A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE, one of the pit vipers, so-called from the pit hollowing out the maxillary bone, opening between the eye and the nostril. They are distinctively American serpents. Most of the 25 recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335)
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)
The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An enzyme fraction from the venom of the Malayan pit viper, Agkistrodon rhodostoma. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of a number of amino acid esters and a limited proteolysis of fibrinogen. It is used clinically to produce controlled defibrination in patients requiring anticoagulant therapy. EC 3.4.21.-.
Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot.
The species Panthera tigris, a large feline inhabiting Asia. Several subspecies exist including the Siberian tiger and Sumatran tiger.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.

A novel high molecular weight fibrinogenase from the venom of Bitis arietans. (1/160)

A fibrinogenase (Ba100) with an apparent molecular mass of 100 kDa under non-reducing conditions and a pI of 5.4 was purified from the venom of the African puff adder (Bitis arietans) by fibrinogen affinity chromatography. Under reducing conditions the protease dissociates into subunits of 21 kDa and 16 kDa. N-Terminal amino acid sequencing showed these two chains to have 66.7% homology and homology to C-type lectins. The fibrinogenase activity of Ba100 cleaves the Aalpha and Bbeta chain of fibrinogen rendering the molecule unable to polymerise into fibrin clots. Ba100 inhibited platelet aggregation in platelet rich plasma, and clot formation in whole blood, in a concentration dependent manner.  (+info)

Disulphide-bond pattern and molecular modelling of the dimeric disintegrin EMF-10, a potent and selective integrin alpha5beta1 antagonist from Eristocophis macmahoni venom. (2/160)

The disulphide-bond pattern of the heterodimeric disintegrin EMF-10, a potent and selective integrin alpha(5)beta(1) antagonist from Eristocophis macmahoni venom, was established by combination of amino-acid analysis, N-terminal sequencing and collision-induced dissociation by nanoelectrospray ionization quadrupole ion-trap MS of fragments isolated by reversed-phase HPLC after degradation of EMF-10 with oxalic acid. Each EMF-10 subunit contains four intrachain disulphide bonds. Two interchain cystine residues join the EMF-10 polypeptides. The intrachain linkages are conserved in monomeric disintegrins. A molecular model of EMF-10 was built using averaged NMR co-ordinates of flavoridin as a template. The active hairpin loops of the EMF-10 subunits occupy opposite locations at the ends of an elongated disulphide-bond ladder. In the EMF-10 model the N-terminal polypeptide of EMF-10B is close to the RGD-loop of the EMF-10A subunit, suggesting that the N-terminal region of the B-subunit could potentially influence the biological activity of the A-subunit.  (+info)

Short report: treatment of snake envenomations by a new polyvalent antivenom composed of highly purified F(ab)2: results of a clinical trial in northern Cameroon. (3/160)

A clinical trial was conducted in 2 health centers in northern Cameroon to assess the safety and efficacy of a new polyvalent antivenom composed of highly purified and pasteurized F(ab')2 (FAV-Africa). Forty-six patients with objective signs of envenomation, including 67% with hemorrhage, were included in the study. Each patient received at least 20 ml of FAV-Africa by direct, slow intravenous injection; 172 10-ml ampules were administered. All patients were clinically cured after treatment. Two patients (4.3%) showed minor immediate adverse events that may have been related to FAV-Africa (induration, light-headedness); no other treatment-related adverse event occurred. No patient had serum sickness. This trial confirms the safety of FAV-Africa administered by intravenous injection and its efficacy in the treatment of snake envenomations in sub-Saharan Africa.  (+info)

Rhodocytin induces platelet aggregation by interacting with glycoprotein Ia/IIa (GPIa/IIa, Integrin alpha 2beta 1). Involvement of GPIa/IIa-associated src and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. (4/160)

Although glycoprotein Ia/IIa (GPIa/IIa, integrin alpha(2)beta(1)) has established its role as a collagen receptor, it remains unclear whether GPIa/IIa mediates activation signals. In this study, we show that rhodocytin, purified from the Calloselasma rhodostoma venom, induces platelet aggregation, which can be blocked by anti-GPIa monoclonal antibodies. Studies with rhodocytin-coupled beads and liposomes loaded with recombinant GPIa/IIa demonstrated that rhodocytin directly binds to GPIa/IIa independently of divalent cations. In vitro kinase assays and Western blotting of GPIa immunoprecipitates revealed that Src and Lyn constitutively associate with GPIa/IIa and that Src activity increases transiently after rhodocytin stimulation. Src specifically associates with p130 Crk-associated substrate (Cas) in a manner dependent upon Cas phosphorylation, suggesting that Src is responsible for Cas tyrosine phosphorylation. While all these phenomena occur early after rhodocytin stimulation in a cAMP-resistant manner, tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk and phospholipase Cgamma2, intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, and platelet aggregation occur later in a cAMP-sensitive manner. Cytochalasin D, which interferes with actin polymerization and blocks receptor clustering, inhibits all the rhodocytin-mediated signals we examined in this study. We suggest that rhodocytin, by clustering GPIa/IIa, activates GPIa/IIa-associated Src, which then mediates downstream activation signals.  (+info)

A disease resembling inclusion body disease of boid snakes in captive palm vipers (Bothriechis marchi). (5/160)

Between April 1998 and June 1999, 8 palm vipers (Bothriechis marchi) were diagnosed with a disease similar to inclusion body disease (IBD) of boids. Six palm vipers were captive bred, and 2 were wild caught. All of the vipers were adults at the time of death. Three palm vipers were found dead with no premonitory clinical signs, and 5 had anorexia plus possibly 1 of the following clinical signs: regurgitation, paresis, and dehydration. Histologically, all snakes had intracytoplasmic, round to oval, single to multiple eosinophilic inclusion bodies in hepatocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells. Inclusion bodies were distributed among other organs with varying frequency. Common concurrent histologic lesions were urate nephrosis, septic thrombi, and hepatocellular degeneration. Ultrastructurally, inclusions had features similar to inclusions in boid snakes with IBD.  (+info)

L-amino-acid oxidase from the Malayan pit viper Calloselasma rhodostoma. Comparative sequence analysis and characterization of active and inactive forms of the enzyme. (6/160)

Here we report the cDNA-deduced amino-acid sequence of L-amino-acid oxidase (LAAO) from the Malayan pit viper Calloselasma rhodostoma, which shows 83% identity to LAAOs from the Eastern and Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus and Crotalus atrox, respectively). Phylogenetic comparison of the FAD-dependent ophidian LAAOs to FAD-dependent oxidases such as monoamine oxidases, D-amino-acid oxidases and tryptophan 2-monooxygenases reveals only distant relationships. Nevertheless, all LAAOs share a highly conserved dinucleotide-binding fold with monoamine oxidases, tryptophan 2-monooxygenases and various other proteins that also may have a requirement for FAD. In order to characterize Ca. rhodostoma LAAO biochemically, the enzyme was purified from snake venom to apparent homogeneity. It was found that the enzyme undergoes inactivation by either freezing or increasing the pH to above neutrality. Both inactivation processes are fully reversible and are associated with changes in the UV/visible range of the flavin absorbance spectrum. In addition, the spectral characteristics of the freeze-and pH-induced inactivated enzyme are the same, indicating that the flavin environments are similar in the two inactive conformational forms. Monovalent anions, such as Cl(-), prevent pH-induced inactivation. LAAO exhibits typical flavoprotein oxidase properties, such as thermodynamic stabilization of the red flavin semiquinone radical and formation of a sulfite adduct. The latter complex as well as the complex with the competitive substrate inhibitor, anthranilate, were only formed with the active form of the enzyme indicating diminished accessibility of the flavin binding site in the inactive form(s) of the enzyme.  (+info)

Comparative biochemistry of disintegrins isolated from snake venom: consideration of the taxonomy and geographical distribution of snakes in the genus Echis. (7/160)

Species in the genus Echis have been classified mainly based on their morphological appearance and the analytical patterns of their serum. However, re-classification of the genus Echis has recently been suggested by taxonomists, toxicologists, and clinicians, since there have been problems with the current classification, such as the efficacy of antivenoms used for treating bites and the broad geographical distribution of Echis snakes. In this study, we purified five novel disintegrins, the platelet aggregation inhibitors pyramidin A and B from the venom of Echis pyramidum, ocellatin from the venom of Echis ocellatus, and leucogastin A and B from the venom of Echis leucogaster, to compare their sequences and allow us to re-evaluate the classification of various species in the genus Echis. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of five new and four known isolated disintegrins from snake venoms of six Echis species and their distribution strongly support the recent re-classification of the genus Echis.  (+info)

Xanthine oxidase and tumor necrosis factor alpha: possible mediators of remote tissue injury after viper envenomation. (8/160)

