Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
Deliberate, often repetitive physical, verbal, and/or other types of abuse by one or more members against others of a household.
Women who are physically and mentally abused over an extended period, usually by a husband or other dominant male figure. Characteristics of the battered woman syndrome are helplessness, constant fear, and a perceived inability to escape. (From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3d ed)
Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.
Individuals subjected to and adversely affected by criminal activity. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Unlawful sexual intercourse without consent of the victim.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
The killing of one person by another.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
Deliberate and planned acts of unlawful behavior engaged in by aggrieved segments of the population in seeking social change.
Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.
The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.
Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.
Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.
Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A state of social disorganization and demoralization in society which is largely the result of disharmony between cultural goals and the means for attaining them. This may be reflected in the behavior of the individual in many ways - non-conformity, social withdrawal, deviant behavior, etc.
A form of discrimination in the workplace which violates the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Sexual harassment takes two forms: quid pro quo, where the employee must submit to sexual advances in exchange for job benefits or be penalized for refusing; or a hostile environment, where the atmosphere of the workplace is offensive and affects the employee's well-being. Offensive sexual conduct may include unwelcome advances, comments, touching, questions about marital status and sex practices, etc. Both men and women may be aggressors or victims. (Slee and Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed, p.404). While civil rights legislation deals with sexual harassment in the workplace, the behavior is not restricted to this; it may take place outside the work environment: in schools and colleges, athletics, and other social milieus and activities.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.
Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
Persons who were child victims of violence and abuse including physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Married persons, i.e., husbands and wives, or partners. Domestic partners, or spousal equivalents, are two adults who have chosen to share their lives in an intimate and committed relationship, reside together, and share a mutual obligation of support for the basic necessities of life.
Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.
The interactions between parent and child.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Male-associated sex-specific social roles and behaviors unrelated to biologic function.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Devices or tools used in combat or fighting in order to kill or incapacitate.
Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, increased arousal, and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world. Traumatic stress disorders can be further classified by the time of onset and the duration of these symptoms.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Sexual activities of humans.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.
Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.
Sexual maltreatment of the child or minor.
Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Chicago" is a specific location and a major city in the United States, not a medical term or condition with a defined meaning within the medical field. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition in a singular sentence or otherwise. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or medical terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!
Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing significant life stressors.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
An emotional attitude excited by realization of a shortcoming or impropriety.
The status of health in urban populations.
Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Baltimore" doesn't have a specific medical definition as it is commonly associated with a city in Maryland, USA, or it could refer to various unrelated medical concepts which are not substantial or standard enough to be considered as a formal medical term.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Reactions to an event or set of events which are considered to be of pathological degree, that have not developed into a neurosis, psychosis, or personality disorder with fixed patterns.
Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.
A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.
Struggle or disagreement between parents, parent and child or other members of a family.
Factors associated with the definitive onset of a disease, illness, accident, behavioral response, or course of action. Usually one factor is more important or more obviously recognizable than others, if several are involved, and one may often be regarded as "necessary". Examples include exposure to specific disease; amount or level of an infectious organism, drug, or noxious agent, etc.
Emotional, nutritional, financial, or physical maltreatment, exploitation, or abandonment of the older person generally by family members or by institutional personnel.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.
People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.
Interactions between health personnel and patients.
Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A behavior therapy technique in which deep muscle relaxation is used to inhibit the effects of graded anxiety-evoking stimuli.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.
Aggressive behavior intended to cause harm or distress. The behavior may be physical or verbal. There is typically an imbalance of power, strength, or status between the target and the aggressor.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Female parents, human or animal.
The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Psychoanalytic theory focusing on interpretation of behavior in reference to self. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 1994) This elaboration of the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and the self, was developed by Heinz Kohut, and stresses the importance of the self-awareness of excessive needs for approval and self-gratification.
Psychotherapy used specifically for unmarried couples, of mixed or same sex. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Philadelphia, in a medical context, does not have a specific definition as it is a city and not a term used for diagnosis or clinical condition; however, it is known for being the location of several major hospitals and medical institutions, including the University of Pennsylvania Health System and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iraq" is a country located in the Middle East and it doesn't have a medical definition. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I'd be happy to try to help answer them!
The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
A form of psychotherapy involving the husband and wife and directed to improving the marital relationship.
Interaction between a mother and child.
Educational institutions.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
The prevailing temper or spirit of an individual or group in relation to the tasks or functions which are expected.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.
Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.

Bioterrorism alleging use of anthrax and interim guidelines for management--United States, 1998. (1/1954)

From October 30 through December 23, 1998, CDC received reports of a series of bioterroristic threats of anthrax exposure. Letters alleged to contain anthrax were sent to health clinics on October 30, 1998, in Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. During December 17-23 in California, a letter alleged to contain anthrax was sent to a private business, and three telephone threats of anthrax contamination of ventilation systems were made to private and public buildings. All threats were hoaxes and are under investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and local law enforcement officials. The public health implications of these threats were investigated to assist in developing national public health guidelines for responding to bioterrorism. This report summarizes the findings of these investigations and provides interim guidance for public health authorities on bioterrorism related to anthrax.  (+info)

Marijuana use among minority youths living in public housing developments. (2/1954)

Youths residing in public housing developments appear to be at markedly heightened risk for drug use because of their constant exposure to violence, poverty, and drug-related activity. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a model of marijuana etiology with adolescents (N = 624) residing in public housing. African-American and Hispanic seventh graders completed questionnaires about their marijuana use, social influences to smoke marijuana, and sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics. Results indicated that social influences, such as friends' marijuana use and perceived ease of availability of marijuana, significantly predicted both occasional and future use of marijuana. Individual characteristics such as antimarijuana attitudes and drug refusal skills also predicted marijuana use. The findings imply that effective prevention approaches that target urban youths residing in public housing developments should provide them with an awareness of social influences to use marijuana, correct misperceptions about the prevalence of marijuana smoking, and train adolescents in relevant psychosocial skills.  (+info)

Developing a plan for primary health care facilities in Soweto, South Africa. Part I: Guiding principles and methods. (3/1954)

The new political era in South Africa offers unique opportunities for the development of more equitable health care policies. However, resource constraints are likely to remain in the foreseeable future, and efficiency therefore remains an important concern. This article describes the guiding principles and methods used to develop a coherent and objective plan for comprehensive primary health care facilities in Soweto. The article begins with an overview of the context within which the research was undertaken. Problems associated with planning in transition are highlighted, and a participatory research approach is recommended as a solution to these problems. The article goes on to describe how the research methods were developed and applied in line with the principles of participatory research. The methods were essentially rapid appraisal techniques which included group discussions, detailed checklists, observation, record reviews and the adaptation of international and local guidelines for service planning. It is suggested that these methods could be applied to other urban areas in South Africa and elsewhere, and that they are particularly appropriate in periods of transition when careful facilitation of dialogue between stakeholders is required in tandem with the generation of rapid results for policy-makers.  (+info)

Measuring intermediate outcomes of violence prevention programs targeting African-American male youth: an exploratory assessment of the psychometric properties of six psychosocial measures. (4/1954)

This study examined the psychometric properties of six psychosocial measures that may be useful indicators of intermediate outcomes of violence prevention programs targeting African-American male youth. Baseline and 6 month follow-up survey data are used from 223 African-American male 12-16 year olds participating in a violence prevention program evaluation study. The constructs of interest are beliefs supporting aggression, aggressive conflict-resolution style, hostility, ethnic identity, self-esteem and hopelessness. Each construct is measured as a multi-item scale. Exploratory factor analysis results provided limited support for the unidimensionality of these scales, thus suggesting that further scale development is warranted. Reliability coefficients for the scales ranged from 0.55 to 0.80. Bivariate analyses with baseline data indicate that all six measures have construct and criterion-related validity, as they are associated with each other and with four behavioral criteria in the expected directions. Predictive validity was also demonstrated for beliefs supporting aggression, aggressive conflict-resolution style, hostility and hopelessness which were associated with weapon-carrying behaviors measured in the 6 month follow-up survey both before and after controlling for corresponding behaviors measured in the baseline survey.  (+info)

Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of cardinal posttraumatic stress symptoms in school-age children. (5/1954)

OBJECTIVES: This report examines the reliability and validity of Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of the cardinal symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: We measured exposure to community violence through the reports of children and their parents and then administered Darryl to a sample of 110 children aged 7 to 9 residing in urban neighborhoods with high crime rates. RESULTS: Darryl's reliability is excellent overall and is acceptable for the reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales, considered separately. Child reports of exposure to community violence were significantly associated with child reports of PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Darryl possesses acceptable psychometric properties in a sample of children with frequent exposure to community violence.  (+info)

What pediatricians can do to further youth violence prevention--a qualitative study. (6/1954)

OBJECTIVE: Youth violence is a public health problem world wide. However, the United States has the worst rate of youth violence among industralized countries. This study was conducted to learn what pediatricians, community leaders, and parents think the doctor's role is in youth violence prevention during the well-child examination for children. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with pediatricians, community leaders, and parents living or working in Los Angeles, California. RESULTS: All three groups interviewed believed that the physician should incorporate violence prevention counseling as part of the well-child examination. The mechanism of action differed for the three groups. Almost half of pediatricians' statements focused on their role as prevention counselor, with respect to such issues as appropriate discipline and gun safety. One third of community leaders' statements, however, related to physician referral to existing community resources. More than half of parents' statements referred to the pediatrician as someone who can directly educate their child about making positive choices. CONCLUSIONS: Although pediatricians cannot solve the problem of youth violence alone, findings from this study suggest that they should address this issue with their patients and should work in tandem with existing community resources to further a solution to this growing epidemic.  (+info)

A new paradigm of injury intentionality. (7/1954)

OBJECTIVE: To improve understanding of processes leading to injury and assess more specifically the degree of intentionality. METHODS: A new paradigm was developed that characterizes the act of inflicting injury (self, other, not inflicted) and the motive. Motives are determined for the act of injury and for the outcome. To test this, 986 cases of adolescent injuries in seven hospitals were reviewed. Three investigators independently classified all cases using the new paradigm and three used standard definitions of intent. Inter-rater reliability was measured. RESULTS: Of injuries inflicted by others, 61% were intentional using the standard classification. In the new paradigm 67% were intended acts and 59% involved intentional motive for outcome. Altogether 87% of sports injuries were coded as unintentional acts compared with 96% using standard methods. Using standard classification there was 93% agreement between paired raters, with an average kappa of 0.86. In the new paradigm questions on intentionality of act, outcome, and infliction of act, the agreement was 89%, 91%, 88%, with a kappa of 0.79, 0.80, 0.76, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This paradigm defines a spectrum of injury intent, enhances understanding of the causal sequence of injury, and has important implications for research and prevention.  (+info)

Evaluating the impact of a street barrier on urban crime. (8/1954)

OBJECTIVES: Violence is a major urban public health problem in the United States. The impact of a physical barrier placed across a street in a public housing project to prevent street violence and drug activity was evaluated. METHODS: Hartford Police Department data on violent and drug related crime incidence within the housing project containing the barrier were analyzed by use of a computerized geographic information system. RESULTS: Violent crime decreased 33% on the intervention street during the 15 month period after erection of the barrier, compared with the 15 month period before erection of the barrier, but there was no change in drug related crime. On adjoining streets and surrounding blocks, violent crime decreased 30%-50% but drug related crimes roughly doubled. A non-adjacent area of the housing project and the entire city experienced 26% and 15% decreases in violent crimes, and 414% and 25% increases in drug crimes, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The barrier decreased violent crime but displaced drug crimes to surrounding areas of the housing project. These results have important implications for other cities that have erected or are considering erecting similar barriers.  (+info)

Violence is not typically defined in medical terms, but it can be described as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation. This definition is often used in public health and medical research to understand the impact of violence on health outcomes.

