)

DNA vaccination with hantavirus M segment elicits neutralizing antibodies and protects against seoul virus infection. (5/8277)

Seoul virus (SEOV) is one of four known hantaviruses causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Candidate naked DNA vaccines for HFRS were constructed by subcloning cDNA representing the medium (M; encoding the G1 and G2 glycoproteins) or small (S; encoding the nucleocapsid protein) genome segment of SEOV into the DNA expression vector pWRG7077. We vaccinated BALB/c mice with three doses of the M or S DNA vaccine at 4-week intervals by either gene gun inoculation of the epidermis or needle inoculation into the gastrocnemius muscle. Both routes of vaccination resulted in antibody responses as measured by ELISA; however, gene gun inoculation elicited a higher frequency of seroconversion and higher levels of antibodies in individual mice. We vaccinated Syrian hamsters with the M or S construct using the gene gun and found hantavirus-specific antibodies in five of five and four of five hamsters, respectively. Animals vaccinated with the M construct developed a neutralizing antibody response that was greatly enhanced in the presence of guinea pig complement. Immunized hamsters were challenged with SEOV and, after 28 days, were monitored for evidence of infection. Hamsters vaccinated with M were protected from infection, but hamsters vaccinated with S were not protected.  (+info)

Qualitative and quantitative requirements for CD4+ T cell-mediated antiviral protection. (6/8277)

CD4+ Th cells deliver the cognate and cytokine signals that promote the production of protective virus-neutralizing IgG by specific B cells and are also able to mediate direct antiviral effector functions. To quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the antiviral functions of CD4+ Th cells, we generated transgenic mice (tg7) expressing an MHC class II (I-Ab)-restricted TCR specific for a peptide derived from the glycoprotein (G) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The elevated precursor frequency of naive VSV-specific Th cells in tg7 mice led to a markedly accelerated and enhanced class switching to virus-neutralizing IgG after immunization with inactivated VSV. Furthermore, in contrast to nontransgenic controls, tg7 mice rapidly cleared a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the VSV-G (Vacc-IND-G) from peripheral organs. By adoptive transfer of naive tg7 CD4+ T cells into T cell-deficient recipients, we found that 105 transferred CD4+ T cells were sufficient to induce isotype switching after challenge with a suboptimal dose of inactivated VSV. In contrast, naive transgenic CD4+ T cells were unable to adoptively confer protection against peripheral infection with Vacc-IND-G. However, tg7 CD4+ T cells that had been primed in vitro with VSV-G peptide were able to adoptively transfer protection against Vacc-IND-G. These results demonstrate that the antiviral properties of CD4+ T cells are governed by the differentiation status of the CD4+ T cell and by the type of effector response required for virus elimination.  (+info)

IL-12 gene as a DNA vaccine adjuvant in a herpes mouse model: IL-12 enhances Th1-type CD4+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against herpes simplex virus-2 challenge. (7/8277)

IL-12 has been shown to enhance cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Recent reports have suggested that combining DNA vaccine approach with immune stimulatory molecules delivered as genes may significantly enhance Ag-specific immune responses in vivo. In particular, IL-12 molecules could constitute an important addition to a herpes vaccine by amplifying specific immune responses. Here we investigate the utility of IL-12 cDNA as an adjuvant for a herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) DNA vaccine in a mouse challenge model. Direct i.m. injection of IL-12 cDNA induced activation of resting immune cells in vivo. Furthermore, coinjection with IL-12 cDNA and gD DNA vaccine inhibited both systemic gD-specific Ab and local Ab levels compared with gD plasmid vaccination alone. In contrast, Th cell proliferative responses and secretion of cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and chemokines (RANTES and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha) were significantly increased by IL-12 coinjection. However, the production of cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) and chemokine (MCP-1) was inhibited by IL-12 coinjection. IL-12 coinjection with a gD DNA vaccine showed significantly better protection from lethal HSV-2 challenge compared with gD DNA vaccination alone in both inbred and outbred mice. This enhanced protection appears to be mediated by CD4+ T cells, as determined by in vivo CD4+ T cell deletion. Thus, IL-12 cDNA as a DNA vaccine adjuvant drives Ag-specific Th1 type CD4+ T cell responses that result in reduced HSV-2-derived morbidity as well as mortality.  (+info)

Development and use of a 293 cell line expressing lac repressor for the rescue of recombinant adenoviruses expressing high levels of rabies virus glycoprotein. (8/8277)

An expression cassette designed for high-level production of rabies virus glycoprotein (RG) could not be rescued into a replication-defective, adenovirus-based vector using standard procedures. To overcome this difficulty, a 293-based cell line, designated 293LAP13, was constructed that contained and expressed a derivative of the lac repressor protein. The lac operator sequence, to which the repressor binds, was incorporated into an expression cassette, containing a promoter and intron, designed for high-level production of RG. Insertion of a single operator sequence immediately downstream of the transcription start site and the use of the 293LAP13 cell line allowed recombinant viruses that could not be isolated with 293 cells to be rescued efficiently. The operator-containing virus reached higher titres in 293LAP13 than in parental 293 cells and also produced plaques more efficiently in 293LAP13 cells. Moreover, in non-complementing human and canine cell lines, adenovirus vectors with a promoter-intron expression cassette expressed RG at much higher levels than vectors lacking the intron. These observations, together with the demonstration that expression of RG by operator-containing vectors was repressed markedly in 293LAP13 cells and that this inhibition was relieved at least partly by IPTG, suggest that the 293LAP13 cell line may be useful for the rescue and propagation of many vectors in which high expression of the desired protein prevents vector rescue in 293 cells.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Deletions in herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D define nonessential and essential domains. AU - Feenstra, Veronica. AU - Hodaie, Mojgan. AU - Johnson, David. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D (gD) is a major component of the virion envelope and infected cell membranes and is essential for virus entry into cells. We have recently shown that gD interacts with a limited number of cell surface receptors which are required for virus penetration into cells. To define domains of gD which are required for aspects of virus replication including receptor binding, deletion mutations of 5 to 14 amino acids were constructed by using oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. Plasmids containing mutant genes for gD were assayed for the ability to rescue a recombinant virus, F-gDβ, in which β-galactosidase sequences replace gD-coding sequences. Effects on global folding and posttranslational processing of the molecules were assessed by using a panel of monoclonal ...
gB, but not gD or gH/gL, binds to liposomes.Our laboratory previously showed that HSV virions bind to liposomes when incubated in the presence of a soluble form of the gD receptor, HVEM, at pH 5.0 (55). Second, gB730t, but not soluble forms of gD or gC, can bind to cholesterol-rich lipid rafts (10). Together, these data suggest that HSV may interact with lipids through gB. In support of this hypothesis, mutations in the fusion loops of two class II fusion proteins from flavivirus (2) and Semliki Forest virus (35) impair the ability of these proteins to associate with liposomes. Therefore, we theorized that if gB inserts into target membranes via the putative fusion loops, gB730t should associate and float with liposomes, while the soluble forms of the fusion loop mutants should be impaired in this association.. To test this hypothesis, purified soluble gB, gD, and gH/gL were each incubated with two different compositions of liposomes, i.e., PC only or PC/C, at 37°C for 1 h. We then added KCl to ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigenicity of hepatitis C virus envelope proteins expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. AU - Inudoh, M.. AU - Nyunoya, H.. AU - Tanaka, T.. AU - Hijikata, M.. AU - Kato, N.. AU - Shimotohno, K.. PY - 1996/12/1. Y1 - 1996/12/1. N2 - A putative second envelope glycoprotein (E2) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was constitutively produced in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line stably transformed with a plasmid expressing E2 protein under the control of an exogenous promoter and a signal sequence. E2 protein that lacked part of the C-terminal hydrophobic region was glycosylated with high-mannose type oligosaccharides and retained in the cells. On the other hand, E2 protein lacking the entire C-terminal hydrophobic region was glycosylated with complex type oligosaccharides (complex form) and excreted into the culture medium. Immunoreactivity of the high-mannose and complex forms of E2 proteins against sera from HCV infected patients were analyzed. We found that the antigenicity of the ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
This invention provides an isolated nucleic acid which comprises a nucleotide segment having a sequence encoding a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral envelope protein contains one or more mutations in amino acid sequence that enhance the stability of the complex formed between the viral surface protein and transmembrane protein. This invention also provides a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral envelope protein contains one or more mutations in amino acid sequence that enhance the stability of the complex formed between the viral surface protein and transmembrane protein. This invention further provides methods of treating HIV-1 infection.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Boosting of HIV-1 neutralizing antibody responses by a distally related retroviral envelope protein. AU - Uchtenhagen, Hannes. AU - Schiffner, Torben. AU - Bowles, Emma. AU - Heyndrickx, Leo. AU - La Branche, Celia. AU - Applequist, Steven E.. AU - Jansson, Marianne. AU - De Silva, Thushan. AU - Back, Jaap Willem. AU - Achour, Adnane. AU - Scarlatti, Gabriella. AU - Fomsgaard, Anders. AU - Montefiori, David. AU - Stewart-Jones, Guillaume. AU - Spetz, Anna Lena. PY - 2014/6/15. Y1 - 2014/6/15. N2 - Our knowledge of the binding sites for neutralizing Abs (NAb) that recognize a broad range of HIV-1 strains (bNAb) has substantially increased in recent years. However, gaps remain in our understanding of how to focus B cell responses to vulnerable conserved sites within the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). In this article, we report an immunization strategy composed of a trivalent HIV-1 (clade B envs) DNA prime, followed by a SIVmac239 gp140 Env protein boost that aimed to focus the ...
The coronavirus E protein is a small membrane protein that has an important role in the assembly of virions. Recent studies have indicated that the E protein has functions during infection beyond assembly, including in virus egress and in the host stress response. Additionally, the E protein has ion channel activity, interacts with host proteins, and may have multiple membrane topologies. The goal of this review is to highlight the properties and functions of the E protein, and speculate on how they may be related.
Mesalam, Ahmed Atef and Desombere, Isabelle and Farhoudi, Ali and Van Houtte, Freya and Verhoye, Lieven and Ball, Jonathan and Dubuisson, Jean and Foung, Steven K.H. and Patel, Arvind H. and Persson, Mats A.A. and Leroux-Roels, Geert and Meuleman, Philip (2018) Development and characterization of a human monoclonal antibody targeting the N-terminal region of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E1. Virology, 514 . pp. 30-41. ISSN 0042-6822 Desombere, Isabelle and Mesalam, Ahmed Atef and Urbanowicz, Richard A. and Van Houtte, Freya and Verhoye, Lieven and Keck, Zhen-Yong and Farhoudi, Ali and Vercauteren, Koen and Weening, Karin E. and Baumert, Thomas F. and Patel, Arvind H. and Foung, Steven K.H. and Ball, Jonathan and Leroux-Roels, Geert and Meuleman, Philip (2017) A novel neutralizing human monoclonal antibody broadly abrogates hepatitis C virus infection in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Research, 148 . pp. 53-64. ISSN 1872-9096 Khera, Tanvi and Todt, Daniel and Vercauteren, Koen and ...
Shop Large envelope protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Large envelope protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Stamataki, Zania and Coates, Stephen and Evans, Matthew J and Wininger, Mark and Crawford, Kevin and Dong, Christine and Fong, Yiu-Lian and Chien, David and Abrignani, Sergio and Balfe, Peter and Rice, Charles M and McKeating, Jane A and Houghton, Michael (2007) Hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein immunization of rodents elicits cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. Vaccine, 25 (45). pp. 7773-84. ISSN 0264-410X. ...