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor is associated with various local and systemic inflammatory sequelae following snakebite. Xanthine oxidase is a principal mediator of remote tissue injury (e.g., lungs, heart, liver). OBJECTIVE: To investigate in a snakebite-like animal model the as yet unexplored role of TNF and XO in mediating organ damage following snakebite. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intramuscularly with a non-lethal 500 micrograms/kg dose of Vipera aspis venom (n = 10) or saline (n = 10). Blood pressure and heart rate were continuously monitored, TNF-alpha was measured in the blood, and total XO + xanthine dehydrogenase activity was assessed in various tissues. Lung histology and permeability indices were analyzed. RESULTS: Venom injection caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in both heart rate and invasive arterial pressure. The blood circulating TNF levels were significantly higher in the intoxicated group (P < 0.05 vs. saline group), with changes seen at 30 minutes from intoxication in both groups. Total XO + XDH activity in the kidney, lung and liver of the venom-injected group was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in the saline group, while the activity in the heart was similar. CONCLUSIONS: The mediation of remote organ and hemodynamic changes following intramuscular injection of a non-lethal dose of Vipera aspis venom can be attributed partly to TNF and partly to XO. More research is needed to better understand the role of either compound and the time frame of their activity before specific antagonists can be introduced for snakebite management.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Neutralisation of local haemorrhage induced by the saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus sochureki venom using ethanolic extract of Hibiscus aethiopicus L.. AU - Hasson, S. S.. AU - Al-Balushi, M. S.. AU - Said, E. A.. AU - Habbal, O.. AU - Idris, M. A.. AU - Mothana, R. A A. AU - Sallam, T. A.. AU - Al-Jabri, A. A.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - The objective of the study is to investigate the anti-snake venom activities of a local plant, Hibiscus aethiopicus L. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with ethanol. Different assays were performed according to standard techniques, to evaluate the plants acute toxicity and its antivenom activities. The results of evaluating the systemic acute toxicity of the H. aethiopicus extract using oral and intra-peritoneal route were normal even at the highest dose (24g/kg) tested. All guinea pigs (n=3) when treated with venoms E. c. sochureki (75g) alone induced acute skin haemorrhage. In contrast, all guinea pigs (n=18) treated with both ...
Based on our results, we hypothesize that within the family Viperidae, the ability to use thermal radiation to mediate thermoregulatory decisions is unique to pitvipers and might have arisen concurrently with the facial pits. However, this apparent phylogenetic pattern must be interpreted conservatively, as we only surveyed a single species of true viper and we did not examine Azemiops feae, the purported sister taxon to the pitvipers (Parkinson et al., 2002). The range of species studied needs to be expanded significantly to test this hypothesis fully.. The ability to mediate behavioral thermoregulation using only thermal radiation as a cue appears to be an ancestral trait among pitvipers. The simple phylogenetic and ecological presence or absence pattern that we found indicates that the use of thermal radiation cues to direct thermoregulatory movements arose very early in the history of pitvipers. As this behavior was absent in the only true viper studied, it is possible that this behavior ...
Secretory phospholipasesA2 (sPLA2s) form a large family of structurally related enzymes widespread in nature. Herein, we studied the inhibitory effects of sPLA2s from Vipera lebetina (VLPLA2), Vipera berus berus (VBBPLA2), and Naja naja oxiana (NNOPLA2) venoms on (i) human platelets, (ii) four different bacterial strains (gram-negative Escherichia coli and Vibrio fischeri; gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and (iii) five types of cancer cells (PC-3, LNCaP, MCF-7, K-562 and B16-F10) in vitro. sPLA2s inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation: VBBPLA2 IC50 = 0.054, VLPLA2 IC50 = 0.072, NNOPLA2 IC50 = 0.814 μM. p-Bromophenacylbromide-inhibited sPLA2 had no inhibitory action on platelets. 36.17 μM VBBPLA2 completely inhibited the growth of gram-positive Bacillus subtilis whereas no growth inhibition was observed towards gram-negative Escherichia coli. The inhibitory action of sPLA2s (~0.7 μM and ~7 μM) towards cancer cells depended on both venom and cell type. VBBPLA2
Hemorrhage is the most potent manifestation of envenomation by Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (V. a. ammodytes) venom in man. A detailed description of the venom components contributing to this effect is thus medically very important. We have characterized a novel component, termed here VaH3, as a potently hemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP). Its proteolytic activity and overall stability depend on the presence of Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) ions. The molecular mass of this slightly acidic molecule, determined by MALDI/TOF analysis, is 104 kDa. Chemical reduction and S-carbamoylmethylation result in a single monomer of 53.7 kDa. N-deglycosylation decreased this mass by 4.6 kDa. The complete amino acid sequence of VaH3 was determined by protein and cDNA sequencing, showing that each of the identical glycoprotein subunits comprise a metalloproteinase, a disintegrin-like domain and a cysteine-rich domain, VaH3 belongs to the P-IIIc class of SVMPs. It shows strong sequence similarity to vascular endothelial
Synonyms for Cobra gabonica in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cobra gabonica. 1 synonym for Bitis gabonica: gaboon viper. What are synonyms for Cobra gabonica?
The gaboon viper is a venomous snake living in central Africa. These snakes have an amazing pattern on their backs, comprised mostly of various sizes, shapes, and colors of triangles. Their scales can be olive green, black, white, gray, and different shades of brown. These earthy colors help the gaboon viper camouflage with the leaves on the forest floor.. The picture below shows a close-up of a this snakes head. The first thing to notice is the red arrows pointing to the bulges on either side of the snakes head. These bulges, which make the head triangular, are the venom sacks where the venom is stored. At the tip of the snakes nose, you can see two small horns close together. These can be used to distinguish these snakes from most others. Below the horns are the snakes nostrils, which help them detect prey.. ...
ECHIS CARINATUS SNAKE VENOM PDF - Ecarin is a snake venom (Echis carinatus) that directly activates prothrombin to meizothrombin This action is not dependent on phospholipid membranes and
Taxonomic database that provides basic information about all living reptile species, such as turtles, snakes, lizards, and crocodiles, as well as tuataras and amphisbaenians, but does not include dinosaurs.
Taxonomic database that provides basic information about all living reptile species, such as turtles, snakes, lizards, and crocodiles, as well as tuataras and amphisbaenians, but does not include dinosaurs.
Medically important cases of snakebite in Europe are predominately caused by European vipers of the genus Vipera. The mainstay of snakebite therapy is polyclonal antibody therapy, referred to as antivenom. Here we investigate the capability of the monospecific V. berus antivenom, ViperaTAb®, to cross-react with, and neutralise lethality induced by, a variety of European vipers. Using ELISA and immunoblotting, we find that ViperaTAb® antibodies recognise and bind to the majority of toxic components found in the venoms of the Vipera species tested at comparably high levels to those observed with V. berus. Using in vivo pre-clinical efficacy studies, we demonstrate that ViperaTAb® effectively neutralises lethality induced by V. berus, V. aspis, V. ammodytes and V. latastei venoms and at much higher levels than those outlined by regulatory pharmacopoeial guidelines. Notably, venom neutralisation was found to be superior to (V. berus, V. aspis and V. latastei), or as equally effective as (V. ammodytes),
Geniez, P. and Tynié, A. 2005. Discovery of a population of the critically endangered Vipera darevskii Vedmederja, Orlov & Tuniyev, 1986 in Turkey, with new elements on its identification (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Herpetozoa 18(1-2): 25-33.. IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.1). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 22 June 2009).. Nilson, G., Tuniyev, B., Andrén, C. and Orlov, N. 1999. Vipers of Caucasus: Taxonomic considerations. Kaupia (Darmstadt): 103-106.. Orlov, N.L. and Tuniyev, B.S. 1990. Three Species in the Vipera kaznakowi Complex (Eurosiberian Group) in the Caucasus: Their Present Distribution, Possile Genesis, and Phylogeny. Asiatic Herpetological Research: 1-36.. Vedmederja, V., Orlov, N.L. and Tuniev, B., 1986. On taxonomy of three vipers species of the Vipera kaznakovi complex. Proc. Zool. Inst.Lelingr.: 265-271.. ...
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Order Bjain Lachesis Dilution 1000 CH:bottle of 30 ml Dilution online at best price in India. Know Bjain Lachesis Dilution 1000 CH price, specifications, benefits and other information only on 1mg.com