Domestic violence is defined by the World Health Organization as:

"...a pattern of behavior in any relationship that is used to gain or maintain power and control over an intimate partner. Abusive behaviors can include physical, sexual, emotional, economic, and psychological actions or threats of actions that influence another person. This includes any behaviors that intimidate, manipulate, humiliate, isolate, frighten, terrorize, coerce, threaten, blame, hurt, injure, or wound someone."

It's important to note that domestic violence can occur in both heterosexual and same-sex relationships, and it can affect people of any race, ethnicity, age, economic status, or level of education. Domestic violence is a pervasive global health problem that affects millions of individuals and families worldwide.

"Battered Women" is a term used to describe women who have experienced repeated physical, emotional, sexual, or psychological abuse at the hands of an intimate partner. This pattern of behavior is often characterized by a power imbalance in the relationship, with the abuser using various tactics to control and intimidate the victim.

The term "battered" implies that the woman has been subjected to ongoing and severe violence, which can include punching, kicking, choking, burning, or use of weapons. Emotional abuse may involve threats, humiliation, isolation, or manipulation.

Battered women often experience a range of physical, emotional, and psychological symptoms as a result of the abuse, including anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and chronic pain. They may also face significant barriers to seeking help, such as fear of retaliation from their abuser, shame, or lack of resources.

It is important to note that anyone can be a victim of domestic violence, regardless of gender, age, race, or socioeconomic status. However, women are disproportionately affected by intimate partner violence, and the term "battered women" is often used to describe this specific population.

Sex offenses are criminal acts that involve sexual misconduct or non-consensual sexual contact with another person. These crimes can range from non-contact offenses such as exhibitionism and voyeurism, to forcible rape and sexual assault. Sex offenses also include the crime of sexual abuse, which involves engaging in sexual contact with a minor or vulnerable adult who is unable to give consent due to age, disability, or incapacitation.

The legal definition of sex offenses varies by jurisdiction, but generally includes any form of unwanted sexual touching, forced penetration, or exploitation of another person for sexual gratification without their consent. In addition, some sex offenses may involve the production, distribution, or possession of child pornography, as well as other forms of sexual exploitation.

Those convicted of sex offenses often face severe penalties, including lengthy prison sentences, fines, and mandatory registration as a sex offender. The stigma associated with being labeled a sex offender can also have long-lasting consequences on an individual's personal and professional life, making it difficult to find employment or housing.

A crime victim is a person who has suffered direct or threatened physical, emotional, or financial harm as a result of the commission of a crime. According to the United States Department of Justice, victims of crime may experience a range of negative effects including physical injury, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and financial losses.

Crime victimization can take many forms, such as assault, robbery, homicide, sexual assault, domestic violence, child abuse, identity theft, and fraud. In addition to the immediate harm caused by criminal acts, victims may also face long-term challenges related to their recovery, including emotional trauma, difficulty trusting others, and economic instability.

Many countries have laws and policies in place to support crime victims and provide them with access to resources and services. These can include victim compensation programs, counseling and therapy services, and legal assistance. In the United States, for example, the Victims of Crime Act (VOCA) provides funding for victim services through a federal grant program administered by the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC).

Overall, the medical definition of 'crime victims' refers to individuals who have been directly or indirectly harmed by criminal behavior and may require support and resources to help them recover from their experiences.

Aggression is defined in medical terms as behavior that is intended to cause harm or damage to another individual or their property. It can take the form of verbal or physical actions and can be a symptom of various mental health disorders, such as intermittent explosive disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and dementia. Aggression can also be a side effect of certain medications or a result of substance abuse. It is important to note that aggression can have serious consequences, including physical injury, emotional trauma, and legal repercussions. If you or someone you know is experiencing problems with aggression, it is recommended to seek help from a mental health professional.

In medical terminology, "sexual partners" refers to individuals who engage in sexual activity with each other. This can include various forms of sexual contact, such as vaginal, anal, or oral sex. The term is often used in the context of discussing sexual health and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It's important to note that full disclosure of sexual partners to healthcare providers can help in diagnosing and treating STIs, as well as in understanding an individual's sexual health history.

Rape is a legal term and its exact definition varies by jurisdiction. However, in general, rape is a type of sexual assault involving sexual penetration without the consent of the victim. This can include vaginal, anal, or oral penetration with any body part or object. In many places, rape also includes situations where the victim is unable to give consent due to factors such as age, mental incapacity, or being under the influence of drugs or alcohol. It's important to note that force, threat of force, or coercion do not necessarily have to be present for the act to be considered rape, and lack of consent is the crucial factor.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

Homicide is a legal term used to describe the taking of another human life. It is not a medical diagnosis, but rather a legal concept that may result in criminal charges. In medical terms, it might be referred to as "unnatural death" or "violent death." The term itself does not carry a connotation of guilt or innocence; it simply describes the factual occurrence of one person causing the death of another.

The legal definition of homicide varies by jurisdiction and can encompass a range of criminal charges, from manslaughter to murder, depending on the circumstances and intent behind the act.

To the best of my knowledge, there is no medical definition for "courtship" as it is a term that is more commonly used in social and cultural contexts rather than in the field of medicine. Courtship generally refers to the period of time during which two people engage in various social activities to get to know each other and determine whether they are compatible before deciding to start a romantic relationship or get married.

However, it's worth noting that some aspects of courtship, such as dating and forming intimate relationships, can have implications for mental and physical health. For example, having positive and satisfying relationships is associated with better mental and physical health outcomes, while being in abusive or unhealthy relationships can negatively impact one's well-being.

Civil disorders refer to disturbances of peace and order in a civil society, often involving large groups of people engaging in protest, rioting, or other forms of disorderly conduct. These events can result in property damage, injury, and even loss of life. Civil disorders may be sparked by a variety of factors, including social inequality, political unrest, or economic instability. In the medical field, civil disorders can have significant impacts on public health, as they can disrupt access to healthcare services, increase the risk of violence and trauma, and exacerbate existing health disparities.

Child abuse is a broad term that refers to any form of physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment or neglect that causes harm to a child's health, development, or dignity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), child abuse includes:

1. Physical abuse: Non-accidental injuries caused by hitting, kicking, shaking, burning, or otherwise harming a child's body.
2. Sexual abuse: Any sexual activity involving a child, such as touching or non-touching behaviors, exploitation, or exposure to pornographic material.
3. Emotional abuse: Behaviors that harm a child's emotional well-being and self-esteem, such as constant criticism, humiliation, threats, or rejection.
4. Neglect: Failure to provide for a child's basic needs, including food, clothing, shelter, medical care, education, and emotional support.

Child abuse can have serious short-term and long-term consequences for the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of children. It is a violation of their fundamental human rights and a public health concern that requires prevention, early detection, and intervention.

Coercion, in a medical context, refers to the use of threat, manipulation, or intimidation to force someone to make a specific healthcare decision that they might not have made willingly or that is against their better judgment. This can occur in various situations, such as when a patient is pressured to undergo a treatment they do not fully understand or agree with, or when a healthcare provider makes decisions on behalf of an incapacitated patient without considering their previously expressed wishes or values. Coercion undermines the principles of informed consent and autonomy and can lead to negative outcomes for patients, including decreased trust in their healthcare providers and poorer health outcomes.

Women's rights, in a medical context, refer to the legal, social, and political rights and entitlements of women, specifically in relation to health, reproductive justice, and access to quality healthcare services. These rights encompass:

1. Autonomy over one's own body and medical decisions, including the right to informed consent and refusal of treatment.
2. Equitable access to comprehensive healthcare services, including sexual and reproductive healthcare, without discrimination based on gender, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or other factors.
3. Protection from coerced sterilization, forced pregnancy, and other forms of reproductive oppression.
4. Access to safe and legal abortion services, as well as emergency contraception and other family planning methods.
5. The right to high-quality maternal healthcare, including prenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postpartum care.
6. Protection from gender-based violence, including sexual assault, domestic violence, and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C).
7. The right to accurate and comprehensive health education, including information about sexual and reproductive health.
8. Representation and participation in healthcare decision-making processes at all levels, from individual patient care to policy development.
9. Access to culturally competent and respectful healthcare services that recognize and address the unique needs and experiences of women.
10. The right to privacy and confidentiality in healthcare settings, including protection of medical records and personal health information.

Firearms are not a medical condition or disease, so they do not have a medical definition. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

A firearm is a portable gun, being a weapon consisting of a tube or barrel from which shots, shells, or bullets are discharged by the action of gunpowder or other explosive. Firearms may be manual, semi-automatic, or automatic in their operation and can vary in size, shape, and capacity. They are used for various purposes, including hunting, sport shooting, self-defense, and law enforcement. It is important to note that the possession, use, and regulation of firearms are subject to laws and regulations that vary by country and jurisdiction.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "security measures" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a more general term that can be applied to various fields, including healthcare, and refers to the steps or actions taken to protect individuals, data, or systems from harm or unauthorized access. In a medical context, security measures might include things like physical security measures to protect patients and staff (such as locks on doors and surveillance cameras), as well as cybersecurity measures to protect patient data (such as encryption and firewalls).

Women's health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health needs, conditions, and concerns of women throughout their lifespan. It covers a broad range of topics including menstruation, fertility, pregnancy, menopause, breast health, sexual health, mental health, and chronic diseases that are more common in women such as osteoporosis and autoimmune disorders. Women's health also addresses issues related to gender-based violence, socioeconomic factors, and environmental impacts on women's health. It is aimed at promoting and maintaining the physical, emotional, and reproductive well-being of women, and preventing and treating diseases and conditions that disproportionately affect them.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "crime" is typically not used in a medical context. A crime is a violation of laws or regulations established by a government and enforced by its authorities. It's a legal concept, not a medical one. However, there are some overlaps between criminal behavior and mental health, as certain mental health conditions may increase the risk of criminal behavior. But it's essential to understand that having a mental health condition does not automatically make someone a criminal.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Adolescent behavior refers to the typical behaviors, attitudes, and emotions exhibited by individuals who are within the developmental stage of adolescence, which generally falls between the ages of 10-24 years old. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines an adolescent as "an individual who is in the process of growing from childhood to adulthood, and whose age ranges from 10 to 19 years." However, it's important to note that the specific age range can vary depending on cultural, societal, and individual factors.

During adolescence, individuals experience significant physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes that can influence their behavior. Some common behaviors exhibited by adolescents include:

1. Increased independence and autonomy seeking: Adolescents may start to challenge authority figures, question rules, and seek more control over their lives as they develop a stronger sense of self.
2. Peer influence: Adolescents often place greater importance on their relationships with peers and may engage in behaviors that are influenced by their friends, such as experimenting with substances or adopting certain fashion styles.
3. Risk-taking behavior: Adolescents are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as reckless driving, substance use, and unsafe sexual practices, due to a combination of factors, including brain development, peer pressure, and the desire for novelty and excitement.
4. Emotional volatility: Hormonal changes and brain development during adolescence can lead to increased emotional intensity and instability, resulting in mood swings, irritability, and impulsivity.
5. Identity exploration: Adolescents are often preoccupied with discovering their own identity, values, beliefs, and goals, which may result in experimentation with different hairstyles, clothing, hobbies, or relationships.
6. Cognitive development: Adolescents develop the ability to think more abstractly, consider multiple perspectives, and engage in complex problem-solving, which can lead to improved decision-making and self-reflection.
7. Formation of long-term relationships: Adolescence is a critical period for establishing close friendships and romantic relationships that can have lasting impacts on an individual's social and emotional development.