Stamataki, Zania and Coates, Stephen and Evans, Matthew J and Wininger, Mark and Crawford, Kevin and Dong, Christine and Fong, Yiu-Lian and Chien, David and Abrignani, Sergio and Balfe, Peter and Rice, Charles M and McKeating, Jane A and Houghton, Michael (2007) Hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein immunization of rodents elicits cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. Vaccine, 25 (45). pp. 7773-84. ISSN 0264-410X. ...
FUNCTION: Retroviral envelope proteins mediate receptor recognition and membrane fusion during early infection. Endogenous envelope proteins may have kept, lost or modified their original function during evolution. This endogenous envelope protein has lost its original fusogenic properties. TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Low expression in placenta and testis. DOMAIN: Contains the CKS-17 immunosuppressive domain present in many retroviral envelope proteins. As a synthetic peptide, it inhibits immune function in vitro and in vivo (By similarity ...
Retroviral (MLV-based) and lentiviral (HIV-1-based) vectors were harvested once at 1.5 days and again at 2.5 days post-transfection. Retroviral genomic particles pseudotyped with VSVGs (gMLV-VSVG) were produced at a higher titer during the first harvest than during the second harvest (Fig. 1A). However, more retroviral transducing particles (functional ones, tMLV-VSVG) were produced during the second harvest than during the first harvest. The number of gMLV-VSVG particles required for the transduction of a single cell (genomic to transducing particle ratio) can be calculated to be 2,200 for the first harvest, but 1,200 for the second harvest. This result indicates that gMLV-VSVG particles assembled at later time points post-transfection are more infectious than the ones assembled earlier.. In contrast, both lentiviral genomic and transducing particles pseudotyped with VSVGs (gHIV1-VSVG and tHIV1-VSVG, respectively) were produced at a higher titer during the first harvest than during the second ...
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The heterodimer glycoprotein H-glycoprotein L is required for the fusion of viral and plasma membranes leading to virus entry into the host cell. Following initial binding to host receptor, membrane fusion is mediated by the fusion machinery composed of gB and the heterodimer gH/gL. May also be involved in the fusion between the virion envelope and the outer nuclear membrane during virion morphogenesis.
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The three envelope proteins are encoded by a single ORF with three in frame start codons. Consequently, they share a common C-terminus that provides the membrane anchor and differ in length at their N-termini (Fig.4). They are designated the Large (L-), Middle (M-) and Small (S-) surface protein, respectively, with the first-mentioned playing the major role in this proposal. Compared to the S-protein (the classic HBs-Ag), the M-protein is extended to the 55 preS2- and the L-protein additionally to the 108 preS1-encoded amino acids (numbers according to subtype ayw).. ...
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Other ORFs on the one-third of the genome near the 3-terminus encodes at least four main structural protein: spike (S), membrane (M), envelope (E) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. Besides these four main structural proteins, such as HE protein, 3a/b protein, and 4a/b protein. All the structural and accessory proteins are translated from the from the…
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With enhanced promotor, RSV Glycoprotein G cDNA ORF Clone, RSV in pCMV3-C-OFPSpark is expression-ready, and confirmed by full-length sequence & expression validation
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SARS-Cov-2 Envelope Protein (His Tag)from Assay Genie. SARS-Cov-2/COVID-19 recombinant proteins - SARS-Cov-2 Envelope Protein (His Tag) by Assay Genie.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Different antibody response to a neutralizing epitope of human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B among seropositive individuals. AU - Ayata, Minoru. AU - Sugano, Tohru. AU - Murayama, Tsugiya. AU - Sakamuro, Daitoku. AU - Takegami, Tsutomu. AU - Matsumoto, Yoh‐Ichi ‐I. AU - Furukawa, Toru. PY - 1994/8. Y1 - 1994/8. N2 - The amino‐terminal portion of human cytomeg‐alovirus glycoprotein B (HCMV‐gB) was expressed as a fusion protein to analyze the neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody C23 and the humoral immune response to this epitope. The linear neutralizing epitope was further localized to the pep‐tide within 17 amino acids (position 68‐84) which were conserved between two HCMV laboratory strains. Ten out of 17 HCMV‐seropositive human sera contained the antibody against this epitope. Although seven sera were negative for reacting with the fusion protein, the viruses isolated from the same patients retained the epitope. The immunogenicity of the ...
The restricted host-cell range and low titer of retroviral vectors limit their use for stable gene transfer in eukaryotic cells. To overcome these limitations, we have produced murine leukemia virus-derived vectors in which the retroviral envelope glycoprotein has been completely replaced by the G glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus. Such vectors can be concentrated by ultracentrifugation to titers , 10(9) colony-forming units/ml and can infect cells, such as hamster and fish cell lines, that are ordinarily resistant to infection with vectors containing the retroviral envelope protein. The ability to concentrate vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped vectors will facilitate gene therapy model studies and other gene transfer experiments that require direct delivery of vectors in vivo. The availability of these pseudotyped vectors will also facilitate genetic studies in nonmammalian species, including the important zebrafish developmental system, through the efficient ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of murine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein gp69/71 on mouse thymocytes. Evidence for two structural variants distinguished by presence vs absence of G(ix) antigen. AU - Tung, J. S.. AU - Fleissner, E.. AU - Vitetta, E. S.. AU - Boyse, E. A.. PY - 1975. Y1 - 1975. N2 - Thymocytes of several mouse strains were tested for expression of the gp69/71 envelope component of murine leukemia virus by surface iodination (125I), followed by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These strains included two congenic lines differing from their partner stocks with respect to expression of G(IX) antigen demonstrable in the cytotoxicity assay. It is concluded that two structural variants of gp69/71 can be expressed on mouse thymocytes, that these are distinguishable by a small difference in mobility in SDS gels, that one carries G(IX) antigen and the other not, that they are coded, or their expression is regulated, by different ...
Background & Objectives: Interaction of cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B with toll-like receptors of dendritic cells leads to early signaling and innate immune responses. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B on the maturation and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in treated groups in comparison with control ...
The hepatitis C virus glycoproteins E1 and 2 have been expressed using recombinant baculoviruses following fusion to the carrier protein glutathione S-transferase (GST). Proteins were expressed singly and as an E1E2 polyprotein with and without an N-terminal affinity tag. Expression of the E1E2 polyprotein, even when preceded by GST, led to processing in insect cells and detection of an E1E2 complex that could be specifically purified by glutathione affinity chromatography. Baculovirus expressed E2 and a purified GST-E1E2 protein bound to the second extracellular loop of CD81 (EC2), a reported ligand for the molecule, but not to a truncated derivative of CD81 consisting of only the central domain of the loop. Purified GST-E2, however, failed to bind to CD81 suggesting a requirement for a free E2 amino terminus for biological activity. The binding to CD81 by baculovirus expressed E2 protein was comparable to that observed for E2 derived from mammalian cells when detected by a monoclonal antibody
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein contains a dominant cytoplasmic basolateral sorting signal critically dependent upon a tyrosine. AU - Thomas, DNette C.. AU - Brewer, Colleen B.. AU - Roth, Michael G.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - To investigate the contribution of the cytoplasmic domain of the vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein to its basolateral expression in polarized epithelial cells, chimeric proteins containing the external and transmembrane domains of an apically targeted protein, the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), and either the G cytoplasmic domain or an unrelated cytoplasmic sequence, were introduced into Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Addition of the cytoplasmic tail of G to a truncated HA resulted in delivery of greater than 95% of the chimeric protein to the basolateral cell surface, indicating that the G cytoplasmic domain contains a dominant basolateral sorting signal. A similar chimera, containing the cytoplasmic tail of herpes ...
Fedry J, Forcina J, Legrand P, Pehau-Arnaudet G, Haouz A, Johnson M*, Rey FA*, Krey T*. 2018. Evolutionary diversification of the HAP2 membrane insertion motifs to drive gamete fusion across eukaryotes. PLoS biology 16:e2006357. (M.J., F.A.R. and T.K. contributed equally to this work) Ströh LJ, Nagarathinam K, Krey T. 2018. Conformational Flexibility in the CD81-Binding Site of the Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein E2. Frontiers in immunology 9:1396. Vasiliauskaite I, Owsianka AM, England P, Khan AG, Cole S, Bankwitz D, Foung SKH, Pietschmann T, Marcotrigiano J, Rey FA, Patel AH*, Krey T*. 2017. Conformational Flexibility in the Immunoglobulin-Like Domain of the Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein E2. mBio 8:e00382-00317. (A.H.P. and T.K. contributed equally to this work) Fedry J, Liu Y, Pehau-Arnaudet G, Pei J, Li W, Tortorici MA, Traincard F, Meola A, Bricogne G, Grishin NV, Snell WJ*, Rey FA*, Krey T*. 2017. The Ancient Gamete Fusogen HAP2 Is a Eukaryotic Class II Fusion Protein. Cell ...
In this study, we show that posttranslational folding of Vesicular Stomatitis virus G protein subunits can involve noncovalent, multimeric complexes as transient intermediates. The complexes are heterogeneous in size (4-21S20,W), contain several G glycopolypeptides, and are associated with BiP/GRP78. The newly synthesized, partially intrachain disulfide-bonded G proteins enter these complexes immediately after chain termination, and are released 1-4 min later as fully oxidized, trimerization-competent monomers. These monomers are properly folded, judging by their binding of conformation-specific mAbs. When the G protein is translated in the presence of DTT, it remains reduced, largely unfolded and aggregated in the ER, but it can fold successfully when the DTT is removed. In this case, contrary to normal folding, the aggregates become transiently disulfide cross-linked. We also demonstrated that the fidelity of the folding process is dependent on metabolic energy. Finally, we established that ...
Glycoprotein D (gD) of HSV has been shown to be a potent immunogen. To analyze the T cell antigenic determinants on gD, a series of 28 overlapping 20-mer peptides that span the extracellular portion of gD-1 were examined for their ability to stimulate T cells from rgD-1 or infectious HSV-1-primed H-2d mice in vitro. rgD-1-primed cells responded exclusively to peptide 241-260, the immunodominant determinant of gD in H-2d mice. In contrast, infectious HSV-primed T cells were shown to respond to 17 (and up to 22) of 28 synthetic gD peptides. These results indicate an extensive diversity in the T cell repertoire to gD in H-2d mice with T cells directed to a broad array of peptide determinants being recruited during the acute phase of an HSV infection. ...
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Structure of a trimeric variant of the Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein B. - Marija Backovic, Richard Longnecker, Theodore S Jardetzky
Previous work with HSV and the related alphaherpesviruses PrV and varicella-zoster virus has clearly demonstrated that gE-gI mediates or facilitates cell-to-cell spread, especially in solid tissues such as epithelium, in the nervous system, and with certain cultured cells, e.g., normal fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and neurons, cells that form extensive cell junctions (2, 24, 25). Other HSV glycoproteins function similarly in cell-to-cell spread, but unlike these glycoproteins, gE-gI functions in cell-to-cell spread but not in the entry of extracellular virions. Therefore, interactions between gE-gI and cell junctions may provide molecular details of how a herpesvirus moves directly from cell to cell.. When gE-gI was expressed in HEC-1A cells or in other epithelial cells by recombinant Ad vectors, the protein accumulated specifically along the lateral surfaces of cells and was not found on either the apical or basal surfaces or at tight junctions. Sorting of gE-gI to the basolateral surfaces of ...