Gem t: Angst/Furcht (angegriffen, berfallen zu werden/Auto zu fahren/vor Unf lle). Antworten kurz angebunden. Bet ubung. Br tet, gr belt. Als ob er Drogen genommen h tte Wie Energie geladen Erregt/ersch pft geistig. Faul (gefolgt von Arbeitswut/reizbar, gereizt/und schl frig). Macht Fehler [lesend ( berspringt Zeilen)/schreibend (falsche Buchstaben, Zahlen/Worte/l sst Buchstaben aus)/sprechend [Worte (falsche Worte/stellt Worte an die falsche Stelle)]/. vergesslich. Froh. Ged chtnisschw che (f r Eigennamen/f r das, was er gerade tun wollte)/Gedanken (vergehen, schwinden/wandernd, umherschweifend (zuh rend)/2 Gedankeng nge gleichzeitig)/. Konzentration schwierig (w hrend eines Gespr ches/und schl frig/Studieren)/Studieren, Lernen f llt schwer. Geistesabwesend/Geisteskraft erh ht/, geistige Anstrengung Verlangt Gesellschaft/Gespr che abgeneigt. Gleichg ltig, Apathie (gegen u erlichkeiten, u erliches). Hast, Eile (aber langsam in der Ausf hrung von Dingen/bei dem was er gerade tut, womit er gerade ...
For me, its Calloselasma rhodostoma. The Malayan Pit Viper.. In a video, Al Coritz, AKA: Viperkeeper, on YouTube said hed rather take a bite from one of the mambas than this same snake. No really, he said it. Its here at 1 min. 37 secs. Have a look: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-fVDZ2N2GLk. So, what is it about this snake that strikes such fear into people?. Its the total devastation the venom from this snake causes at the bite site and across the organs of the body.. The venom immediately starts destroying skin tissue, blood, connective tissue of all sorts, muscle, and even bone. It actually destroys bone. Thats strong venom!. Then, the anti-coagulant properties cause the bitten victim to bleed from all over the body. Blood may be seen coming out of the mouth, gums, nose, eyes, ears, anus, and urethra, not to mention the bite site.. Bleeding can be going on unseen in the brain - causing death in some cases.. Its a horrible thing to go through. If bitten and the wound is burning, you ...
VenomousReptiles.org Article: Lachesis Bites in Brazil: 2 Cases - |i|If there is venom inoculation, the first 60 minutes of these accidents are always dramatic and similar to the evolution of the hypovolemic shock: severe hypotension may occur within 20 minutes...|/i| - VenomousReptiles.org - The SHHS is a group of venomous reptile keepers educating the public about venomous snakes and lizards. Here you will find everything you ever wanted to know about rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, copperheads, king cobras and even the notorious black mamba. Everyone is welcome!
Last Saturday (30 March 2009)night, went to Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve for a night survey on Spiders. Because of raining, we were taking shelter at the Main Hide. Many of terrestrial animals followed us to take a shelter, including a mangrove pit viper and few caterpillars. One of the caterpillar was dropping on the back of the snake from the wooden wall when I was shooting the Pit Viper, and caused the snake to react badly. I was shock when I saw this through the camera and the snake, all of a sudden, shaking his head strongly and that cause me almost to drop my camera ...
The intracellular transport of venom proteins has been studied in active and resting venom glands of the snake Vipera palaestinae by electron microscope radioautography after an intra-arterial injection of [3H]leucine. In the active gland, most of the label is initially (10 min) found over the RER. By 30 min, the relative grain density of the Golgi complex reaches its maximum, with concomitant increase in the labeling of the condensing vacuoles. Later on, a steep increase in radioactivity of the secretory granules is observed. At 3 h, these granules, which comprise about 2% of the cell volume, contain 22% of the total grains. At the following hour, their labeling declines and at the same time the radioactivity of the secreted venom is increased. It is concluded that, in the active cell, venom proteins are transported via the Golgi apparatus into membrane-bounded granules which are the immediate source of the secreted venom. An alternative pathway, which involves the RER cisternae as a storage ...
The snake is the second most deadly animal in the world. It kills approximately 50,000 people every year. Already though you can see how terrible the mosquito is at it kills 14 times more people every single year. The snake is a puppy in comparison.. There are many types of snakes with various levels of venom that are responsible for the 50,000 murders. The most deadly snake is the saw-scaled viper. It is low on the venom chart but it kills over 5,000 people each year. It manages to kill this many because it is very prevalent in highly populated areas. Other snakes that have more venom, like the Inland Taipan can kill a human in 45 minutes but it is low on the death figures because it rarely bites humans.. ...
The surucucú is a venomous viper (Lachesis muta), also known as the shushúpe in Peru, or Bushmaster in English, that is highly aggressive. Not only is its venom deadly, the surucucú will bite you multiple times, and is even known to chase people.. If you are bitten and dont get the antivenom within a couple of hours, you will die. A friend of mine was bit by a shushupe when she worked for an eco-lodge in the Iquitos area. They rushed her to Iquitos by high-speed motorboat, but it took an hour for her to reach the city. When she got to the hospital, she was bleeding out of her eyes, ears, mouth and fingernails. It took her a month to recover, and her health has been fragile ever since.. The best defense against surucucús are knee high rubber boots and being mindful of where you are stepping. They like to hide in the spaces under tree roots, especially cavities under tree roots that are covered by leaves. If you are stepping over a large root, try to look over it to see whats on the other ...
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Predĺžená miecha sa akoby skladá z dvoch častí: otvorenej (bližšie k mostu), a uzavretej (nižšia časť naväzujúca na miechu). Otvorenie sa vzťahuje k zadnej časti predĺženej miechy, ktorá tvory časť spodiny IV. mozgovej komory. Z miechy v nej pokračuje canalis centralis, ktorý sa tu rozširuje a plynulo prechádza do IV.mozgovej komory. Prednú stenu predĺženej miechy tvoria dva symetrické pozdĺžne prebiehajúce valy - pyramídy predĺženej miechy (lat. pyramides medullae oblongatae), ktoré obsahujú vlákna motorických (riadiacich pohyb), tzv. pyramídových dráh. Medzi nimi sa v strednej čiare nachádza zárez, ktorý plynule prechádza z miechy a nazýva sa fissura mediana anterior. Tento zárez je v mieste spojenia miechy a predĺženej miechy prerušený nápadným krížením pyramídových dráh - decussatio pyramidum. Ne prednej strane kraniálne medulla oblongata končí ryhou, ktorú vytvára naprieč uložený val Varolovho mosta - sulcus ...
Predĺžená miecha sa akoby skladá z dvoch častí: otvorenej (bližšie k mostu), a uzavretej (nižšia časť naväzujúca na miechu). Otvorenie sa vzťahuje k zadnej časti predĺženej miechy, ktorá tvory časť spodiny IV. mozgovej komory. Z miechy v nej pokračuje canalis centralis, ktorý sa tu rozširuje a plynulo prechádza do IV.mozgovej komory. Prednú stenu predĺženej miechy tvoria dva symetrické pozdĺžne prebiehajúce valy - pyramídy predĺženej miechy (lat. pyramides medullae oblongatae), ktoré obsahujú vlákna motorických (riadiacich pohyb), tzv. pyramídových dráh. Medzi nimi sa v strednej čiare nachádza zárez, ktorý plynule prechádza z miechy a nazýva sa fissura mediana anterior. Tento zárez je v mieste spojenia miechy a predĺženej miechy prerušený nápadným krížením pyramídových dráh - decussatio pyramidum. Ne prednej strane kraniálne medulla oblongata končí ryhou, ktorú vytvára naprieč uložený val Varolovho mosta - sulcus ...
Synonyms for Ammodyte in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Ammodyte. 1 synonym for Ammodytes: genus Ammodytes. What are synonyms for Ammodyte?
Yesterday I read a fascinating (to me, anyway) article about the history of the development of drugs to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). The topic is interesting to me because a couple of months ago, my blood pressure inexplicably went from Too high to Be prepared to die. For just over a month now, Ive…
La dopamina (DA) estimula el factor liberador de hormona luteinizante (LHR), incrementa la hormona luteinizante (LH) e induce ovulaci n. El precursor inmediato, la L-dopa, ha sido usado para inducir la ovulaci n y en el s ndrome amenorrea-galactorrea, pero esta droga produce varios efectos indeseables. Por esta raz n pareci conveniente investigar drogas capaces de elevar la DA cerebral con menos efectos colaterales. La acci n del veneno de la serpiente Lachesis trigonocephalus sobre la DA cerebral fue estudiada en ratas Wistar. Treinta y nueve animales recibieron el veneno a una dinamizaci n de 1 x 10-24 = 12CH en etanol al 22.5%. La droga fue administrada per os con un cat ter a la dosis de 0.25 ml, con intervalos de 8 horas, durante 10 d as. Treinta y tres ratas sirvieron como controles y recibieron la misma dosis de etanol sin la droga. El grupo control mostr un nivel medio de 998 43 ng/g (X SE) y los animales que recibieron la droga 1136 57 ng/g (P < 0.05). La concentraci n de noradrenalina ...
Cytotoxicity: is the quality of being toxic to cells. Examples of toxic agents are an immune cell or some types of venom, e.g. from the puff adder (Bitis a
Relative proportion of each category of product found in M. corallinus venom gland transcriptome. Toxin, Non-toxin and No Hit categories are, respectively, clus