It is essential to recognize that adolescent development is a complex and dynamic process, and individual experiences may vary significantly. While some risky behaviors are common during this stage, it is crucial to provide support, guidance, and resources to help adolescents navigate the challenges they face and promote healthy development.

Juvenile delinquency is a term used in the legal system to describe illegal activities or behaviors committed by minors, typically defined as individuals under the age of 18. It's important to note that the specific definition and handling of juvenile delinquency can vary based on different jurisdictions and legal systems around the world.

The term is often used to describe a pattern of behavior where a young person repeatedly engages in criminal activities or behaviors that violate the laws of their society. These actions, if committed by an adult, would be considered criminal offenses.

Juvenile delinquency is handled differently than adult offenses, with a focus on rehabilitation rather than punishment. The goal is to address the root causes of the behavior, which could include factors like family environment, social pressures, mental health issues, or substance abuse. Interventions may include counseling, education programs, community service, or, in more serious cases, residential placement in a juvenile detention facility.

However, it's important to remember that the specifics of what constitutes juvenile delinquency and how it's handled can vary greatly depending on the legal system and cultural context.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

'Pregnant women' refers to female individuals who have conceived and are in the process of carrying a developing fetus inside their womb (uterus) until childbirth. This state is typically marked by various physiological changes, including hormonal fluctuations, weight gain, and growth of the uterus and breasts, among others. Pregnancy usually lasts for about 40 weeks, starting from the first day of the woman's last menstrual period (LMP) and is divided into three trimesters. Each trimester is characterized by different developmental milestones in the fetus. Regular prenatal care is essential to monitor the health and wellbeing of both the mother and the developing fetus, and to address any potential complications that may arise during pregnancy.

A wound is a type of injury that occurs when the skin or other tissues are cut, pierced, torn, or otherwise broken. Wounds can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, violence, surgery, or certain medical conditions. There are several different types of wounds, including:

* Incisions: These are cuts that are made deliberately, often during surgery. They are usually straight and clean.
* Lacerations: These are tears in the skin or other tissues. They can be irregular and jagged.
* Abrasions: These occur when the top layer of skin is scraped off. They may look like a bruise or a scab.
* Punctures: These are wounds that are caused by sharp objects, such as needles or knives. They are usually small and deep.
* Avulsions: These occur when tissue is forcibly torn away from the body. They can be very serious and require immediate medical attention.

Injuries refer to any harm or damage to the body, including wounds. Injuries can range from minor scrapes and bruises to more severe injuries such as fractures, dislocations, and head trauma. It is important to seek medical attention for any injury that is causing significant pain, swelling, or bleeding, or if there is a suspected bone fracture or head injury.

In general, wounds and injuries should be cleaned and covered with a sterile bandage to prevent infection. Depending on the severity of the wound or injury, additional medical treatment may be necessary. This may include stitches for deep cuts, immobilization for broken bones, or surgery for more serious injuries. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully to ensure proper healing and to prevent complications.

A "social environment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, but it is often used in the context of public health and social sciences to refer to the physical and social conditions, relationships, and organized institutions that influence the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

The social environment includes factors such as:

* Social support networks (family, friends, community)
* Cultural norms and values
* Socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation)
* Housing and neighborhood conditions
* Access to resources (food, healthcare, transportation)
* Exposure to discrimination, violence, and other stressors

These factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes, as they can influence behaviors related to health (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), as well as exposure to disease and access to healthcare. Understanding the social environment is essential for developing effective public health interventions and policies that promote health equity and reduce health disparities.

I'm happy to help, but I need to clarify that "residence characteristics" is not a commonly used medical term. It is more related to the field of public health or epidemiology. However, if you are asking for the characteristics of a residence that could be relevant to medical or health research, they might include:

1. Housing type (single-family home, apartment, mobile home, etc.)
2. Age and condition of the housing unit
3. Presence of environmental hazards (lead paint, asbestos, radon, etc.)
4. Quality of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems
5. Access to clean water and sanitation facilities
6. Safety features (smoke detectors, carbon monoxide detectors, etc.)
7. Presence of pests (rodents, cockroaches, bed bugs, etc.)
8. Neighborhood characteristics (crime rates, access to healthy food options, walkability, etc.)

These factors can all have an impact on the health outcomes of individuals and communities, and are often studied in public health research.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "workplace" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. The term "workplace" generally refers to a place where people work or carry out their jobs. It could be an office, a factory, a construction site, a retail store, or any other location where work-related activities take place.

If you're looking for a term related to health or medicine that describes a physical location, some examples might include "healthcare facility," "clinic," "hospital," "operating room," or "examination room." If you could provide more context or clarify what you're looking for, I'd be happy to help further!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "war" is not a medical term. It refers to a state of armed conflict between different nations or states or between political or social groups, usually with large-scale violence and loss of life. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social problems" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a broad term used in sociology and social work to refer to issues that affect large numbers of people within a society, such as poverty, discrimination, crime, and substance abuse. These issues can certainly have impacts on individuals' mental and physical health, but they are not considered medical conditions themselves. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terminology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Anomie is a term that originated from the work of French sociologist Émile Durkheim and it refers to a state of normlessness or a breakdown in social norms and values. It is not a medical term per se, but it has been used in various fields including psychology, sociology, and criminology to describe a condition of societal instability and the resulting feelings of purposelessness and alienation among individuals. In extreme cases, anomie can contribute to deviant behavior and social unrest.

Sexual harassment is not a medical diagnosis, but rather a form of unlawful discrimination and misconduct that is prohibited in many countries and workplaces. According to the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), sexual harassment is defined as:

"Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual's employment, unreasonably interferes with an individual's work performance, or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment."

Medical professionals may be involved in identifying and addressing the negative health consequences of sexual harassment, such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other mental and physical health problems.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Gunshot wounds are defined as traumatic injuries caused by the penetration of bullets or other projectiles fired from firearms into the body. The severity and extent of damage depend on various factors such as the type of firearm used, the distance between the muzzle and the victim, the size and shape of the bullet, and its velocity.

Gunshot wounds can be classified into two main categories:

1. Penetrating gunshot wounds: These occur when a bullet enters the body but does not exit, causing damage to the organs, tissues, and blood vessels along its path.

2. Perforating gunshot wounds: These happen when a bullet enters and exits the body, creating an entry and exit wound, causing damage to the structures it traverses.

Based on the mechanism of injury, gunshot wounds can also be categorized into low-velocity (less than 1000 feet per second) and high-velocity (greater than 1000 feet per second) injuries. High-velocity gunshot wounds are more likely to cause extensive tissue damage due to the transfer of kinetic energy from the bullet to the surrounding tissues.

Immediate medical attention is required for individuals with gunshot wounds, as they may experience significant blood loss, infection, and potential long-term complications such as organ dysfunction or disability. Treatment typically involves surgical intervention to control bleeding, remove foreign material, repair damaged structures, and manage infections if present.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

"Men" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It generally refers to adult male human beings. If you are looking for a medical definition related to males, there are several terms that could potentially fit based on the context. Here are some examples:

* Male: A person who is biologically determined to be male, typically having XY chromosomes, testes, and certain physical characteristics such as greater muscle mass and body hair compared to females.
* Men's health: Refers to the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical conditions that are more common or specific to males, such as prostate cancer, testicular cancer, and erectile dysfunction.
* Menopause: A natural biological process that occurs in women, typically in their 40s or 50s, when their ovaries stop producing hormones and menstrual periods cease. Although not directly related to males, it is worth noting that some men may experience symptoms similar to those of menopause due to a decline in testosterone levels as they age (a condition known as andropause).

I hope this helps clarify! Let me know if you have any further questions or need more information.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. It involves the emotional, psychological, and social aspects of an individual's health. Mental health is not just the absence of mental illness, it also includes positive characteristics such as resilience, happiness, and having a sense of purpose in life.

It is important to note that mental health can change over time, and it is possible for an individual to experience periods of good mental health as well as periods of poor mental health. Factors such as genetics, trauma, stress, and physical illness can all contribute to the development of mental health problems. Additionally, cultural and societal factors, such as discrimination and poverty, can also impact an individual's mental health.

Mental Health professionals like psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and other mental health counselors use different tools and techniques to evaluate, diagnose and treat mental health conditions. These include therapy or counseling, medication, and self-help strategies.

'Adult survivors of child abuse' is a term used to describe individuals who have experienced any form of abuse during their childhood, including physical, sexual, emotional, or neglect, and have reached adulthood. These individuals may face various ongoing challenges related to their past experiences, such as mental health issues, difficulties in forming relationships, trust issues, low self-esteem, and coping mechanisms that may impact their daily lives. They are often in need of support, therapy, and counseling to help them overcome the effects of their abuse and lead healthy, fulfilling lives.

Women's health services refer to medical services that are specifically designed, focused on, or tailored to the unique physiological and psychological needs of women, throughout various stages of their lives. These services encompass a wide range of healthcare areas including:

1. Gynecology and obstetrics - covering routine preventive care, family planning, prenatal and postnatal care, as well as management of gynecological conditions like menstrual disorders, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and reproductive system cancers (e.g., cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer).
2. Breast health - including breast cancer screening, diagnostics, treatment, and survivorship care, as well as education on breast self-examination and risk reduction strategies.
3. Mental health - addressing women's mental health concerns such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders, and perinatal mood disorders, while also considering the impact of hormonal changes, life events, and societal expectations on emotional wellbeing.
4. Sexual health - providing care for sexual concerns, dysfunctions, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as offering education on safe sexual practices and promoting healthy relationships.
5. Cardiovascular health - addressing women's specific cardiovascular risks, such as pregnancy-related complications, and managing conditions like hypertension and high cholesterol to prevent heart disease, the leading cause of death for women in many countries.
6. Bone health - focusing on prevention, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis and other bone diseases that disproportionately affect women, particularly after menopause.
7. Menopause care - providing support and treatment for symptoms related to menopause, such as hot flashes, sleep disturbances, and mood changes, while also addressing long-term health concerns like bone density loss and heart disease risk.
8. Preventive care - offering routine screenings and vaccinations specific to women's health needs, including cervical cancer screening (Pap test), breast cancer screening (mammography), human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and osteoporosis screening.
9. Education and counseling - empowering women with knowledge about their bodies, sexual and reproductive health, and overall wellbeing through evidence-based resources and support.
10. Integrative care - addressing the whole person, including mental, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing, by incorporating complementary therapies like acupuncture, mindfulness, and yoga into treatment plans as appropriate.

'Alcohol drinking' refers to the consumption of alcoholic beverages, which contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol) as the active ingredient. Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant that can cause euphoria, disinhibition, and sedation when consumed in small to moderate amounts. However, excessive drinking can lead to alcohol intoxication, with symptoms ranging from slurred speech and impaired coordination to coma and death.

Alcohol is metabolized in the liver by enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). The breakdown of ethanol produces acetaldehyde, a toxic compound that can cause damage to various organs in the body. Chronic alcohol drinking can lead to a range of health problems, including liver disease, pancreatitis, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and increased risk of cancer.