Two regions of the gene for the human T-cell leukemia virus subgroup I (HTLV-I) envelope were expressed in Escherichia coli by use of the vector pJLA16. One corresponds to the carboxyl terminal region of the major envelope protein p46, and the other corresponds to the transmembrane protein p21E. Reactivity of the expressed protein with human serum was tested by the Western blot procedure. Each of 11 sera tested that had been shown to contain antibodies to HTLV-I or HTLV-II by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay recognized the bacterially synthesized envelope proteins. There was no reaction detected when 17 control sera were tested. This system will be useful for large-scale seroepidemiological surveys for HTLV-I and related human retroviruses. ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is a plasma membrane receptor for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). The encoded protein mediates cholesterol transfer to and from HDL. In addition, this protein is a receptor for hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011 ...
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections are life-threating to people with a compromised or immature immune system. Upon adhesion, fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell is initiated. In this step, the viral glycoprotein gB is considered to represent the major fusogen. Here, we present for the first time structural data on the binding of an anti-herpes virus antibody and describe the atomic interactions between the antigenic domain Dom-II of HCMV gB and the Fab fragment of the human antibody SM5-1. The crystal structure shows that SM5-1 binds Dom-II almost exclusively via only two CDRs, namely light chain CDR L1 and a 22-residue-long heavy chain CDR H3. Two contiguous segments of Dom-II are targeted by SM5-1, and the combining site includes a hydrophobic pocket on the Dom-II surface that is only partially filled by CDR H3 residues. SM5-1 belongs to a series of sequence-homologous anti-HCMV gB monoclonal antibodies that were isolated from the same donor at a single time point and that ...
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Dr Butters works in the Glycobiology Institute which is headed by Professor Raymond Dwek. His expertise in glycoprotein biology led to him being contacted by Dr Rossignol.. Dr Rossignol approached our group to see if we could help him find a mechanism of action for thiazolides. If we understand the mechanism better, then well be able to improve drug design, explains Dr Butters.. His group works with small molecules that interfere with the cellular processes responsible for glycoprotein production. He is trying to develop these into drugs against the hepatitis C virus which also uses a viral envelope glycoprotein.. If more can be uncovered about how thiazolides work, this may also open up the possibility of using them in combination with compounds Dr Butters own lab is developing.. We have a known mechanism of action for our compounds, and our initial experiments suggest that the drug works in a slightly different way. Both interfere with glycoprotein maturation of viral envelope proteins, ...
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Clone REA716 recognizes the human CD36L1 antigen, an integral membrane protein, also known as SR-BI. CD36L1 is widly expressed, e.g. on macrophages, dendritic cells, adrenocortical cells, adipocytes, and trophoblastic cells. In hepatocytes, CD36L1 acts as a receptor for hepatitis C. It has been reported, that CD36L1 is able to bind HCV envelope glycoprotein E2, participate in entry of HCV pseudotype particles, and modulate HCV infection. Furthermore, CD36L1 is a receptor for different ligands such as phospholipids, cholesterol ester, lipoproteins, vitamin E, phosphatidylserine, and apoptotic cells. Additional information: Clone REA716 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Canada
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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes serious complications to immune compromised hosts. Dendritic cells (iDCgB) expressing granulocyte-macrophage
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Cellular entry of enveloped viruses is often dependent on attachment proteins expressed on the host cell surface. Viral envelope proteins bind these receptors, and, in an incompletely understood proce
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plasma proteins, enzymes, cytokines, ion channels, virus envelope proteins HIGH MOLECULAR MASS MULTIMER PROTEIN COMPLEXES, antobodies
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A) Cells treated with different concentrations of SIN-1. 24 hpi, virus was . 4B, the luciferase activity in the cells infected with pseudotyped virus bearing S was In order to exclude any effect on the binding of the S protein to the ACE2 receptor. ...
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Multiple necessary viral proteins are located within the envelope. DNA and proteins enter the host cell nucleus and turn-off ... Envelope fusion with the plasma membrane of the host cell causes separation of the nucleocapsid from viral DNA and proteins. ... gB, gD, gH, and gL proteins allow for fusion of the cell and envelope, and are necessary for survival. Entrance to host cells ... L genes are transcribed "after the synthesis of DNA and viral protein onset." Virion DNA maturation occurs as the nucleocapids ...
The trypsin performs the maturation cleavage of the viral envelope proteins efficiently. Focus Biomolecules Catalog # 10-2290 ...
Gp120 surface envelope protein SU, encoded by the viral gene env. 120000 Da (Daltons). Gp41 transmembrane envelope protein TM, ... Protein size 14000 Da. Gene regulatory proteins: Tat: main trans-activator Rev: important for synthesis of major viral proteins ... P24 capsid protein CA, encoded by the viral gene gag. 24000 Da. P17 matrix protein MA, also encoded by gag. 17000 Da. P7/P9 ... The envelope proteins SU and TM are glycosylated in at least some lentiviruses (HIV, SIV), if not all of them. Glycosylation ...
Envelope proteins, membrane proteins, and spike proteins (E, M, and S). The viral envelope then fuses with the host's membrane ... it is essential to comprehend how antibodies interact with viral envelope proteins, particularly with the fusion protein, and ... either of the fusion protein or of a companion protein, is necessary for the majority of viral fusion proteins. The priming ... viral transmembrane proteins, also known as "spike" proteins, are integrated into membrane vesicles containing viral core ...
The two viral envelope proteins, E and M, are inserted into the membrane. The RNA genome is bound to capsid (C) proteins, which ... The capsid proteins are one of the first proteins created in an infected cell; the capsid protein is a structural protein whose ... The protein shell is made of two structural proteins: the glycoprotein E and the small membrane protein M. Protein E has ... precursor membrane proteins, and envelope proteins, respectively. The structural proteins are located at the 5′ end of the ...
Through this process the new capsid obtains the required six viral envelope proteins. The new virions then go into the ... ORF2a, 3, 4, 5, encode glycoprotein 2,2a, 3, 4, and 5. ORF2b encodes the envelope protein. There is a newly discovered protein ... ORF6 encodes the membrane protein. The nucleocapsid (N) protein is encoded by ORF7. The N protein is composed of 123 amino ... It has been suggested that despite the normal anti-viral role Protein Kinase R (PKR) plays in cells, type 2 PRRSV uses PKR as a ...
Env is a viral gene that encodes the protein forming the viral envelope. The expression of the env gene enables retroviruses to ... The protein is called syncytin in mammals. Viral structural protein Gene+Products,+env at the US National Library of Medicine ... The mature product of the env gene is the viral spike protein, which has two main parts: the surface protein (SU) and the ... Protein pages needing a picture, Viral structural proteins). ... Exposed on the surface of the viral envelope, the glycoprotein ...
In these cells the viral genes that encode envelope proteins have restricted expression. As a result, infectious particles like ... CSF examination usually reveals normal pressure, cell count, and total protein content; however, CSF globulin is almost always ... Viral encephalitis, Measles, Neurodegenerative disorders, Unsolved problems in neuroscience, Slow virus diseases, Rare ... "Defective translation of measles virus matrix protein in a subacute sclerosing panencephalitis cell line". Nature. 305 (5930): ...
The vaccine contains one of the viral envelope proteins, Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). It is produced by yeast cells, ... as these excess surface proteins lacked infectious viral DNA. The immune system, recognizing the surface proteins as foreign, ... This allows the yeast to produce only the noninfectious surface protein, without any danger of introducing actual viral DNA ... In 1968, this protein was found to be part of the virus that causes "serum hepatitis" (hepatitis B) by virologist Alfred Prince ...
Viral matrix proteins are structural proteins linking the viral envelope with the virus core. They play a crucial role in virus ... Retroviral matrix protein Viral tegument (Protein pages needing a picture, Virology, Viral structural proteins). ... Viral matrix proteins, like many other viral proteins, can exert different functions during the course of the infection. For ... In herpesviruses, the viral matrix is usually called viral tegument and contains many proteins involved in viral entry, early ...
During this interaction, the glycosylated viral envelope protein inserts itself into the cell membrane. In order to ... "Budding" through the cell envelope-in effect, borrowing from the cell membrane to create the virus's own viral envelope- into ... An example is the use of recycling viral particle receptors in the enveloped varicella-zoster virus. A human with a viral ... the nucleocapsid of the virus must form a connection with the cytoplasmic tails of envelope proteins. Though budding does not ...
Narayanan K, Makino S (2001). "Cooperation of an RNA packaging signal and a viral envelope protein in coronavirus RNA packaging ... As part of the viral life cycle, within the infected cell, the viral genome becomes associated with viral proteins and ... It interacts with the viral proteins (M and N) and ensures the selective packaging of viral RNA into virions. This RNA element ... Within the viral genome the packaging signal is located in the nonstructural protein 15 (nsp15) and encodes a polypeptide which ...
... is the process of producing viruses or viral vectors in combination with foreign viral envelope proteins. The ... With this method, the foreign viral envelope proteins can be used to alter host tropism or increase or decrease the stability ... In some cases, the inability to produce viral envelope proteins renders the pseudovirus replication incompetent. In this way, ... Pseudotyped particles do not carry the genetic material to produce additional viral envelope proteins, so the phenotypic ...
However, there is no known protein functionally similarly to the viral capsid or envelope proteins. They share their many ... They contain genes with homology to viral proteins and which are often found in eukaryotic genomes, like polymerase and ... Polintons, 15-20 kb long, encode up to 10 individual proteins. For replication, they utilize a protein-primed DNA polymerase B ... The initiation protein then remains attached to the 5' Phosphate on the nicked strand, exposing the 3' hydroxyl of the ...
However, priming the adaptive immune system to recognize the viral envelope proteins did not prevent HIV acquisition. Many ... Most initial approaches have focused on the HIV envelope protein. At least thirteen different gp120 and gp160 envelope ... The epitopes of the viral envelope are more variable than those of many other viruses. Furthermore, the functionally important ... It was tested in France in a double-blind Phase I/II trial with 48 HIV-positive patients who had reached viral suppression on ...
H/HN/G - the cell attachment proteins span the viral envelope and project from the surface as spikes. They bind to proteins on ... Fusion proteins and attachment proteins appear as spikes on the virion surface. Matrix proteins inside the envelope stabilise ... the fusion protein projects from the envelope surface as a trimer, and mediates cell entry by inducing fusion between the viral ... M - the matrix protein assembles between the envelope and the nucleocapsid core, it organizes and maintains virion structure F ...
The structure of the envelope is characterized by the spike-like projections of two viral proteins, the fusion protein (F) and ... The M protein interacts with the Hn and F proteins, helping to incorporate these proteins into viral particles for release. It ... The fusion protein (F) is an integral membrane protein, sharing many features similar to other viral fusion proteins and is ... form the inner layer of the envelope and interacts with the F and Hn proteins on the outside of the viral envelope during viral ...
The H protein mediates receptor attachment and the F protein causes fusion of viral envelope and cellular membrane. ... The RNA genome of the virus codes 6 main proteins Nucleoprotein (N), Phosphoprotein (P), Matrix protein (M), Fusion protein (F ... The measles virus has two envelope glycoproteins on the viral surface - hemagglutinin (H) and membrane fusion protein (F). ... producing all viral proteins. The viruses are then assembled from their proteins and negative sense ssRNA, and the cell will ...
These proteins line the inner surface of viral envelopes and are associated with viral membranes. Matrix proteins are produced ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR000840 (Protein families, Viral protein class, ... Gag-derived proteins govern the entire assembly and release of the virus particles, with matrix proteins playing key roles in ... Retroviral matrix proteins are components of envelope-associated capsids of retroviruses. ...
The viral envelope protein (E) attaches to the host cell receptors and is taken into the cell via endocytosis. The envelope ... The envelope protein and the endosomal membrane fuse, and the virus is released into the cytoplasm.[citation needed] The viral ... The structural proteins include capsid (C), premembrane/membrane (prM), and envelope (E). The non-structural proteins include ... NS1 is important in the viral replication process. NS2A interacts with NS3 and NS5, helps in viral assembly and recruits the ...