Species: L. astricta - L. cerastes - L. cnestovalva - L. competitrix - L. diclada - L. docillis - L. exocha - L. ficta - L. gravida - L. guanana - L. heterophaea - L. ichthyochroa - L. ilingocornuta - L. limatula - L. luminosa - L. megapenis - L. micida - L. omissa - L. perlochra - L. pervicax - L. puertoricana - L. revulsa - L. sorbia - L. subdiclada - L. subsorbia - L. taima - L. tardans. Name. Lasiothyris Meyrick, 1917. Type species: Lasiothyris limatula Meyrick, 1917.. Synonyms. * Lasithyris Obraztsov, 1967, J. New York ent. Soc. 75: 7. [misspelling of Lasiothyris]. ...
The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of Vipera lebetina venom on human erythrocytes osmotic fragility with respect to differ...
Cerastotin, a thrombin-like enzyme from the venom of the desert viper Cerastes cerastes, has been purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and two ion-exchange chromatographies on Mono S columns. It is a neutral glycoprotein (pI = 6.6), present as a single polypeptide chain of 40 kDa. Its N-terminal sequence shows strong similarity with those of other thrombin-like enzymes from snake venoms. Cerastotin possesses esterase and amidolytic activities measured with N(alpha)-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester and the thrombin chromogenic substrate D-phenylalanyl-L-pipecolyl-L-arginine p-nitroanilide, respectively. The amidolytic activity is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, N(alpha)-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethane, N(alpha)-tosyl-L-phenylalanyl chloromethane, D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginyl chloromethane and benzamidine, suggesting that cerastotin is a serine protease. Cerastotin efficiently clots human plasma and cleaves preferentially the alpha chain of fibrinogen. Cerastotin did not induce
Looking for online definition of Cobra lachesis in the Medical Dictionary? Cobra lachesis explanation free. What is Cobra lachesis? Meaning of Cobra lachesis medical term. What does Cobra lachesis mean?
Evidence from numerous Pan-African savannah mammals indicates that open-habitat refugia existed in Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated by expanding tropical forests during warm and humid interglacial periods. However, comparative data from other taxonomic groups are currently lacking. We present a phylogeographic investigation of the African puff adder (Bitis arietans), a snake that occurs in open-habitat formations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Multiple parapatric mitochondrial clades occur across the current distribution of B. arietans, including a widespread southern African clade that is subdivided into four separate clades. We investigated the historical processes responsible for generating these phylogeographic patterns in southern Africa using species distribution modelling and genetic approaches. Our results show that interior regions of South Africa became largely inhospitable for B. arietans during glacial maxima, whereas coastal and more northerly areas remained habitable. This ...
It is not clear that ARF results from a direct cytotoxic effect on renal epithelia or from a renal ischemia due to systemic hemodynamic disturbances. This work investigated the in vitro effect of Echis Carinatus crude venom, using cultured Human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) mono layers as a model to see the cytotoxic effect of Echis carinatus venom.
Two phage-displayed random peptide libraries were screened for ligands with potential inhibitory activity against pancreatic phospolipase A2 or ammodytoxin C (neurotoxin found in the venom glands of Vipera ammodytes ammodytes). The interaction of selected peptides with pancreatic phospholipase A2 and ammodytoxin C was confirmed with surface plasmon resonance and phage ELISA assays. Interestingly, peptides showed equal affinity to both proteins, regardless which of the two proteins was used as a target in the selection procedure. Despite pronounced affinity, none of the synthetic peptides inhibited enzyme targets in vitro at the concentrations below 167 [micro]M ...
The snake venom gland is a specialized organ, which synthesizes and secretes the complex and abundant toxin proteins. Though gene expression in the snake venom gland has been extensively studied, the focus has been on the components of the venom. As far as the molecular mechanism of toxin secretion and metabolism is concerned, we still knew a little. Therefore, a fundamental question being arisen is what genes are expressed in the snake venom glands besides many toxin components? To examine extensively the transcripts expressed in the venom gland of Deinagkistrodon acutus and unveil the potential of its products on cellular structure and functional aspects, we generated 8696 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a non-normalized cDNA library. All ESTs were clustered into 3416 clusters, of which 40.16% of total ESTs belong to recognized toxin-coding sequences; 39.85% are similar to cellular transcripts; and 20.00% have no significant similarity to any known sequences. By analyzing cellular functional
A myotoxic, basic phospholipase A2 (pI greater than 9.5) with anticoagulant activity has been purified from the venom of Bothrops asper, and its amino acid sequence determined by automated Edman degradation. It is distinct from the B. asper phospholipase A2 known as myotoxin I [Lomonte, B. and Gutierrez, J. M., 1989, Toxicon 27, 725] but cross-reacts with myotoxin I rabbit antisera, suggesting that the proteins are closely related isoforms. To our knowledge, this is the first myotoxic phospholipase to be sequenced that lacks presynaptic neurotoxicity (iv LD50 approximately equal to 8 micrograms/g in mice). The protein appears to exist as a monomer, contains 122 amino acids, and fits with subgroup IIA of other sequenced phospholipase A2 molecules. Its primary sequence shows greatest identity with ammodytoxin B (67%), a phospholipase A2 presynaptic neurotoxin from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom. Hydropathy profiles of B. asper phospholipase and the ammodytoxins also show great similarities. In ...
Echicetin, a heterodimeric protein from the venom of Echis carinatus, binds to platelet glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) and so inhibits platelet aggregation or agglutination induced by various platelet agonists acting via GPIb. The amino acid sequence of the β subunit of echicetin has been reported and found to belong to the recently identified snake venom subclass of the C-type lectin protein family. Echicetin α and β subunits were purified. N-terminal sequence analysis provided direct evidence that the protein purified was echicetin. The paper presents the complete amino acid sequence of the α subunit and computer models of the α and β subunits. The sequence of α echicetin is highly similar to the α and β chains of various heterodimeric and homodimeric C-type lectins. Neither of the fully reduced and alkylated α or β subunits of echicetin inhibited the platelet agglutination induced by von Willebrand factor-ristocetin or α-thrombin. Earlier reports about the inhibitory activity of reduced ...
Humans perceive snakes as threatening stimuli, resulting in fast emotional and behavioral responses. However, snake species differ in their true level of danger and are highly variable in appearance despite the uniform legless form. Different snakes may evoke fear or disgust in humans, or even both emotions simultaneously. We designed three-step-selection experiments to identify prototypical snake species evoking exclusively fear or disgust. First, two independent groups of respondents evaluated 45 images covering most of the natural variability of snakes and rated responses to either perceived fear (n = 175) or disgust (n = 167). Snakes rated as the most fear-evoking were from the family Viperidae (Crotalinae, Viperinae, and Azemiopinae), while the ones rated as the most disgusting were from the group of blind snakes called Typhlopoidea (Xenotyphlopinae, Typhlopinae, and Anomalepidinae). We then identified the specific traits contributing to the perception of fear (large body size, expressive scales
The species is terrestrial[6] and mostly nocturnal. It often enters homes and other structures in search of rats and mice. Bold and irritable, it can strike quickly and has a long reach.[5]. Unlike most pitvipers, P. flavoviridis is oviparous and lays eggs, rather than bearing live young.[5] Mating takes place in early spring and up to 18 eggs are laid in mid-summer. The hatchlings, which emerge after an incubation period of 5-6 weeks, are 25 centimetres (10 in) in length and look the same as the adults.[6]. To reduce the population of P. flavoviridis on the island of Okinawa, the small Asian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus), was introduced in 1910. Although the effects of this introduction have not been studied, in other such cases the negative effects on species of native birds, mammals, and herpetofauna have been a source of concern for wildlife managers.[8]. ...
Dean Ripa was born in 1957 in Wilmington, North Carolina. A herpetological-wunderkind, he was already catching dangerously venomous snakes before the age of ten in the swamplands near his home. At age 13 he was seriously bitten, and hospitalized in intensive care for 2 weeks, losing the functional use of his right hand for over two years. Undaunted, he continued, and by age 15 was already keeping some the worlds most dangerous snakes, king cobras, Gaboon vipers, black mambas, and many others, unbeknownst to his parents, in cages hidden in the attic rooms of their spacious mansion-like house. In his early twenties, he left for Africa to capture and export live snakes back to America. As this proved successful, he began traveling the world, becoming what was probably the first international snake hunter for hire. Major zoos, laboratories, and private fanciers were his customers. Long before television snake-wranglers were staging cobra captures in front of camera crews, Dean Ripa was prowling ...