Moderate drinking is generally defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, where a standard drink contains about 14 grams (0.6 ounces) of pure alcohol. However, it's important to note that there are no safe levels of alcohol consumption, and any level of drinking carries some risk to health.

I apologize for any confusion, but "spouses" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general, a spouse refers to a person who is united to another in a marriage contract. The term can refer to either a husband or a wife. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Dangerous behavior is a term used to describe any action or inaction that has the potential to cause harm, injury, or damage to oneself or others. This can include a wide range of behaviors, such as:

* Physical violence or aggression towards others
* Substance abuse, including alcohol and drug use
* Risky sexual behavior, such as unprotected sex or multiple partners
* Self-harm, such as cutting or burning oneself
* Suicidal ideation or attempts
* Reckless driving or operating machinery while impaired
* Neglecting one's own health or the health of others

Dangerous behavior can be the result of a variety of factors, including mental illness, substance abuse, trauma, environmental factors, and personality traits. It is important to note that dangerous behavior can have serious consequences for both the individual engaging in the behavior and those around them. If you or someone you know is engaging in dangerous behavior, it is important to seek help from a qualified medical professional as soon as possible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Parent-Child Relations" is not a medical term per se. It falls more under the purview of psychology, social work, and sociology. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Parent-Child Relations refers to the nature and quality of the emotional, behavioral, and social relationships between parents (or primary caregivers) and their children. This relationship significantly influences a child's development, including their cognitive, emotional, social, and behavioral growth. Positive parent-child relations typically involve warmth, support, communication, consistency, and appropriate expectations, which contribute to healthy child development outcomes. On the other hand, negative or dysfunctional parent-child relations can lead to various developmental and psychological issues for the child.

In the context of medicine, risk-taking refers to the decision-making process where an individual or a healthcare provider knowingly engages in an activity or continues a course of treatment despite the potential for negative outcomes or complications. This could include situations where the benefits of the action outweigh the potential risks, or where the risks are accepted as part of the process of providing care.

For example, a patient with a life-threatening illness may choose to undergo a risky surgical procedure because the potential benefits (such as improved quality of life or increased longevity) outweigh the risks (such as complications from the surgery or anesthesia). Similarly, a healthcare provider may prescribe a medication with known side effects because the benefits of the medication for treating the patient's condition are deemed to be greater than the potential risks.

Risk-taking can also refer to behaviors that increase the likelihood of negative health outcomes, such as engaging in high-risk activities like substance abuse or dangerous sexual behavior. In these cases, healthcare providers may work with patients to identify and address the underlying factors contributing to their risky behaviors, such as mental health issues or lack of knowledge about safe practices.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poverty" is not a medical condition or term. It is a social condition defined by the World Bank as "pronounced deprivation in well-being," and measured through indicators such as income, consumption, and access to basic services. Poverty can have significant impacts on health outcomes and healthcare access, but it is not considered a medical diagnosis. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try my best to help answer them!

Gender Identity is a deeply-held sense of being male, female, or something else and may not necessarily correspond to an individual's biological sex. It is a personal experience of gender that may include a person's sense of the role they should play in society, their self-image, expectations of how they should be treated by others, and their feelings about their bodies. This concept is a fundamental aspect of a person's self-concept and psychological well-being. It is separate from a person's sexual orientation.

The American Psychiatric Association states that "gender identity refers to a person’s internal sense of gender, or the feeling of being male, female, or something else." According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "gender identity refers to a person’s deeply-felt sense of being male, female or something else and may not necessarily correspond to an individual’s biological sex."

It's important to note that gender identity is a complex and nuanced concept, and it can change over time for some individuals. It's also distinct from sexual orientation, which refers to a person's emotional, romantic, or sexual attraction to other people.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Human rights abuses in a medical context can refer to violations of the right to health, which is a fundamental human right recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations. This includes:

* Denial of access to necessary healthcare, including sexual and reproductive health services
* Discrimination in the provision of healthcare based on race, ethnicity, gender, age, disability, sexual orientation, or other status
* Use of torture or other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment in healthcare settings
* Experimentation on human subjects without their informed consent
* Violation of confidentiality and privacy in the provision of healthcare services
* Inhumane living conditions in places of detention, such as prisons and immigration detention centers, which can lead to negative health outcomes.

Additionally, Human rights abuses can also refer to violations of other human rights that have an impact on a person's health, such as:

* Violence against women, children, LGBTQ+ individuals, minorities and other marginalized groups
* Forced displacement and migration
* Denial of the right to education, food, water and sanitation
* Inhumane working conditions
* Torture and ill-treatment
* Arbitrary detention and enforced disappearances
* Violations of freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly.

These abuses can lead to physical and mental health problems, including chronic illnesses, disabilities, and psychological trauma. They can also exacerbate existing health conditions and make it more difficult for individuals to access necessary healthcare services.

I must clarify that I'm a helpful assistant and not a doctor, but I can tell you that 'politics' is not a term used in medicine. Politics refers to the activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate or conflict among individuals or groups having or hoping to achieve power. If you have any medical questions, feel free to ask!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "masculinity" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a social and cultural concept related to the attitudes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with boys and men. Masculinity can vary greatly across different cultures and societies, and may include traits such as strength, courage, independence, and assertiveness. However, it's important to note that these traits are not exclusive to males, and people of any gender can embody them. It's also worth mentioning that toxic forms of masculinity, which emphasize stoicism, emotional repression, and aggression, can have negative impacts on mental and physical health.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Formal social control, in the context of medical sociology or health sciences, refers to the systematic mechanisms and processes through which society regulates and guides the behavior of its members in accordance with established laws, rules, and norms, particularly in relation to health and healthcare. This can include various formal institutions and agencies such as governmental bodies, regulatory authorities, professional organizations, and healthcare providers that are responsible for enforcing standards, policies, and regulations aimed at ensuring quality, safety, and effectiveness of healthcare services and products.

Examples of formal social control in healthcare may include licensing and accreditation requirements for healthcare professionals and facilities, clinical guidelines and protocols for diagnosis and treatment, quality improvement initiatives, and regulatory oversight of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. These mechanisms help to maintain order, promote compliance with ethical and professional standards, and protect the public's health and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poverty Areas" is not a standard medical term or classification. However, in a broader social determinants of health context, poverty is recognized as a significant factor that can impact an individual's health outcomes and access to healthcare.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines poverty as "pronounced deprivation in well-being," which includes but is not limited to lack of income and economic opportunities. The WHO also acknowledges that poverty is a major cause of ill-health and premature death around the world.

If you are referring to a specific term or concept that goes by a different name, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

In the context of medical law and ethics, "weapons" may refer to objects or substances that can cause harm or injury to individuals. This can include firearms, knives, and other types of physical weapons, as well as biological or chemical agents that can cause harm if used intentionally. In a healthcare setting, the term "weapons" might also refer to any object that is used in a threatening or harmful manner, such as using a medical instrument as a bludgeon. It's important to note that the use of weapons in a healthcare setting is generally prohibited and can give rise to legal and ethical concerns.

Traumatic stress disorders are a category of mental health conditions that occur after exposure to a traumatic event or series of events. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) recognizes several types of traumatic stress disorders, including:

1. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): This disorder occurs after a person experiences or witnesses a traumatic event, such as combat, sexual assault, or a natural disaster. Symptoms include avoidance of reminders of the trauma, intrusive thoughts about the event, negative changes in mood and cognition, alterations in arousal and reactivity, and disturbances in sleep and concentration.
2. Acute Stress Disorder (ASD): This disorder is similar to PTSD but has a shorter duration. It occurs after exposure to a traumatic event and lasts for less than a month. Symptoms include dissociation, intrusive thoughts about the event, and avoidance of reminders of the trauma.
3. Adjustment Disorders: These disorders occur in response to a stressor or change in life circumstances, such as the loss of a job or the death of a loved one. Symptoms include anxiety, depression, and disturbances in conduct.
4. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED): These disorders occur in children who have experienced neglect or abuse and have difficulty forming attachments to caregivers.

It's important to note that traumatic stress disorders can have significant impacts on a person's daily functioning, relationships, and overall well-being. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of a traumatic stress disorder, it's essential to seek professional help from a mental health provider.

Child psychology is a branch of psychology that deals with the mental, emotional, and social development of children from birth to adolescence. It involves the study of children's behavior, thoughts, feelings, and relationships with others, including their families, peers, and teachers. Child psychologists use various research methods, such as observation, interviews, and testing, to understand how children develop and learn. They also work with children who have emotional, social, or behavioral problems, providing assessments, therapy, and counseling services to help them overcome these challenges. Additionally, child psychologists may provide consultation and training to parents, teachers, and other professionals who work with children.

In the context of medical terminology, "attitude" generally refers to the position or posture of a patient's body or a part of it. It can also refer to the mental set or disposition that a person has towards their health, illness, or healthcare providers. However, it is not a term that has a specific medical definition like other medical terminologies do.

For example, in orthopedics, "attitude" may be used to describe the position of a limb or joint during an examination or surgical procedure. In psychology, "attitude" may refer to a person's feelings, beliefs, and behaviors towards a particular object, issue, or idea related to their health.

Therefore, the meaning of "attitude" in medical terminology can vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South Africa" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located at the southernmost tip of the African continent. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others, lack of empathy, and manipulative behaviors. It is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as follows:

A. A consistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms and rules, as indicated by the presence of at least three of the following:

1. Failure to conform to social norms and laws, indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.
2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.
3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; indication of this symptom may include promiscuity.
4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.
6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.
7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

B. The individual is at least 18 years of age.

C. There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before the age of 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

E. The individual's criminal behavior has not been better explained by a conduct disorder diagnosis or antisocial behavior that began before the age of 15 years.

It's important to note that ASPD can be challenging to diagnose, and it often requires a comprehensive evaluation from a mental health professional with experience in personality disorders.

An emergency service in a hospital is a department that provides immediate medical or surgical care for individuals who are experiencing an acute illness, injury, or severe symptoms that require immediate attention. The goal of an emergency service is to quickly assess, stabilize, and treat patients who require urgent medical intervention, with the aim of preventing further harm or death.

Emergency services in hospitals typically operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and are staffed by teams of healthcare professionals including physicians, nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other allied health professionals. These teams are trained to provide rapid evaluation and treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, from minor injuries to life-threatening emergencies such as heart attacks, strokes, and severe infections.

In addition to providing emergency care, hospital emergency services also serve as a key point of entry for patients who require further hospitalization or specialized care. They work closely with other departments within the hospital, such as radiology, laboratory, and critical care units, to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate treatment. Overall, the emergency service in a hospital plays a crucial role in ensuring that patients receive prompt and effective medical care during times of crisis.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "war crimes" is a legal concept and does not fall under the category of medical definitions. War crimes are serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in armed conflicts. They include acts such as deliberate attacks on civilians or civilian infrastructure, torture, hostage-taking, and the use of weapons that cause unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury.