... the N protein holds the RNA genome, and the S, E, and M proteins together create the viral envelope. Coronavirus S proteins are ... Like other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 has four structural proteins, known as the S (spike), E (envelope), M (membrane), and N ( ... Virus infections start when viral particles bind to host surface cellular receptors. Protein modeling experiments on the spike ... "SARS-CoV-2 related protein structures". Protein Data Bank. Portals: COVID-19 Medicine Viruses SARS-CoV-2 at Wikipedia's sister ...
"Experimental Estimation of the Effects of All Amino-Acid Mutations to HIV's Envelope Protein on Viral Replication in Cell ... Bloom has pioneered techniques for measuring the effects of large numbers of mutations in viral proteins in parallel. Notably, ... Bloom's research focuses on the molecular evolution of viruses and viral proteins, particularly of rapidly-evolving RNA viruses ... His lab uses a combination of computational and experimental techniques to understand how changes in viral proteins result in ...
They are all made up of a viral envelope containing two main types of proteins, wrapped around a central core. The two large ... The host cell membrane has patches of viral transmembrane proteins (HA, NA, and M2) and an underlying layer of the M1 protein ... The central core of a virion contains the viral genome and other viral proteins that package and protect the genetic material. ... Transcription of the viral (-) sense genome (vRNA) can only proceed after the PB2 protein binds to host capped RNAs, allowing ...
They have spherical virions with club-shaped surface projections formed by trimers of the spike protein, and a viral envelope. ... Two large, overlapping ORFs at the 5'-end of the genome encode the major non-structural proteins expressed as a fusion protein ... This ancestor gradually evolved into FCoV I and CCoV I. An S protein from an unknown virus was recombined into the ancestor and ... This genus, like other coronaviruses, has a spike protein with a type I fusion machine (S2) and a receptor-binding domain (S1 ...
The helical nucleocapsid is surrounded by a lipid envelope and contains other viral proteins, with VP3 being the most abundant ... The TTV1 virion contains four virus-encoded proteins, TP1-4. The proteins do not display any sequence similarity to structural ... Nucleocapsid protein TP1 has apparently evolved from a Cas4 endonuclease, a conserved component of the adaptive CRISPR-Cas ... The structure revealed that nucleocapsid is formed from two major capsid proteins (MCP1 and MCP2). MCP1 and MCP2 form a ...
In molecular biology, a phage major coat protein is an alpha-helical protein that forms a viral envelope of filamentous ... with a helical shell of protein subunits surrounding a DNA core. The approximately 50-residue subunit of the major coat protein ... The protein shell can be considered in three sections: the outer surface, occupied by the N-terminal region of the subunit and ... where protein subunits interact, mainly with each other; and the inner surface (occupied by the C-terminal region of the ...
There are prominent "spikes" (projections) of 6 nm composed of the viral envelope proteins E1 and E2 embedded in the membrane. ... At the neutral pH outside of the cell the E2 envelope protein covers the E1 protein. The dropping pH inside the endosome frees ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Chen MH, Icenogle JP (April 2004). "Rubella virus capsid protein modulates viral ... Inside the lipid envelope is a capsid of 40 nm in diameter. The capsid protein (CP) has different functions. Its main tasks are ...
HIV-1 uses CD4 to gain entry into host T-cells and achieves this through its viral envelope protein known as gp120. The binding ... Li L, Li HS, Pauza CD, Bukrinsky M, Zhao RY (2006). "Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen ... Following a structural change in another viral protein (gp41), HIV inserts a fusion peptide into the host cell that allows the ... If a patient's viral load becomes undetectable after 2 years then CD4 counts might not be needed if they are consistently above ...
... the F protein is triggered and begins fusing the viral envelope with the host cell's membrane. The F protein does so by ... M proteins are found on the inner side of the envelope, connecting the envelope to the RNP. Virions vary in size from 100 to ... proteins, matrix (M) protein, the most abundant protein in virions, fusion (F) protein, small hydrophobic (SH) transmembrane ... Unlike the other proteins, the I protein's function is unknown. The genome of the mumps virus is encased by N proteins to form ...
Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral envelope protein E2 to host receptors, which mediates clathrin- ... of the viral genome recruits viral and cellular translation factors to initiate viral protein translation. Viral proteins are ... The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is what causes bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1 ... is the first protein generated from the N-terminus of the viral polyprotein. BVDV Npro is a hydrophilic outer membrane protein ...
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Human serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are contact. ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ( ...
... by the viral 3C-like protease (NS6), a major structural protein (VP1) of about 58~60 kDa and a minor capsid protein (VP2). The ... as norovirus lacks a lipid viral envelope. Surfaces where norovirus particles may be present can be sanitised with a solution ... The protein MDA-5 may be the primary immune sensor that detects the presence of noroviruses in the body. Some people have ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Prasad BV, Crawford S, Lawton JA, ...
Murphy CI, Lennick M, Lehar SM, Beltz GA, Young E (Oct 1990). "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in baculovirus- ... "Interference with HIV-induced syncytium formation and viral infectivity by inhibitors of trimming glucosidase". Nature. 330 ( ... "Glycosylation and processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein". Journal of Acquired Immune ... Land A, Braakman I (Aug 2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein in the endoplasmic ...
... which is triggered by engagement of ICAM-1 on the infected cell's surface and expression of several viral proteins. Viruses use ... "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gp120 induces a stop signal and virological synapse formation in noninfected CD4+ ... As viral synapses allow the virus to spread directly from cell to cell, they also provide a means by which the virus can escape ... Viral synapses are thought to explain how cell-to-cell transfer can operate in the HIV infection even when there is a low ...
... virus or protein can be locally injected, after which it is allowed to be transported anterogradely. Viral tracers can cross ... After endocytosis, the low pH inside the vesicle strips the envelope of the virion after which the virus is ready to be ... Viral tracers use a receptor on the host cell to attach to it and are then endocytosed. For example, HSV uses the nectin ... Transport of the viral particles along the axon was shown to depend on the microtubular cytoskeleton. There is also a group of ...
... which can modulate protein trafficking of viral proteins or protect the proteins from the low pH they would otherwise encounter ... viroporins are not highly concentrated in the viral envelope, but nevertheless their presence may promote viral entry into the ... "Viral proteins that enhance membrane permeability". In Fischer WB (ed.). Viral membrane proteins : structure, function, and ... Wang K, Xie S, Sun B (February 2011). "Viral proteins function as ion channels". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ...
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Rabbits serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are contact ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ( ... The genome codes for 6 proteins, and has 6, 8 open reading frames. ...
It is the cause of the bud release and the formation of the viral envelope. The N and E protein are accessory proteins that ... envelope protein (E), nucleocapsid protein (N), and the spike protein (S). The M protein of SARS-CoV-2 is about 98% similar to ... The S-protein, otherwise known as the spike protein, is the viral component that attaches to the host receptor via the ACE2 ... It is the focus spike proteins expression that are involved in many effective COVID‑19 vaccines. The M protein is the viral ...
Fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane releases the viral core into the host cytoplasm. Expression of early- ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host ... producing all viral structural proteins. Assembly of progeny virions begins in cytoplasmic viral factories, producing a ... The viral core is completely uncoated as early expression ends, releasing the viral genome into the cytoplasm. At this point, ...
... that this is because the glycoproteins embedded within the viral envelope attach to and are selective to the membrane proteins ... The early viral mRNA is translated into early proteins. These early proteins are transported into the nucleus, where they are ... Viral DNA-dependent DNA polymerase synthesizes multiple copies of viral DNA. The late viral genes are then transcribed by host ... The newly formed late viral mRNA is translated into late proteins, which are involved in the formation and structure of the ...
... structural protein linking the viral envelope with the virus capsid Coronavirus membrane protein, structural protein expressed ... M protein may refer to: M protein (Streptococcus), a virulence factor of the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes Viral matrix ... a protein composing the M-line of muscle cell sarcomeres Protein M, immunoglobulin-binding protein found on the surface of the ... from the M gene in coronaviruses Myeloma protein, also called paraprotein, an abnormal protein in the urine or blood, often ...
The virions (virus particles) themselves contain their genome in a protein capsid 700 Å in diameter. They are characterised by ... In 1956, an epidemic occurred in the Murray Valley which was compared to "acute viral polyarthritis" caused by Chikungunya ... the presence of two glycoproteins (E1 and E2) embedded as trimeric dimers in a host-derived lipid envelope. Because RRV is ... directly contributes to disease since mice deficient in the C3 protein do not suffer from severe disease following infection. ...
People with high fever for more than two days or whose other symptoms of viral-like illness do not improve despite antibiotic ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... Because of their double-membrane envelope, Borrelia bacteria are often mistakenly described as Gram negative despite the ... Unlike viral meningitis, Lyme lymphocytic meningitis tends to not cause fever, last longer, and recur. Lymphocytic meningitis ...
Viral vector based gene delivery uses a viral vector to deliver genetic material to the host cell. This is done by using a ... Microinjection is where DNA is injected through the cell's nuclear envelope directly into the nucleus. Sonoporation uses sound ... "Efficient agroinfiltration of plants for high-level transient expression of recombinant proteins". Journal of Visualized ... Viral based vectors emerged in the 1980s as a tool for transgene expression. In 1983, Albert Siegel described the use of viral ...
The viral RNA is packed into the icosahedral capsid which is contained inside the protein inner envelope. The lipid outer ... envelope is of host cell origin but contains viral transmembrane and surface proteins. The virion is spherical in shape with a ... The term viral tropism refers to which cell types HTLV-I infects. Although HTLV-1 is primarily found in CD4+ T cells, other ... 2005). "Differences in viral and host genetic risk factors for development of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)- ...
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Ruminants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ( ...
... viral envelope protein - viral oncogene protein - viral protein - virology - virus (biology) - vitamin - vitamin D-dependent ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ... proto-oncogene protein C-kit - proto-oncogene proteins c-abl - proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2 - Proto-oncogene proteins c-fos ...
Late viral genes are now being transcribed (most encode for structural proteins, enzymes and transcriptions factors) and are ... It is through budding that they acquire their envelope. Avipoxviruses like all viruses is an obligate intracellular parasite. ... The concatameric intermediates produced earlier are now resolved into double strand DNA and packaged in the late viral proteins ... The viral core is now translocated to the outside of the cell nucleus. After these early genes are transcribed and translated ...
The non-protein-bound (free) heme produced in this manner becomes highly cytotoxic, most probably due to the iron atom ... Purdy, M.A. (1983). "Effect of growth phase and cell envelope structure on susceptibility of Salmonella triumphant to the ... Myeloperoxidase is present in mammalian neutrophils and is responsible for the destruction of invading bacteria and viral ... Cytochrome a refers to the heme A in specific combination with membrane protein forming a portion of cytochrome c oxidase. The ...
In 1999, Klein was the first to demonstrate that the HIV envelope protein could induce calcium transients in neurons and ... Neuroinflammation During RNA Viral Infections. Klein RS, Garber C, Funk KE, Salimi H, Soung A, Kanmogne M, Manivasagam S, Agner ... Further, this protein was expressed at even higher levels in MS patients in brain regions more affected by MS. Another goal of ... CCR5 limits cortical viral loads during West Nile virus infection of the central nervous system. Durrant DM, Daniels BP, ...
The lipid bilayer of the viral envelope is about 5 nm thick and is embedded with viral surface proteins to which sugar residues ... These factories then facilitate transcription and subsequent translation of the viral proteins. Transcription of viral genes ... These are composed of many copies of the nucleocapsid protein N, which interact with the three segments of the viral genome to ... The L segment, 6.8-12 kb in length, encodes the L protein which functions primarily as the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ...
