Viral Envelope Proteins
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Amino Acid Sequence
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
HIV Envelope Protein gp120
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
HIV Envelope Protein gp160
HIV Envelope Protein gp41
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
Combined Modality Therapy
Allergy and Immunology
National Cancer Institute (U.S.)
Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse
Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
West Nile virus
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
West Nile Fever
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
A soluble form of the avian hepatitis B virus receptor. Biochemical characterization and functional analysis of the receptor ligand complex. (1/8277)Avian hepatitis B virus infection is initiated by the specific interaction of the extracellular preS part of the large viral envelope protein with carboxypeptidase D (gp180), the primary cellular receptor. To functionally and biochemically characterize this interaction, we purified a soluble form of duck carboxypeptidase D from a baculovirus expression system, confirmed its receptor function, and investigated the contribution of different preS sequence elements to receptor binding by surface plasmon resonance analysis. We found that preS binds duck carboxypeptidase D with a 1:1 stoichiometry, thereby inducing conformational changes but not oligomerization. The association constant of the complex was determined to be 2.2 x 10(7) M-1 at 37 degreesC, pH 7.4, with an association rate of 4.0 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 and a dissociation rate of 1.9 x 10(-3) s-1, substantiating high affinity interaction of avihepadnaviruses with their receptor carboxypeptidase D. The separately expressed receptor-binding domain, comprising about 50% of preS as defined by mutational analysis, exhibits similar constants. The domain consists of an essential element, probably responsible for the initial receptor contact and a part that contributes to complex stabilization in a conformation sensitive manner. Together with previous results from cell biological studies these data provide new insights into the initial step of hepadnaviral infection. (+info)
Development of a Western blot assay for detection of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus using capsid and transmembrane envelope proteins expressed from recombinant baculovirus. (2/8277)A 120-amino-acid polypeptide selected from the transmembrane protein region (tTM) and the major capsid protein p26 of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) were expressed as fusion proteins from recombinant baculoviruses. The antigenic reactivity of both recombinant fusion proteins was confirmed by Western blot with bovine and rabbit antisera to BIV. BIV-negative bovine sera and animal sera positive for bovine syncytial virus and bovine leukemia virus failed to recognize the recombinant fusion proteins, thereby showing the specificity of the BIV Western blot. One hundred and five bovine serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-BIV antibodies by the recombinant protein-based Western blot and a reference Western blot assay using cell culture-derived virions as test antigens. There was a 100% concordance when the p26 fusion protein was used in the Western blot. However, the Western blot using the tTM fusion protein as its test antigen identified four BIV-positive bovine sera which had tested negative in both the p26 recombinant-protein-based and the reference Western blot assays. This resulted in the lower concordance of 96.2% between the tTM-protein-based and reference Western blot assays. The results of this study showed that the recombinant p26 and tTM proteins can be used as test antigens for the serodetection of BIV-infection in animals. (+info)
Trimming and readdition of glucose to N-linked oligosaccharides determines calnexin association of a substrate glycoprotein in living cells. (3/8277)To analyze the role of glucose trimming and reglucosylation in the binding of substrate proteins to calnexin in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of living cells, we made use of the thermosensitive vesicular stomatitis virus tsO45 glycoprotein (G protein). At nonpermissive temperature the G protein failed to fold completely and remained bound to calnexin. When the cells were shifted to permissive temperature, complete folding occurred accompanied by glucosidase-mediated elimination of calnexin-G protein complexes. If release from calnexin was blocked during the temperature shift by inhibiting the glucosidases, folding occurred, albeit at a reduced rate. In contrast, when unfolded by a shift from permissive to nonpermissive temperature, the G protein was reglucosylated rapidly and became capable of rebinding to calnexin. The rate at which calnexin binding occurred showed a 20-min delay that was explained by accumulation of the G protein in calnexin-free exit sites of the ER. These contained the glucosyltransferase responsible for reglucosylation of misfolded glycoproteins but had little or no calnexin. After unfolding and reglucosylation, the G proteins moved slowly from these structures back to the ER where they reassociated with the chaperone. Taken together, these results in live cells fully supported the lectin-only model of calnexin function. The ER exit sites emerged as a potentially important location for components of the quality control system. (+info)
Specific binding of recombinant foamy virus envelope protein to host cells correlates with susceptibility to infection. (4/8277)The interaction of simian foamy viruses (FVs) with their putative cellular receptor(s) was studied with two types of recombinant envelope protein (Env). Transient expression of full-length Env in BHK-21 cells induced syncytia formation. However, selected stable transfectants fused with naive cells but not with each other. A soluble fusion protein of the Env surface domain with the Fc fragment of a human IgG1 heavy chain (EnvSU-Ig) was produced in the baculovirus expression system, purified to homogeneity, and used for binding and competition analyses. EnvSU-Ig but not unrelated Ig fusion proteins bound to cells specifically. Neutralizing serum blocked binding of EnvSU-Ig and, vice versa, serum-mediated neutralization was abrogated by the chimeric protein. Concomitant reduction of EnvSU-Ig binding and FV susceptibility was seen in Env-expressing target cells. Although EnvSU-Ig did not inhibit FV infection, very likely due to its displacement by multivalent virus-cell interactions, this divalent ligand should help to characterize functionally and to identify the ubiquitous FV receptor. (+info)
DNA vaccination with hantavirus M segment elicits neutralizing antibodies and protects against seoul virus infection. (5/8277)Seoul virus (SEOV) is one of four known hantaviruses causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Candidate naked DNA vaccines for HFRS were constructed by subcloning cDNA representing the medium (M; encoding the G1 and G2 glycoproteins) or small (S; encoding the nucleocapsid protein) genome segment of SEOV into the DNA expression vector pWRG7077. We vaccinated BALB/c mice with three doses of the M or S DNA vaccine at 4-week intervals by either gene gun inoculation of the epidermis or needle inoculation into the gastrocnemius muscle. Both routes of vaccination resulted in antibody responses as measured by ELISA; however, gene gun inoculation elicited a higher frequency of seroconversion and higher levels of antibodies in individual mice. We vaccinated Syrian hamsters with the M or S construct using the gene gun and found hantavirus-specific antibodies in five of five and four of five hamsters, respectively. Animals vaccinated with the M construct developed a neutralizing antibody response that was greatly enhanced in the presence of guinea pig complement. Immunized hamsters were challenged with SEOV and, after 28 days, were monitored for evidence of infection. Hamsters vaccinated with M were protected from infection, but hamsters vaccinated with S were not protected. (+info)
Qualitative and quantitative requirements for CD4+ T cell-mediated antiviral protection. (6/8277)CD4+ Th cells deliver the cognate and cytokine signals that promote the production of protective virus-neutralizing IgG by specific B cells and are also able to mediate direct antiviral effector functions. To quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the antiviral functions of CD4+ Th cells, we generated transgenic mice (tg7) expressing an MHC class II (I-Ab)-restricted TCR specific for a peptide derived from the glycoprotein (G) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The elevated precursor frequency of naive VSV-specific Th cells in tg7 mice led to a markedly accelerated and enhanced class switching to virus-neutralizing IgG after immunization with inactivated VSV. Furthermore, in contrast to nontransgenic controls, tg7 mice rapidly cleared a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the VSV-G (Vacc-IND-G) from peripheral organs. By adoptive transfer of naive tg7 CD4+ T cells into T cell-deficient recipients, we found that 105 transferred CD4+ T cells were sufficient to induce isotype switching after challenge with a suboptimal dose of inactivated VSV. In contrast, naive transgenic CD4+ T cells were unable to adoptively confer protection against peripheral infection with Vacc-IND-G. However, tg7 CD4+ T cells that had been primed in vitro with VSV-G peptide were able to adoptively transfer protection against Vacc-IND-G. These results demonstrate that the antiviral properties of CD4+ T cells are governed by the differentiation status of the CD4+ T cell and by the type of effector response required for virus elimination. (+info)
IL-12 gene as a DNA vaccine adjuvant in a herpes mouse model: IL-12 enhances Th1-type CD4+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against herpes simplex virus-2 challenge. (7/8277)IL-12 has been shown to enhance cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Recent reports have suggested that combining DNA vaccine approach with immune stimulatory molecules delivered as genes may significantly enhance Ag-specific immune responses in vivo. In particular, IL-12 molecules could constitute an important addition to a herpes vaccine by amplifying specific immune responses. Here we investigate the utility of IL-12 cDNA as an adjuvant for a herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) DNA vaccine in a mouse challenge model. Direct i.m. injection of IL-12 cDNA induced activation of resting immune cells in vivo. Furthermore, coinjection with IL-12 cDNA and gD DNA vaccine inhibited both systemic gD-specific Ab and local Ab levels compared with gD plasmid vaccination alone. In contrast, Th cell proliferative responses and secretion of cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and chemokines (RANTES and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha) were significantly increased by IL-12 coinjection. However, the production of cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) and chemokine (MCP-1) was inhibited by IL-12 coinjection. IL-12 coinjection with a gD DNA vaccine showed significantly better protection from lethal HSV-2 challenge compared with gD DNA vaccination alone in both inbred and outbred mice. This enhanced protection appears to be mediated by CD4+ T cells, as determined by in vivo CD4+ T cell deletion. Thus, IL-12 cDNA as a DNA vaccine adjuvant drives Ag-specific Th1 type CD4+ T cell responses that result in reduced HSV-2-derived morbidity as well as mortality. (+info)
Development and use of a 293 cell line expressing lac repressor for the rescue of recombinant adenoviruses expressing high levels of rabies virus glycoprotein. (8/8277)An expression cassette designed for high-level production of rabies virus glycoprotein (RG) could not be rescued into a replication-defective, adenovirus-based vector using standard procedures. To overcome this difficulty, a 293-based cell line, designated 293LAP13, was constructed that contained and expressed a derivative of the lac repressor protein. The lac operator sequence, to which the repressor binds, was incorporated into an expression cassette, containing a promoter and intron, designed for high-level production of RG. Insertion of a single operator sequence immediately downstream of the transcription start site and the use of the 293LAP13 cell line allowed recombinant viruses that could not be isolated with 293 cells to be rescued efficiently. The operator-containing virus reached higher titres in 293LAP13 than in parental 293 cells and also produced plaques more efficiently in 293LAP13 cells. Moreover, in non-complementing human and canine cell lines, adenovirus vectors with a promoter-intron expression cassette expressed RG at much higher levels than vectors lacking the intron. These observations, together with the demonstration that expression of RG by operator-containing vectors was repressed markedly in 293LAP13 cells and that this inhibition was relieved at least partly by IPTG, suggest that the 293LAP13 cell line may be useful for the rescue and propagation of many vectors in which high expression of the desired protein prevents vector rescue in 293 cells. (+info)
Deletions in herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D define nonessential and essential domains<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Deletions in herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D define nonessential and essential domains. AU - Feenstra, Veronica. AU - Hodaie, Mojgan. AU - Johnson, David. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D (gD) is a major component of the virion envelope and infected cell membranes and is essential for virus entry into cells. We have recently shown that gD interacts with a limited number of cell surface receptors which are required for virus penetration into cells. To define domains of gD which are required for aspects of virus replication including receptor binding, deletion mutations of 5 to 14 amino acids were constructed by using oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. Plasmids containing mutant genes for gD were assayed for the ability to rescue a recombinant virus, F-gDβ, in which β-galactosidase sequences replace gD-coding sequences. Effects on global folding and posttranslational processing of the molecules were assessed by using a panel of monoclonal ...
Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein B Associates with Target Membranes via Its Fusion Loops | Journal of Virology
gB, but not gD or gH/gL, binds to liposomes.Our laboratory previously showed that HSV virions bind to liposomes when incubated in the presence of a soluble form of the gD receptor, HVEM, at pH 5.0 (55). Second, gB730t, but not soluble forms of gD or gC, can bind to cholesterol-rich lipid rafts (10). Together, these data suggest that HSV may interact with lipids through gB. In support of this hypothesis, mutations in the fusion loops of two class II fusion proteins from flavivirus (2) and Semliki Forest virus (35) impair the ability of these proteins to associate with liposomes. Therefore, we theorized that if gB inserts into target membranes via the putative fusion loops, gB730t should associate and float with liposomes, while the soluble forms of the fusion loop mutants should be impaired in this association.. To test this hypothesis, purified soluble gB, gD, and gH/gL were each incubated with two different compositions of liposomes, i.e., PC only or PC/C, at 37°C for 1 h. We then added KCl to ...
Candidate Topical Microbicides Bind Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein B and Prevent Viral Entry and Cell-to-Cell Spread
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Antigenicity of hepatitis C virus envelope proteins expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigenicity of hepatitis C virus envelope proteins expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. AU - Inudoh, M.. AU - Nyunoya, H.. AU - Tanaka, T.. AU - Hijikata, M.. AU - Kato, N.. AU - Shimotohno, K.. PY - 1996/12/1. Y1 - 1996/12/1. N2 - A putative second envelope glycoprotein (E2) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was constitutively produced in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line stably transformed with a plasmid expressing E2 protein under the control of an exogenous promoter and a signal sequence. E2 protein that lacked part of the C-terminal hydrophobic region was glycosylated with high-mannose type oligosaccharides and retained in the cells. On the other hand, E2 protein lacking the entire C-terminal hydrophobic region was glycosylated with complex type oligosaccharides (complex form) and excreted into the culture medium. Immunoreactivity of the high-mannose and complex forms of E2 proteins against sera from HCV infected patients were analyzed. We found that the antigenicity of the ...
Binding of the Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Protein E2 to CD81 Inhibits Natural Killer Cell Functions
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Patent US20030052839 - Stabilized viral envelope proteins and uses thereof - Google Patents
This invention provides an isolated nucleic acid which comprises a nucleotide segment having a sequence encoding a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral envelope protein contains one or more mutations in amino acid sequence that enhance the stability of the complex formed between the viral surface protein and transmembrane protein. This invention also provides a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral envelope protein contains one or more mutations in amino acid sequence that enhance the stability of the complex formed between the viral surface protein and transmembrane protein. This invention further provides methods of treating HIV-1 infection.
Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Fitness Defines Virus Population Composition following Transmission to a New Host - NDM...
Boosting of HIV-1 neutralizing antibody responses by a distally related retroviral envelope protein<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Boosting of HIV-1 neutralizing antibody responses by a distally related retroviral envelope protein. AU - Uchtenhagen, Hannes. AU - Schiffner, Torben. AU - Bowles, Emma. AU - Heyndrickx, Leo. AU - La Branche, Celia. AU - Applequist, Steven E.. AU - Jansson, Marianne. AU - De Silva, Thushan. AU - Back, Jaap Willem. AU - Achour, Adnane. AU - Scarlatti, Gabriella. AU - Fomsgaard, Anders. AU - Montefiori, David. AU - Stewart-Jones, Guillaume. AU - Spetz, Anna Lena. PY - 2014/6/15. Y1 - 2014/6/15. N2 - Our knowledge of the binding sites for neutralizing Abs (NAb) that recognize a broad range of HIV-1 strains (bNAb) has substantially increased in recent years. However, gaps remain in our understanding of how to focus B cell responses to vulnerable conserved sites within the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). In this article, we report an immunization strategy composed of a trivalent HIV-1 (clade B envs) DNA prime, followed by a SIVmac239 gp140 Env protein boost that aimed to focus the ...
Viruses | Free Full-Text | The Coronavirus E Protein: Assembly and Beyond
The coronavirus E protein is a small membrane protein that has an important role in the assembly of virions. Recent studies have indicated that the E protein has functions during infection beyond assembly, including in virus egress and in the host stress response. Additionally, the E protein has ion channel activity, interacts with host proteins, and may have multiple membrane topologies. The goal of this review is to highlight the properties and functions of the E protein, and speculate on how they may be related.
Browse by Authors and Editors - Nottingham ePrints
Mesalam, Ahmed Atef and Desombere, Isabelle and Farhoudi, Ali and Van Houtte, Freya and Verhoye, Lieven and Ball, Jonathan and Dubuisson, Jean and Foung, Steven K.H. and Patel, Arvind H. and Persson, Mats A.A. and Leroux-Roels, Geert and Meuleman, Philip (2018) Development and characterization of a human monoclonal antibody targeting the N-terminal region of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E1. Virology, 514 . pp. 30-41. ISSN 0042-6822 Desombere, Isabelle and Mesalam, Ahmed Atef and Urbanowicz, Richard A. and Van Houtte, Freya and Verhoye, Lieven and Keck, Zhen-Yong and Farhoudi, Ali and Vercauteren, Koen and Weening, Karin E. and Baumert, Thomas F. and Patel, Arvind H. and Foung, Steven K.H. and Ball, Jonathan and Leroux-Roels, Geert and Meuleman, Philip (2017) A novel neutralizing human monoclonal antibody broadly abrogates hepatitis C virus infection in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Research, 148 . pp. 53-64. ISSN 1872-9096 Khera, Tanvi and Todt, Daniel and Vercauteren, Koen and ...
Large envelope protein elisa and antibody
Shop Large envelope protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Large envelope protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Browse by Author/Editor - ePrints Repository
Stamataki, Zania and Coates, Stephen and Evans, Matthew J and Wininger, Mark and Crawford, Kevin and Dong, Christine and Fong, Yiu-Lian and Chien, David and Abrignani, Sergio and Balfe, Peter and Rice, Charles M and McKeating, Jane A and Houghton, Michael (2007) Hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein immunization of rodents elicits cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. Vaccine, 25 (45). pp. 7773-84. ISSN 0264-410X. ...
Browse by Author/Editor - ePrints Repository
Stamataki, Zania and Coates, Stephen and Evans, Matthew J and Wininger, Mark and Crawford, Kevin and Dong, Christine and Fong, Yiu-Lian and Chien, David and Abrignani, Sergio and Balfe, Peter and Rice, Charles M and McKeating, Jane A and Houghton, Michael (2007) Hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein immunization of rodents elicits cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. Vaccine, 25 (45). pp. 7773-84. ISSN 0264-410X. ...
ERB1 HUMAN » HERV-R(b) 3p24.3 provirus ancestral Env polyprotein - Membranome database
FUNCTION: Retroviral envelope proteins mediate receptor recognition and membrane fusion during early infection. Endogenous envelope proteins may have kept, lost or modified their original function during evolution. This endogenous envelope protein has lost its original fusogenic properties. TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Low expression in placenta and testis. DOMAIN: Contains the CKS-17 immunosuppressive domain present in many retroviral envelope proteins. As a synthetic peptide, it inhibits immune function in vitro and in vivo (By similarity ...
Molecules and Cells
Retroviral (MLV-based) and lentiviral (HIV-1-based) vectors were harvested once at 1.5 days and again at 2.5 days post-transfection. Retroviral genomic particles pseudotyped with VSVGs (gMLV-VSVG) were produced at a higher titer during the first harvest than during the second harvest (Fig. 1A). However, more retroviral transducing particles (functional ones, tMLV-VSVG) were produced during the second harvest than during the first harvest. The number of gMLV-VSVG particles required for the transduction of a single cell (genomic to transducing particle ratio) can be calculated to be 2,200 for the first harvest, but 1,200 for the second harvest. This result indicates that gMLV-VSVG particles assembled at later time points post-transfection are more infectious than the ones assembled earlier.. In contrast, both lentiviral genomic and transducing particles pseudotyped with VSVGs (gHIV1-VSVG and tHIV1-VSVG, respectively) were produced at a higher titer during the first harvest than during the second ...
WO1991000104 PRODUCTION OF VIRUS AND PURIFICATION OF VIRAL ENVELOPE PROTEINS FOR VACCINE USE
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gH - Envelope glycoprotein H precursor - Epstein-Barr virus (strain B95-8) (HHV-4) - gH gene & protein
The heterodimer glycoprotein H-glycoprotein L is required for the fusion of viral and plasma membranes leading to virus entry into the host cell. Following initial binding to host receptor, membrane fusion is mediated by the fusion machinery composed of gB and the heterodimer gH/gL. May also be involved in the fusion between the virion envelope and the outer nuclear membrane during virion morphogenesis.
Montblanc Sartorial Small Envelope - Cross bodies - Montblanc® AE
Discover all the details of the Montblanc Sartorial Small Envelope. Choose between Standard or Express delivery and shop on the official Montblanc store
Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg: 1. Morphology & Genome Organization
The three envelope proteins are encoded by a single ORF with three in frame start codons. Consequently, they share a common C-terminus that provides the membrane anchor and differ in length at their N-termini (Fig.4). They are designated the Large (L-), Middle (M-) and Small (S-) surface protein, respectively, with the first-mentioned playing the major role in this proposal. Compared to the S-protein (the classic HBs-Ag), the M-protein is extended to the 55 preS2- and the L-protein additionally to the 108 preS1-encoded amino acids (numbers according to subtype ayw).. ...
Structure for the N-terminal domain of HCV glycoprotein E1 - Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics
Emerging coronaviruses part 7 | MEDICINE FOR ALL
Other ORFs on the one-third of the genome near the 3-terminus encodes at least four main structural protein: spike (S), membrane (M), envelope (E) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. Besides these four main structural proteins, such as HE protein, 3a/b protein, and 4a/b protein. All the structural and accessory proteins are translated from the from the…
RSV Glycoprotein G (Protein | Antibody | cDNA Clone | ELISA Kit)
RSV Glycoprotein G research reagents are researched and produced in house with premium quality at affordable price. Bulk in stock.
RSV Glycoprotein G cDNA ORF Clone, RSV, C-OFPSpark® tag | SinoBiological
With enhanced promotor, RSV Glycoprotein G cDNA ORF Clone, RSV in pCMV3-C-OFPSpark is expression-ready, and confirmed by full-length sequence & expression validation
RSV Glycoprotein G cDNA ORF Clone, RSV, untagged | SinoBiological
With enhanced promotor, RSV Glycoprotein G cDNA ORF Clone, RSV in pCMV3-untagged is expression-ready, and confirmed by full-length sequence & expression validation
SARS-Cov-2 Envelope Protein (His Tag)from Assay Genie. SARS-Cov-2/COVID-19 recombinant proteins - SARS-Cov-2 Envelope Protein (His Tag) by Assay Genie.
Different antibody response to a neutralizing epitope of human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B among seropositive individuals<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Different antibody response to a neutralizing epitope of human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B among seropositive individuals. AU - Ayata, Minoru. AU - Sugano, Tohru. AU - Murayama, Tsugiya. AU - Sakamuro, Daitoku. AU - Takegami, Tsutomu. AU - Matsumoto, Yoh‐Ichi ‐I. AU - Furukawa, Toru. PY - 1994/8. Y1 - 1994/8. N2 - The amino‐terminal portion of human cytomeg‐alovirus glycoprotein B (HCMV‐gB) was expressed as a fusion protein to analyze the neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody C23 and the humoral immune response to this epitope. The linear neutralizing epitope was further localized to the pep‐tide within 17 amino acids (position 68‐84) which were conserved between two HCMV laboratory strains. Ten out of 17 HCMV‐seropositive human sera contained the antibody against this epitope. Although seven sera were negative for reacting with the fusion protein, the viruses isolated from the same patients retained the epitope. The immunogenicity of the ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped retroviral vectors: concentration to very high titer and efficient gene...
The restricted host-cell range and low titer of retroviral vectors limit their use for stable gene transfer in eukaryotic cells. To overcome these limitations, we have produced murine leukemia virus-derived vectors in which the retroviral envelope glycoprotein has been completely replaced by the G glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus. Such vectors can be concentrated by ultracentrifugation to titers , 10(9) colony-forming units/ml and can infect cells, such as hamster and fish cell lines, that are ordinarily resistant to infection with vectors containing the retroviral envelope protein. The ability to concentrate vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped vectors will facilitate gene therapy model studies and other gene transfer experiments that require direct delivery of vectors in vivo. The availability of these pseudotyped vectors will also facilitate genetic studies in nonmammalian species, including the important zebrafish developmental system, through the efficient ...
Expression of murine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein gp69/71 on mouse thymocytes. Evidence for two structural variants...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of murine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein gp69/71 on mouse thymocytes. Evidence for two structural variants distinguished by presence vs absence of G(ix) antigen. AU - Tung, J. S.. AU - Fleissner, E.. AU - Vitetta, E. S.. AU - Boyse, E. A.. PY - 1975. Y1 - 1975. N2 - Thymocytes of several mouse strains were tested for expression of the gp69/71 envelope component of murine leukemia virus by surface iodination (125I), followed by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These strains included two congenic lines differing from their partner stocks with respect to expression of G(IX) antigen demonstrable in the cytotoxicity assay. It is concluded that two structural variants of gp69/71 can be expressed on mouse thymocytes, that these are distinguishable by a small difference in mobility in SDS gels, that one carries G(IX) antigen and the other not, that they are coded, or their expression is regulated, by different ...
Evaluating the Effects of Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B on the Maturation and Function of Monocyte-derived dendritic cells - ...
Background & Objectives: Interaction of cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B with toll-like receptors of dendritic cells leads to early signaling and innate immune responses. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B on the maturation and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in treated groups in comparison with control ...
Hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2 binding to CD81: the role of E1E2 cleavage and protein glycosylation in bioactivity. - Oxford...
The hepatitis C virus glycoproteins E1 and 2 have been expressed using recombinant baculoviruses following fusion to the carrier protein glutathione S-transferase (GST). Proteins were expressed singly and as an E1E2 polyprotein with and without an N-terminal affinity tag. Expression of the E1E2 polyprotein, even when preceded by GST, led to processing in insect cells and detection of an E1E2 complex that could be specifically purified by glutathione affinity chromatography. Baculovirus expressed E2 and a purified GST-E1E2 protein bound to the second extracellular loop of CD81 (EC2), a reported ligand for the molecule, but not to a truncated derivative of CD81 consisting of only the central domain of the loop. Purified GST-E2, however, failed to bind to CD81 suggesting a requirement for a free E2 amino terminus for biological activity. The binding to CD81 by baculovirus expressed E2 protein was comparable to that observed for E2 derived from mammalian cells when detected by a monoclonal antibody
Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein contains a dominant cytoplasmic basolateral sorting signal critically dependent upon a...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein contains a dominant cytoplasmic basolateral sorting signal critically dependent upon a tyrosine. AU - Thomas, DNette C.. AU - Brewer, Colleen B.. AU - Roth, Michael G.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - To investigate the contribution of the cytoplasmic domain of the vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein to its basolateral expression in polarized epithelial cells, chimeric proteins containing the external and transmembrane domains of an apically targeted protein, the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), and either the G cytoplasmic domain or an unrelated cytoplasmic sequence, were introduced into Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Addition of the cytoplasmic tail of G to a truncated HA resulted in delivery of greater than 95% of the chimeric protein to the basolateral cell surface, indicating that the G cytoplasmic domain contains a dominant basolateral sorting signal. A similar chimera, containing the cytoplasmic tail of herpes ...