Caught in exhalation pm mind-body medicine by inhibiting the transmission to facilitate nonpainful diagnostic procedures such as viagra to best place buy canada acupuncture, ayurvedic medicine, and consider starting the evening hours will also be given intramuscularly on a longer duration of fever prothrombin time, and they persisted during apnea. Viperidae includes old world vipers and pit viper or viper envenomation, any rings or other parts of the brachial plexus function. Primary lesions include burrows, papules, vesicles, and crusts. As multiple releases continue, so-called unwinding phenomena often occur, as well as fluid, electrolytes, small proteins, and e diminished hepatobiliary functions. Observe for adequate jaw opening and repositioning the needle from the labyrinth very susceptible to tears. As important as other processes. Postural strain, muscle this is a safe technique and integrated endogenous system for relieving pain. Management corticosteroids remain the cornerstones of ...
The mock viper changes its round eyes to vertical slits when threatened, which researchers believe is an act of mimicry to discourage predation.
Pulsatilla and Lachesis belong to the homeopathic family of medicines and are used to treat a variety of illnesses and ailments. Many people believe that homeopathic medicines are not just useful for treating people, but can also be used to help heal the family pet.
Zoological Name: Crotulus mutus Family: Crotalidae Synonyms: Lachesis Mutus: Common Name: Surukuke or Churukuku: Deadly bush master.For kit replacements, please follow this link
Ronald Jenner (2017). Dataset: Supplementary data remipede Toxins paper. Resource: Assemblies venom gland transcriptome. Natural History Museum Data Portal (data.nhm.ac.uk). https://doi.org/10.5519/0054533. Retrieved: 07:42 16 Jan 2018 (GMT). ...
Hunting by day is a doddle when equipped with a sharp pair of eyes, but when the conditions are dim, even the keenest sight isnt going to help, which is where thermal imaging can come in handy. Pit vipers are equipped with specialised infrared-sensing pit organs that provide a thermal perspective of the serpents surroundings, which can help the predator to pick off warm-blooded animals. Intrigued by the reptiles twin visual systems, Qin Chen, from the Chengdu Institute of Biology, China, explains that it was not clear how much significance the vipers attached to each system. How the snakes combine the two into a picture has always fascinated us, says Chen. Knowing that vipers that are equipped with tape blinds can strike successfully at warm and cold objects when viewed with their infrared sensor against an intermediate temperature background, Chen and his colleagues Guangzhan Fang and Yezhong Tang wondered how much of an emphasis the snakes put on their thermal view when the contrast ...
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Vipera Berus, commonly named European Adder, is a venomous snake. It is extremely widespread and can be found throughout most of Western Europe and as far as East Asia.. Relatively thick-bodied, adults usually grow to 60 cm (24 in) in total length (including tail), with an average of 55 cm (22 in). Maximum size varies by region. The largest, at over 90 cm (35 in), are found in Scandinavia; specimens of 104 cm (41 in) have been observed there on two occasions. In France and Great Britain, the maximum size is 80-87 cm (31-34 in). The colour pattern varies, ranging from very light-coloured specimens with small, incomplete, dark dorsal crossbars to entirely brown ones with faint or clear, darker brown markings, and on to melanistic individuals that are entirely dark and lack any apparent dorsal pattern. However, most have some kind of zigzag dorsal pattern down the entire length of their bodies and tails. The head usually has a distinctive dark V or X on the back. A dark streak runs from the eye to ...
Two disintegrins with a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity, echistatin and eristostatin, showed a low level of interaction with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, but they bound to CHO cells transfected with αIIbβ3 genes (A5 cells) and to CHO cells transfected with αvβ3 genes (VNRC3 cells) in a reversible and saturable manner. Scatchard analysis revealed that eristostatin bound to 816000 sites per A5 cell (Kd 28 nM) and to 200000 sites (Kd 14 nM) per VNRC3 cell respectively. However, VNRC3 cells did not bind to immobilized eristostatin. Echistatin bound to 495000 sites (Kd 53 nM) per A5 cell and to 443000 sites (Kd 20 nM) per VNRC3 cell. As determined by flow cytometry, radiobinding assay and adhesion studies, binding of both disintegrins to A5 cells and resting platelets and binding of echistatin to VNRC3 cells resulted in the expression of ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS) on the β3 subunit. Eristostatin inhibited, more strongly than echistatin, the binding of three ...
Spontaneous anamnesis. This time she tells me she has already known Philippe since 1986, so while she was married. This relationship was always secret. She met Philippe at a bourse. Philippe has a car business and earns good money. He is divorced and has a boy (1976). His father is very rich.. She didn t want an abortion but she thinks this decision has saved their relationship. She doesn t trust anybody. She is jealous. She says she drinks at least half a litre of red wine every night. And when she feels depressed she drinks even more.. Medical history. August 1993 : appendicitis. January 1994 : appendicectomy. November 1994 : abortion when three months pregnant. R/ Lachesis 200K. REP: Jealousy; loquacity; suspicious. Lachesis is the lady who suffers by comparison.. Sixth consultation on 22/02/1995. R/ Lachesis XMK. Seventh consultation on 22/03/1995. Spontaneous anamnesis. She thinks it would be better to end her relationship with Philippe. Finally she doesn t because she feels sorry for ...
EFFFI gold EXCLUSIVE - emulsion against wrinkles containing synthetic snake (pit viper) venom as the active substance and liposomes
The adder (Vipera berus) must be one of the UKs most iconic species, and is certainly one that gets a lot of attention! As our only venomous reptile it has unfortunately gained a somewhat dubious reputation amongst those that like to sensationalise such things. The fact is that these are not aggressive animals and they…
En la presente investigación se estudian las propiedades, bioquímicas, biológicas, inmunológicas y moleculares de una isoforma básica de Fosfolipasa A2 presente en el veneno de la serpiente peruana Lachesis muta(PLA2básicaL.muta). La purificación se realizó mediante cromatografía de intercambio iónico, filtración y de alta performance; la enzima fue purificada 41,2 veces con un rendimiento de 64%. Se obtuvo una única banda proteica de 14,7 kDa por PAGE-SDS en condiciones reductoras y no reductoras, demostrando ser una proteína monomérica. Su pH óptimo es de 7,8 y es fuertemente inhibida por el PMSF, EDTA y glutatión. En cuanto a su acción biológica, se obtuvo la dosis hemolítica media (DH50) en 4,35µg, la dosis miotóxica mínima (DMM) en 18,96µg/ml y la dosis edemática mínima (DEM) 23,56μg. La enzima no mostró actividad hemorrágica ni acción anticoagulante. Adicionalmente las pruebas de inmunodifusión e inmunoelectroforesis revelaron que PLA2básicaL.muta es ...
A comparative study was performed on the pharmacology and biochemistry of venoms from three subspecies of Lachesis muta (L. m. stenophrys, L. m. muta and L. m. rhombeata) from Brazil, Colombia and Costa Rica. All venoms ...
Introducing the Merika Night Shades USA clear Pit Viper sunglasses. With 3 adjustment points for a perfect fit, theyre basically the Autobots of sunglasses. Plus these babies have a clear lens so you can wear em to the Discotech. Free domestic returns & exchanges at Shinesty.com.
Malayan pit viper Callaselasma rhodostoma Description: Reddish running into pink tinge toward the belly with triangular-shaped, brown markings bordered with light-colored scales. The base of the triangular-shaped markings end at the midline. It has dark brown, arrow-shaped markings on the top and each side of its head. Characteristics: This snake ...
The majority of research pertaining to Atractaspis microlepidota is about their venom, because they have been observed and studied only a few times in their natural habitat. The venom is viscid and slightly milky in appearance.[7] The way they use their long, hollow fangs is very interesting, and the length of the fangs allows them to inject their venom more deeply into their prey.[9] These fangs share some similarities with those of Viperidae, but also are unique.[6] They do not have to open their mouths to use their fangs; instead they typically use only one fang, which is still not completely understood.[6] There have been assumptions as to why this developed. One hypothesis is that most of their prey also burrows; so the majority of their strikes are underground with limited room for movement.[6] So the theory is that they developed this in order to still successfully bite their prey without having to open their mouth all the way.[6] To strike, they come up along the side of their prey ...
Reptile Bites. Chapter 195. Crotalinae (Pit Viper) Bites. Bilateral depressions or pits between and below the eye and nostril Pit used to detect warm-blooded prey Large fangs that fold against the roof of the mouth Rattle snakes included. Diagnosis and Treatment. Local injury: fang...
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)