The envelope proteins on the outer surface of HDV are entirely provided by HBV. Alba, R; Bosch, A; Chillon, M (2005). "Gutless ... A helper dependent virus, also termed a gutless virus, is a synthetic viral vector dependent on the assistance of a helper ... Since the genome of the gutless virus does not include genes encoding the enzymes and/or structural proteins required to ... Naturally-occurring satellite viruses are also helper virus dependent, and can sometimes be modified to become viral vectors. ...
Some of the membrane components are used for viral replication while some others will be modified to produce viral envelopes, ... The viral replication, protein synthesis and assembly require a considerable amount of energy, provided by large clusters of ... Szajner P, Weisberg AS, Wolffe EJ, Moss B (July 2001). "Vaccinia virus A30L protein is required for association of viral ... Viral evolution Netherton C, Moffat K, Brooks E, Wileman T (2007). "A guide to viral inclusions, membrane rearrangements, ...
Wolk T, Schreiber M (2006). "N-Glycans in the gp120 V1/V2 domain of the HIV-1 strain NL4-3 are indispensable for viral ... Hayashi Y, Okino N, Kakuta Y, Shikanai T, Tani M, Narimatsu H, Ito M (October 2007). "Klotho-related protein is a novel ... Papandreou MJ, Fenouillet E (1997). "Effect of various glycosidase treatments on the resistance of the HIV-1 envelope to ... Cytosolic beta-glucosidase, also known as cytosolic beta-glucosidase-like protein 1, is a beta-glucosidase (EC enzyme ...
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Rodents serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are contact ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ( ...
... the proteins rotate to form trimers, and the fusion peptide is directed toward the cell membrane The viral envelope protein E ... Entebbe Bat Virus is an enveloped virus, which means that it has to bind its envelope proteins to a cell surface protein on the ... The genome encodes 3 structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and 8 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A ... the genome encodes 3 structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and 8 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A ...
The M2 channel protein is an essential component of the viral envelope because of its ability to form a highly selective, pH- ... Viral structural proteins, Protein families, Single-pass transmembrane proteins, Transmembrane transporters, Transport proteins ... The Matrix-2 (M2) protein is a proton-selective viroporin, integral in the viral envelope of the influenza A virus. The channel ... The M2 protein is encoded on the seventh RNA segment together with the M1 protein. Proton conductance by the M2 protein in ...
1988). "Inhibition of CD4+ T cell function by the HIV envelope protein, gp120". J. Immunol. 141 (11): 3715-7. PMID 2846691. ... Andrieu JM, Even P, Venet A (1986). "AIDS and related syndromes as a viral-induced autoimmune disease of the immune system: an ... The protein encoded by this gene is one of two proteins that are required to form the DQ heterodimer, a cell surface receptor ... It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are ...
... and the mature protein's first two amino acids. The second exon encodes amino acids 3-42 of the mature proteins. The third exon ... CCL7 is a multipotent chemokine involved in anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal immune responses. For example, CCL7- ... October 1998). "HIV-1 envelope gp120 inhibits the monocyte response to chemokines through CD4 signal-dependent chemokine ... The mature protein about 76 amino acids is secreted after cleavage of the signal peptide. In contrast to most chemokines, CCL7 ...
Viral Envelope Proteins / immunology* Substances * Immunoglobulin G * Immunoglobulin M * Viral Envelope Proteins ...
Glycoprotein 120, the viral-envelope protein, binds to the host CD4+ molecule. ... Viral load in peripheral blood is used as a surrogate marker of viral replication rate; however, quantitative viral-load assays ... and is produced as a C-terminal extension of the Gag protein). The env gene encodes the viral envelope-the outer structural ... The accessory proteins of HIV-1 and HIV-2 are involved in viral replication and may play a role in the disease process. [37, 38 ...
Viral Envelope Proteins. Papers overview. Semantic Scholar uses AI to extract papers important to this topic. ... The bisindolylmaleimide GF 109203X is a potent and selective inhibitor of protein kinase C. ...
Categories: Viral Envelope Proteins Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Viral Envelope Proteins. 1. 2020. 595. 0.040. Why? Keratin-18. 1. 2016. 41. 0.040. Why? ...
Changes in proteins in the outer envelope of a virus, resulting from the reassortment of viral genes. Major epidemics of ... A technique for separating proteins to further identify and characterize them. Proteins are separated in the first dimension ... Proteins produced by some bacteria, which inhibit the growth of other strains of the same organism or related species. Genes ... A substance, often a protein or large polysaccharide, which is perceived as foreign by the body and stimulates an immune ...
The researchers then prepared viral pseudotypes that are similar to the Khosta-2 RBD using a SARS-CoV-2 spike. ... Researchers created viral pseudotypes by combining the viruses and foreign envelope proteins. They were then able to produce ... The viral pseudotypes were also resistant to both the serum from individuals who were vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 and the ... LumiraDx launches protein test to combat antimicrobial resistance in India. *Apollo Cancer Centre performs unique surgery to ...
HIV-1 envelope proteins up-regulate N6-methyladenosine levels of cellular RNA independently of viral replication. Journal of ... N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral replication and protein expression. The m6A modification is ... N6-Methyladenosine-binding proteins suppress HIV-1 infectivity and viral production. Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Viral infections still threaten human health all over the world, and many people die from viral diseases every year. However, ...
... are antigenically more related to HIV-2 than to HIV-I by cross-reactivity of viral capsid and envelope proteins. SIV isolates ... SIV proteins, especially the viral core proteins (i.e., p24, capsid protein), are antigenically related to HIV-I proteins (9). ... Recently, a protein unique to SIV and HIV-2 (product of gene vpx) was used as antigen in a serologic test that may allow easier ... The working group consists of MD Lairmore, DVM, PhD, JE Kaplan, MD, Div of Viral Diseases, M Rayfield, PhD, AIDS Laboratory, ...
All of the above methodologies facilitate the binding of viral envelope proteins to cells, the first step in transduction. ... to facilitate binding of viral envelope protein to cells. Some of these modifications include spinoculation,2 magnetic ... Cells and viral particles were then plated in 6 well plates and incubated in a 37 ºC, 5% CO2 incubator overnight. Transductions ... Cells and viral particles were plated in 6 well plates and incubated in a 37 ºC, 5% CO2 incubator overnight. After ...
Glycoprotein 120, the viral-envelope protein, binds to the host CD4+ molecule. ... Viral load in peripheral blood is used as a surrogate marker of viral replication rate; however, quantitative viral-load assays ... and is produced as a C-terminal extension of the Gag protein). The env gene encodes the viral envelope-the outer structural ... The accessory proteins of HIV-1 and HIV-2 are involved in viral replication and may play a role in the disease process. [37, 38 ...
Synthetic antigens produced from proteins of specific viral envelope domains also offer promise in improving the specificity of ... protein. Surface projections on the membrane are composed of a glycosylated envelope (E) and membrane (M) proteins. A pre M ... JE viral specific and cross reactive neutralizing epitopes have been mapped to specific regions of the E protein and ... Viral Strains. Dosage and Route of Administration. Inactivated Primary Hamster Kidney Cell-Derived JE Vaccine. Viral Strain. ...
The SARS-CoV-2 viral surface housed the spike, membrane, and envelope proteins, which could interact with immune system ... Along with the spike protein, SARS-CoV-2 envelope and membrane proteins developed major mutations right before the emergence of ... Synonymous and non-synonymous mutations in viral spike protein indicated a considerable change in viral sequences, with major ... The investigation of 26 SARS-CoV-2 proteins, including structural proteins such as spike, envelope, membrane, and nucleocapsid ...
This effectively displays HIV viral envelope proteins, such as gp120 and gp41, on the VLP surface, where they mimic HIV virions ... These include: HIV and SIV Gag and Env proteins, as well as other viral Env proteins (hepatitis C and VEE) and non-viral ... when linked to another viral protein, it assembles particles and incorporates the other viral protein into the particle as well ... Our lab developed a way to incorporate HIV envelope proteins into VLPs by linking them to HBsAg. We are studying ways to use ...
Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins control the degradation of substrates as diverse as cyclins, viral envelope proteins, ... Spermatid histones are ubiquitinated as they are being transiently replaced by transitional proteins and permanently by ... Reproductive-system-disorders; Reproductive-system; Spermatogenesis; Spermatozoa; Fertility; DNA-damage; Proteins; Author ...
... which is a single surface protein of the viral envelope. GP forms a trimer, in which each protomer consists of two subunits, ... Total plasma IgG protein was purified using a protein G-coupled affinity chromatography column followed by ebolavirus-reactive ... 2 protein was buffer-exchanged into PBS and stored at -80°C until use. For mass spectrometric analysis, F(ab′)2 protein samples ... Unbound proteins were washed with 20 resin volumes of PBS followed by 10 resin volumes of 0.1 M glycine-HCI at pH 3.5. Bound ...
These particles are made up of the viral particles structures membrane, envelope, nucleocapsid, and spike proteins. However, ... When the team made virus-like particles carrying Omicron mutations in the membrane or envelope proteins, they found that the ... A bacterial protein stimulates the reproduction of insulin-producing cells, pointing to a potential treatment. Nearly… ... Omicron mutations in the spike protein, they found, made virus-like particles twice as infectious as those with the ancestral ...
Dengue virus: an envelope protein (prM/E) was engineered for enhanced viral particle production in combination with attenuated ... and viral envelope proteins are becoming harder to isolate. The problem isnt a dearth of targets. Rather, increasingly ... potently neutralizing antibodies against viral envelope proteins remains a daunting task for pathogens such as HIV and HCV. ... Complex viral-membrane proteins also pose a unique set of challenges for vaccine discovery, and the induction of broadly ...
An infection begins when the virus, traveling in a spherical particle studded with the viral envelope protein, latches onto a ... The team set out to find antibodies tuned to a particular target: a part of Zikas envelope protein, which the virus needs to ... To get a closer look at the interaction between the antibody and a fragment of the virus envelope protein, scientists in ... "Even before Zika, their blood samples likely had antibodies that could interact with this same spot on the envelope protein," ...
Although the lipids of the viral envelope are host derived, various virus-encoded integral membrane proteins, i.e. Viral ... The lipoprotein envelope Envelope Bilayer lipid membrane acquired by viral particles during viral morphogenesis. ... Capsid Capsid The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid. Capsids are composed of ... Viral shedding Viral shedding The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, ...
Interactions between a viral envelope protein and proteins on the uninfected cell surface seem to stabilize the bridges.. The ... Compressing a video of the process into a single picture reveals the tracks of viral particles (which appear green in the image ...
The HIV-1 envelope is formed by viral gp41 and gp120 envelope glycoproteins, with ability to bind to the CD4 surface protein, ... By using cellular endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi, newly formed RNAs, nucleocapsid proteins, and envelope proteins bind and ... The rest of the virus genome encodes four essential structural proteins, namely spike glycoprotein (S), small envelope (E), ... Two thirds of the viral RNA are found in the first ORF (ORF1a/b), which is translated into two structural proteins (pp1a and ...
The Hepatitis B Virus Envelope Proteins: Molecular Gymnastics Throughout the Viral Life Cycle. Annual review of virology 2020. ... Transient RNA Interactions Leave a Covalent Imprint on a Viral Capsid Protein. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2022. ...