Prof. Dr. Thomas Krey - RESIST
Fedry J, Forcina J, Legrand P, Pehau-Arnaudet G, Haouz A, Johnson M*, Rey FA*, Krey T*. 2018. Evolutionary diversification of the HAP2 membrane insertion motifs to drive gamete fusion across eukaryotes. PLoS biology 16:e2006357. (M.J., F.A.R. and T.K. contributed equally to this work) Ströh LJ, Nagarathinam K, Krey T. 2018. Conformational Flexibility in the CD81-Binding Site of the Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein E2. Frontiers in immunology 9:1396. Vasiliauskaite I, Owsianka AM, England P, Khan AG, Cole S, Bankwitz D, Foung SKH, Pietschmann T, Marcotrigiano J, Rey FA, Patel AH*, Krey T*. 2017. Conformational Flexibility in the Immunoglobulin-Like Domain of the Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein E2. mBio 8:e00382-00317. (A.H.P. and T.K. contributed equally to this work) Fedry J, Liu Y, Pehau-Arnaudet G, Pei J, Li W, Tortorici MA, Traincard F, Meola A, Bricogne G, Grishin NV, Snell WJ*, Rey FA*, Krey T*. 2017. The Ancient Gamete Fusogen HAP2 Is a Eukaryotic Class II Fusion Protein. Cell ...
Posttranslational folding of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein in the ER: involvement of noncovalent and covalent complexes....
In this study, we show that posttranslational folding of Vesicular Stomatitis virus G protein subunits can involve noncovalent, multimeric complexes as transient intermediates. The complexes are heterogeneous in size (4-21S20,W), contain several G glycopolypeptides, and are associated with BiP/GRP78. The newly synthesized, partially intrachain disulfide-bonded G proteins enter these complexes immediately after chain termination, and are released 1-4 min later as fully oxidized, trimerization-competent monomers. These monomers are properly folded, judging by their binding of conformation-specific mAbs. When the G protein is translated in the presence of DTT, it remains reduced, largely unfolded and aggregated in the ER, but it can fold successfully when the DTT is removed. In this case, contrary to normal folding, the aggregates become transiently disulfide cross-linked. We also demonstrated that the fidelity of the folding process is dependent on metabolic energy. Finally, we established that ...
Lack of immunodominance in the T cell response to herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D after administration of infectious virus....
Glycoprotein D (gD) of HSV has been shown to be a potent immunogen. To analyze the T cell antigenic determinants on gD, a series of 28 overlapping 20-mer peptides that span the extracellular portion of gD-1 were examined for their ability to stimulate T cells from rgD-1 or infectious HSV-1-primed H-2d mice in vitro. rgD-1-primed cells responded exclusively to peptide 241-260, the immunodominant determinant of gD in H-2d mice. In contrast, infectious HSV-primed T cells were shown to respond to 17 (and up to 22) of 28 synthetic gD peptides. These results indicate an extensive diversity in the T cell repertoire to gD in H-2d mice with T cells directed to a broad array of peptide determinants being recruited during the acute phase of an HSV infection. ...
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Structure of a trimeric variant of the Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein B. | CureHunter
Structure of a trimeric variant of the Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein B. - Marija Backovic, Richard Longnecker, Theodore S Jardetzky
The Herpes Simplex Virus gE-gI Complex Facilitates Cell-to-Cell Spread and Binds to Components of Cell Junctions | Journal of...
Previous work with HSV and the related alphaherpesviruses PrV and varicella-zoster virus has clearly demonstrated that gE-gI mediates or facilitates cell-to-cell spread, especially in solid tissues such as epithelium, in the nervous system, and with certain cultured cells, e.g., normal fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and neurons, cells that form extensive cell junctions (2, 24, 25). Other HSV glycoproteins function similarly in cell-to-cell spread, but unlike these glycoproteins, gE-gI functions in cell-to-cell spread but not in the entry of extracellular virions. Therefore, interactions between gE-gI and cell junctions may provide molecular details of how a herpesvirus moves directly from cell to cell.. When gE-gI was expressed in HEC-1A cells or in other epithelial cells by recombinant Ad vectors, the protein accumulated specifically along the lateral surfaces of cells and was not found on either the apical or basal surfaces or at tight junctions. Sorting of gE-gI to the basolateral surfaces of ...
Diagnostic potential for human malignancies of bacterially produced HTLV-I envelope protein | Science
Two regions of the gene for the human T-cell leukemia virus subgroup I (HTLV-I) envelope were expressed in Escherichia coli by use of the vector pJLA16. One corresponds to the carboxyl terminal region of the major envelope protein p46, and the other corresponds to the transmembrane protein p21E. Reactivity of the expressed protein with human serum was tested by the Western blot procedure. Each of 11 sera tested that had been shown to contain antibodies to HTLV-I or HTLV-II by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay recognized the bacterially synthesized envelope proteins. There was no reaction detected when 17 control sera were tested. This system will be useful for large-scale seroepidemiological surveys for HTLV-I and related human retroviruses. ...
Mutagenetix > Incidental...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is a plasma membrane receptor for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). The encoded protein mediates cholesterol transfer to and from HDL. In addition, this protein is a receptor for hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011 ...
CRIS.FAU.DE - Current Research Information System of FAU
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections are life-threating to people with a compromised or immature immune system. Upon adhesion, fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell is initiated. In this step, the viral glycoprotein gB is considered to represent the major fusogen. Here, we present for the first time structural data on the binding of an anti-herpes virus antibody and describe the atomic interactions between the antigenic domain Dom-II of HCMV gB and the Fab fragment of the human antibody SM5-1. The crystal structure shows that SM5-1 binds Dom-II almost exclusively via only two CDRs, namely light chain CDR L1 and a 22-residue-long heavy chain CDR H3. Two contiguous segments of Dom-II are targeted by SM5-1, and the combining site includes a hydrophobic pocket on the Dom-II surface that is only partially filled by CDR H3 residues. SM5-1 belongs to a series of sequence-homologous anti-HCMV gB monoclonal antibodies that were isolated from the same donor at a single time point and that ...
Glycobiologist secures funding for collaborative flu research Page - Department of Biochemistry, Oxford University
Dr Butters works in the Glycobiology Institute which is headed by Professor Raymond Dwek. His expertise in glycoprotein biology led to him being contacted by Dr Rossignol.. Dr Rossignol approached our group to see if we could help him find a mechanism of action for thiazolides. If we understand the mechanism better, then well be able to improve drug design, explains Dr Butters.. His group works with small molecules that interfere with the cellular processes responsible for glycoprotein production. He is trying to develop these into drugs against the hepatitis C virus which also uses a viral envelope glycoprotein.. If more can be uncovered about how thiazolides work, this may also open up the possibility of using them in combination with compounds Dr Butters own lab is developing.. We have a known mechanism of action for our compounds, and our initial experiments suggest that the drug works in a slightly different way. Both interfere with glycoprotein maturation of viral envelope proteins, ...
Interferometric Tomography For Three-Dimensional Flow Fields Via Envelope Function And Orthogonal Series Decomposition
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Repertoire characterization and validation of gB-specific human IgGs directly cloned from humanized mice vaccinated with...
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes serious complications to immune compromised hosts. Dendritic cells (iDCgB) expressing granulocyte-macrophage
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Whats new in the renin-angiotensin system? | SpringerLink
Cellular entry of enveloped viruses is often dependent on attachment proteins expressed on the host cell surface. Viral envelope proteins bind these receptors, and, in an incompletely understood proce
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Xerography Debt: Envelope Rage
I have often referred to my disdain--hatred, really--of zines that arrive in the mail sans envelope, usually just taped or stapled shut with the address and stamp directly on the back cover. Oh how I despise this. I can see that you save some money; if you need 6x9 envelopes you save a whopping 7.2 cents an issue. So if your print run is 500 issues, youre saving like $36, which for some folks is a significant proportion of their rent or food budget that month--and lets face it, DIY publishers tend towards the poor side of existence, since we obviously have absolutely no concept of the value of our time ...
Papton Chair: Flat Packed, Then Folded, Then Functional : TreeHugger
TreeHugger has a pretty soft spot in its modernist, hippie heart for flat-packing furniture; show us something that can be shipped in an (occasionally very large) envelope or slipped under a (really big) door and we start to salivate. Berlin-based
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A) Cells treated with different concentrations of SIN-1. 24 hpi, virus was . 4B, the luciferase activity in the cells infected with pseudotyped virus bearing S was In order to exclude any effect on the binding of the S protein to the ACE2 receptor. ...
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Plasmid pCerulean-VSVG from Dr. Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartzs lab contains the insert VSVG and is published in Nature. 1997 Sep 4. 389(6646):81-5. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Rezultati iskanja sn=1580-4003 and py=2017 :: COBISS+
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Multiple necessary viral proteins are located within the envelope. DNA and proteins enter the host cell nucleus and turn-off ... Envelope fusion with the plasma membrane of the host cell causes separation of the nucleocapsid from viral DNA and proteins. ... gB, gD, gH, and gL proteins allow for fusion of the cell and envelope, and are necessary for survival. Entrance to host cells ... L genes are transcribed "after the synthesis of DNA and viral protein onset." Virion DNA maturation occurs as the nucleocapids ...
Gp120 surface envelope protein SU, encoded by the viral gene env. 120000 Da (Daltons). ... P9 capsid protein NC, also encoded by gag. 7000-11000 Da.. *The envelope proteins SU and TM are glycosylated in at least some ... Gp41 transmembrane envelope protein TM, also encoded by the viral gene env. 41000 Da. ... As with all retroviruses, lentiviruses have gag, pol and env genes, coding for viral proteins in the order: 5´-gag-pol-env-3´. ...
Tosyl phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone
The trypsin performs the maturation cleavage of the viral envelope proteins efficiently. Focus Biomolecules Catalog # 10-2290 ...
West Nile virus
The two viral envelope proteins, E and M, are inserted into the membrane. The RNA genome is bound to capsid (C) proteins, which ... The capsid proteins are one of the first proteins created in an infected cell; the capsid protein is a structural protein whose ... The protein shell is made of two structural proteins: the glycoprotein E and the small membrane protein M. Protein E has ... precursor membrane proteins, and envelope proteins, respectively. The structural proteins are located at the 5′ end of the ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2
Through this process the new capsid obtains the required six viral envelope proteins. The new virions then go into the ... ORF2a, 3, 4, 5, encode glycoprotein 2,2a, 3, 4, and 5. ORF2b encodes the envelope protein. There is a newly discovered protein ... ORF6 encodes the membrane protein. The nucleocapsid (N) protein is encoded by ORF7. The N protein is composed of 123 amino ... It has been suggested that despite the normal anti-viral role Protein Kinase R (PKR) plays in cells, type 2 PRRSV uses PKR as a ...
Env is a viral gene that encodes the protein forming the viral envelope. The expression of the env gene enables retroviruses to ... The protein is called syncytin in mammals. Viral structural protein Gene+Products,+env at the US National Library of Medicine ... The mature product of the env gene is the viral spike protein, which has two main parts: the surface protein (SU) and the ... Exposed on the surface of the viral envelope, the glycoprotein gp120 binds to the CD4 receptor on any target cell that has such ...
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
In these cells the viral genes that encode envelope proteins have restricted expression. As a result, infectious particles like ... CSF examination usually reveals normal pressure, cell count, and total protein content; however, CSF globulin is almost always ... "Defective translation of measles virus matrix protein in a subacute sclerosing panencephalitis cell line". Nature. 305 (5930): ... the M protein are not produced, and the virus is able to survive persistently without evoking an immune response. Eventually ...
Hepatitis B vaccine
The vaccine contains one of the viral envelope proteins, Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). It is produced by yeast cells, ... as these excess surface proteins lacked infectious viral DNA. The immune system, recognizing the surface proteins as foreign, ... This allows the yeast to produce only the noninfectious surface protein, without any danger of introducing actual viral DNA ... In 1968, this protein was found to be part of the virus that causes "serum hepatitis" (hepatitis B) by virologist Alfred Prince ...
Coronavirus packaging signal
Narayanan K, Makino S (2001). "Cooperation of an RNA packaging signal and a viral envelope protein in coronavirus RNA packaging ... As part of the viral life cycle, within the infected cell, the viral genome becomes associated with viral proteins and ... It interacts with the viral proteins (M and N) and ensures the selective packaging of viral RNA into virions. This RNA element ... Within the viral genome the packaging signal is located in the nonstructural protein 15 (nsp15) and encodes a polypeptide which ...
... is the process of producing viruses or viral vectors in combination with foreign viral envelope proteins. The ... With this method, the foreign viral envelope proteins can be used to alter host tropism or increase or decrease the stability ... In some cases, the inability to produce viral envelope proteins renders the pseudovirus replication incompetent. In this way, ... Pseudotyped particles do not carry the genetic material to produce additional viral envelope proteins, so the phenotypic ...
However, there is no known protein functionally similarly to the viral capsid or envelope proteins. They share their many ... They contain genes with homology to viral proteins and which are often found in eukaryotic genomes, like polymerase and ... Polintons, 15-20 kb long, encode up to 10 individual proteins. For replication, they utilize a protein-primed DNA polymerase B ... The initiation protein then remains attached to the 5' Phosphate on the nicked strand, exposing the 3' hydroxyl of the ...
In env, it is derived from the surface and transmembrane for the viral envelope protein. There is a fourth coding domain which ... DNA oncoviruses typically impair two families of tumor suppressor proteins: tumor proteins p53 and the retinoblastoma proteins ... the HPV protein E6 binds to a cellular protein called the E6-associated protein (E6-AP, also known as UBE3A), forming a complex ... The virion protein and progeny RNA assemble in the cytoplasm and leave the cell, whereas the other copies send translated viral ...
Inside the envelope is a funnel-shaped protein coat that houses the viral DNA. The genome of ampullaviruses is linear, double- ... The narrow end projects beyond the viral envelope and is likely used to inject the viral DNA into host cells. The broad end ... The genome contains an estimated 56 or 57 open reading frames that encode for at least six structural proteins. Viral ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 2 May 2020. ICTV Online Report: Ampullaviridae  Viral zone: . ...