If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Law Enforcement" is a term that refers to the system or agencies responsible for enforcing laws and maintaining public order and safety. It is not a medical term. However, I can provide you with some related terms that are used in the medical field:

* Forensic science: The application of scientific methods and techniques to investigations by law enforcement agencies or courts of law.
* Forensic psychiatry: A medical subspecialty that deals with the application of clinical psychiatric knowledge to legal issues, such as determining competency to stand trial or assessing criminal responsibility.
* Forensic psychology: The application of psychological principles and methods to legal issues, such as evaluating a defendant's mental state at the time of an offense.
* Medical examiner/Coroner: A physician who investigates and determines the cause and manner of death in cases of sudden, unexpected or violent death. They are often called upon by law enforcement agencies to assist in death investigations.

Sexual child abuse is a form of abuse in which a child is engaged in sexual activities or exposed to sexual situations that are inappropriate and harmful for their age. This can include:

1. Sexual contact or intercourse with a child.
2. Exposing a child to pornography or using a child to produce pornographic materials.
3. Engaging in sexual acts in front of a child.
4. Inappropriately touching or fondling a child.
5. Using a child for sexual exploitation, including prostitution.

Sexual child abuse can have serious and long-lasting effects on a child's emotional, psychological, and physical well-being. It is important to report any suspected cases of sexual child abuse to the appropriate authorities immediately.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Women" is not a medical term that can be defined in a straightforward way. In medical contexts, "women" is often used to refer to adult human females, based on their biological sex characteristics. However, it's important to note that there are individuals who may be biologically male but identify as women, and they are also considered part of the female population in many medical and societal contexts.

In general, gender identity is a personal sense of being male, female, or something else. It's separate from biological sex, which refers to physical characteristics like chromosomes, hormone levels, and reproductive organs. Some people identify with the gender that matches their biological sex, while others may identify as the opposite gender, or as neither male nor female.

Therefore, it's important to consider both the biological and personal aspects of an individual's identity when discussing medical issues related to women.

I must clarify that I can't provide a "medical definition" of marriage, as the concept of marriage is a social, legal, and often religious institution, rather than a medical one. However, I can tell you that there are no medical definitions associated with the term "marriage." It is typically defined in terms of a committed relationship between two individuals, recognized by law and/or religion, which may involve shared responsibilities, rights, and obligations.

I apologize, but "Chicago" is not a medical term or concept. Chicago is the largest city in the state of Illinois and the third-most populous city in the United States. It's known for its impressive architecture, vibrant arts scene, and significant contributions to American culture, including jazz music, improvisational theater, and culinary innovations like deep-dish pizza and the Chicago-style hot dog.

If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, please feel free to ask!

Forensic psychiatry is a subspecialty of psychiatry that intersects with the law. It involves providing psychiatric expertise to legal systems and institutions. Forensic psychiatrists conduct evaluations, provide treatment, and offer expert testimony in criminal, civil, and legislative matters. They assess issues such as competency to stand trial, insanity, risk assessment, and testamentary capacity. Additionally, they may be involved in the treatment of offenders in correctional settings and providing consultation on mental health policies and laws. Forensic psychiatry requires a thorough understanding of both psychiatric and legal principles, as well as the ability to communicate complex psychiatric concepts to legal professionals and laypersons alike.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

In the context of public health and medical research, a peer group is a social group whose members have similar interests, concerns, or social positions. Peer groups can play an important role in shaping individual behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs, particularly during adolescence and young adulthood. In research, studying peer groups can help researchers understand how social norms and influences affect health-related behaviors, such as substance use, sexual behavior, and mental health. It's worth noting that the term "peer group" doesn't have a specific medical definition, but it is widely used in public health and medical research to refer to these types of social groups.

Qualitative research is a methodological approach in social sciences and healthcare research that focuses on understanding the meanings, experiences, and perspectives of individuals or groups within a specific context. It aims to gather detailed, rich data through various techniques such as interviews, focus groups, observations, and content analysis. The findings from qualitative research are typically descriptive and exploratory, providing insights into processes, perceptions, and experiences that may not be captured through quantitative methods.

In medical research, qualitative research can be used to explore patients' experiences of illness, healthcare providers' perspectives on patient care, or the cultural and social factors that influence health behaviors. It is often used in combination with quantitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of complex health issues.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Psychological resilience refers to the ability of an individual to adapt and cope effectively in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, or significant sources of stress. It is the capacity to "bounce back" from difficulties, maintain psychological well-being, and continue to function positively despite experiencing challenging life events. Psychological resilience involves various factors such as cognitive flexibility, problem-solving skills, positive self-esteem, adaptive coping strategies, and strong social support networks. It is not a fixed trait but can be developed and strengthened through personal growth, learning experiences, and supportive environments.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

In medical or clinical terms, 'shame' is not typically defined as it is a psychological concept and a basic human emotion. Shame is the painful feeling or experience of believing that you are flawed and therefore unworthy of acceptance and belonging. It's often triggered by a perception of failing to meet certain standards or expectations, or by feeling exposed and vulnerable.

In a clinical context, shame may be discussed in relation to mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and personality disorders. For example, individuals with borderline personality disorder may experience intense feelings of shame, which can contribute to their difficulties with regulating emotions and maintaining stable relationships.

It's important to note that while shame is a universal emotion, excessive or chronic shame can be harmful to one's mental health and well-being. In such cases, seeking help from a mental health professional may be beneficial.

Urban health is a branch of public health that focuses on the unique health challenges and disparities faced by urban populations. It encompasses the physical, mental, and social well-being of people living in urban areas, which are characterized by high population density, diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds, and unique environmental exposures.

Urban health addresses a range of issues, including infectious diseases, chronic conditions, injuries, violence, and mental health disorders, as well as the social determinants of health such as housing, education, income, and access to healthcare services. It also considers the impact of urbanization on health, including the effects of pollution, noise, crowding, and lack of green spaces.

The goal of urban health is to promote health equity and improve the overall health outcomes of urban populations by addressing these challenges through evidence-based interventions, policies, and programs that are tailored to the unique needs of urban communities.

"Family relations" is a broad term that refers to the various interactions, roles, and relationships between members of a family unit. This can include the dynamics between parents and children, siblings, extended family members, and any other individuals considered part of the family.

Family relations can be influenced by a variety of factors, including cultural background, individual personalities, life experiences, and family structure. These relationships can have a significant impact on an individual's emotional, social, and psychological development and well-being.

Positive family relations are characterized by open communication, mutual respect, support, and affection. On the other hand, negative family relations can be marked by conflict, hostility, neglect, and abuse. It is important to note that family relations can be complex and multifaceted, with both positive and negative aspects coexisting within the same family system.

In a medical context, understanding family relations can be crucial for healthcare providers in order to provide effective care and support to their patients. This may involve assessing family dynamics and communication patterns, as well as providing education and resources to help families navigate any challenges or conflicts that may arise.

African Americans are defined as individuals who have ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. This term is often used to describe people living in the United States who have total or partial descent from enslaved African peoples. The term does not refer to a single ethnicity but is a broad term that includes various ethnic groups with diverse cultures, languages, and traditions. It's important to note that some individuals may prefer to identify as Black or of African descent rather than African American, depending on their personal identity and background.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social values" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a broader social context, "social values" refer to the beliefs, principles, and standards that a group or society holds in regard to what is considered important, desirable, or acceptable. These values can influence attitudes, behaviors, and decisions related to health and healthcare. They may also impact medical research, policy-making, and patient care.

Adolescent psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the study of adolescents, their behavior, thoughts, and emotions. This field examines the cognitive, social, and emotional development of adolescents, as well as any challenges or mental health issues they may face during this stage of life. It also involves the application of psychological theories and principles to promote positive adolescent development and address adolescent mental health concerns. Adolescent psychologists work in various settings, including schools, clinics, hospitals, and private practices, providing assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and counseling services to adolescents and their families.

Child behavior refers to the actions, reactions, and interactions exhibited by children in response to their environment, experiences, and developmental stage. It is a broad term that encompasses various aspects, including emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development.

Child behavior can be categorized into two main types:

1. Desirable or positive behaviors - These are behaviors that promote healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include sharing toys, following rules, expressing emotions appropriately, and demonstrating empathy towards others.
2. Challenging or negative behaviors - These are behaviors that hinder healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include aggression, defiance, tantrums, anxiety, and withdrawal.

Understanding child behavior is crucial for parents, caregivers, educators, and healthcare professionals to provide appropriate support, guidance, and interventions to promote positive developmental outcomes in children. Factors influencing child behavior include genetics, temperament, environment, parenting style, and life experiences.

I'm not aware of any medical definition for the term "Baltimore." The term Baltimore is most commonly associated with a city in the state of Maryland, USA. It may also refer to various other unrelated things, such as a type of hound or a surname. If you could provide more context, I might be able to give a more helpful response.

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

I apologize for any confusion, but "students" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals who are engaged in studying or learning at an educational institution, such as a school, college, or university. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Reactive attachment disorders are a group of rare but serious conditions that can occur in children who have not formed healthy attachments with parents or caregivers during their early developmental years. These disorders are considered “reactive” because they develop as a reaction to stressful and traumatic experiences, such as neglect, abuse, or separation from primary caregivers.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) recognizes two subtypes of reactive attachment disorders:

1. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD): This disorder is characterized by markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness in most contexts. Children with RAD often exhibit a pattern of avoiding or resisting comfort when distressed, as well as difficulty relating to others in a positive, engaged manner. They may also show a lack of preference for caregivers and may not seek them out for comfort or support.
2. Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED): This disorder is characterized by a pattern of disinhibited and overly familiar behavior with unfamiliar adults. Children with DSED may approach and interact with strangers in an overly familiar manner, such as climbing into their laps or holding their hands, without any apparent concern for their own safety. They may also struggle to maintain appropriate social boundaries and may have difficulty regulating their emotions and behaviors in social situations.

It is important to note that reactive attachment disorders are not the result of typical changes in a child's behavior due to normal developmental stages or cultural factors. Instead, they represent significant impairments in a child's ability to form healthy attachments and regulate their emotions and behaviors in social situations. Early intervention and treatment, which may include individual, family, and/or group therapy, can help children with reactive attachment disorders develop more adaptive patterns of behavior and improve their overall functioning.

Alcoholic beverages are drinks that contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is produced by the fermentation of yeast, sugars, and starches. The amount of alcohol in a drink is measured in terms of "alcohol content" or "alcohol by volume" (ABV). Different types of alcoholic beverages include:

1. Beer: A fermented beverage made from grains, such as barley, wheat, or rye. The alcohol content of beer typically ranges from 3-6% ABV.
2. Wine: A fermented beverage made from grapes or other fruits. The alcohol content of wine usually falls between 10-15% ABV.
3. Spirits (or liquors): Distilled beverages with higher alcohol content, typically ranging from 40-50% ABV. Examples include vodka, whiskey, rum, gin, and tequila.
4. Fortified wines: Wines that have had a distilled spirit added to them, increasing their alcohol content. Examples include port, sherry, and madeira, which typically contain 17-20% ABV.
5. Malt beverages: Fermented beverages made from malted barley or other grains, with additional flavorings or sweeteners. These can range in alcohol content from around 4-8% ABV.

It is important to note that excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages can lead to various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, and an increased risk of accidents and injuries. Moderate drinking is generally defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, although individual tolerance and sensitivity to alcohol may vary.

Criminal law is a system of laws that governs criminal behavior and prescribes punishment for offenses. It defines conduct that is considered illegal and punishable by the state or federal government, and outlines the process for investigating, charging, and trying individuals accused of committing crimes. Criminal laws are designed to protect society from harm and maintain social order.