... group has provided the first description of HIV-1 matrix protein structures determined within both immature and mature ... protein. Around the capsid is the matrix, made of matrix (MA) proteins, and the viral envelope, a lipid bilayer membrane. ... This unexpected rearrangement could be responsible for clustering or activation of proteins on the viral surface or might in ... In the mature form, a lipid extends from the viral membrane into a pocket in MA. This suggests that HIV-1 maturation not only ...
Overview of recombinant viral technology along with practical resources (manuals, protocols) ... Viral tropism and pseudotyping. The envelope proteins of retro- and lentiviruses determine the host cell range (viral tropism ... The selection of an envelope protein to determine the viral tropism is called pseudotyping. HelVi-BVC pseudotypes recombinant ... Retroviral particles cannot be concentrated by ultracentrifugation because of instability of envelope proteins and viral ...
Two proteins, haemagglutinin and neuraminidase, are found on the viral envelope. These proteins are encoded by the viral HA and ... also contains the viral genome and a number of enzymes required for viral replication. The viral envelope is a lipid bilayer ... also contains the viral genome and a number of enzymes required for viral replication. The viral envelope is a lipid bilayer ... or matrix protein). The M1-protein is the most abundant component of the virus, constituting about 40% of the viral mass; it is ...
... is a rare viral infection that is thought to typically spread from close person-to-person contact through large ... 16 Tecovirimat is an inhibitor of the viral envelope protein p37 that blocks the ability of virus particles to be released from ... 16 Brincidofovir and cidofovir work by inhibiting the viral DNA polymerase and have been used to treat other viral infections ... Monkeypox is a rare viral infection that is thought to typically spread from close person-to-person contact through large ...
  • The investigation of 26 SARS-CoV-2 proteins, including structural proteins such as spike, envelope, membrane, and nucleocapsid, non-structural proteins (NSPs), and open reading frames (ORFs), was performed using more than 6.1 million SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences available from GenBank. (
  • The first news were released in January 2020 when the complete viral genome sequence was published [ 6 ], showing that it was a new coronavirus belonging to the same group as the coronavirus related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) causing the outbreak from SARS 2003 [ 7 - 9 ]. (
  • HIV-1 virus particles have at their centre their RNA genome, which is tightly bound to nucleocapsid proteins and surrounded by a conical capsid composed of a large number of copies of the capsid (CA) protein. (
  • Retroviral packaging cells contain stably integrated viral packaging genome, either in Ecotropic packaging system (capable of delivering genes to murine cells) or in Amphotropic system (delivery to most mammalian cells including human). (
  • The nucleoproteins are required for viral replication and packing of the genome into the new capsid, which is formed by M1-protein (or matrix protein). (
  • The capsid, formed by M1-protein, also contains the viral genome and a number of enzymes required for viral replication. (
  • In this cross-sectional diagram of the spherical virus, the convoluted ribonucleoprotein genome with its replication enzymes is inside the capsid which comprises M-protein subunits. (
  • (1) Activation of viral promoters: Ancient retroviral infections have left viral promoters throughout the human genome. (
  • (2) Expression of viral genes: Under some circumstances, such as cancer, many regions of the genome that are normally silenced can awaken. (
  • Their conformational rearrangements lead to the unification of lipid bilayers of cell membranes and viral envelopes and the formation of fusion pores through which the viral genome enters the cytoplasm of the cell. (
  • The viral genome is a single positive-stranded, infectious RNA molecule, about 11 kb in length. (
  • The 5' methylated cap and 3' polyadenylated tail allows the positive-sense RNA genome to be directly translated by the host cell's ribosome on viral entry . (
  • Viruses use a double-layered capsid and an envelope to protect their genome. (
  • The coronavirus genome encodes a spike protein, an envelope protein, a membrane protein, and a nucleoprotein. (
  • For example, the envelope glycoprotein contains a structure called the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) that is found on all HIV strains identified to date. (
  • Immunization of A/J or C57BL/6 mice with J-LEAPS heteroconjugates containing an epitope from the HSV-1 glycoprotein D (JgD) or an epitope from the HIV gag protein (JH) emulsified with Seppic ISA51 induced increased levels of IL-12p70 by day 3 and increased levels of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) on days 10 and 24. (
  • An IgM class of monoclonal antibody (MAb) raised against 'envelope' (E) glycoprotein of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, cross reacted with nuclear histones, in addition to recognizing the viral antigen present in the cytoplasm of infected cells by indirect fluorescent antibody (FA) technique. (
  • The envelope consists of a lipid bilayer containing an envelope glycoprotein and a matrix protein. (
  • Transepithelial transport of a viral membrane glycoprotein implanted into the apical plasma membrane of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. (
  • Like other flaviviruses, YFV contains a small glycoprotein-containing lipid envelope surrounding a nucleocapsid which encloses one viral RNA. (
  • The E glycoprotein is the major component of the virion surface and is responsible for the receptor-mediated endocytic fusion and subsequent cell entry, as well as direct viral assembly & budding, and immunogenicity. (
  • This type of immunity is important for control of viral replication inside cells and for eradicating an infection once it has started. (
  • The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. (
  • Nonstructural proteins induce the formation of a membranous network with ER where viral replication occurs [ 14 ]. (
  • Our findings indicate that TUT4/7 uridylation marks the MHV subgenomic RNAs for decay and delays viral replication. (
  • To facilitate the identification of candidate antiviral compounds targeting viral transcription/replication, we successfully generated the first reported minigenome system for SEOV. (
  • Viruses are extremely small and only contain enough genetic material to code for essential proteins required for replication within the host cell. (
  • The capsid protects the viral nucleic acids from nucleases, which are essential to their replication. (
  • The viral pseudotypes were also resistant to both the serum from individuals who were vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 and the human monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Neutralizing antibodies target viral structures that perform essential viral functions. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) capable of targeting therapeutically important membrane proteins such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), ion channels, transporters, and viral envelope proteins are becoming harder to isolate. (
  • Complex viral-membrane proteins also pose a unique set of challenges for vaccine discovery, and the induction of broadly reactive, potently neutralizing antibodies against viral envelope proteins remains a daunting task for pathogens such as HIV and HCV. (
  • This approach is incredibly useful for quickly studying the effectiveness of prior antibodies and vaccines on a newly emerging viral strain," states the study's other senior author Jennifer Doudna, Ph.D., senior investigator at Gladstone, professor at UC Berkeley, founder of the Innovative Genomics Institute, and investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. (
  • In blood samples taken from subjects in Mexico and Brazil, the scientists found antibodies-proteins produced by the immune system-that block the virus from initiating an infection. (
  • Faced with a viral threat, the human immune system generates antibodies that recognize the virus and stop it from invading cells. (
  • The team set out to find antibodies tuned to a particular target: a part of Zika's envelope protein, which the virus needs to launch an attack. (
  • In an immune response, viral neutralizing antibodies are present by the end of the first week, and the virus is rapidly cleared. (
  • We generated seventeen novel mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with high reactivity against E protein of dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). (
  • Detection of viral-specific antibodies restrictions on travel to control the further spread (2) . (
  • This protein facilitates entry of viruses into host cells by proteolytically cleaving and activating viral envelope glycoproteins. (
  • Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. (
  • During hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses targeting E1E2 envelope glycoproteins are generated in many individuals. (
  • the second of which primarily target host cell glucosidases required for folding and maturation of HCV envelope glycoproteins. (
  • The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) readily assembles with other viral proteins to form particles. (
  • Most often, the primary bottleneck in mAb discovery against membrane proteins is obtaining sufficient cell surface expression, since low levels of antigen can preclude a robust immune response in animals, limit the number of hits in phage or yeast display screens, and reduce the sensitivity of downstream immunoassays. (
  • Here, using molecular clones of HTLV and human major histocompatibility antigen DNA, we have shown homology between the envelope gene region of HTLV and the region of an HLA-B locus gene which codes for the extracellular portion of a class I histocompatibility antigen. (
  • HBV infection is considered to have progressed to chronic infection when HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and high titers of hepatitis B viral DNA are found to persist in the serum for longer than 6 months. (
  • Module A contained serum samples spiked with cultured dengue virus (DENV) or chikungunya virus (CHIKV) for the detection of nucleic acid and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen. (
  • COVID-19 can be diagnosed by detection of RNA gene targets (e.g. spike protein (S), an envelope protein (E), nucleocapsid protein (N), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzyme, and ORF1 gene) (4-6) either by nucleic acid amplification testing or detection of virus-specific proteins by antigen testing (7,8). (
  • E), nucleocapsid protein (N), RNA-dependent RNA drome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus polymerase enzyme, and ORF1 gene) (4-6) either by disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was declared a pandemic nucleic acid amplification testing or detection of virus- on 11 March 2020, because of its rapid spread around the specific proteins by antigen testing (7,8) . (
  • After human immunodeficiency virus infection, JE may be the leading cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. (
  • The Omicron variant demonstrated the development of the most severe mutations in a number of distinct proteins, which correlated to the most significant rise in infection rates. (
  • SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has so far demonstrated the strongest association between the frequency of non-synonymous mutations and human infection. (
  • An infection begins when the virus, traveling in a spherical particle studded with the viral envelope protein, latches onto a host cell and forces its way in. (
  • Infection in children and adults may be mild and present with constitutional symptoms Constitutional Symptoms Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)-Associated Vasculitis along with a viral exanthem Exanthem Diseases in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation. (
  • John Briggs' group, in the LMB's Structural Studies Division, has now provided the first description of HIV-1 matrix protein structures determined within both immature and mature authentic virus particles, showing how they rearrange on maturation of the virus ahead of infection of another cell. (
  • This unexpected rearrangement could be responsible for clustering or activation of proteins on the viral surface or might in some way affect the virus particle's ability to fuse with the membrane of a cell during infection. (
  • Monkeypox is a rare viral infection that is thought to typically spread from close person-to-person contact through large respiratory droplets, direct contact with skin lesions or bodily fluids, or indirect contact via contaminated clothing or linens. (
  • Findings from this AIDS research could boost the development of vaccines that will thwart infection by targeting and crippling the sticky HIV-1 spike proteins. (
  • Never before generated in such intricate detail, the super-sized images of the virus and its viral spikes have given researchers their first good look at the pathogen's complex molecular surface architecture that facilitates the infection process. (
  • At least three viral membrane proteins (gE, gI, and Us9) are necessary for the spread of infection from presynaptic to postsynaptic neurons (anterograde spread) in infected rodents. (
  • To understand how these proteins effect anterograde spread between neurons, we analyzed the subcellular localization of viral proteins after infection of cultured rat sympathetic neurons with wild-type or mutant viruses. (
  • Certain membrane modifications of the ER can be a trigger for ER stress, as well as the accumulation of viral protein in the ER by viral infection. (
  • The AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR [Viral Load] test is not intended to be used as a screening test for HIV or as a diagnostic test to confirm the presence of HIV infection. (
  • Do not use this kit as the sole basis of diagnosis of HIV-1 infection" (Abbott Laboratories HIV Test, Roche Viral Load Test and Epitope, Inc. Western Blot Test. (