Three female free-ranging white rhinoceroses in South Africa were monitored noninvasively and with the use of VHF radio telemetry by collecting fecal samples for progesterone metabolites measurement. All animals were immobilized so that radio transponders could be added in their horns. During this procedure blood samples were also collected. Blood ... read more assay results indicated pregnancy at the time of immobilization in two of the three rhinoceroses. Fecal samples were collected for a period of 90 days at about weekly intervals. Fecal sample collection from one rhinoceros failed, due to behavioural factors. Progesterone profiles of two rhinoceroses were created in this study. Concentrations above luteal phase values were found for both rhinoceroses during pregnancy. During the 50 days prior to parturition fecal progestagens declined, a feature so far only described in black rhinoceroses. Within 9-12 days post partum the progesterone concentration had reached follicular phase values. It ...
massasauga: Sistrurus catenatus small North American rattlesnake of the family Viperidae, found in prairies, swamps, and woodlands from the Great Lakes to Arizona. It is typically 45 to 75...
About Ingredients Directions Free of All Boiron Pellets are final sale. Boirons Tubes (or Single medicines) are known and registered by their Latin name, resulting in a common international nomenclature. In Canada, they are available in varying dilutions and have no mention of a therapeutic indication. These medicines
A quiet Friday afternoon at home, and you can find us in the yard, digging in the dirt, pulling weeds. While Kara is riding her scooter and hiding from passing cars, Sam begins to collect worms. He digs a hole, with his bare hands, his bare hands mind you. I am bent over the Antique Hollyhocks and am quick to provide the appropriate recognition for this feat of strength. He moves worms from all over the bed, to tangle in his pit. We begin to call them Pit Vipers, although with Colorado family we know full well the true identity of a Pit Viper. Family lore is replete with tales of Rattlesnakes, where theyve been seen, and how many have been killed in the yard each summer. In renaming a common worm a Pit Viper, weve added an element of excitement to this mundane afternoon. When Arden joins the game, he soon wonders if worms like sunshine, and becomes their Protector, their Shade Provider. The first canopy design was rejected because it covered the hole entirely, and while the worms may have been ...
Large and stout,[5] it ranges in total length (body + tail) from 72 to 107 cm (about 28 to 42 inches).[1] Spawls et al. (2004) mentioned a maximum total length of 120 cm (47 in), but admitted this is exceptional, quoting an average total length of 60-90 cm (about 24-35 inches).[5] Females grow larger than males.[6] The head is narrow, flat, triangular and relatively small compared to the rest of the body.[1] The neck is thin. It has a distinctive set of two or three horn-like scales on the end of the nose, the front pair of which may be quite long. The eyes are small and set well forward.[5] The fangs are not large: rarely more than 1.5 cm (0.59 in) long.[1] Midbody there are 31-43 dorsal scale rows.[1] These are so rough and heavily keeled that they sometimes inflict cuts on handlers when the snakes struggle.[2] There are 117-140 ventral scales[1] and the anal scale is single.[5] Mallow et al. (2003) reported the subcaudals number 16-32, with males having a higher count (25-30) than females ...
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Manual was first published in 1899 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America. Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.. ...
در این تحقیق اثر خوراکی پوست سبز گردو بر رشد ماهی اسکار (Astronotus ocellatus) مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. تعداد 60 عدد ماهی اسکار آلبینو با میانگین وزن 18/0 ± 01/5 گرم و میانگین طول 23/2 ± 84/54 میلی متر در قالب 3 تیمار و یک شاهد و هر کدام با سه تکرار تقسیم شدند. تعداد 12 دستگاه آکواریوم در ابعاد 50 × 40 × 33 سانتی متر مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. گروه شاهد با غذای بدون افزودنی (غذای پایه) تغذیه گردید. تیمار اول با غذای حاوی 1/0 درصد ، تیمار دوم با غذای حاوی 2/0 درصد و تیمار سوم با غذای حاوی 3/0 درصد پوست سبز گردو تغذیه گردیدند. مدت 8 هفته (56 روز) دوره پرورش به طول انجامید. هر 20 روز یکبار زیست‎سنجی (Biometry)
Vitrectomy. A limited conjunctival peritomy was created with Westcott scissors to expose the supranasal and, separately, the supratemporal and inferotemporal
Haaa... Jelas tak?? Secara ringkasnya, healing crisis cuma satu tempoh yg diambil untuk proses2 membersihkan badan, penyingkiran toksin dan untuk bina semula sel2 badan yg lebih kuat dari sebelum ni. Ibarat tangki yang dah lama tak basuh. Bila basuh, berus, sental... banyakkkk la karat2 yang keluar dari tangki tuuu... Bila karat2 tu semua dah clear, dah bersih... air yang mengalir dari tangki tu pun laju jerrr. Kita nak guna untuk basuh ape2 pun best! Betul tak?? Macam tu jugalah badan kita ni... Healing crisis ni tak sama dengan orang lain sebab ianya bergantung kepada tahap kesihatan kita. Kalau badan ok, sihat... so kurang la healing krisis tu...Yang penting teruskan makan vitamin dan minum banyakkk air masak, insyaAllah ull feel much better ...
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There are two major families of venomous snakes, Elapidae and Viperidae. Three hundred twenty five species in 61 genera are ... "Viperidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 10 August 2006. Mackessy, Stephen P. (2002). "Biochemistry and ... Hardy, D. L. (1994). "Bothrops asper (Viperidae) snakebite and field researchers in Middle America". Biotropica. 26 (2): 198- ... Although Africa is home to four venomous snake families-Atractaspididae, Colubridae, Elapidae, and Viperidae-approximately 60% ...
n. (Reptilia, Viperidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 84: 599-607. Vipera latastei at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed ...
Viperidae indet. Geology portal Paleontology portal Africa portal List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in Namibia Geology ...
Serpentes, Viperidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 77 (2): 273-282. Echis ocellatus at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed ... A taxonomic revision of the snake genus Echis (Viperidae). II. An analysis of taxonomy and description of new forms]. [Proc. ... Notes on African Carpet Vipers, Echis carinatus, E. leucogaster and E. ocellatus (Viperidae, Serpentes). Revue Suisse de ...
Viperidae, Vipera xanthina; Agamidae, Stellagama stellio; Gekkonidae, Hemidactylus turcicus and Mediodactylus kotschyi. Species ...
"Molecular systematics of the Western Rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis (Viperidae), with comments on the utility of the D-Loop in ... ISBN 0-8014-4141-2. Viperidae - Crotalinae - 2001 Publications. The Arizona subspecies was further split into its own species, ... "Historical biogeography of the western rattlesnake (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalus viridis), inferred from mitochondrial DNA ...
Reptilia, Viperidae) from Middle Asia]. Vestn. Zool. (6): 45-49. (in Russian with English Summary). Macrovipera lebetina at the ...
1. The genus Echis (Viperidae). Bull. Florida Mus. Nat. Hist., Biol Sci. 35 (5): 263-314. Cherlin VA. 1981. [A new saw-scaled ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Viperidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 10 August 2006. CS1 ... Karnataka burrowing snake Genus Plectrurus Genus Rhinophis Genus Teretrurus Genus Uropeltis Family Viperidae Genus Agkistrodon ...
... a pit viper in the family Viperidae. The species is endemic to Brazil. There are no subspecies which are recognized as being ... VIPERIDAE): NATURAL HISTORY, VENOM AND ENVENOMATION". Gazeta Médica da Bahia (in Portuguese). 79 (1). ISSN 0016-545X. "Summary ... Viperidae)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (3): 617-640. Hoge AR (1948). "Notas erpétologicas. 3. Uma nova ...
Werner, Y. L., Sivan, N., Kushnir, V. & U. Motro (1999): "A statistical approach to variation in Cerastes (Ophidia: Viperidae) ... Werner, Y. L., Le Verdier, A., Rosenman, D. & N. Sivan (1991): "Systematics and zoogeography of Cerastes (Ophidia: Viperidae) ... with the description of two endemic subspecies". - In: Joger, U. [ed.]: Phylogeny and Systematics of the Viperidae. Kaupia 8: p ...
... , commonly known in English as the Brazilian lancehead, is a species of venomous snake in the family Viperidae ... Hoge AR (1966). "Preliminary account on Neotropical Crotalinae (Serpentes: Viperidae)". Memórias do Instituto Butantan 32 [1965 ... Viperidae)". Revista Brasileira de Biologia 58 (4): 591-601. (in Portuguese). "Caiçaca". zoologia.comunidades.net. Retrieved ...
... , or the Bolivian lancehead, is a species of venomous snake in the family Viperidae. It is endemic to ... Preliminary account on Neotropical Crotalinae (Serpentes: Viperidae). Memórias do Instituto Butantan 32 [1965]: 109-184. v t e ...
... , or the Marajó lancehead, is a species of venomous snake in the family Viperidae. It is endemic to Brazil ... Hoge, A.R. 1966 ["1965"]. Preliminary account on Neotropical Crotalinae (Serpentes: Viperidae). Memórias do Instituto Butantan ...
p. 276.) Werner F (1922). "Synopsis der Schlangenfamilien der Amblycephalidae und Viperidae ". Archiv für Naturgeschichte 8A: ... Viperidae). III. Taxonomic Status of the Bulgar Dagh Viper in South Turkey". Journal of Herpetology 19 (2): 276-283. ( ...
Preliminary account on Neotropical Crotalinae (Serpentes: Viperidae). Memórias do Instituto Butantan 32 [1965]: 109-184. ...
Viperidae)". Zootaxa 2992: 1-51. Hoge AR (1969). "Um novo Trimeresurus de Simalur, Sumatra (Serpentes: Viperidae)". Ciência e ...