Crimes can be classified as either misdemeanors or felonies, depending on their severity. Misdemeanors are less serious offenses that are typically punishable by fines, community service, or short jail sentences. Felonies, on the other hand, are more serious crimes that can result in significant prison time and even the death penalty in some jurisdictions.

Examples of criminal offenses include murder, manslaughter, robbery, burglary, theft, assault, battery, sexual assault, fraud, and drug trafficking. Criminal laws vary from state to state and country to country, so it is important to consult with a qualified attorney if you are facing criminal charges.

Family conflict refers to disagreements or discord between family members, which can range from minor misunderstandings or differences in opinion to more serious issues such as communication breakdowns, emotional distress, and negative behaviors. These conflicts can arise from various sources, including differing values, beliefs, expectations, and parenting styles, as well as financial problems, substance abuse, and chronic illness. In some cases, family conflicts may be resolved through open communication, compromise, and counseling, while in other situations, they may lead to more serious consequences such as divorce, separation, or estrangement.

In medical terms, "precipitating factors" refer to specific events, actions, or circumstances that trigger the onset of a disease, symptom, or crisis in an individual who is already vulnerable due to pre-existing conditions. These factors can vary depending on the particular health issue, and they may include things like physical stress, emotional stress, environmental triggers, or changes in medication.

For example, in the context of a heart condition, precipitating factors might include strenuous exercise, exposure to extreme temperatures, or the use of certain drugs that increase heart rate or blood pressure. In mental health, precipitating factors for a depressive episode could include significant life changes such as the loss of a loved one, financial difficulties, or a major life transition.

Identifying and managing precipitating factors is an important aspect of preventative healthcare and disease management, as it can help individuals reduce their risk of experiencing negative health outcomes.

Elder abuse is a type of mistreatment or neglect that is committed against an older adult, typically defined as someone aged 60 or older. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), elder abuse includes "physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse; financial exploitation; neglect; and abandonment."

Elder abuse can occur in various settings, including the person's own home, nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and other institutional settings. The perpetrators of elder abuse can be family members, caregivers, acquaintances, or strangers.

The underlying causes of elder abuse are complex and multifaceted, but they often involve a combination of individual, relational, community, and societal factors. Risk factors for elder abuse include social isolation, cognitive impairment, functional dependence, past history of abuse, and caregiver stress or burnout.

Elder abuse can have serious consequences for the physical, emotional, and financial well-being of older adults. It is estimated that up to 10% of older adults experience some form of elder abuse, although the prevalence may be higher due to underreporting. Prevention efforts include increasing public awareness, improving education and training for caregivers, strengthening community support services, and enforcing laws and regulations that protect older adults from abuse and neglect.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Hispanic Americans, also known as Latino Americans, are individuals in the United States who are of Spanish-speaking origin or whose ancestors came from Spain, Mexico, Cuba, the Caribbean, Central and South America. This group includes various cultures, races, and nationalities. It is important to note that "Hispanic" refers to a cultural and linguistic affiliation rather than a racial category. Therefore, Hispanic Americans can be of any race, including White, Black, Asian, Native American, or mixed races.

I'm not aware of any medical definition for the term "Boston." It is a city in the state of Massachusetts, USA, and is widely known for its cultural institutions, such as Boston Symphony Orchestra, Boston Ballet, and The Museum of Fine Arts. Additionally, it is home to many renowned medical institutions, including Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. However, "Boston" does not have a specific meaning or definition in the medical field.

The term "family" in a medical context often refers to a group of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who consider themselves to be a single household. This can include spouses, parents, children, siblings, grandparents, and other extended family members. In some cases, the term may also be used more broadly to refer to any close-knit group of people who provide emotional and social support for one another, regardless of their biological or legal relationship.

In healthcare settings, understanding a patient's family dynamics can be important for providing effective care. Family members may be involved in decision-making about medical treatments, providing care and support at home, and communicating with healthcare providers. Additionally, cultural beliefs and values within families can influence health behaviors and attitudes towards medical care, making it essential for healthcare professionals to take a culturally sensitive approach when working with patients and their families.

"Focus groups" is a term from the field of social science research, rather than medicine. It does not have a specific medical definition. However, focus groups are sometimes used in medical research to gather data and insights from a small group of people on a specific topic or product. This can include gathering feedback on patient experiences, testing prototypes of medical devices or treatments, or exploring attitudes and perceptions related to health issues. The goal is to gain a deeper understanding of the perspectives and needs of the target population through facilitated group discussion.

Prostitution is not typically defined in medical terms, but it is a social and legal issue. However, in the context of public health, prostitution might be defined as the act or practice of engaging in sexual activity for payment, which can carry significant risks to physical and mental health, including exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), violence, and psychological trauma.

Prostitution is often associated with marginalization, poverty, and social inequality, and it can be a complex issue that involves questions of personal autonomy, consent, and human rights. It's important to note that the legal and cultural approaches to prostitution vary widely around the world, ranging from criminalization to decriminalization and legalization.

Agonistic behavior is a term used in ethology, the study of animal behavior, to describe interactions between individuals that are often competitive or hostile, but stop short of direct physical contact. These behaviors can include threats, displays, and counter-threats, as well as ritualized fighting. The term comes from the Greek word "agon," which means "competition" or "contest."

In a medical context, agonistic behavior might be used to describe competitive or hostile interactions between people, particularly in the context of mental health or psychiatric disorders. For example, a person with a personality disorder might exhibit agonistic behavior towards others as part of their pattern of manipulative or controlling behaviors. However, this is less common than the use of the term in ethology.

Medical professionals may use the term "social conditions" to refer to various environmental and sociological factors that can impact an individual's health and well-being. These conditions can include things like:

* Socioeconomic status (SES): This refers to a person's position in society, which is often determined by their income, education level, and occupation. People with lower SES are more likely to experience poor health outcomes due to factors such as limited access to healthcare, nutritious food, and safe housing.
* Social determinants of health (SDOH): These are the conditions in which people live, learn, work, and play that affect a wide range of health risks and outcomes. Examples include poverty, discrimination, housing instability, education level, and access to healthy foods and physical activity opportunities.
* Social support: This refers to the emotional, informational, and instrumental assistance that individuals receive from their social networks, including family, friends, neighbors, and community members. Strong social support is associated with better health outcomes, while lack of social support can contribute to poor health.
* Social isolation: This occurs when people are disconnected from others and have limited social contacts or interactions. Social isolation can lead to negative health outcomes such as depression, cognitive decline, and increased risk for chronic diseases.
* Community context: The physical and social characteristics of the communities in which people live can also impact their health. Factors such as access to green spaces, transportation options, and safe housing can all contribute to better health outcomes.

Overall, social conditions can have a significant impact on an individual's health and well-being, and addressing these factors is essential for promoting health equity and improving overall public health.

Sex workers are individuals who receive payment for performing sexual services or engaging in sexual activities with others. This can include various forms of sex work such as prostitution, pornography, stripping, and escort services. It is important to note that the ethical and legal considerations surrounding sex work are complex and vary greatly across different cultures, societies, and jurisdictions.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes that sex workers are a marginalized population who often face stigma, discrimination, and violence. In order to protect the health and human rights of sex workers, WHO recommends that sex work be recognized as a legitimate form of work and that sex workers have access to the same protections and rights as other workers. This includes access to healthcare services, education, and legal protection against abuse and discrimination.

Professional-patient relations, also known as physician-patient relationships or doctor-patient relationships, refer to the interactions and communications between healthcare professionals and their patients. It is a critical aspect of healthcare delivery that involves trust, respect, understanding, and collaboration. The American Medical Association (AMA) defines it as "a ethical relationship in which a physician, by virtue of knowledge and skills, provides medical services to a patient in need."

Professional-patient relations encompass various elements, including:

1. Informed Consent: Healthcare professionals must provide patients with adequate information about their medical condition, treatment options, benefits, risks, and alternatives to enable them to make informed decisions about their healthcare.
2. Confidentiality: Healthcare professionals must respect patients' privacy and maintain the confidentiality of their medical information, except in specific circumstances where disclosure is required by law or necessary for patient safety.
3. Communication: Healthcare professionals must communicate effectively with patients, listening to their concerns, answering their questions, and providing clear and concise explanations about their medical condition and treatment plan.
4. Empathy and Compassion: Healthcare professionals must demonstrate empathy and compassion towards their patients, recognizing their emotional and psychological needs and providing support and comfort when necessary.
5. Cultural Competence: Healthcare professionals must be aware of and respect cultural differences among their patients, adapting their communication style and treatment approach to meet the unique needs of each patient.
6. Shared Decision-Making: Healthcare professionals and patients should work together to make medical decisions based on the best available evidence, the patient's values and preferences, and the healthcare professional's expertise.
7. Continuity of Care: Healthcare professionals must ensure continuity of care for their patients, coordinating with other healthcare providers and ensuring that patients receive appropriate follow-up care.

Professional-patient relations are essential to achieving positive health outcomes, improving patient satisfaction, and reducing medical errors and adverse events. Healthcare professionals must maintain ethical and professional standards in their interactions with patients, recognizing the power imbalance in the relationship and striving to promote trust, respect, and collaboration.

Child advocacy refers to the act or process of advocating, supporting, or defending the rights and interests of children, particularly those who are vulnerable or at risk due to abuse, neglect, poverty, discrimination, or other challenging circumstances. Child advocacy can take many forms, including:

1. Direct services: Providing support and assistance to individual children and families, such as counseling, case management, legal representation, and medical care.
2. Systems reform: Working to change laws, policies, and practices that affect the lives of children, such as advocating for stronger child abuse reporting laws or better funding for child welfare services.
3. Education and awareness-raising: Providing information and resources to communities, professionals, and policymakers about the needs and rights of children, with the goal of promoting positive attitudes and behaviors towards children and families.
4. Research and evaluation: Conducting studies and evaluations to better understand the effectiveness of child advocacy interventions and to inform policy and practice.

Child advocates may work in a variety of settings, including nonprofit organizations, government agencies, schools, hospitals, and legal clinics. They may also be volunteers or community members who are committed to promoting the well-being of children.

In the context of healthcare, "safety" refers to the freedom from harm or injury that is intentionally designed into a process, system, or environment. It involves the prevention of adverse events or injuries, as well as the reduction of risk and the mitigation of harm when accidents do occur. Safety in healthcare aims to protect patients, healthcare workers, and other stakeholders from potential harm associated with medical care, treatments, or procedures. This is achieved through evidence-based practices, guidelines, protocols, training, and continuous quality improvement efforts.

Psychological models are theoretical frameworks used in psychology to explain and predict mental processes and behaviors. They are simplified representations of complex phenomena, consisting of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses that describe how various factors interact to produce specific outcomes. These models can be quantitative (e.g., mathematical equations) or qualitative (e.g., conceptual diagrams) in nature and may draw upon empirical data, theoretical insights, or both.

Psychological models serve several purposes:

1. They provide a systematic and organized way to understand and describe psychological phenomena.
2. They generate hypotheses and predictions that can be tested through empirical research.
3. They integrate findings from different studies and help synthesize knowledge across various domains of psychology.
4. They inform the development of interventions and treatments for mental health disorders.

Examples of psychological models include:

1. The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, which posits that individual differences in personality can be described along five broad dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
2. The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model, which suggests that maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected and can be changed through targeted interventions.
3. The Dual Process Theory of Attitudes, which proposes that attitudes are formed and influenced by two distinct processes: a rapid, intuitive process (heuristic) and a slower, deliberative process (systematic).
4. The Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations in shaping behavior.
5. The Attachment Theory, which describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans, particularly the parent-child relationship.