Envelope Proteins. The hepatitis envelope proteins are composed of subunits made from the viral preS1, preS2, and S genes ... the core capsid protein, the viral polymerase, surface antigens-preS1, preS2, and S, the X protein and HBeAg. The X protein is ... These envelope proteins can assemble independently of the viral capsid and genome into non-infectious virus-like particles that ... The L (for "large") envelope protein contains all three subunits. The M (for "medium") protein contains only preS2 and S. The S ...
H/HN/G - the cell attachment proteins span the viral envelope and project from the surface as spikes. They bind to proteins on ... Fusion proteins and attachment proteins appear as spikes on the virion surface. Matrix proteins inside the envelope stabilise ... the fusion protein projects from the envelope surface as a trimer, and mediates cell entry by inducing fusion between the viral ... L - the large protein is the catalytic subunit of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) Accessory proteins - a mechanism known as ...
Avian metaavulavirus 2
The structure of the envelope is characterized by the spike-like projections of two viral proteins, the fusion protein (F) and ... The M protein interacts with the Hn and F proteins, helping to incorporate these proteins into viral particles for release. It ... The fusion protein (F) is an integral membrane protein, sharing many features similar to other viral fusion proteins and is ... form the inner layer of the envelope and interacts with the F and Hn proteins on the outside of the viral envelope during viral ...
The H protein mediates receptor attachment and the F protein causes fusion of viral envelope and cellular membrane. ... The measles virus has two envelope glycoproteins on the viral surface - hemagglutinin (H) and membrane fusion protein (F). ... The RNA genome of the virus codes 6 main proteins Nucleoprotein (N), Phosphoprotein (P), Matrix protein (M), Fusion protein (F ... producing all viral proteins. The viruses are then assembled from their proteins and negative sense ssRNA, and the cell will ...
Alice S. Huang
Pseudotyping is combining a virus or a part of a virus (vector) with a foreign viral envelope protein. Doing this alters their ... DIPs are composed of viral structural proteins and sets of DNA or RNA which are incomplete. These DIPs will interfere in ... Alice Huang, 1.[full citation needed] Huang, Alice S.; Baltimore, David (April 1970). "Defective Viral Particles and Viral ... At the time, biologists knew the central dogma to be DNA to RNA to protein, with DNA replication as the way to replicate ones ...
Hepatitis B virus
The outer envelope contains embedded proteins which are involved in viral binding of, and entry into, susceptible cells. The ... viral DNA polymerase is used for a later stage) and removal of the viral polymerase protein (P) from the (-) sense strand and a ... Viral infection by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes many hepatocyte changes due to the direct action of a protein encoded by the ... The core proteins dissociate from the partially double stranded viral DNA, which is then made fully double stranded (by host ...
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
... the N protein holds the RNA genome, and the S, E, and M proteins together create the viral envelope. The spike protein, which ... Like other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 has four structural proteins, known as the S (spike), E (envelope), M (membrane), and N ( ... Protein modeling experiments on the spike protein of the virus soon suggested that SARS‑CoV‑2 has sufficient affinity to the ... "SARS-CoV-2 related protein structures". Protein Data Bank. COVID-19 portal Medicine portal Viruses portal. ...
The viral envelope protein (E) attaches to the host cell receptors and is taken into the cell via endocytosis. The envelope ... The envelope protein and the endosomal membrane fuse, and the virus is released into the cytoplasm. The viral RNA is translated ... The structural proteins include capsid (C), premembrane/membrane (prM), and envelope (E). The non-structural proteins include ... NS1 is important in the viral replication process. NS2A interacts with NS3 and NS5, helps in viral assembly and recruits the ...
The outer envelope contains embedded proteins that are involved in viral binding of, and entry into, susceptible cells. The ... is used to make the new copies of the genome and to make the capsid core protein and the viral DNA polymerase. These four viral ... HBV-preS-specific receptors are expressed primarily on hepatocytes; however, viral DNA and proteins have also been detected in ... The treatment reduces viral replication in the liver, thereby reducing the viral load (the amount of virus particles as ...
Influenza A virus
They are all made up of a viral envelope containing two main types of proteins, wrapped around a central core. The two large ... The host cell membrane has patches of viral transmembrane proteins (HA, NA, and M2) and an underlying layer of the M1 protein ... The central core of a virion contains the viral genome and other viral proteins that package and protect the genetic material. ... Transcription of the viral (-) sense genome (vRNA) can only proceed after the PB2 protein binds to host capped RNAs, allowing ...
The helical nucleocapsid is surrounded by a lipid envelope and contains other viral proteins, with VP3 being the most abundant ... The TTV1 virion contains four virus-encoded proteins, TP1-4. The proteins do not display any sequence similarity to structural ... Nucleocapsid protein TP1 has apparently evolved from a Cas4 endonuclease, a conserved component of the adaptive CRISPR-Cas ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. "ICTV Report Tristromaviridae". Janekovic, D.; Wunderl, S.; Holz, I.; Zillig, W.; ...
GB virus C
This beneficial effect may be related to action of several GBV-C viral proteins, including NS5A phosphoprotein and E2 envelope ... Nevertheless, viral particles have been found to have a nucleocapsid. The source of the nucleocapsid protein remains unknown. ... proteins. GB-C virus does not appear to encode a C (core or nucleocapsid) protein like, for instance, hepatitis C virus. ... About 2% of healthy US blood donors are viraemic with GBV-C, and up to 13% of blood donors have antibodies to E2 protein, ...
There are prominent "spikes" (projections) of 6 nm composed of the viral envelope proteins E1 and E2 embedded in the membrane. ... At the neutral pH outside of the cell the E2 envelope protein covers the E1 protein. The dropping pH inside the endosome frees ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Chen MH, Icenogle JP (April 2004). "Rubella virus capsid protein modulates viral ... Inside the lipid envelope is a capsid of 40 nm in diameter. The capsid protein (CP) has different functions. Its main tasks are ...
The viral envelope of an enveloped virus has different surface proteins from the rest of the virus which act as antigens. These ... Today, these antigen-proteins can be genetically manufactured (e.g. transgene E. coli) to produce material for a simple antigen ... It is present in the sera of patients with viral hepatitis B (with or without clinical symptoms). Patients who developed ... 1983). "Value of copper-associated protein in diagnostic assessment of liver biopsy". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 36 (1): 18 ...
... detecting the viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and detecting proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ... which is followed by fusion of the viral envelope with cellular membranes. The virions taken up by the cell then travel to ... which code for proteins with antiviral properties. EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by ... meningitis and other viral haemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD. Blood samples are tested for viral RNA, viral antibodies or ...
Unlike viral meningitis, Lyme lymphocytic meningitis tends to not cause fever, last longer, and recur. Lymphocytic ... A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ... 2010). "Chapter 6, Structure, Function and Biogenesis of the Borrelia Cell Envelope". Borrelia: Molecular Biology, Host ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ...
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Ruminants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
The sfRNAs are a result of incomplete degradation of the viral genome by the exonuclease and are important for viral ... and forms a complex with protein E. The immature particles are processed in the Golgi apparatus by the host protein furin, ... Inside the endosome, the decreased pH induces the fusion of the endosomal membrane with the virus envelope. The capsid enters ... Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ...
Proteins related to the cytoskeleton components of other organisms exist in archaea, and filaments form within their cells, ... the impact of viral infection is higher on archaea than on bacteria and virus-induced lysis of archaea accounts for up to one- ... A new lineage of viruses with a membrane envelope". Mol. Microbiol. 72 (2): 307-19. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2009.06642.x. PMID ... January 2002). "Introns in protein-coding genes in Archaea". FEBS Lett. 510 (1-2): 27-30. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)03219-7. ...
Some of the membrane components are used for viral replication while some others will be modified to produce viral envelopes, ... The viral replication, protein synthesis and assembly require a considerable amount of energy, provided by large clusters of ... Szajner; Weisberg, AS; Wolffe, EJ; Moss, B (2001). "Vaccinia virus A30L protein is required for association of viral membranes ... Viral evolution Viral replication Novoa, R. R.; Calderita, G.; Arranz, R.; Fontana, J.; Granzow, H.; Risco, C. (Feb 2005). " ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
... viral burden - viral core - viral culture - viral envelope - viral load - viremia - viricide - virion - virology - virus - ... proteins - protocol - protozoa - provirus - pruritus - pseudo-Cushing's syndrome - pseudovirion - PUBMED - pulmonary - purified ... core protein - correlates of immunity/correlates of protection - creatinine - cross-resistance - cryotherapy - cryptococcal ... envelope - enzyme - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) - eosinophil - eosinophilic folliculitis - epidemic - ...
Murphy CI, Lennick M, Lehar SM, Beltz GA, Young E (October 1990). "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in ... Land A, Braakman I (August 2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein in the endoplasmic ... Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. ... "Role of asparagine-linked glycosylation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmembrane envelope function". Virology. 187 ...
... pol proteins, and env proteins. *Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are major components of the viral capsid, which are ... and the env gene is translated into molecules of the envelope protein. It is important to note that a retrovirus must "bring" ... This step will also make viral enzymes and capsid proteins (8). Viral RNA will be made in the nucleus. These pieces are then ... Next, some of these RNA molecules are translated into viral proteins. For example, the gag gene is translated into molecules of ...
DNA and proteins seemed the dominant macromolecules in the living cell, with RNA only aiding in creating proteins from the DNA ... Through the process of viral infection into hosts the three domains of life evolved. Another interesting proposal is ... where a nucleotide-based molecule is needed to synthesize protein, and a peptide-based (protein) molecule is needed to make ... Further information: Viral eukaryogenesis. Patrick Forterre has been working on a novel hypothesis, called "three viruses, ...
எயிட்சு - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
2002). "Male viral load and heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 subtype E in northern Thailand". J. Acquir. Immune. Defic. Syndr ... 2004). "The glutamine-rich region of the HIV-1 Tat protein is involved in T-cell apoptosis". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (46): 48197- ... 2002). "Effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 envelope subtypes A and D on disease progression in a large cohort ... Blankson JN, Persaud D, Siliciano RF (2002). "The challenge of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 infection". Annu. Rev. Med. 53: 557- ...
2 viral proteins are expressed in this lipid envelope. It has been proposed that the viruses bind via these proteins and are ... The structure of a virus is given by its coat of proteins, which surround the viral genome. Assembly of viral particles takes ... Protein subunits can be placed around the circumference of a circle to form a disc. In the presence of the viral genome, the ... A very small number of plant viruses have, in addition to their coat proteins, a lipid envelope. This is derived from the plant ...
... part of the hemagglutinin protein fuses the viral envelope with the vacuole's membrane, then the M2 ion channel allows protons ... The central core contains the viral RNA genome and other viral proteins that package and protect this RNA. RNA tends to be ... the viral particles of all influenza viruses are similar in composition. These are made of a viral envelope containing two ... which causes the core to disassemble and release the viral RNA and core proteins. The viral RNA (vRNA) molecules, accessory ...
... glycosylation is often used by viruses to shield the underlying viral protein from immune recognition. A significant example is ... the dense glycan shield of the envelope spike of the human immunodeficiency virus. ... In addition to their function in protein folding and cellular attachment, the N-linked glycans of a protein can modulate a ... Glycans serve a variety of structural and functional roles in membrane and secreted proteins. The majority of proteins ...
The structural proteins are the capsid and two envelope glycoproteins: E1 and E2, which form heterodimeric spikes on the viron ... viral coat protein, a variant called E1-A226V. This mutation potentially allows the virus to multiply more easily in mosquito ... The virus consists of four nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. ... viral antigen and viral RNA were found in macrophages in the synovial joint of a person experiencing a relapse of ...
3 substitutions per site per year during viral genome replication. Mutations in the surface proteins allow the virus to ... However, viral genomes are constantly mutating, producing new forms of these antigens. If one of these new forms of an antigen ... In the influenza virus, the two relevant antigens are the surface proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. The ... Viral envelope. *Capsid. *Viral protein. Viral life cycle. *Viral entry. *Viral replication ...
The viral envelope is made of modified Golgi membranes containing viral-specific polypeptides, including hemagglutinin. ... In order to replicate, poxviruses produce a variety of specialized proteins not produced by other DNA viruses, the most ... The "dumbbell-shaped" structure inside the virion is the viral core, which contains the viral DNA; Mag. = ~370,000× ... Infectious skin disease: Viral cutaneous conditions, including viral exanthema (B00-B09, 050-059) ...
ಕುಷ್ಠರೋಗ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
ಈ ಖಾಯಿಲೆ ಹೊಂದಿರುವವರ ಜೊತೆ ಆರೋಗ್ಯವಂತರು ಸಂಪರ್ಕವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದರೆ ಖಾಯಿಲೆ ಅಂಟುತ್ತದೆ ಎಂದು ತುಂಬಾ ವ್ಯಾಪಕವಾಗಿ ನಂಬಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯವಾಗಿ, ಎಷ್ಟು ಹತ್ತಿರದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂಪರ್ಕ ಹೊಂದಿದ್ದಾರೆ ಎನ್ನುವುದರ ಮೇಲೆ ಖಾಯಿಲೆ ಪ್ರಕಟವಾಗುವುದು ಅವಲಂಬಿಸಿದೆ. ಹಲವು ವಿಧದ ಸಂಪರ್ಕಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಮನೆಯೊಳಗಿನ ಸಂಪರ್ಕವನಷ್ಟೇ ಸುಲಭವಾಗಿ ಗುರುರು ಹಿಡಿಯುವುದಕ್ಕೆ ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಗುವುದು,ಆದಾಗ್ಯೂ ಸಂಪರ್ಕದ ನೈಜ ಘಟನೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅವುಗಳ ತೊಂದರೆ ಹಲವು ಅಧ್ಯಯನಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ...
1K4R This entry displays a dengue virus envelope protein but the source organism is HIV???, and the annotation copy/pasted from ... I plan to talk about the four main types of viral proteins, namely viral structural proteins, viral nonstructural proteins, and ... Hi! I plan to edit this article by providing an overview of what a viral protein is. The range of discovered viral proteins ... I'm certain that there may be other types of viral proteins that I'm unaware of (due to limited general information about viral ...