  • We successfully converted DB32-6 to a humanized version that retained potency for the neutralization of DENV-2 and did not enhance the viral infection. (
  • Results obtained from this study indicate the potential of the Asian-lineage Zika Env-CD4 and Env proteins in ELISA assays to monitor humoral immune responses in upcoming clinical trials as well as a sero-diagnostic tool in ZIKV infection. (
  • The lengths of the viral poly(A) tails change during infection by mechanisms that remain poorly understood. (
  • Upon infection of 17-CL1 cells with MHV, a member of the Betacoronavirus genus, we observe two populations of terminally uridylated viral transcripts, one with poly(A) tails ~44 nucleotides long and the other with poly(A) tails shorter than ~22 nucleotides. (
  • At late stages of infection, the population of uridylated subgenomic RNAs with tails shorter than ~22 nucleotides is reduced in the absence of TUT4/7 while the viral RNA load increases. (
  • Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease caused by yellow fever virus infection and is identical to other viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) in characteristics, such as Dengue hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. (
  • Us9 is a novel type II membrane protein expressed as a highly phosphorylated protein late in ADV infection. (
  • 45 days after initial infection, given that other infections and prolonged shedding of SARS-CoV-2 or viral RNA have been ruled out ( 1 ). (
  • This condition, also known as susceptibility to infection-induced acute encephalopathy 3 or IIAE3, is a rare type of brain disease (encephalopathy) that occurs following a viral infection such as the flu. (
  • it is unclear how they are involved in the process by which a viral infection triggers neurological damage. (
  • Researchers suspect that individuals who develop acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1 produce too many immune system proteins called cytokines in response to the infection. (
  • However, some patients with typical signs and symptoms of viral hepatitis did not have serologic markers of HAV, HBV or HDV infection and were categorized based on epidemiologic characteristics as having either parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis or enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. (
  • SLIDE 4] Acute Viral Hepatitis, by Type, United States, 1982-1993 Of acute hepatitis cases in the United States from 1982 through 1993, 47% were attributable to hepatitis A, 34% to hepatitis B, 16% to hepatitis C, and 3% were negative for serologic markers of HAV, HBV, and HCV infection. (
  • Researchers created viral pseudotypes by combining the viruses and foreign envelope proteins. (
  • Zika isn't the only virus to sport the ridge, as it is also present in envelopes of other viruses in the same family. (
  • Diagnosis is made clinically and confirmed with serum virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. (
  • Sucrose centrifugation separates viruses in sucrose density gradient from toxic cell debris and proteins, which makes viruses consistently non-toxic for use in animal experiments and prevents possible immunogenic reactions in vivo. (
  • These proteins are encoded by the viral HA and NA genes (Section 2.3), respectively and are inserted into the plasma membrane of the infected cell before the newly-produced viruses bud off from the cell surface. (
  • O ver the course of evolution, several groups of ancient viruses colonized our ancestors' genomes, leaving thousands of fragments of viral code in modern-day human DNA. (
  • Membrane fusion proteins of enveloped animal viruses. (
  • The fusion of viral and cell membranes is one of the basic processes in the life cycles of viruses. (
  • A number of enveloped viruses confer fusion of the viral envelope and the cell membrane using surface viral fusion proteins. (
  • Viruses use a number of advanced and fewer understood mechanisms and pathways to ship their cargo (nucleocapsid and accent proteins) to the cytoplasm and or nucleus. (
  • The endocytic pathway is the most typical amongst enveloped and non-enveloped viruses for entry and launch of their nucleocapsid and accent proteins into the cytosol. (
  • Some viruses have an additional outer layer, called an envelope, to help them latch onto a host cell. (
  • These viruses have a lipid envelope that is crucial to their structure and function, and soaps and detergents are thus very effective at inactivating them. (
  • Many membrane proteins span the lipid bilayer multiple times, form oligomeric structures, and have complex post-translational modifications. (
  • Around the capsid is the matrix, made of matrix (MA) proteins, and the viral envelope, a lipid bilayer membrane. (
  • This suggests that HIV-1 maturation not only assembles the viral capsid, but also prepares the membrane-bound matrix for some role in cell entry or after infecting another cell, and it alters the viral lipid bilayer. (
  • The viral envelope is a lipid bilayer formed from the plasma membrane of the host cell, which contains two virus-encoded proteins, haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. (
  • Immature virions assemble within the ER, where viral RNA is complexed with the C protein and packaged into an ER-derived lipid bilayer containing heterodimers of prM and E proteins [ 15 ]. (
  • Viral Fusion Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Viral Fusion Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Viral Fusion Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Viral Fusion Proteins" by people in Profiles. (
  • The biochemical processes commonly inhibited include cell wall synthesis in bacteria and fungi, cell membrane synthesis, synthesis of 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits, nucleic acid metabolism, function of topoisomerases, viral proteases, viral integrases, viral envelope entry/fusion proteins, folate synthesis in parasites, and parasitic chemical detoxification processes. (
  • The first section of this review describes types of viral fusion proteins and is followed by a comparison of the structural features of class I fusion proteins, namely influenza virus hemagglutinin and the S-protein of the human coronavirus. (
  • Additionally, large quantities of cell-surface-expressed proteins are usually required for antibody isolation and vaccine discovery, where biochemically relevant levels of protein are essential for immunization, panning, screening, purification, crystallization, and other downstream studies. (
  • To get a closer look at the interaction between the antibody and a fragment of the virus' envelope protein, scientists in Pamela J. Bjorkman's lab at Caltech determined the molecular structure formed as the two units interacted. (
  • A therapeutic antibody against the viral envelope (E) protein represents a promising immunotherapy for disease control. (
  • Protein expression was verified by mass spectrometry and western-blot with a pan-flavivirus antibody, a ZIKV Env monoclonal antibody and with immune sera from adenoviral (ChAdOx1) ZIKV Env-vaccinated mice. (
  • These findings provide insight into the molecular basis for human antibody recognition of paramyxovirus surface proteins and the mechanisms of SOSV neutralization. (
  • Lateral flow assay and ELISA techniques gave consistent results for IgG/IgM antibody measurements towards spike and nucleocapsid proteins, suggesting that both methods can be used to detect COVID-19 where access to molecular test kits is difficult. (
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (
  • Some of these modifications include spinoculation, 2 magnetic transduction (see MISSION ® ExpressMag ® product line), transduction of cells on fibronectin-coated plates, 3 and incubation of cells with concentrated viral particles 4 (greater than or equal to 10 8 TU/ mL). (
  • Cells and viral particles were then plated in 6 well plates and incubated in a 37 ºC, 5% CO 2 incubator overnight. (
  • Transductions conducted by the incubation of cells and virus were carried out by adding viral particles to complete medium containing 8 μg/mL polybrene and cells. (
  • L1 protein of human papilloma virus (HPV) assembles into 60 nm particles. (
  • We have used HBsAg as a carrier protein: when linked to another viral protein, it assembles particles and incorporates the other viral protein into the particle as well. (
  • In addition, we discovered that the transmembrane domain of HIV gp41 can anchor the envelope proteins to the particles naturally. (
  • These particles are made up of the viral particle's structure's membrane, envelope, nucleocapsid, and spike proteins. (
  • For example, based on cell culture experiments, if a virus-like particle carrying a certain mutation was more effective at producing viral particles, a copy of the live virus with the same mutation was also more infectious. (
  • Omicron mutations in the spike protein, they found, made virus-like particles twice as infectious as those with the ancestral spike protein. (
  • And virus-like particles carrying Omicron's mutations in the nucleocapsid protein were 30 times more infectious than the ancestral SARS-CoV-2. (
  • Compressing a video of the process into a single picture reveals the tracks of viral particles (which appear green in the image) crossing cytoplasmic bridges. (
  • Using electron cryo-tomography (cryo-ET), the team could look at the proteins inside HIV-1 particles purified by members of Hans-Georg's and Barbara's labs. (
  • Retroviral particles cannot be concentrated by ultracentrifugation because of instability of envelope proteins and viral internal core (DOI: 10.14348/molcells.2017.0043). (
  • Saad's study is consistent with a recent study, which suggested that the myrMA protein undergoes dramatic structural changes to allow the formation of distinct hexameric lattices in immature and mature viral particles. (
  • Genetic and biochemical studies have suggested that incorporation of the viral Env protein into the virus particles also depends on interaction between the myrMA domain and the cytoplasmic tail of Env. (
  • By fusing the jellyfish enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter molecule (EGFP) to the carboxy-terminus of Us9, we demonstrated that Us9 not only is capable of targeting a Us9-EGFP fusion protein to the Golgi compartment, it also is able to direct efficient incorporation of such chimeric molecules into infectious viral particles. (
  • Underlying the difficulty in deriving useful mAbs is the structural complexity of membrane proteins and the need to present the target antigens within eukaryotic cell membranes to maintain structural integrity. (
  • After Us9-null mutant infections but not gE-null mutant infections, only a subset of the viral structural proteins had entered axons. (
  • In this strain, 1 putative cleavage site of the viral polyprotein responsible for processing of structural proteins was changed. (
  • I think if we want to generate better vaccines or look at blocking the transmission of COVID-19, we might want to think about targets other than the spike protein. (
  • Recombinant protein vaccines fall into two categories: subunit and virus-like particle vaccines. (
  • For subunit protein vaccines, a viral protein is produced in large quantities in a living "factory," such as a bacterium, plant, mammalian or insect cell. (
  • Virus-like particle vaccines are composed of a set of viral proteins that mimic the shape of the virus. (
  • Vaccines for viral diseases are __________ and help prevent infec. (
  • 1 year ) it took to advance from sequencing SARS-CoV-2 to producing enough candidate modRNA/spike protein vaccine for large (30,000 volunteer) clinical trials, as well as hundreds of millions of doses of the two currently approved vaccines for COVID-19 by Pfizer/BioNTech (illustrated here) and Moderna. (
  • a key question for HIV-1 vaccine development is whether the immunogenicity of mRNA vaccines encoding HIV-1 immunogens, a poorly immunogenic protein that requires extensive post-translational modifications, is comparable to that of proteins that can be purified after in vitro production. (
  • They summarize essential background vaccination à grande échelle, résument les information on their respective diseases informations essentielles sur les maladies et and vaccines, and conclude with the les vaccins associés et présentent en conclu- current WHO position concerning their sion la position actuelle de l'OMS concernant use in the global context. (
  • Le présent document remplace la précédente note de synthèse on hepatitis B vaccines.2 It provides updated informa- sur les vaccins anti-hépatite B, publiée par l'OMS en 2009.2 Il tion on hepatitis B vaccines and their storage, transport fournit des informations actualisées sur les vaccins anti-hépa- and deployment. (
  • Several ZIKV envelope (Env)-based vaccines have been developed recently. (
  • The most effective mAbs usually target conformational epitopes on membrane proteins, so the use of structurally correct antigens is a crucial element in the process. (
  • The IgM MAb recognized specifically the viral antigens expressed on the surface of JE virus infected PS cells by a modified indirect FA. (
  • Following stimulation by HTLV-1 antigens on the surface of infected T cells in the CNS compartment, expansion of immunocompetent T cells directed against viral proteins may result in CNS tissue damage, which may be mediated by cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha. (
  • All the viral genes were of avian fusion. (
  • To determine other viral genes involved in pathogenesis, we have been testing selected ADV mutants for defects in neuroinvasion in a rodent model. (
  • The fusion of these two genes results in production of an abnormal protein that promotes uncontrolled cell growth, which can lead to the formation of a tumor. (
  • SIV proteins, especially the viral core proteins (i.e., p24, capsid protein), are antigenically related to HIV-I proteins (9). (
  • Z.H. Taji, P. Bielytskyi, M. Shein, M.A. Sani, S. Seitz, A.K. Schütz, Transient RNA Interactions Leave a Covalent Imprint on a Viral Capsid Protein. (
  • The single RNA is complexed with a capsid protein. (
  • The positive samples were further subjected to PCRs for the amplification of a partial segment of the Usutu virus envelope and nonstructural 5 gene. (