It is important to note that psychological models are provisional and subject to revision or replacement as new evidence emerges. They should be considered as useful tools for understanding and explaining psychological phenomena rather than definitive truths.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Alcoholic intoxication, also known as alcohol poisoning, is a condition that occurs when a person consumes a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time. This can lead to an increase in the concentration of alcohol in the blood, which can affect the normal functioning of the body's organs and systems.

The symptoms of alcoholic intoxication can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but they may include:

* Confusion or disorientation
* Slurred speech
* Poor coordination
* Staggering or difficulty walking
* Vomiting
* Seizures
* Slow or irregular breathing
* Low body temperature (hypothermia)
* Pale or blue-tinged skin
* Unconsciousness or coma

Alcoholic intoxication can be a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment. If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning, it is important to seek medical help right away. Treatment may include supportive care, such as providing fluids and oxygen, and monitoring the person's vital signs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

It is important to note that alcoholic intoxication can occur even at relatively low levels of alcohol consumption, especially in people who are not used to drinking or who have certain medical conditions. It is always best to drink in moderation and to be aware of the potential risks associated with alcohol consumption.

Cultural characteristics refer to the beliefs, customs, values, and behaviors that are shared by a group of people and are passed down from one generation to the next. These characteristics help define and distinguish one cultural group from another. In healthcare, understanding a patient's cultural characteristics is important for providing culturally competent care, which takes into account the patient's cultural background, beliefs, and values in the delivery of care. This can help improve communication, build trust, and ensure that the patient receives care that is respectful and responsive to their needs and preferences.

'Unsafe sex' is not a term that would be found in a formal medical dictionary or textbook, but it is commonly used to refer to sexual activities that carry a significant risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and/or unwanted pregnancy. These risks can be reduced through the use of various protective measures.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines 'unprotected sex' as sexual contact without the use of appropriate precautions, such as condoms, to prevent transmission of STIs. However, it is important to note that even the use of protection may not eliminate all risks associated with sexual activity. For example, some infections, like herpes or genital warts, can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, and condoms do not provide complete protection against these viruses.

In summary, 'unsafe sex' generally refers to sexual activities that carry a high risk of STIs and/or unwanted pregnancy due to the lack of appropriate protective measures.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

The term "Arabs" is a cultural and linguistic designation, rather than a racial or genetic one. It refers to individuals who speak Arabic as their native language and share a common cultural and historical heritage that is rooted in the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabic language and culture have spread throughout North Africa, the Middle East, and other parts of the world through conquest, trade, and migration over many centuries.

It's important to note that there is significant genetic diversity within the Arab population, just as there is in any large and geographically dispersed group of people. Therefore, it would not be accurate or appropriate to use the term "Arabs" to make assumptions about an individual's genetic background or ancestry.

In medical contexts, it is more appropriate to use specific geographic or ethnic designations (such as "Saudi Arabian," "Lebanese," "North African," etc.) rather than the broad cultural label of "Arab." This can help ensure greater accuracy and precision in describing a patient's background and health risks.

Desensitization, psychologic, also known as psychological desensitization or systematic desensitization, is a therapeutic technique used in behavioral therapy to reduce or eliminate fear, anxiety, or other negative emotional responses associated with specific stimuli or situations. This process involves gradually and systematically exposing the individual to the feared stimulus or situation, beginning with less threatening versions and progressively increasing the level of exposure until the anxiety response is significantly reduced or eliminated. The technique is often used in conjunction with relaxation training and cognitive restructuring to help the person develop more adaptive responses to the previously distressing stimuli.

Prenatal care is a type of preventive healthcare that focuses on providing regular check-ups and medical care to pregnant women, with the aim of ensuring the best possible health outcomes for both the mother and the developing fetus. It involves routine prenatal screenings and tests, such as blood pressure monitoring, urine analysis, weight checks, and ultrasounds, to assess the progress of the pregnancy and identify any potential health issues or complications early on.

Prenatal care also includes education and counseling on topics such as nutrition, exercise, and lifestyle choices that can affect pregnancy outcomes. It may involve referrals to specialists, such as obstetricians, perinatologists, or maternal-fetal medicine specialists, for high-risk pregnancies.

Overall, prenatal care is an essential component of ensuring a healthy pregnancy and reducing the risk of complications during childbirth and beyond.

"Public policy" is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of politics, government, and public administration. It refers to a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or organization to guide decisions and achieve specific goals related to public health, safety, or welfare.

However, in the context of healthcare and medicine, "public policy" often refers to laws, regulations, guidelines, and initiatives established by government entities to promote and protect the health and well-being of the population. Public policies in healthcare aim to ensure access to quality care, reduce health disparities, promote public health, regulate healthcare practices and industries, and address broader social determinants of health. Examples include Medicaid and Medicare programs, laws mandating insurance coverage for certain medical procedures or treatments, and regulations governing the safety and efficacy of drugs and medical devices.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

Criminal psychology is a subfield of psychology that focuses on the study of the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals who commit crimes. It involves understanding the motives, emotions, and cognitive processes underlying criminal behavior in order to help explain why some people engage in illegal activities. Criminal psychologists may also apply their knowledge to assist in the investigation and prevention of crime, such as by providing profiles of unknown offenders or consulting on jail and prison management.

Criminal psychology is a multidisciplinary field that draws upon various areas of psychology, including developmental, social, cognitive, and forensic psychology, as well as other disciplines such as criminology and sociology. It involves the use of scientific methods to study criminal behavior, including observational studies, surveys, experiments, and case studies.

Criminal psychologists may work in a variety of settings, including law enforcement agencies, forensic hospitals, prisons, and academic institutions. They may also provide expert testimony in court cases or consult with attorneys on legal issues related to criminal behavior.

Bullying is a form of aggressive behavior in which someone repeatedly and intentionally causes harm or distress to another person, who has difficulty defending themselves. It can take various forms, including physical (e.g., hitting, kicking), verbal (e.g., name-calling, teasing), social (e.g., spreading rumors, deliberately excluding someone from a group), and electronic (e.g., cyberbullying through emails, text messages, or social media).

Bullying often involves an imbalance of power between the bully and the victim, and it can have serious negative effects on the emotional, psychological, and physical well-being of those who are targeted. It is important to note that bullying is not a normal part of growing up and should never be tolerated or ignored.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

A criminal is an individual who has been found guilty of committing a crime or offense, as defined by law. Crimes can range from minor infractions to serious felonies and can include acts such as theft, fraud, assault, homicide, and many others. The legal system determines whether someone is a criminal through a formal process that includes investigation, arrest, charging, trial, and sentencing. It's important to note that being accused of a crime does not automatically make someone a criminal; they are only considered a criminal after they have been found guilty in a court of law.

Social support in a medical context refers to the resources and assistance provided by an individual's social network, including family, friends, peers, and community groups. These resources can include emotional, informational, and instrumental support, which help individuals cope with stress, manage health conditions, and maintain their overall well-being.

Emotional support involves providing empathy, care, and encouragement to help an individual feel valued, understood, and cared for. Informational support refers to the provision of advice, guidance, and knowledge that can help an individual make informed decisions about their health or other aspects of their life. Instrumental support includes practical assistance such as help with daily tasks, financial aid, or access to resources.

Social support has been shown to have a positive impact on physical and mental health outcomes, including reduced stress levels, improved immune function, better coping skills, and increased resilience. It can also play a critical role in promoting healthy behaviors, such as adherence to medical treatments and lifestyle changes.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Mothers" is a term that refers to individuals who have given birth to and raised children. It is not a medical term with a specific definition. If you are referring to a different word or term, please clarify so I can provide a more accurate response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a mistake in your question. "Pacific States" is not a recognized medical term or concept. The term "Pacific" usually refers to the Pacific Ocean or regions near it, and "states" typically refers to political divisions like countries or states within a country. If you're referring to a specific medical term that includes these words, could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I'm here to help!

Unplanned pregnancy is a pregnancy that is not intended or expected by the woman or couple. It is also sometimes referred to as an "unintended" or "unwanted" pregnancy. This can occur when contraceptive methods fail or are not used, or when there is a lack of knowledge about or access to effective family planning resources. Unplanned pregnancies can present various physical, emotional, and social challenges for the individuals involved, and may also have implications for public health and societal well-being. It's important to note that unplanned pregnancies can still result in wanted and loved children, but the circumstances surrounding their conception may bring additional stressors and considerations.

Self psychology is a branch of psychoanalysis developed by Heinz Kohut that emphasizes the role of empathy in understanding and treating psychological disorders. It focuses on the self, which includes an individual's sense of identity, self-esteem, and emotional well-being. According to this theory, a healthy self is characterized by a cohesive and stable sense of self, along with the ability to experience joy, pride, and satisfaction. In contrast, a poorly functioning self may result in feelings of emptiness, low self-esteem, and difficulties in forming and maintaining relationships.

Self psychology posits that individuals have certain innate psychological needs, including the need for mirroring (to have one's thoughts, feelings, and experiences affirmed by others), idealization (the ability to admire and look up to others as role models), and twinship (a sense of connection and understanding with others). When these needs are not met in early childhood, it can lead to the development of psychological issues.

In therapy, self psychologists aim to provide a therapeutic environment that meets the patient's emotional needs through empathic listening and understanding. This approach helps the patient develop a stronger and more cohesive sense of self, improve their ability to regulate their emotions, and form healthier relationships with others.

Couples therapy, also known as marriage counseling or relationship therapy, is a type of psychotherapy that aims to help couples identify and resolve conflicts and improve their relationships. It can be conducted with licensed therapists, social workers, or counselors who have experience working with couples. The therapy may involve both individual and joint sessions to understand each person's perspective, address communication issues, explore patterns of behavior, and develop new ways of interacting that promote greater understanding, empathy, and connection between the partners. Ultimately, the goal of couples therapy is to enhance the relationship and strengthen the bond between the couple.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Philadelphia" is not a medical term. It is a place name, specifically referring to a large city in the state of Pennsylvania, USA. However, it could be used in a medical context if someone were discussing a treatment or procedure that was first developed or primarily practiced in Philadelphia.

If you're looking for a medical term, I'd be happy to help. Could you please provide more details?

Occupational health is a branch of medicine that focuses on the physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all types of jobs. The goal of occupational health is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and disabilities, while also promoting the overall health and safety of employees. This may involve identifying and assessing potential hazards in the workplace, implementing controls to reduce or eliminate those hazards, providing education and training to workers on safe practices, and conducting medical surveillance and screenings to detect early signs of work-related health problems.

Occupational health also involves working closely with employers, employees, and other stakeholders to develop policies and programs that support the health and well-being of workers. This may include promoting healthy lifestyles, providing access to mental health resources, and supporting return-to-work programs for injured or ill workers. Ultimately, the goal of occupational health is to create a safe and healthy work environment that enables employees to perform their jobs effectively and efficiently, while also protecting their long-term health and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iraq" is not a medical term. It is a country located in the Middle East. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

"Social identification" is a psychological concept rather than a medical term. It refers to the process by which individuals define themselves in terms of their group membership(s) and the social categories to which they believe they belong. This process involves recognizing and internalizing the values, attitudes, and behaviors associated with those groups, and seeing oneself as a member of that social collective.