A new adder (Bitis; Viperidae) from the Western Cape Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Zoology 32 (2): 37-42. ...
I. Checklist of the Pitvipers: Viperoidea, Viperidae, Crotalinae". Memórias do Instituto Butantan 42/43: 179-309. (Gloydius, ... Viperidae) from Tsushima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture". Japanese J. Herpetol. 15: 101-111. (Agkistrodon tsushimaensis, new ...
Taxonomic revision of the snake genus Echis (Viperidae). II. An analysis of taxonomy and description of new forms. Proceedings ...
Viper mostly refers to the snake family Viperidae. This may also refer to: Water viper (Agkistrodon piscivorus), a venomous ...
Systematics of the Vipera xanthina complex (Reptilia: Viperidae). 3. Taxonomic status of the Bulgar Dagh viper in south Turkey ...
Viperidae und Crotalidae ". In: Elwert (1963). Die Giftschlangen der Erde. Wirkung und Antigenitat der Gifte Therapie von ... a snake in the family Viperidae. The subspecies is endemic to Vietnam. The subspecific name, bourreti, is in honor of French ...
Liste der rezenten Giftschlangen: Elapidae, Hydropheidae, Viperidae und Crotalidae. Marburg: N.G. Elwert. 210 pp. Saint-Girons ... Taxonomisches Status von Vipera latasti monticola Saint Girons, 1953 (Serpentes, Viperidae). Salamandra 22: 101-104. Klemmer K ...
A taxonomic revision of the snake genus Echis (Viperidae). II. An analysis of taxonomy and description of new forms]. [Proc. ...
... is a species of venomous snake in the family Viperidae. The species is endemic to Mali. There are no subspecies ... ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Echis jogeri, p. 135). Cherlin VA (1990). [A taxonomic revision of the snake genus Echis (Viperidae). ...
... is a species of venomous snake in the subfamily Viperinae of the family Viperidae. The species is endemic to ... Cherlin VA (1990). ["A taxonomic revision of the snake genus Echis (Viperidae). II. An analysis of taxonomy and description of ...
... is a species of venomous snake in the family Viperidae. The species is endemic to Azerbaijan, Georgia, and ... Nilson G, Höggren M, Tuniyev BS, Orlov NL, Andrén C (1994). "Phylogeny of the Vipers of the Caucasus (Reptilia, Viperidae)". ...
The spider-tailed horned viper (Pseudocerastes urarachnoides) is a species of viper, a venomous snake in the family Viperidae. ... Viperidae) based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene". Turkish Journal of Zoology. 38: 575-581. doi:10.3906/zoo-1308-25. ... Viperidae) in Iran". Russian Journal of Herpetology. 17 (4): 275-279. Fathinia, Behzad; Anderson, Steven C.; Rastegar-Pouyani, ... Viperidae)". Russian Journal of Herpetology. 16 (2): 134-138. Knapper, Emma (director and writer); Oldroyd, Adam (writer); ...
Vipera hindii, new species, p. 513). Broadley DG (1996). "A review of the tribe Atherini (Serpentes: Viperidae), with the ... 300-301). Marx H, Rabb GB (1965). "Relationships and Zoogeography of the Viperine Snakes (Family Viperidae)". Field Zoology 44 ...
Viperidae (vi); Viperidae (lv); Viperidae, Angis (lt); Viperidae (sl); Viper, Bibora, Viperidae (tl); Viperidae (sv); วงศ์งูหาง ... Viperidae (qu); Viperidae, Ottern (de); Viperidae (be); 腹蛇科, 蝰科 (zh); Viperidae (tr); クサリヘビ (ja); Vipére (nrm); Viperidae (sk ... Viperidae (sq); Οχιά (el); Sur jılandılar (kk-latn); adders (nl); Viperidae (it); Viperidae (sco); 蝰蛇科 (zh-cn); Viperidae (oc ... Viperidae (az); Viperidae (ca); the viper family, vipers (en); فصيلة الافاعي, فصيلة الأفاعي (ar); Viperidae (ka); Viperidae (ms ...
The Viperidae (vipers) are a family of venomous snakes found in most parts of the world, with the exception of Antarctica, ... Whether family Viperidae is attributed to Oppel (1811), as opposed to Laurenti (1768) or Gray (1825), is subject to some ... Viperidae at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 3 November 2008. Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A., eds. (1879). "Viper ... ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume). "Viperidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 10 ...
VIPERS AND PITVIPERS: Viperidae. HORNED VIPER (Cerastes cerastes): SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COTTONMOUTH (Agkistrodon piscivorus): ... "Vipers and Pitvipers: Viperidae ." Grzimeks Student Animal Life Resource. . Retrieved July 10, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: ... www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vipers-and-pitvipers-viperidae ... "Vipers and Pitvipers: Viperidae ." Grzimeks Student Animal Life Resource. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Jul. 2020 ,https://www. ...
... Rafael de Fraga, William E. Magnusson, ... Viperidae) in Central Amazonia, Brazil," Copeia, 2013(4), 684-690, (30 December 2013) Include:. ... Viperidae) in Central Amazonia, Brazil," Copeia 2013(4), 684-690, (30 December 2013). https://doi.org/10.1643/CE-11-098 ...
View Name Sources Download CSV Download BibTeX Bibliography for Viperidae by Page ...
Georgieva D., Arni R.K., Betzel C. (2016) Structure-Function Relationship in Heterodimeric Neurotoxin PLA2s from Viperidae ... Structure-Function Relationship in Heterodimeric Neurotoxin PLA2s from Viperidae Snakes Inhabiting Europe, South America, and ... potent β-neurotoxins from Viperidae venom. Toxicon. 2012;60(4):531-8. PMID: 22683534.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Reproductive patterns: sperm storage and placentation in Crotalus durissus and Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes: Viperidae) by de ...
Data files from Reticulate evolution in Nuclear Middle America causes discordance in the phylogeny of palm-pitvipers (Viperidae ... Data from: Reticulate evolution in nuclear Middle America causes discordance in the phylogeny of palm‐pitvipers (Viperidae: ... Data from: Reticulate evolution in nuclear Middle America causes discordance in the phylogeny of palm‐pitvipers (Viperidae: ... Viperidae: Bothriechis). These include command files and data for maximum likelihood and coalescence-based species tree ...
Junqueira-de-Azevedo ILM, Ching ATC, Carvalho E, Faria F, Nishiyama ML, Ho PL, Diniz MRV: Lachesis muta (Viperidae) cDNAs ... Envenoming by saw-scaled viper (Viperidae: Echis) species is thought to be responsible for more snakebite deaths worldwide than ... Given that CRISPs are typically underrepresented toxin transcripts in Viperidae vgDbESTs [26, 38, 52, 56-59], the abundant ... Wüster W, Peppin L, Pook CE, Walker DE: A nesting of vipers: Phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Viperidae (Squamata: ...
Viperidae) was studied in undistorted radial metaphases of uncultured cells (spermatogonia and oogonia) not subjected to ... Somatic pairing, endomitosis and chromosome aberrations in snakes (Viperidae and Colubridae). Be?ak Maria Luiza,Be?ak Willy, ... POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS AS A TOOL FOR THE TAXONOMIC IDENTIFICATION OF SNAKES FROM THE ELAPIDAE AND VIPERIDAE ... A taxonomic bibliography of the South American snakes of the Crotalus durissus complex (Serpentes, Viperidae). ...
VIPERIDAE (vipers). Venomous. The vipers are generally considered to be the most advanced family of snakes since they possess a ...
Venomous Viperidae. Posted on January 3, 2019. by Caroline Culpepper I think its important to clear the air before we dive in ... The coagulation abilities of some Viperidae species like the pit viper are enough to turn free flowing blood into a gooey solid ... While neurotoxins are common components of the Hydrophidae and Elapidae species venom, we will focus on Viperidae venom which ...
Viperidae. *strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home2/davidcan/public_html/sites ...
Viperidae, etc ; genomic libraries; loci; Show all 3 Subjects. Abstract:. ... We report five novel anonymous nuclear loci for ... Viperidae, etc ; antivenoms; gene flow; proteomics; venoms; Show all 5 Subjects. Abstract:. ... Venoms of the viperid sister ... Viperidae, etc ; animal taxonomy; biological nomenclature; Show all 3 Subjects. Abstract:. ... There are multifaceted arguments ... Viperidae, etc ; Elapidae; body size; extinction; frequency distribution; probability; snakes; Show all 7 Subjects. Abstract:. ...
2.2.3.5 Family : Viperidae (Vipers). *2.3 Order : Testudines (Turtles) *2.3.1 Family : Pelomedusidae (Side-necked Turtles) ...
Estudio morfológico e histoquímico de las glándulas cefálicas de Bothrops alternatus (Ophidia, Viperidae) / Morphological and ... histochemical study of the cephalic glands of bothrops alternatus (Ophidia, Viperidae) Parpinelli, Ana Carolina; Lopes, ...
Viperidae. Genus:. Atheris. Species:. A. hispida. Binomial name. Atheris hispida. Laurent, 1955. ...
... it is a member of the subfamily Crotalinae in the family Viperidae. The common name for this species is the eastern copperhead. ... Viperidae): differences between winners and losers". Physiology & Behavior. 71 (3): 335-341. doi:10.1016/s0031-9384(00)00348-6 ...
... Artículo científico ... This review focuses on group II PLA2s endowed with myotoxic effects, present in Viperidae venoms. These PLA2s are subdivided ...
Viperidae. * Vipera ammodytes. * Vipera schweizeri. * Vipera seoanni (izņemot Spānijas populācijas). * Vipera ursinii ...
Viperidae. Vipera ammodytes. Vipera schweizeri. Vipera seoanni (išskyrus Ispanijos populiacijas). Vipera ursinii ...
Viperidae Subfamily: Crotalinae Genus & species: Agkistrodon contortrix Subspecies:. *Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix ( ...
Comparative characterization of Viperidae snake venoms from Peru reveals two compositional patterns of phospholipase A2 ... Comparative characterization of Viperidae snake venoms from Peru reveals two compositional patterns of phospholipase A2 ...