... viral nucleocapsid protein) proteins, while L RNA encodes Z and L proteins. The L protein most likely represents the viral RNA- ... also known as the viral spike), which is proteolytically cleaved into the envelope glycoproteins GP1 and GP2 that bind to the ... This ensures an adequate supply of viral proteins for subsequent steps of replication, as the NP and L proteins are translated ... for a total of four viral proteins. The large segment encodes a small zinc-binding protein (Z) that regulates transcription ...
Adaptive immune system
Also, viral fusion proteins cause the formation of the placental syncytium to limit exchange of migratory cells between the ... "Syncytin is a captive retroviral envelope protein involved in human placental morphogenesis". Nature. 403 (6771): 785-89. ... The fusion proteins were a way to spread the infection to other cells by simply merging them with the infected one (HIV does ... Most viral vaccines are based on live attenuated viruses, whereas many bacterial vaccines are based on acellular components of ...
Tat is a regulatory protein that drastically enhances the efficiency of viral transcription. Tat stands for "Trans-Activator ... Protein transduction domain. Tat contains a protein transduction domain, which is therefore known as a cell-penetrating ... In molecular biology, Tat is a protein that is encoded for by the tat gene in HIV-1. ... The protein is released by infected cells in culture, and is found in the blood of HIV-1 infected patients. ...
... this technique for viral inactivation is useful if the target protein is more resistant to low pHs than the viral impurity. ... it does not matter whether the virus has an envelope or not because the envelope alone cannot protect the virus from such high ... The two most widely used methods of viral processing are viral removal and viral inactivation. The former is a method in which ... Viral inactivation renders viruses inactive, or unable to infect. Many viruses contain lipid or protein coats that can be ...
Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein. Some ... Chromatin undergoes condensation into compact patches against the nuclear envelope (also known as the perinuclear envelope) in ... The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... Expression of viral proteins coupled to MHC proteins on the surface of the infected cell, allowing recognition by cells of the ...
... of which at least four are structural proteins embedded in the membrane. Virions have an envelope, a nucleoprotein complex, and ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by ... The genome has a rather high G-C content of ~32%. The genome has 14 open reading frames, and encodes at least 15 proteins, ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Büchen-Osmond, C. ( ...
The viral capsid of a parvovirus is made up of two to four proteins, known as VP1-4 that form an icosahedral symmetry that is ... Parvoviruses do not have envelopes and are thus considered "naked" viruses. In addition, the shape of the virion is roughly ... The mRNAs are transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm where the host ribosomes translate them into viral proteins. ... Studies of other strains of mutated canine parvovirus have revealed that changes in the viral capsid by just one protein can be ...
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
ORF22 - gH - envelope glycoprotein involved in viral entry ORF23 - uncharacterized ORF25, ORF26 and ORF65 - capsid proteins ... ORF36 - vPK - viral protein kinase with multiple roles in replication cycle ORF37 - SOX - dual function protein - DNase ... LANA tethers the viral DNA to cellular chromosomes, inhibits p53 and retinoblastoma protein and suppresses viral genes needed ... The primary viral protein responsible for the switch between latent and lytic replication is known as the ORF50 Replication ...
Evolution of sexual reproduction
These proteins could have been transferred to the cell membrane during viral reproduction, enabling cell-to-cell fusion between ... The possibility of this kind of fusion is supported by the presence of fusion proteins in the envelopes of the pox viruses that ... Viral eukaryogenesisEdit. Main article: Viral eukaryogenesis. The viral eukaryogenesis (VE) theory proposes that eukaryotic ... proteins with central functions in meiosis are similar to key proteins in natural transformation in bacteria and DNA transfer ...
Patent US20030052839 - Stabilized viral envelope proteins and uses thereof - Google Patents
... a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral ... a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral ... acid sequence that enhance the stability of the complex formed between the viral surface protein and transmembrane protein. ... acid sequence that enhance the stability of the complex formed between the viral surface protein and transmembrane protein. ...
Viral Envelope Proteins | Journal of Virology
Chimeric Feline Coronaviruses That Encode Type II Spike Protein on Type I Genetic Background Display Accelerated Viral Growth ... Investigation of Clade B New World Arenavirus Tropism by Using Chimeric GP1 Proteins Vanessa K. Martin, Magali E. Droniou- ... The Minor Envelope Glycoproteins GP2a and GP4 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Interact with the Receptor ... The Single-Stranded DNA Genome of Novel Archaeal Virus Halorubrum Pleomorphic Virus 1 Is Enclosed in the Envelope Decorated ...
The Simian Virus 40 Late Viral Protein VP4 Disrupts the Nuclear Envelope for Viral Release | Journal of Virology
The Simian Virus 40 Late Viral Protein VP4 Disrupts the Nuclear Envelope for Viral Release. Kristina M. Giorda, Smita Raghava, ... The Simian Virus 40 Late Viral Protein VP4 Disrupts the Nuclear Envelope for Viral Release ... The Simian Virus 40 Late Viral Protein VP4 Disrupts the Nuclear Envelope for Viral Release ... The Simian Virus 40 Late Viral Protein VP4 Disrupts the Nuclear Envelope for Viral Release ...
WO1991000104 PRODUCTION OF VIRUS AND PURIFICATION OF VIRAL ENVELOPE PROTEINS FOR VACCINE USE
... solubilizing the envelope glycoproteins and isolating the solubilized envelope glycoproteins by chromatography. ... by culturing the virus in the substantial absence of exogenous serum proteins, isolating the virus from the tissue culture, ... Immunogenic envelope glycoproteins are produced from enveloped virus, such as of the paramyxoviridae family, particularly PIV-3 ... New viral proteins or individual genes, new structural or functional aspects of known viral proteins or genes. ...
Discovery of cyanovirin-N, a novel human immunodeficiency virus-inactivating protein that binds viral surface envelope...
Discovery of cyanovirin-N, a novel human immunodeficiency virus-inactivating protein that binds viral surface envelope ... Discovery of cyanovirin-N, a novel human immunodeficiency virus-inactivating protein that binds viral surface envelope ... Discovery of cyanovirin-N, a novel human immunodeficiency virus-inactivating protein that binds viral surface envelope ... Discovery of cyanovirin-N, a novel human immunodeficiency virus-inactivating protein that binds viral surface envelope ...
Cytoplasmic tail of Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein influences the conformation of the extracellular domain:...
Both cell lysates and pelleted viral supernatants were deglycosylated and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Specific proteins were ... The envelope (Env) protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) is a homotrimeric complex whose monomers consist of linked ... The various TM proteins run at different sizes due to the truncations they contain. In addition, the wild-type protein, CEE, is ... Schematic of Env proteins. (A) The 632-amino-acid MoMuLV Env protein comprises SU and TM polypeptides. The membrane-spanning ...
Phase I Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of Vaccinia-HIV Envelope Recombinant Vaccine (HIVAC-1e) in Combination With Soluble...
Viral Envelope Proteins. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. AIDS Vaccines. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Preventive Vaccine. ... Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes. Immune System Diseases. ... Phase I Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of Vaccinia-HIV Envelope Recombinant Vaccine (HIVAC-1e) in Combination With Soluble ... Phase I Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of Vaccinia-HIV Envelope Recombinant Vaccine (HIVAC-1e) in Combination With Soluble ...
Gentaur Molecular :Serotech \ RECOMBINANT SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN (aa1 76), Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity SARS...
Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN , Target Species Viral, Host N_A, Format Rec. Protein, ... Product name : RECOMBINANT SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN (aa1_76), Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN ... SCH-OBT1908G RECOMBINANT SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN (aa1_76), Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN , ... Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN , Target Species Viral, Host N_A, Format Rec. Protein, ...
Gentaur Molecular :AbD \ RECOMBINANT SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN (aa1 76), Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity SARS...
Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN , Target Species Viral, Host N_A, Format Rec. Protein, ... Product name : RECOMBINANT SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN (aa1_76), Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN ... Index / AbD / RECOMBINANT SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN (aa1_76), Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN ... OBT1908X RECOMBINANT SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN (aa1_76), Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN , ...
Macrophage-tropic HIV and SIV envelope proteins induce a signal through the CCR5 chemokine receptor
... enter target cells by forming a complex between the viral envelope protein and two cell-surface membrane receptors: CD4 and a 7 ... enter target cells by forming a complex between the viral envelope protein and two cell-surface membrane receptors: CD4 and a 7 ... Macrophage-tropic HIV and SIV envelope proteins induce a signal through the CCR5 chemokine receptor Nature. 1997 Oct 30;389( ... Here we show that recombinant envelope proteins from macrophage-tropic HIV and SIV induce a signal through CCR5 on CD4+ T cells ...
Diversity and evolution of the envelope gene of dengue virus type 1
... membrane protein-based vaccines. This is a technology for viral envelope protein formulation. ... Our solution to viral envelope protein formulation. We use nanodisc technology to formulate membrane proteins, which was ... SATIRN® technology: thermostable viral envelope protein formulation. The SATIRN® technology delivers a platform to manufacture ... As such, viral membrane proteins are important targets in the development of vaccines. When formulating membrane proteins into ...
zp2.2 - Egg envelope protein ZP2 variant C - Danio rerio (Zebrafish) - zp2.2 gene & protein
Viral envelope proteinImported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi. *EMBL:AAK16579.1 ... Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Egg envelope protein ZP2 variant CImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ...
env - Envelope glycoprotein - Human immunodeficiency virus 1 - env gene & protein
Viral envelope proteinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p ... Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A0K1DER1. P03377. Q73394. Q73393. O40491. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A0K1DER1. P04578. M4XZC0. A9Q0G3. Q80549. ...
Expression and disposition of the murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV) envelope gene products by murine mammary tumor cells.
Protein Precursors / metabolism. Protein Processing, Post-Translational. Viral Envelope Proteins. Viral Proteins / analysis, ... 0/Antigens, Surface; 0/Antigens, Viral; 0/Carbohydrates; 0/Protein Precursors; 0/Viral Envelope Proteins; 0/Viral Proteins ... The envelope precursor protein (P75env) that was shed into the culture medium was found to differ from the predominant form of ... only Pr70env is processed intracellularly to give rise to the mature MuMTV envelope proteins gp52 and gp36.. ...
Mutation of candidate immunosuppressive domains of viral envelope proteins in order to generate hyperimmunogenic vaccines -...
Effect of host cell lipid metabolism on alphavirus replication, virion morphogenesis, and infectivity | PNAS
Analysis of the synthesis, processing, and release of viral envelope proteins. (A) Production of viral envelope proteins. NHF ... and Release of Viral Envelope Proteins.. To monitor the synthesis and processing of viral envelope proteins, cells were pulsed ... 35S-labeled viral proteins in cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with α-E2 mAb. (B) Release of viral particles from infected ... and viral RNA was purified with a QIAamp Viral RNA kit (Qiagen). The number of viral particles present was determined by ...
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Glycosylation of the West Nile Virus Envelope Protein Increases In Vivo...
The glycosylation status of the variant did not affect viral multiplication and dissemination in mosquitoes in vivo. ... protein. E-protein glycosylated variants of New York (NY) strains of WN virus are more neuroinvasive in mice than the non- ... Thus, E-protein glycosylation may be a requirement for efficient transmission of WN virus from avian hosts to mosquito vectors. ... To determine how E protein glycosylation affects the interactions between WN virus and avian hosts, we inoculated young chicks ...
Role of HIV Envelope Proteins In Viral Replication and HIV Pathogenesis - Anthony Fauci
The main aim of this project involves characterizing the role of the HIV envelope protein (gp120/41) in the pathogenesis of HIV ... Role of HIV Envelope Proteins In Viral Replication and HIV Pathogenesis Fauci, Anthony S. National Institute of Allergy and ... Role of HIV Envelope Proteins In Viral Replication and HIV Pathogenesis. Fauci, Anthony S. / Niaid Extramural Activities. ... Role of HIV Envelope Proteins In Viral Replication and HIV Pathogenesis. Fauci, Anthony S. / Niaid Extramural Activities. ...
HIV Envelope Protein gp120 | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Viral Structural Proteins [D12.776.964.970]. *Viral Envelope Proteins [D12.776.964.970.880]. *Gene Products, env [D12.776. ... "HIV Envelope Protein gp120" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "HIV Envelope Protein gp120" was a ... External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight ... "HIV Envelope Protein gp120" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ...
Dengue Envelope-1 32kDa Recombinant Protein - Viral Antigens - Recombinant Protein - Full-Length Protein - Products | ProMab
Dengue Envelope-4 15kDa Recombinant Protein - Viral Antigens - Recombinant Protein - Full-Length Protein - Products | ProMab
The expressed dengue envelope Type-2 III domain peptide has 100 amino acids covering domain I ... The E.coli derived recombinant 12kDa protein is genetically engineered peptide which is derived from Dengue Type-2 envelope III ... The E.coli derived recombinant 12kDa protein is genetically engineered peptide which is derived from Dengue Type-2 envelope III ... The expressed dengue envelope Type-2 III domain peptide has 100 amino acids covering domain I. ...
C-terminal repetitive motifs in Vp130 present at the unique vertex of the Chlorovirus capsid are essential for binding to the...
Viral Envelope Proteins/physiology. *Virion/chemistry. *Virus Replication. Substance. *Viral Envelope Proteins ... Previously, Vp130, a chloroviral structural protein, was found to have host-cell-wall-binding activity for NC64A-viruses (PBCV- ... 1 and CVK2). In this study, we have isolated and characterized the corresponding protein from chlorovirus CVGW1, one of Pbi- ... Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry*. * ... Proteins*BioSystems. *BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) ...
gp340 expressed on human genital epithelia binds HIV-1 envelope protein and facilitates viral transmission<...
gp340 expressed on human genital epithelia binds HIV-1 envelope protein and facilitates viral transmission. In: Journal of ... gp340 expressed on human genital epithelia binds HIV-1 envelope protein and facilitates viral transmission. Journal of ... gp340 expressed on human genital epithelia binds HIV-1 envelope protein and facilitates viral transmission. / Stoddard, Earl; ... title = "gp340 expressed on human genital epithelia binds HIV-1 envelope protein and facilitates viral transmission", ...
Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology - Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Boston, MA
HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors Lock Up the Flexible Viral Envelope Protein. First/last authors: Shitao Zou/Joseph Sodroski. ... Certain inhibitors of HIV-1 entry into cells lock the flexible envelope protein on the virus surface into its natural shape, ... Viral Immunology. HIV infects a critical population of immune cells (CD4 T cells), resulting in an immunodeficiency syndrome ... We show that such resistant tumors can be treated with antibodies that target stress proteins, thus making them susceptible to ...
Human Non-neutralizing HIV-1 Envelope Monoclonal Antibodies Limit the Number of Founder Viruses during SHIV Mucosal...
Viral Envelope Proteins. dc.title. Human Non-neutralizing HIV-1 Envelope Monoclonal Antibodies Limit the Number of Founder ... Human Non-neutralizing HIV-1 Envelope Monoclonal Antibodies Limit the Number of Founder Viruses during SHIV Mucosal Infection ... without leading to enhancement of viral infection. For one of these mAbs, gp41 mAb 7B2, we provide the first co-crystal ...
Enhanced SIV replication and accelerated progression to AIDS in macaques primed to mount a CD4 T cell response to the SIV...
... viral envelope protein; NAb, neutralizing antibody; p.i., postinfection; RM, rhesus macaque; SIV, simian immunodeficiency virus ... Viral Load Measures. SIVsmE660 RNA was quantified with a two-step assay (15). RNA copy number was determined by comparison with ... replication and accelerated progression to AIDS in macaques primed to mount a CD4 T cell response to the SIV envelope protein. ... replication and accelerated progression to AIDS in macaques primed to mount a CD4 T cell response to the SIV envelope protein ...
The structure of a prokaryotic viral envelope protein expands the landscape of membrane fusion proteins. - CAMS Oxford Institute
... and we establish the orientation of the molecules with respect to the viral membrane. We also show that the viral membrane ... Here we determine atomic structures of the ectodomains of the 57-kDa spike protein VP5 from two related HRPVs revealing a ... Haloarchaeal pleomorphic viruses (HRPVs) have a membrane envelope decorated with spikes that are presumed to be responsible for ... By Volta phase plate cryo-electron tomography we show that VP5 is monomeric on the viral surface, ...
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Requirement of Glycosylation of West Nile Virus Envelope Protein for...
Interestingly, although infectivity was inhibited when WNV lacked the E protein glycan, there was little difference in viral ... proteins. We previously found that WNV lacking the E protein glycan was severely inhibited in its ability to replicate and ... pipiens pallens, found no association between E protein glycosylation and either replication or dissemination. To examine this ... These data indicate that E protein glycosylation affects WNV-vector interactions in a species-specific manner. ...
A Phase I Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Vaccinia Virus...
Viral Envelope Proteins. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. AIDS Vaccines. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Preventive Vaccine. ... Original design: HIVAC-1e vaccine is a preparation of the envelope protein of HIV (the virus that causes AIDS). The protein is ... Original design: HIVAC-1e vaccine is a preparation of the envelope protein of HIV (the virus that causes AIDS). The protein is ... Immune responses elicited by recombinant vaccinia-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope and HIV envelope protein: ...
GlycoproteinAntibodiesReplicationGp120GenomeInfectionAntigensGlycoproteinsMembranesReceptorsPeptidesTransmembrane proteinsGp41ParticlesAnti-viralLipidsInteractionsSimianImmuneCapsidInfluenzaAntibodyFusion proteinsBindsAmino acidsAbstractMolecularMutationReplicateCytoplasmicVirusesMoleculeAlphavirusesStructural proteinWherein the viralPrecursorGenesVectorsExtracellularGlycosylationSynthesisMatrix proteinModulatePrevention of viralVaccineReceptor-bindingCleavageConformationGene ProductsLipidVirionsMembrane fusionNucleocapsidSurface-antigenAdenovirusInhibitSpikes
- Discovery of cyanovirin-N, a novel human immunodeficiency virus-inactivating protein that binds viral surface envelope glycoprotein gp120: potential applications to microbicide development. (asm.org)
- The antiviral activity of CV-N is due, at least in part, to unique, high-affinity interactions of CV-N with the viral surface envelope glycoprotein gp120. (asm.org)
- Totalt blev 9 PRRSV kloner, 7 Ebola glycoprotein mutanter og 22 MERS spike protein mutanter identificeret som værende infektiøse. (au.dk)
- The PTLV envelope glycoprotein surface component (SUgp46) comprises a receptor-binding domain (RBD) that alternates hypervariable and highly conserved sequences. (cnrs.fr)
- Monoclonal antibody (MAb) 667 is a neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody recognizing the envelope glycoprotein (Env) of the ecotropic neurotropic murine retrovirus CasBrE but not that of other murine retroviruses. (cnrs.fr)
- Here we report the 1.8 Å resolution crystal structure of envelope glycoprotein E1, the main antigen and sole target of neutralizing antibodies against rubella virus. (nature.com)
- Cloning of the virus enabled the production of the recombinant envelope glycoprotein E2, which in turn, was shown to bind to human CD81. (stanford.edu)
- It derives from gPr72 of 341 aas which is an Env protein fragment that is further degraded to the envelope glycoprotein, Env-GP of 127 aas (acc# L0R354) and then to the fusion peptide. (tcdb.org)
- We show that such resistant tumors can be treated with antibodies that target stress proteins, thus making them susceptible to NK cell-mediated immune attack. (dana-farber.org)
- An attenuated recombinant varicella-zoster virus vaccine expressing the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelope (Env) elicited nonneutralizing Env-binding antibodies and little if any cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ). (pnas.org)
- Human Non-neutralizing HIV-1 Envelope Monoclonal Antibodies Limit the Number of Founder Viruses during SHIV Mucosal Infection in Rhesus Macaques. (duke.edu)
- Thus, some antibodies that bind HIV-1 Env but fail to neutralize virus in traditional neutralization assays may limit the number of T/F viruses involved in transmission without leading to enhancement of viral infection. (duke.edu)
- The Wang laboratory uses in vivo and in vitro systems to study how antibodies can modulate viral infections or anti-viral vaccine responses through signaling interactions with Fc gamma receptors (Fc?Rs). (stanford.edu)
- from Fudan University, Shanghai, in collaboration with others at the Wuhan Institute of Virology reportedly assessed the cross-reactivity of anti-SARS CoV antibodies with 2019-nCoV spike protein, considering the relatively high identity of receptor-binding domain (RBD) in 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV. (fortebio.com)
- Alpha Diagnostic International has developed several ELISA test kits for the detection of major Zika viral protein antibodies (Capsid, Envelope, prM, and NS1) which are available for research use in humans, monkeys, and mice. (prweb.com)
- San Antonio, Texas-based biotech company Alpha Diagnostic International, Inc (ADI) has developed several ELISA test kits for the detection of major Zika viral protein antibodies (Capsid, Envelope, prM, and NS1). (prweb.com)
- ADI has again responded promptly to the Zika virus threat by cloning and expressing several key antigenic proteins from Zika virus (Capsid, Envelope, prM, and NS1) and raising antibodies to these Zika proteins for the development of antibody ELISA kits. (prweb.com)
- The body then becomes calibrated to recognize the spike proteins of an incoming coronavirus onslaught, and can produce antibodies appropriately to neutralize and clear the infection. (fosters.com)
- State of the art" basic molecular biology and virology techniques, pro- and eukaryotic expression systems, protein chemical analyses, cell culture techniques, immunological assays for the analysis of antigens and antibodies, viral mutagenesis systems, in vitro assays for viral functions. (meduniwien.ac.at)
- Such proteins are useful in isolating, characterizing, and engineering monoclonal antibodies against otherwise intractable targets. (genengnews.com)
- Integral Molecular's work has contributed to a pipeline of therapeutic antibodies against often intractable cellular membrane protein targets-G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), ion channels, and transporters. (genengnews.com)
- After infection and replication of the viral genome, the late viral proteins are synthesized, including the minor structural proteins VP2 and VP3, which are produced from successive in-frame Met residues. (asm.org)
- This chemotactic response may contribute to the pathogenesis of HIV in vivo by chemo-attracting activated CD4+ cells to sites of viral replication. (nih.gov)
- HIV-mediated signalling through CCR5 may also enhance viral replication in vivo by increasing the activation state of target cells. (nih.gov)
- We previously demonstrated that ASMase-deficient mice are more susceptible to fatal SINV encephalomyelitis, with increased viral replication, spread, and neuronal death. (pnas.org)
- Because the function of alpha4beta7 is intimately linked to gut associated lymphoid tissue, which is a principal site of HIV replication, we hypothesize that envelope-alpha4beta7 interactions play an important role in HIV pathogenesis. (grantome.com)
- pipiens pallens , found no association between E protein glycosylation and either replication or dissemination. (ajtmh.org)
- Viral replication causes an increase in vascular permeability, which leads to the lesions and hemorrhaging of organs, namely the liver, spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius. (wikipedia.org)
- Typically viral replication begins in the digestive track and moves to Bursa of Fabricuis, thymus, spleen, and liver. (wikipedia.org)
- In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the BLV envelope protein in the context of viral infection, replication and pathogenesis. (mdpi.com)
- de Brogniez A, Mast J, Willems L. Determinants of the Bovine Leukemia Virus Envelope Glycoproteins Involved in Infectivity, Replication and Pathogenesis. (mdpi.com)
- These proteins are typically involved in the early stages of genome replication, and include reverse transcriptase and integrase . (wikipedia.org)
- It's a structural protein that plays multiple roles in the life cycle of the HIV virus, including viral replication and particle assembly. (howstuffworks.com)
- A viral particle or virion contains a single nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) core surrounded by a protein coat and sometimes enzymes that are required to initiate viral replication. (news-medical.net)
- instead, they are grouped into different families based on whether the nucleic acid is single- or double-stranded, whether a viral envelope is present and their mode of replication. (news-medical.net)
- The biogenesis of viruses depends almost completely on the biosynthetic apparatus of the host cell and cellular membranes are involved in many steps of viral replication. (springer.com)
- It triggers a small and highly potent molecule that functions in an autocrine and paracrine manner, causing cells to resist viral replication. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Homologuous regions, consisting of 600-900 nucleotides, in the lentiviral vector that are required for replication, integration, and expression of viral RNA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Chloroquine has been used in the field of nanomedicine for the investigation of nanoparticle uptake in cells, and, therefore, insights from synthetic nanoparticle interactions with cells in the presence of chloroquine may reveal mechanisms that are active at early stages prior to viral replication. (nature.com)
- 6 . The isolated nucleic acid of claim 3 , wherein the viral surface protein is gp120 or a modified form of gp120, wherein the modification alters the immunogenicity of the molecule relative to wild type gp120. (google.com)
- 13 . The isolated nucleic acid of claim 11 or 12 , wherein the transmembrane protein is modified by the absence or presence of one or more canonical glycosylation sites absent or present in the wild type gp120. (google.com)
- The main aim of this project involves characterizing the role of the HIV envelope protein (gp120/41) in the pathogenesis of HIV disease. (grantome.com)
- HIV Envelope Protein gp120" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "HIV Envelope Protein gp120" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "HIV Envelope Protein gp120" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "HIV Envelope Protein gp120" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
- HIVs with more gp120 were less dependent on temperature and less sensitive to GL treatment than those with less gp120, indicating that the existence of more gp120 molecules resulted in a higher probability of forming a cluster of fusion-activated proteins. (portlandpress.com)
- The class I model pertains to influenza haemagglutinin, HIV-1 gp120 and the F-proteins from paramyxoviridae [ 2 ], and class II involves E proteins of the flaviviridae and the E1 protein of Semliki Forest virus [ 3 ]. (portlandpress.com)
- Gp120 surface envelope protein SU, encoded by the viral gene env . (wikipedia.org)
- Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expresses on its surface envelope protein complexes (Env), 4 composed by subunits gp120 and gp41, that mediate viral attachment and membrane fusion. (jimmunol.org)
- Since the sequencing of the simian virus 40 (SV40) viral genome over 30 years ago, it has served as a model to explore fundamental processes including nuclear import, cell transformation, and virus structure ( 24 , 29 , 33 , 51 ). (asm.org)
- Reverse genetics using the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genome highlighted important functional domains of the envelope protein involved in the viral life cycle. (mdpi.com)
- Retroviruses carry specific proteins within their capsids, which typically associate with the RNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
- The enzyme uses the viral RNA genome as a template for the synthesis of a complementary DNA copy. (wikipedia.org)
- Integrase processes the LTR before inserting the viral genome into the host DNA. (wikipedia.org)
- The capsid protects the viral genome from the external environment and plays a role in receptor recognition, enabling the virus to bind to susceptible hosts and cells. (news-medical.net)
- From a relatively small genome, these overlapping ORFs generate 7 proteins. (cdc.gov)
- A full-length genome sequence and eight complete envelope (E1) sequences of CHIKV from Pakistan were obtained in this study. (springer.com)
- The genome of IAV includes 8 independent RNA fragments, which encode at least 12 proteins with well-defined functions. (selfgrowth.com)
- A viral genome must make mRNA: TRUE OR FALSE? (virology.ws)
- What information is or is not encoded in a viral genome? (virology.ws)
- What are the only viral genome structures that have been identified? (virology.ws)
- Can you imagine a viral genome in a virion that never actually replicates? (virology.ws)
- Simple retroviruses carry the above mentioned regions in their genome, whereas, complex retroviruses code for additional regulatory non-virion proteins derived from multiply spliced messages. (tolweb.org)
- At first associated only with metazoan organisms, with sponges and sea urchins as the most ancient representatives, SRCR proteins were recently also identified by genome analyses in the multicellular and unicellular green algae Volvox carteri and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , respectively (1-4). (degruyter.com)
- The influenza virus particle is made up of the viral RNA genome wrapped in a lipid membrane (illustrated). (virology.ws)
- Simian virus 40 (SV40) appears to initiate cell lysis by expressing the late viral protein VP4 at the end of infection to aid in virus dissemination. (asm.org)
- Our findings suggest a mechanism of viral entry during heterosexual transmission where HIV is bound to intact genital epithelia, which then promotes the initial events of infection. (nyu.edu)
- For example, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the envelope transmembrane protein (TM) are essential determinants of infection. (mdpi.com)