  • The molecular mechanisms that enable the virus to invade and spread in the nervous systems of so many different animals are not known, but it is well known that the virion envelope proteins gE and gI are required in almost every case studied for efficient cell-to-cell spread both in non-neuronal and neuronal cells. (
  • The envelope surrounds the capsid and is studded with molecules of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. (
  • They imaged the spikes protruding from the envelope, which contain the only viral protein molecules on the HIV surface. (
  • According to the "viral mimicry" theory, these molecules alert cellular RNA-sensing pathways to the viral material, triggering an immune response. (
  • Antimicrobial molecules should be viewed as ligands whose receptors are microbial proteins. (
  • Through internalization assays with an EGFP epitope-tagged Us9 protein, we demonstrate that the maintenance of Us9 to the TGN region is a dynamic process involving retrieval of molecules from the cell surface. (
  • The nuclear pore is embedded within the membrane that surrounds the cell's nucleus (called the nuclear envelope), forming a channel that allows transport of molecules in and out of the nucleus. (
  • The RANBP2 protein is attached to the nuclear pore outside of the nucleus, where it helps regulate the transport of proteins and other molecules through the nuclear pore and also helps modify proteins coming into or out of the nucleus. (
  • Other in silico methods that are routinely used in research laboratories include molecular modelling (a technique used to model or mimic the structure of molecules) and protein sequencing and its alignment (methods used to evaluate identities and similarities in the amino acid sequence of proteins) [25-28]. (
  • Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins control the degradation of substrates as diverse as cyclins, viral envelope proteins, plasma membrane receptors, and mRNAs. (
  • It's unclear what effects these proteins have, but some researchers hypothesize they activate surface receptors and ultimately initiate immune reactions. (
  • The endocytic pathway contain the virus binding to the host cell receptors, activation of signaling pathways, formation of endocytic vesicles, supply of viral cargo to endosomal compartments, sorting, and eventually escaping into the cytosol (Cossart and Helenius, 2014). (
  • Therefore, modifications have been made to transduction protocols for hardto- transduce lines, such as T-cells, to facilitate binding of viral envelope protein to cells. (
  • Some membrane proteins are poorly transcribed or translated, in some cases due to incompatible promoters, cells, or growth conditions. (
  • Finally, overexpressed membrane proteins can be toxic to cells due to their biological function, constitutive activity, or activation by serum components. (
  • As the world marks the 25th year since the first diagnosed case of AIDS, groundbreaking research by scientists at Florida State University has produced remarkable three-dimensional images of the virus and the protein spikes on its surface that allow it to bind and fuse with human immune cells. (
  • Transcription of viral RNA can signal the presence of foreign DNA in cells, triggering defensive immune reactions. (
  • (3) Translation of viral proteins: Some viral RNAs are translated into proteins, which can be secreted and travel to other cells. (
  • At the same time, the protein also inhibits these cells from scavenging myelin debris (2) , a mechanism important for rebuilding myelin sheaths that are damaged in MS, and prevents oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs)-which normally help remyelinate damaged axons-from maturing (3) . (
  • Assembly of HIV-1, which causes AIDS, takes place on the inner plasma membrane leaflet of infected cells, a geometric building process that creates hexamers out of trimers of the viral Gag protein, as guided by Gag's N-terminal matrix domain. (
  • with or without a rat CD4 fusion partner to allow large-scale production of soluble protein in mammalian HEK293 cells. (
  • The RANBP2 protein is thought to associate with cell structures called microtubules, which form scaffolding within the cell to help cells maintain their shape. (
  • In conjunction with microtubules, the RANBP2 protein helps transport materials within cells. (
  • In nerve cells in the brain, the RANBP2 protein is likely involved in the regulation of energy and the maintenance of the protective barrier that allows only certain substances to pass between blood vessels and the brain (the blood-brain barrier). (
  • SARS-CoV-2, Recombinant Protein, Spike RBD (YP_009724390.1) (A348T) mutant, expressed from HEK293 cells, with a polyhistidine tag at the C-terminus. (
  • The encoded protein contains a type II transmembrane domain, a receptor class A domain, a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain and a protease domain. (
  • 2015). This endosomal luminal low pH is vital for intracellular membrane site visitors, cytosolic pH upkeep, protein degradation and receptor-mediated endocytosis (Cotter et al. (
  • The SARS-CoV-2 viral surface housed the spike, membrane, and envelope proteins, which could interact with immune system elements. (
  • The overlapping host range will allow us to immunize with rubella vectors, measure the immune response, and then test protection against a live viral challenge. (
  • When the viral protein is presented to the immune system, it triggers a reaction. (
  • These include 5'-capping, use of regulatory elements in the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) and the 3′-UTR to stabilize mRNA and increase protein translation, incorporation of chemically modified nucleosides into mRNA (modRNA) to decrease innate immune activation and increase translation, chromatographic purification, and sequence and/or codon optimization to increase translation. (
  • The extensive glycosylation of HIV-1 envelope proteins (Envs), gp120/gp41, is known to play an important role in evasion of host immune response by masking key neutralization epitopes and presenting the Env glycosylation as "self" to the host immune system. (
  • For most patients with intact immune systems, monkeypox is a self-limited illness that does not require anti-viral treatment to clear disease. (
  • It is suspected that the combination of the altered RANBP2 protein and the abnormal immune response play a role in individuals' susceptibility to recurrent episodes of acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1. (
  • Innate and adaptive anti-viral immune responses in MS patients treated with interferon-beta. (
  • however, quantitative viral-load assays should not be used as a diagnostic tool. (
  • For assays that target the Zika virus envelope (E) gene, use [ LOINC:81149-7 ]. (
  • Characterization of the epidemiology and clinical features of these and other possible agents of viral hepatitis will await the development of diagnostic assays. (
  • The Gag protein is post-translationally modified, in which a lipid-like myristate group is added to help Gag bind to the plasma membrane. (
  • The envelope protein of HIV-1, or Env, is a transmembrane protein delivered to the plasma membrane by the cell's secretory pathway. (
  • Density of newly synthesized plasma membrane proteins in intracellular membranes. (
  • While it is a microscopic organism, it contains a nucleic acid core and an outer, protein casing known as the capsid. (
  • Compound 136 was previously found to bind in close proximity to the viral envelope and inhibit influenza virus entry. (
  • These mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the RANBP2 protein, resulting in the production of a protein that cannot function normally either due to altered shape or because it cannot get to the nuclear pore where it is needed. (
  • As a mature HIV-1 virus approaches a target cell, Env attaches to proteins on the outside of the uninfected cell, and then the Env protein snaps like a mousetrap to fuse the viral membrane with the cell membrane. (
  • The cell consists of a permeable cell membrane, DNA, protein factories called ribosomes, and a protective outer cell wall. (
  • Synonymous and non-synonymous mutations in viral spike protein indicated a considerable change in viral sequences, with major increases occurring before the increase in reported human infections, most notably with the increases linked to the SARS-CoV-2 Gamma/Delta and Omicron variants. (
  • Along with the spike protein, SARS-CoV-2 envelope and membrane proteins developed major mutations right before the emergence of the Omicron variant. (
  • It can mount a defence when it detects the viral spike protein (also called spicule or S-protein), envelope and nucleoprotein. (
  • Among them, spike protein is the most important surface membrane protein of coronavirus. (
  • The first vaccine ever patented for coronavirus was sought by Pfizer and specifically included the "S" spike protein - the same thing that we allegedly rushed into invention. (
  • Zika virus contains an inner nucleocapsid composed of RNA and multiple copies of the viral capsid (C) protein. (
  • 2016). Viral RNA of the Zika virus has been identified in the brain and liver of fetuses and in the brain, eyes, spleen, liver and placenta of pregnant mothers, with the highest viral load existing in the placenta. (
  • This can activate the transcription of HERVs, causing viral RNA to accumulate in the cytoplasm. (
  • There are currently no specific anti-viral agents, vaccination or medical prophylaxis available. (
  • We identified neutralizing epitopes of DENV located at residues K310 and E311 of viral envelope protein domain III (E-DIII) through the combination of biological and molecular strategies. (
  • Host genetics and the ability to target multiple neutralising epitopes on the envelope protein are associated with such responses, although resistance mutations to bNAbs do exist in vivo. (
  • For example, sample dilution is always required in the ELISA procedure to determine p24 protein levels because of the very narrow range of detectable concentrations in this assay. (
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in samples from tissue homogenates or other biological fluids. (
  • It is still not clear whether ZIKV in humans increases viral titers enough to trigger a new cycle when an infected person is bitten by a naïve mosquito. (
  • The expression and purification of soluble recombinant Asian-lineage ZIKV Env proteins have been described using E. coli as the host cell and involve expression as inclusion bodies and re-folding in vitro [ 19 ]. (
  • PEG-it (System Biosciences) or Lenti-X concentrator, (Takara)) to increase viral particle titre (approximately 100-fold). (
  • Detection of viral genomic sequences in autopsy tissue, serum, or cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) samples via reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay: RT-PCR provides earlier and more specific diagnosis. (
  • Once produced, some membrane proteins fail to traffic to the cell surface because of retention motifs, poor leader sequences, or the unavailability of protein chaperones. (
  • The MPO algorithm next assesses opportunities for enhanced protein trafficking by scanning for sequence motifs that affect internalization and retention away from the cell surface, and alters these sequences accordingly. (
  • CDC has analyzed sequences from more than 4,000 specimens from across the world, and only 13 changes in the F13L protein were found, including the two cases included in this HAN Update. (
  • Cloning of P5 and P7 Illumina adaptor sequences into the vector backbone allows direct Sequencing of the viral cassette. (
  • A deep understanding of all the stages of conformational transitions preceding the fusion of viral and cell membranes is necessary for the development of specific inhibitors of viral reproduction. (
  • Solving the structure of MA was made difficult by its small size, irregular packing, and proximity to the viral membrane. (
  • SLIDE 2] Viral Hepatitis: Historical Perspective Before the discovery of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) during the 1960s and 1970s, patients with viral hepatitis were classified based on epidemiologic studies as having either infectious (transmitted person to person by the fecal-oral route) or serum (transmitted by transfusion of blood products) hepatitis. (
  • Viral isolates have since been obtained from several species of nonhuman primates including African green monkeys (2), sooty mangabeys (3), pig-tailed macaques (4), and stump-tailed macaques (5). (
  • Some SIV isolates, however, are antigenically more related to HIV-2 than to HIV-I by cross-reactivity of viral capsid and envelope proteins. (
  • CDC was notified of one patient with persistent monkeypox whose viral isolates demonstrated tecovirimat resistance. (
  • The mAbs were further dissected using recombinant E protein domain I-II (E-DI-II) and III (E-DIII) of DENV-2. (
  • Recombinant Dengue Virus Subtype 4 Envelope 32kDa, produced in E.coli, Suitable for Gold Conjugation, strong Dengue IgM reactive tested by lateral flow device. (
  • In addition, some patients with typical signs and symptoms of acute viral hepatitis do not have serologic markers of any of these types of viral hepatitis and can be classified as having non-ABCDE hepatitis. (
  • Here we described generation and characterization of seventeen mAbs with high reactivity for E protein of DENV. (
  • Our lab developed a way to incorporate HIV envelope proteins into VLPs by linking them to HBsAg. (
  • Dengue is the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in humans and an increasing public health concern in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. (
  • Dengue is the most common and important arthropod-borne viral (arboviral) illness in humans. (
  • this article focuses on viral hepatitis, which accounts for more than 50% of cases of acute hepatitis in the United States, primarily in the emergency department setting. (
  • Providing that acute viral hepatitis does not progress to FHF, many cases resolve over a period of days, weeks, or months. (
  • [ 3 ] Alternatively, acute viral hepatitis may evolve into chronic hepatitis. (
  • SLIDE 5] Estimates of Acute and Chronic Disease Burden for Viral Hepatitis, United States Viral hepatitis causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States. (