The northern copperhead is a large, venomous snake found across the eastern United States in terrestrial and semiaquatic habitats. This copper-colored snake has an unmarked head and chestnut brown, hourglass-shaped crossbands along its body.
Dorsal scale microdermatoglyphics and rattlesnake (Crotalus and Sistrurus) phylogeny (Reptilia: Viperidae: Crotalinae). ...
Viperidae. Scientific Name:. Vipera ursinii ssp. moldavica Nilson, Andrén & Jorger, 1993. Parent Species:. See Vipera ursinii ...
Viperidae. Vipera ursinii. CoP6 Prop. 46. France, Italy. Inclusion in Appendix I. ...
Keywords: antivenom; snake; snakebite; Viperidae; European viper; antibodies antivenom; snake; snakebite; Viperidae; European ...
  • David P., Captain A. and Bhatt B. B. (2001), «On the occurrence of Trimeresurus medoensis Djao in Djao and Jiang, 1977 (Serpentes, Viperidae, Crotalinae) in India, with a redescription of this species and notes on its biology», Hamadryad , in press. (folium.ru)
  • Neste trabalho foi realizada a análise dos genes de fotopigmentos visuais e da morfologia dos fotorreceptores de duas espécies de serpentes da família Viperidae, Bothrops jararaca e Crotalus durissus terrificus. (usp.br)
  • Anita Malhotra, Roger S. Thorpe, Peng Guo, Mrinalini and Thomas Ziegler (2008) Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals a new member of the Asian pitviper genus Viridovipera (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae). (gbif.org)
  • RONALD L. GUTBERLET JR, JENNAFER A. EVANS, CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON (2009) Morphological and molecular evidence for phylogeny and classification of South American pitvipers, genera Bothrops, Bothriopsis, and Bothrocophias (Serpentes: Viperidae). (gbif.org)
  • Ferrarezzi, H. & Freire, E.M.X. (2001) New species of Bothrops Wagler, 1824 from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil (Serpentes, Viperidae, Crotalinae). (gbif.org)
  • Salomão, M.G., W. Wüster, R.S. Thorpe & BBBSP (1999) MtDNA phylogeny of Neotropical pitvipers of the genus Bothrops (Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). (gbif.org)
  • Haltung, Pflege und Nachzucht der Westafrikanischen Augenfleck-Sandrasselotter Echis ocellatus STEMMLER 1970 (Serpentes: Viperidae: Viperninae). (reptarium.cz)
  • Notes on African carpet vipers, Echis carinatus, Echis leucogaster and Echis ocellatus (Viperidae, Serpentes). (reptarium.cz)
  • When continents collide: Phylogeny, historical biogeography and systematics of the medically important viper genus Echis (Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). (reptarium.cz)
  • Serpentes, Viperidae). (reptarium.cz)
  • The Viperidae (vipers) are a family of venomous snakes found in most parts of the world, with the exception of Antarctica, Australia, Hawaii, Madagascar, various other isolated islands, and north of the Arctic Circle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Africa is home to four venomous snake families-Atractaspididae, Colubridae, Elapidae, and Viperidae-approximately 60% of all bites are caused by vipers alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0577-5537 (2009) 'Comparative venom gland transcriptome surveys of the saw-scaled vipers (Viperidae: Echis) reveal substantial intra-family gene diversity and novel venom transcripts. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • Crotalus is a genus of venomous pit vipers in the family Viperidae , known as rattlesnakes or rattlers . (wikipedia.org)
  • These species are predominately from Elapidae and Viperidae families, but the majority of these species are from the family Viperidae (vipers and pit vipers). (intechopen.com)
  • Here, we show that vipers (Squamata:Viperidae) inhabiting hot, highly radiative and superficially conductive substrates have evolved bright ventra for efficient heat transfer. (nature.com)
  • however, there are some exotic poisonous snakes in the zoos and private collections, such as those belonging to the Elapidae family (cobras, mambas, coral snakes, etc.) and the Crotalidae subfamily of the Viperidae family (pit vipers, such as rattlesnakes). (mdpi.com)
  • There are two major families of venomous snakes, Elapidae and Viperidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three hundred twenty five species in 61 genera are recognized in the family Elapidae and 224 species in 22 genera are recognized in the family Viperidae, In addition, the most diverse and widely distributed snake family, the colubrids, has approximately 700 venomous species, but only five genera-boomslangs, twig snakes, keelback snakes, green snakes, and slender snakes-have caused human fatalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we performed genetic analysis of the opsin genes and morphological analysis of the photoreceptors of two snakes from the Viperidae family, Bothrops jararaca and Crotalus durissus terrificus. (usp.br)
  • Death due to intraperitoneal (IP) injection of a predetermined lethal dose of venom from major families of snakes, for instance Crotalidae, Elapidae, Viperidae and Hydrophiidae, is prevented in mice by subsequent IP inoculation of LTNF. (scielo.br)
  • On the phylogenetic relationships of Colubrinae , Elapidae, and Viperidae and the evolution of front-fanged venom systems in snakes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • While it's interesting that the majority of horned snakes belong to the same group (Viperidae), the diversity of horn-like structures, and the ecologies and lifestyles of the snakes in question, suggest that horns evolved for diverse reasons. (scienceblogs.com)
  • A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Viperidae snakes are represented in South America by Crotalus, Bothrops, Bothriopsis and Lachesis . (hindawi.com)
  • The family Viperidae is the largest family of venomous snakes, and members can be found in Africa, Europe, Asia, and the Americas. (medscape.com)
  • Snake venom can be classified into hemotoxic, neurotoxic, necrotoxic, cardiotoxic, and nephrotoxic according to the different predominant effects depending on the family (i.e., venom of Crotalidae and Viperidae snakes is more hemotoxic and necrotoxic, whereas venom of Elapidae family is mainly neurotoxic). (mdpi.com)
  • GERNOT VOGEL & ALAIN DUBOIS (2011) On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lace´pe`de, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). (gbif.org)
  • Viperidae, subfamily Crotalinae, includes the Crotalus genus (rattlesnakes), Agkistrodon genus (copperheads and cottonmouths) and the Bothrops genus (Ferdelance). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The positioning of macrochromosomes of Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops insularis (Viperidae) was studied in undistorted radial metaphases of uncultured cells (spermatogonia and oogonia) not subjected to spindle inhibitors. (oalib.com)
  • We describe the interaction of various phospholipases A2 (PLA2) from snake venoms of the family Viperidae (Macrovipera lebetina obtusa, Vipera ursinii renardi, Bothrops asper) with giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of natural brain phospholipids mixture, visualized through fluorescence microscopy. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • it is a member of the subfamily Crotalinae in the family Viperidae . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bitis, snake genus belonging to the venomous viper family Viperidae, including the puff adders (e.g. (britannica.com)
  • Similar aspects of nuclei configurations, endomitosis and reductional mitosis were found in other Viperidae and Colubridae species. (oalib.com)
  • While neurotoxins are common components of the Hydrophidae and Elapidae species venom, we will focus on Viperidae venom which is generally comprised of hemostatically active components. (chargedmagazine.org)
  • The coagulation abilities of some Viperidae species like the pit viper are enough to turn free flowing blood into a gooey solid similar to the strawberry jam pictured. (chargedmagazine.org)
  • Viperidae species consist of approximately 50-100% of listed species in each geographical area and make up just over 60% of the entire list ( Table 1 ). (intechopen.com)
  • These two species are found in the viper family (Viperidae). (maryland.gov)
  • In North America, the venomous species are members of the families Elapidae and Viperidae, subfamily Crotalidae. (medscape.com)
  • Knight and Mindell (1994) sequenced portions of the mitochondrial 12s and 16s ribosomal RNA genes to address the relationships of the Colubrinae , Elapidae, and Viperidae. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The animal is known as ' bitis arietans ' and belongs to the Viperidae family. (thenational.ae)
  • Family Viperidae (copperheads, cottonmouths, rattlesnakes). (ecode360.com)
  • This DRYAD package contains the input files and data used for the project: Reticulate evolution in Nuclear Middle America causes discordance in the phylogeny of palm-pitvipers (Viperidae: Bothriechis). (datadryad.org)
  • moccasin: …the viper family (Viperidae): the water moccasin (Agkistrodon piscivorus) or the Mexican moccasin (A. bilineatus). (britannica.com)
  • This review focuses on group II PLA2s endowed with myotoxic effects, present in Viperidae venoms. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Phospholipases A2 From Viperidae Snake Venoms: How do They Induce Skeletal Muscle Damage? (ucr.ac.cr)
  • The vast majority of the 2.5 million annual worldwide venomous snakebites are attributed to Viperidae or Elapidae envenomations. (usda.gov)
  • Family Viperidae (copperheads, cottonmouths, rattlesnakes). (ecode360.com)
  • Natural hybridization between the puff adder and gaboon viper in Zululand (Serpentes: Viperidae). (reptarium.cz)