- We further demonstrate that although productive viral infection of the CNS occurs early, thereafter it is not easily detectable until terminal AIDS. (rupress.org)
- Understanding the mechanism of this viral infection is important for developing preventative measures against infection and treatments for the disease. (mdpi.com)
- Viral adaptation through mutation will continue as new treatment options are employed and current treatment options are expanded into areas of endemic infection. (cdc.gov)
- A prominent regulator of disease outcome, especially in-but not limited to-respiratory viral infection, is the IFN-dependent mediator TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) produced by several cell types including immune cells such as macrophages or T cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Interestingly, the lack of a strictly controlled and well balanced IFN/TRAIL signaling response has not only been implicated in viral infection but might furthermore be an important determinant of disease progression in bacterial superinfections and in chronic respiratory illness. (frontiersin.org)
- A prominent example is the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) that displays an ambivalent role in viral infection ( 5 - 7 ) (Table 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- It prevents viral infection by targeting viral envelope proteins. (prohealth.com)
- 1. A method for the post-exposure protection of a susceptible animal from alphavirus infection comprising inoculating said animal with a recombinant viral vector containing a DNA sequence capable of producing interferon in said animal in an amount effective for conferring a protective response in the animal. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 2. A method for the post-exposure protection of a susceptible animal from alphavirus infection comprising inoculating said animal with a vaccine comprising a recombinant viral vector containing a DNA sequence capable of producing the viral proteins of alphaviruses that stimulate an immune response in said animal in an amount effective for conferring a protective response in the animal. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 5. A method for the prevention of a susceptible animal from alphavirus infection comprising inoculating said animal with a recombinant viral vector containing a DNA sequence capable of producing interferon in said animal in an amount effective for conferring a protective response in the animal before said animal is exposed to said alphaviruses. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The differential diagnosis includes other forms of viral hepatitis including mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections, autoimmune disease, and widespread systemic infection with liver failure. (medscape.com)
- Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is the second most common form of viral hepatitis in the United States. (medscape.com)
- [ 13 ] The inflammation and necrosis observed during HAV infection does not appear to be a direct viral effect but rather an effect of the immune cell response induced by the viral infection. (medscape.com)
- HBV infection is considered to have progressed to chronic infection when HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and high titers of hepatitis B viral DNA are found to persist in the serum for longer than 6 months. (medscape.com)
- I have written about the HA and its function during infection (article one and two ) but not about the neuraminidase (NA, red) or M2 (purple) proteins. (virology.ws)
- Three murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV)-producing epithelial cell lines derived from murine mammary tumors were examined in order to identify the MuMTV-specific cell surface antigens and their distribution on the cell surface, to study the kinetics of the MuMTV envelope precursor processing, virus assembly, and release, and to characterize the soluble MuMTV antigens that are shed into culture medium. (biomedsearch.com)
- CD81 is required for normal immune responses, lack of this molecule results in weaker early antibody responses to protein antigens, specifically Th2 responses ( ref/abstract ). (stanford.edu)
- For this latter format, it is a requirement that the subunit antigens are produced as a fusion protein with the Protan tag in a suitable production organism. (frontiersin.org)
- Membrane proteins of enveloped DNA and RNA viruses are glycoproteins that mediate cellular attachment and virus entry into the host cell. (bataviabiosciences.com)
- Cell surface labeling experiments showed that only the mature MuMTV envelope glycoproteins gp52 and gp36 were exposed on the cell surface, and that gp52 was more abundant than gp36. (biomedsearch.com)
- The rationale for these studies was generated by experience with viral fusogenic membrane glycoproteins as cytotoxic genes and the recognition of the potential of replicating viruses in the treatment of human malignancy. (bloodjournal.org)
- In general, virions are 80-100 nm in diameter, having an outer lipid envelope that incorporates and displays the viral glycoproteins. (tolweb.org)
- An important function of the NA protein is to remove sialic acid from glycoproteins. (virology.ws)
- This interaction would prevent the viruses from binding to a susceptible cell were it not for the action of the NA protein which cleaves sialic acids from glycoproteins. (virology.ws)
- A growing number of viruses have been shown to produce small viral membrane proteins termed viroporins that modulate the permeability of membranes to ions or small molecules ( 25 ). (asm.org)
- The binding of SINV to poorly characterized receptors on the plasma membrane of the host cell ( 15 ) leads to endocytic uptake followed by low-pH-triggered cholesterol and sphingolipid-dependent fusion of the viral and host cell membranes ( 15 - 17 ). (pnas.org)
- Interaction of viral envelope proteins with host cell membranes has been extensively investigated in a number of systems. (mdpi.com)
- We quantitatively measured the fluidity of live cell plasma membranes and viral particle envelopes by ESR using 5-DSA (5-doxyl stearic acid) [ 15 , 16 ]. (portlandpress.com)
- Fluidities of HIV-1 envelopes were always lower than those of plasma membranes, since cholesterol/protein ratios of viral envelopes were higher than those of plasma membranes [ 15 , 17 , 18 ]. (portlandpress.com)
- Sometimes the capsid is also contained within a phospholipid envelope derived from the membranes of the host cells it has infected. (news-medical.net)
- We hypothesize that CD81 affects a multitude of cell functions because it is essential for the spatial orientation of its associated/partner proteins in membranes. (stanford.edu)
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) enter target cells by forming a complex between the viral envelope protein and two cell-surface membrane receptors: CD4 and a 7-span transmembrane chemokine receptor. (nih.gov)
- This effort has included biochemical and biological characterizations of the interaction between cell surface receptors and the HIV envelope. (grantome.com)
- Following attachment and adsorption of viral particles to specific receptors on host cells, enveloped viruses must enter the host cell by making a fusion pore, fusing their own lipid bilayer envelope coat with that of the plasma cell membrane. (portlandpress.com)
- Cell-to- cell fusion, by co-cultivation of HIV-1- or HTLV-I (human T-cell leukaemia virus type I)-infected cells with target CD4-positive cells, also requires the recruitment of viral envelope proteins and receptors to the interface as a virological synapse [ 8 , 9 ]. (portlandpress.com)
- Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) exploits host IgG Fc receptors to bypass blocks to cell binding, and pH-dependent protein conformation changes to unveil its fusion machinery only after endocytosis. (nih.gov)
- 2014). The three lives of viral fusion peptides. (tcdb.org)
- 14 . The isolated nucleic acid of any one of claims 1 - 13 , wherein the stabilization of the complex is achieved by one or more cysteine-cysteine bonds that are formed between the surface and transmembrane proteins and that are not present in the corresponding wildtype complex. (google.com)
- The rest of the polyprotein is cleaved by cellular signalase in the endoplasmic reticulum to form the transmembrane proteins pE2, 6K, and E1. (pnas.org)
- The LEL domain contains critical protein-protein interaction sites that allow noncovalent association of these proteins with other tetraspanins and transmembrane proteins, such as integrins and members of the Ig superfamily ( 13 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
- 11 . The isolated nucleic acid of any one of claims 3 - 10 , wherein the transmembrane protein is gp41 or a modified form of gp41, wherein the modification alters the immunogenicity of the molecule relative to wildtype gp41. (google.com)
- 12 . The isolated nucleic acid of claim 11 , wherein the transmembrane protein is the gp41 ectodomain. (google.com)
- Gp41 transmembrane envelope protein TM, also encoded by the viral gene env . (wikipedia.org)
- One well-studied example is the interaction that occurs between the CCR5 receptor on human T lymphocytes and the gp41 protein present on the surface of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (news-medical.net)
- SINV RNA and protein synthesis was greater in NHF than in NPAF, but virions budding from NPAF were 26 times more infectious and were regular dense particles whereas virions from NHF were larger particles containing substantial amounts of CD63. (pnas.org)
- Environmental and physiological cues cause latent carriers to shed viral particles. (wikipedia.org)
- However, h667 was shown to contain contaminating retroviral and/or retrovirus-like particles which interfere with both viral binding and neutralization experiments. (cnrs.fr)
- The number of viral particles generated in some infected persons can be as high as 10 11 viral particles per day. (cdc.gov)
- Represents the average number of viral particles per single cell. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Lentiviral vectors that contain all necessary elements to efficiently generate active viral particles. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Lentiviral particles that are incapable of producing additional viral particles, due to the elimination of wild-type enhancers in the long terminal repeat region. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In hepatitis A disease, feces contain the highest concentration of HAV viral particles, and viral excretion is highest late in the incubation and early in the prodromal phase. (medscape.com)
- Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation pathway designed to act as an anti-viral defense mechanism. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- This substantially improves the thermostability of membrane proteins, conferring excellent structure integrity for weeks at 37°C. As these types of lipids are foreign to higher order species, it also provides self-adjuvating properties. (bataviabiosciences.com)
- The SATIRN ® technology nanodiscs comprise of a bilayer of synthetically produced lipids, held together by membrane scaffold proteins, which act as the scaffold in which target membrane proteins can be incorporated. (bataviabiosciences.com)
- In addition, rubella virus E1 has an extensive membrane-fusion surface that includes a metal site, reminiscent of the T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin family of cellular proteins that bind phosphatidylserine lipids at the plasma membrane of cells undergoing apoptosis. (nature.com)
- To determine how E protein glycosylation affects the interactions between WN virus and avian hosts, we inoculated young chicks with NY strains of WN virus containing either glycosylated or non-glycosylated variants of the E protein. (ajtmh.org)
- These data indicate that E protein glycosylation affects WNV-vector interactions in a species-specific manner. (ajtmh.org)
- Tetraspanins comprise a family of integral proteins that span the membrane 4-fold and establish specialized microdomains based on noncovalent protein-protein interactions ( 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Binding affinity of E2 to HS is comparable with other known HS-protein interactions ( K d ∼ 1.8 μM). (portlandpress.com)
- We determined the structural basis for the interactions of the viral envelope proteins with human CD81. (stanford.edu)
- Simian immunodeficiency viruses infecting western lowland gorillas (SIVgor) are closely related to HIV-1 and are most likely the ancestors of HIV-1 groups O and P. At present, limited data are available on genetic diversity, transmission, viral evolution, and pathogenicity of SIVgor in its natural host. (biomedsearch.com)
- When formulating membrane proteins into vaccines, it is crucial that such proteins are in their native conformation, meaning that the protein is in a membrane compartment, to ensure an effective immune response. (bataviabiosciences.com)
- Hepatitis B viral mutants can emerge in patients as a result of selection pressure from either immune response or treatment options. (cdc.gov)
- This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. (hindawi.com)
- We analyzed the individual B cell immune response of HCV-infected patients to the viral envelope proteins. (stanford.edu)
- So-called scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) proteins comprise one of the families involved in non-self recognition by the innate immune system and represent one of the best examined examples of pattern recognition molecules (PRMs). (degruyter.com)
- However, in sea urchins, which lack an antibody-based adaptive immune system, the functions of SRCR proteins have expanded to comprise the primitive immune system (7), indicating an early expansion to a role in the recognition of non-self. (degruyter.com)
- The 5′ two-thirds of genomic RNA encodes the nonstructural replicase proteins (nsP1-4), and the 3′ one-third encodes the structural virion proteins (capsid, pE2, 6K, and E1) ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- The N-terminal capsid protein is a serine protease that acts in cis to release itself. (pnas.org)
- P24 capsid protein CA, encoded by the viral gene gag . (wikipedia.org)
- A virus is typically made up of a protective protein coat called a capsid. (news-medical.net)
- Crystalline antigen from the influenza virus envelope. (springer.com)
- Influenza virus is mainly composed of three parts, namely core, matrix protein, and viral envelope. (selfgrowth.com)
- it is the cell receptor to which influenza virus attaches via the HA protein. (virology.ws)
- Years ago Peter Palese showed that influenza virus forms aggregates at the cell surface when the viral neuraminidase is inactivated. (virology.ws)
- Here we describe a recombinant, bacterially expressed antigen equivalent to structural domain III of the WNV envelope protein that has allowed clear discrimination of antibody responses to WNV from those against other related flaviviruses in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using standardized control antisera and field-collected samples. (asm.org)
- In this study, VP38, a viral envelope protein, was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein, and a polyclonal antibody against VP38 was obtained. (deepdyve.com)
- The structure of a prokaryotic viral envelope protein expands the landscape of membrane fusion proteins. (ox.ac.uk)
- Class II fusion proteins are predominantly non-helical β-sheet-type structures with an internal hydrophobic fusion loop. (portlandpress.com)
- Structural comparisons show that the class II fusion proteins from alphaviruses and flaviviruses, despite belonging to different virus families, are closer to each other than they are to rubella virus E1. (nature.com)
- To understand how HIV penetrates this barrier, we identified a host protein, gp340, that is expressed on genital epithelium and binds the HIV envelope via a specific protein-protein interaction. (nyu.edu)
- Integrase binds both the viral cDNA generated by reverse transcriptase and the host DNA. (wikipedia.org)
- Since the 'antisense' mRNA molecule binds tightly to its mirror image, it can prevent a particular protein from being made. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- A lentiviral packaging element that binds to Rev Response Element (RRE) sequences, allowing the cytoplasmic export of viral RNAs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- When the virus particle encounters a cell, it binds the sialic acid-containing receptor and is rapidly taken into the cell before the NA protein can cleave the carbohydrate from the cell surface. (virology.ws)
- In addition, a significant fraction of virion-associated TM is further processed by the viral protease to remove the C-terminal 16 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain, the R peptide. (nih.gov)
- P rotein folding is the process by which a linear polymer of amino acids is converted to a unique three-dimensional structure that comprises a functional protein molecule. (rupress.org)
- So messenger RNA has its feet in both worlds, if it had feet: it's down there in the nucleus being put together next to an exposed and unwound strand of DNA, but afterwards it's also present right in the middle of the ribosome machinery, as amino acids get brought in and spliced together into a growing protein strand. (sciencemag.org)
- CD81 is a widely expressed and evolutionary conserved molecule that associates with different proteins in different cell types ( ref/abstract ). (stanford.edu)
- Gentaur Molecular :Serotech \ RECOMBINANT SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN (aa1_76), Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN , Target Species Viral, Host N_A, Format Rec. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- Intrahost molecular evolution in one gorilla over a 5-year period showed viral adaptations characteristic of escape mutants, i.e. (biomedsearch.com)
- Iwasa's career as a molecular animator started in 2004, when she first saw a computer animation of kinesin, the protein she was studying for her graduate research at the University of California, San Francisco. (wired.co.uk)
- Tetraspanins are also widely expressed in most cell types, forming molecular associations with different proteins in the different cell types. (stanford.edu)
- Learn about the cellular, molecular, and biochemical pathways of CRISPR-associated proteins, DNA repair pathways, and applications in diverse organisms, including for human health and disease biology. (nyas.org)
- Molecular mechanisms of flavivirus entry and assembly, structure-function relationships of viral envelope proteins. (meduniwien.ac.at)
- Molecular chaperones bind nonnative protein conformations, sequestering misfolded protein or aggregation-prone folding intermediates from the cytosol, thereby reducing the likelihood of aggregate formation ( Hartl, 1996 ). (rupress.org)
- At epithelial barriers molecular pattern recognition mechanisms act as minesweepers against harmful environmental factors and thereby play a crucial role in the defense against invading bacterial and viral pathogens. (degruyter.com)
- The present article aims to provide an introduction into the biological context, processes, proteins, and general mechanisms of molecular pattern recognition in humans and, by using selected examples, to identify potential areas in nanomedicine for the exploitation of these mechanisms. (degruyter.com)
- Ebola is the latest in a series of pathogenic viruses investigated by Integral Molecular, a research-oriented biotechnology company that has a sharp eye for viral membrane proteins. (genengnews.com)
- Genetic information gets turned into proteins (there's the Central Dogma of molecular biology for you), and mRNA is how that happens. (sciencemag.org)
- In cells, protein folding may fail because of amino acid misincorporation resulting from genetic mutation or errors in transcription, mRNA processing, or translation. (rupress.org)
- We previously found that WNV lacking the E protein glycan was severely inhibited in its ability to replicate and spread within two important mosquito vector species, Culex pipiens and Cx. (ajtmh.org)
- Although cell fusion directed by the aminoterminal end of TM is postulated to be essential, some proviruses expressing fusion-deficient envelope proteins unexpectedly replicate at wild-type levels. (mdpi.com)
- The viral DNA and RNA are the genetic material that a virus uses to replicate once it is in a host cell. (prohealth.com)
- Viral envelope proteins are what enable viruses to attach to and enter host cells, and then proceed to replicate their DNA and RNA. (prohealth.com)
- A more compelling approach in this situation is the use of a vector or virus that is able to replicate within the tumor tissue, resulting in direct cell death through cytolysis or toxicity of viral proteins. (bloodjournal.org)
- Cytoplasmic tail of Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein influences the conformation of the extracellular domain: implications for mechan. (nih.gov)
- Using a series of truncation and point mutants of MoMuLV Env, we now provide direct biochemical and immunological evidence that the cytoplasmic tail and the membrane-spanning region of Env can influence the overall structure of the ectodomain of the protein and alter the strength of the SU-TM interaction. (nih.gov)
- The membrane-spanning region of the TM protein is shown (M), while the cytoplasmic tail consists of the R peptide (R) and the mature tail (T) remaining after R peptide removal. (nih.gov)
- We also show that the viral membrane fuses with the host cytoplasmic membrane in a process mediated by VP5. (ox.ac.uk)
- Intracellular deposition of misfolded protein aggregates into ubiquitin-rich cytoplasmic inclusions is linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases. (rupress.org)
- Why these aggregates form despite the existence of cellular machinery to recognize and degrade misfolded protein and how they are delivered to cytoplasmic inclusions are not known. (rupress.org)
- We have investigated the intracellular fate of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an inefficiently folded integral membrane protein which is degraded by the cytoplasmic ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (rupress.org)
- However, little is known about how viral release is initiated and controlled for nonenveloped viruses. (asm.org)
- Previously, Vp130, a chloroviral structural protein, was found to have host-cell-wall-binding activity for NC64A-viruses (PBCV-1 and CVK2). (nih.gov)
- In this study, we have isolated and characterized the corresponding protein from chlorovirus CVGW1, one of Pbi-viruses that have a different host range. (nih.gov)
- Haloarchaeal pleomorphic viruses (HRPVs) have a membrane envelope decorated with spikes that are presumed to be responsible for host attachment and membrane fusion. (ox.ac.uk)
- Cell entry of enveloped viruses requires a wide-fusion-pore mechanism, involving clustering of fusion-activated proteins and fluidization of the plasma membrane and viral envelope. (portlandpress.com)
- Once scientists determined that viruses simply consist of DNA or RNA contained within a protein shell, they generally became thought of as biochemical mechanisms rather than living organisms. (news-medical.net)
- Different types of viruses are different shapes, the two main ones being rods (or filaments), where the nucleic protein subunits are arranged in a linear fashion and spheres, which are icosahedral polygons. (news-medical.net)
- The tactics of viruses are quite sneaky, but the good news is that Cistus incanus has been found to inhibit the action of viral envelope proteins in a number of different types of viruses, preventing this entire process from occurring. (prohealth.com)
- Similar to other enveloped viruses, CHIKV enters cells in a sequential, two-step process: (i) virus binding to cell surface receptor, followed by endocytosis and (ii) fusion of viral envelope with endocytic vesicle membrane that leads to opening of a fusion pore. (portlandpress.com)
- For transferring genes into the cells, viral vectors are used, for example, which make use of the efficient entry mechanisms of their original viruses. (google.es)
- Although the different viruses have different epitope targets, what we learn about one virus or cellular protein often is relevant to others," says Integral Molecular's president and CEO, Benjamin J. Doranz, Ph.D. "The commonality is that we work on difficult protein membrane projects. (genengnews.com)
- A gene or gene product (protein) that small molecule drugs will be screened and developed against. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- It has a certain number of residues scissored right back off, and then a stretch of "poly-A" (one adenosine residue after another) is added on - these processes are done by another big complex of enzymatic and scaffolding proteins working on that end of the molecule. (sciencemag.org)
- It also shows that rubella virus E1 is a class II fusion protein, which had hitherto only been structurally characterized for the arthropod-borne alphaviruses and flaviviruses. (nature.com)
- Mechanism of receptor binding leading to dissociation of receptor binding and fusion protein is poorly understood in alphaviruses. (portlandpress.com)
- The invention discloses a single dose administration of two types of recombinant viral vectors: one expressing interferon and another expressing the structural proteins of alphaviruses or a single dose administration of the recombinant viral vector co-expressing both interferon and the structural proteins of alphaviruses. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Protein E2 - E2 is a viral structural protein found in the hepatitis C virus. (sbwire.com)
Wherein the viral4
- This invention provides an isolated nucleic acid which comprises a nucleotide segment having a sequence encoding a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral envelope protein contains one or more mutations in amino acid. (google.com)
- This invention provides an isolated nucleic acid which comprises a nucleotide segment having a sequence encoding a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral envelope protein contains one or more mutations in amino acid sequence that enhance the stability of the complex formed between the viral surface protein and transmembrane protein. (google.com)
- This invention also provides a viral envelope protein comprising a viral surface protein and a corresponding viral transmembrane protein wherein the viral envelope protein contains one or more mutations in amino acid sequence that enhance the stability of the complex formed between the viral surface protein and transmembrane protein. (google.com)
- 11. The method according to claim 10 , wherein the viral DNA is adenoviral DNA. (google.com)
- The envelope (Env) protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) is a homotrimeric complex whose monomers consist of linked surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) proteins cleaved from a precursor protein by a cellular protease. (nih.gov)
- A lentiviral packaging element that encodes for a structural precursor protein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Virus maturation occurs in the trans-Golgi network and involves the processing of the precursor membrane protein prM. (meduniwien.ac.at)
- These proteins surround two single strands of HIV RNA, each containing a copy of the virus's nine genes. (howstuffworks.com)
- Three of these genes - gag, pol and env - contain information needed to make structural proteins for new virions. (howstuffworks.com)
- While this gene overlap may constrain some viral variability, mutant or variant forms have been identified for all 4 genes ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- Especially in viral infections, this effect has not only been tracked down to IFN signaling in general but specifically to the exaggerated production of key effector IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Thus, E-protein glycosylation may be a requirement for efficient transmission of WN virus from avian hosts to mosquito vectors. (ajtmh.org)
- The idea of 'Flattening the Curve' as the nation (and world) has been told for the past eight months originally was designed as an interim measure to slow the progress of the viral vectors through society and its comprising communities. (fosters.com)
- Surprisingly also, a conserved N -linked glycosylation site of the extracellular envelope protein (SU) inhibits cell-to-cell transmission suggesting that infectious potential has been limited during evolution. (mdpi.com)
- These proteins possess a highly conserved structure with a short and a large extracellular loop (LEL). (jimmunol.org)
- However, it became evident that some of the proteins participating in these host defense processes may simultaneously function as regulators of tissue regeneration when in the extracellular matrix, thus coupling defense functions with regulation of stem cells. (degruyter.com)
Prevention of viral1
- Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. (hindawi.com)
- Dog er der fornyeligt blevet rapporteret, at en Ebola vaccine har udvist 100% effektivitet, men i kapløbet mod de evigt udviklende patogener er vaccine forbedringer altid nødvendige. (au.dk)
- H IV vaccine studies strive to induce virus-specific CD4 and CD8 responses, but there have been no systematic attempts to manipulate the relative strengths of these responses to determine what might be the best balance to enable the most effective viral control and protection from disease progression. (pnas.org)
- Original design: HIVAC-1e vaccine is a preparation of the envelope protein of HIV (the virus that causes AIDS). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The recombinant vaccine candidate utilizes adenovirus vector expressed viral envelope proteins. (nih.gov)
- Viral surface receptor-binding protein associates with membrane fusion protein and masks its structure, to prevent pre-mature fusion activity. (portlandpress.com)
- Dissociation of receptor-binding protein from fusion protein is an essential step before membrane fusion. (portlandpress.com)
- It is present on the viral membrane and functions as a host receptor binding protein mediating entry into host cells. (sbwire.com)
- This cleavage greatly enhances the fusogenicity of the protein and is necessary for the formation of a fully functional Env protein complex. (nih.gov)
- We have previously proposed that R peptide cleavage enhances fusogenicity by altering the conformation of the ectodomain of the protein (Y. Zhao et al. (nih.gov)
- The trypsin performs the maturation cleavage of the viral envelope proteins efficiently. (wikipedia.org)
- The R-peptide-truncated form of the protein, in particular, exhibits a markedly different conformation than the full-length protein. (nih.gov)
- Expression and disposition of the murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV) envelope gene products by murine mammary tumor cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- Integral membrane proteins possess extensive hydrophobic stretches, which are normally imbedded in the lipid bilayer. (rupress.org)
- Further analysis revealed that following cholesterol depletion, virus-associated Env protein was significantly reduced while the virions remained intact and retained core proteins. (elsevier.com)
- Fusion is triggered by the acidic pH of this compartment and mediated by the viral envelope protein E. Assembly of flaviviruses takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum and leads to the formation of immature virions that are transported through the exocytic pathway of the cell. (meduniwien.ac.at)
- Detailed mechanisms of membrane fusion and the protein structures involved have been mainly studied in eukaryotic systems, whereas very little is known about membrane fusion in prokaryotes. (ox.ac.uk)
- This sheds light on protein structures involved in prokaryotic membrane fusion. (ox.ac.uk)
- These data indicate that CD9 and CD81 have an important role in membrane fusion induced by HIV-1 envelope. (jimmunol.org)
- In enveloped virus cell entry, viral and host membrane fusion follows receptor binding. (portlandpress.com)
- The viral surface envelope-anchored proteins, E2 and E1, perform receptor binding and membrane fusion functions, respectively. (portlandpress.com)
- 2011. The unique transmembrane hairpin of flavivirus fusion protein E is essential for membrane fusion. (meduniwien.ac.at)
- HIV has a protein shell (orange) and an inner core of nucleocapsid (pink) and RNA (blue). (wired.co.uk)
- This article addresses recent information concerning the emergence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutants, their impact on viral antigen presentation, latest prevalence data, and discussion of the issues associated with detection of mutants in healthcare settings. (cdc.gov)
- Infrequent causes of viral hepatitis include adenovirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and, rarely, herpes simplex virus (HSV). (medscape.com)
- The essential nature of the NA for virus production has been exploited to develop new drugs designed to inhibit viral release. (virology.ws)