In medical and healthcare settings, social identification can play an important role in shaping patients' experiences, perceptions of their health, and interactions with healthcare providers. For example, a patient who identifies strongly with a particular cultural or ethnic group may have unique health beliefs, practices, or needs that are influenced by that group membership. Recognizing and understanding these social identifications can help healthcare professionals provide more culturally sensitive and effective care.

However, it's important to note that 'social identification' itself is not a medical term with a specific diagnosis or clinical definition.

Marital therapy, also known as couples therapy, is a type of psychotherapy aimed at helping married or cohabitating partners understand and resolve their conflicts. It is a form of treatment that addresses the specific communication and relationship issues between two people who are in a committed relationship. The goal of marital therapy is to help couples develop skills and strategies to improve their relationship and better handle any future conflicts.

Marital therapy can be beneficial for couples facing a range of issues, including communication problems, financial stress, sexual difficulties, infidelity, addiction, and major life transitions. It is typically provided by licensed mental health professionals, such as psychologists, social workers, or marriage and family therapists. The therapy may involve individual sessions with each partner, as well as joint sessions with both partners together.

The specific approach used in marital therapy will depend on the training and preferences of the therapist, as well as the needs and goals of the couple. Some common approaches include cognitive-behavioral therapy, emotion-focused therapy, and the Gottman method. These approaches may involve exercises such as communication skills training, conflict resolution techniques, and trust-building activities. Ultimately, the goal of marital therapy is to help couples build a stronger, more fulfilling relationship.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Mother-Child Relations," as it is more commonly studied in fields such as psychology, sociology, and social work. However, I can provide you with some related medical or psychological terms that might help you understand the concept better:

1. Attachment Theory: Developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, attachment theory describes the emotional bond between an infant and their primary caregiver (usually the mother). Secure attachment is crucial for healthy emotional and social development in children.
2. Mother-Infant Interaction: This refers to the reciprocal communication and interaction between a mother and her infant, which includes verbal and non-verbal cues, such as facial expressions, gestures, touch, and vocalizations. Positive and responsive interactions contribute to healthy emotional development and secure attachment.
3. Parent-Child Relationship: A broader term that encompasses the emotional bond, communication patterns, and behaviors between a parent (in this case, the mother) and their child. This relationship significantly influences a child's cognitive, social, and emotional development.
4. Maternal Depression: A mental health condition in which a mother experiences depressive symptoms, such as sadness, hopelessness, or loss of interest in activities, after giving birth (postpartum depression) or at any point during the first year after childbirth (major depressive disorder with peripartum onset). Maternal depression can negatively impact mother-child relations and a child's development.
5. Parenting Styles: Different approaches to raising children, characterized by the degree of demandingness and responsiveness. Four main parenting styles include authoritative (high demandingness, high responsiveness), authoritarian (high demandingness, low responsiveness), permissive (low demandingness, high responsiveness), and neglectful/uninvolved (low demandingness, low responsiveness). These styles can influence mother-child relations and child development.

While not a direct medical definition, these terms highlight the significance of mother-child relations in various aspects of child development and mental health.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Schools" is not a medical term. It generally refers to educational institutions where children or adults receive instruction in various subjects. If you are asking about a medical condition that might be associated with the word "school," it's possible you could mean "psychological disorders that first present or become evident during the school-aged period (approximately 5-18 years of age)." These disorders can include, but are not limited to, ADHD, learning disabilities, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. However, without more context, it's difficult for me to provide a more specific answer.

Child welfare is a broad term that refers to the overall well-being and protection of children. It encompasses a range of services and interventions aimed at promoting the physical, emotional, social, and educational development of children, while also protecting them from harm, abuse, and neglect. The medical definition of child welfare may include:

1. Preventive Services: Programs and interventions designed to strengthen families and prevent child maltreatment, such as home visiting programs, parent education classes, and family support services.
2. Protective Services: Interventions that aim to protect children from harm, abuse, or neglect, including investigations of reports of maltreatment, removal of children from dangerous situations, and provision of alternative care arrangements.
3. Family Reunification Services: Efforts to reunite children with their families when it is safe and in the best interest of the child, such as family therapy, parent-child visitation, and case management services.
4. Permanency Planning: The development of long-term plans for children who cannot safely return to their families, including adoption, guardianship, or other permanent living arrangements.
5. Foster Care Services: Provision of temporary care for children who cannot safely remain in their own homes, including placement with foster families, group homes, or residential treatment facilities.
6. Child Health and Development Services: Programs that promote the physical, emotional, and developmental well-being of children, such as health screenings, immunizations, mental health services, and early intervention programs for children with special needs.
7. Advocacy and Policy Development: Efforts to promote policies and practices that support the well-being and protection of children, including advocating for laws and regulations that protect children's rights and ensure their safety and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "morale" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Morale generally refers to the overall psychological and emotional well-being or spirit of an individual or group, often in relation to their work, military service, or other collective endeavors. It encompasses factors such as confidence, motivation, and job satisfaction.

However, in a broader sense, morale can be related to mental health and well-being, which are certainly important aspects of medical care and treatment. Factors that contribute to positive morale, like social connections, meaningful activities, and a sense of purpose, can also support overall mental health and resilience.

In medical terms, "punishment" is a consequence or intervention that is intended to decrease the likelihood of an undesirable behavior occurring again in the future. It is often used in the context of behavioral therapy and modification, particularly for addressing maladaptive behaviors in individuals with developmental disorders, mental health conditions, or substance use disorders.

Punishment can take various forms, such as response cost (removal of a positive reinforcer), time-out (removal of access to reinforcement), or aversive stimuli (presentation of an unpleasant stimulus). However, it is important to note that punishment should be used judiciously and ethically, with careful consideration given to the potential negative consequences such as avoidance, escape, or aggression. Additionally, positive reinforcement (rewarding desirable behaviors) is generally considered a more effective and sustainable approach to behavior change than punishment alone.

Life change events refer to significant changes or transitions in an individual's personal circumstances that may have an impact on their health and well-being. These events can include things like:

* Marriage or divorce
* Birth of a child or loss of a loved one
* Job loss or retirement
* Moving to a new home or city
* Changes in financial status
* Health diagnoses or serious illnesses
* Starting or ending of a significant relationship

Research has shown that life change events can have a profound effect on an individual's stress levels, mental health, and physical health. Some life change events may be positive and exciting, while others may be challenging and difficult to cope with. In either case, it is important for individuals to take care of themselves during times of transition and seek support as needed.

Torture is not typically defined in medical terms, but it is recognized as a severe violation of human rights by the World Medical Association (WMA), the United Nations (UN), and other international bodies. The UN defines torture as:

"any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions."

The WMA's Declaration of Tokyo states that "physicians shall not countenance, condone or participate in the practice of torture or other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment" and defines torture as "the deliberate, systematic or wanton infliction of physical or mental suffering by one or more persons acting alone or on behalf of others."

Medical professionals play a critical role in identifying, documenting, and reporting torture, as well as providing care and support to survivors.

Medically, the term "refugees" does not have a specific definition. However, in a broader social and humanitarian context, refugees are defined by the United Nations as:

"People who are outside their country of nationality or habitual residence; have a well-founded fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; and are unable or unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution."

Refugees often face significant health challenges due to forced displacement, violence, trauma, limited access to healthcare services, and harsh living conditions. They may experience physical and mental health issues, including infectious diseases, malnutrition, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Providing medical care and support for refugees is an important aspect of global public health.

Unwanted pregnancy is a situation where a person becomes pregnant despite not planning or desiring to conceive at that time. This can occur due to various reasons such as lack of access to effective contraception, failure of contraceptive methods, sexual assault, or a change in circumstances that makes the pregnancy untimely or inconvenient. Unwanted pregnancies can have significant physical, emotional, and socioeconomic impacts on individuals and families. It is important to address unwanted pregnancies through comprehensive sexuality education, access to affordable and effective contraception, and supportive services for those who experience unintended pregnancies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Human Rights" is a social, political, and legal concept, rather than a medical one. Human rights are basic rights and freedoms to which all individuals are entitled, regardless of nationality, sex, ethnicity, religion, language, or any other status. They include civil and political rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and freedom of expression; as well as social, cultural and economic rights, like the right to participate in culture, the right to food, and the right to work and receive an education.

However, in the context of healthcare, human rights are crucial. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the right to medical care and the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. Healthcare providers have a responsibility to respect and protect their patients' human rights, ensuring that they receive care without discrimination, that their privacy is protected, and that they are involved in decisions regarding their healthcare.

Violations of human rights can significantly impact an individual's health and well-being, making the promotion and protection of human rights a critical public health issue.

... can be broadly divided into three broad categories-direct violence, structural violence and cultural violence. Thus ... self-directed violence interpersonal violence collective violence This initial categorization differentiates between violence ... Interpersonal violence is divided into two subcategories: Family and intimate partner violence-that is, violence largely ... Many of the risk factors for sexual violence are the same as for domestic violence. Risk factors specific to sexual violence ...
"Violence" is a song by Canadian musician Grimes and the late American DJ I_o. It was released on September 5, 2019, as the lead ... "Violence / Grimes and i_o". Tidal. Archived from the original on April 21, 2020. Retrieved September 5, 2019. "NZ Hot Singles ... "Grimes Talks "Violence" Music Video and Taking Inspiration From Bollywood and TikTok , Playback". YouTube. February 20, 2020. ... In his review of Grimes' album, Miss Anthropocene, Anna Richmond described "Violence" as a song about "an abusive relationship ...
"Violence & Destruction"". New Noise Magazine. Retrieved July 25, 2014. Sciarretto, Amy (2014). "Islander: Violence & ... Violence & Destruction is the debut studio album by American rock band Islander. The album was produced by Cameron Webb and ... 2013). Violence & Destruction was recorded in early 2014 in studios in Southern California: Maple, in Orange County, and NRG ... In a five-star review in HM Magazine, Rob Houston stated that Violence & Destruction will be able to hold its own for years." ...
Arca Cinema Giovani (Young Cinema Award) (in Italian) Miss Violence at Rotten Tomatoes Miss Violence at IMDb Miss Violence at ... Miss Violence is a 2013 Greek psychological thriller film directed by Alexandros Avranas. It revolves around a family whose ... On Rotten Tomatoes, Miss Violence holds an approval rating 81%, with an weighted average score of 6.10. The website hosts 21 ... as that is considered by their patriarch as the appropriate age to commence sexual violence towards them; this led to Angeliki ...
"PRIVATE VIOLENCE". Retrieved 12 April 2014. Seitz, Matt Zoller. "HBO's Documentary About Domestic Violence Is ... Official website Private Violence at IMDb Private Violence at Rotten Tomatoes (Articles with short description, Short ... "Private Violence". Retrieved 12 April 2014. "Sundance Film Review: 'Private Violence'". 27 January ... The film narrates the story of domestic violence survivors: Kit Gruelle, a domestic violence victim turned advocate who seeks ...
... , Criminology, Crimes against women, Gender-related violence, Violence against men, Violence against women, ... A distinction is made between conflict-related sexual violence and domestic sexual violence: Conflict-related sexual violence ... Rwandan genocide Sexual violence in Finland Sexual violence in Papua New Guinea Sexual violence in South Africa Sexual violence ... Sexual violence can in such cases amount to being a weapon of war. Domestic sexual violence is sexual violence perpetrated by ...
"Shining Violence: Album review and songs from". Retrieved 2010-07-23. "Shining Violence Album Review, ... "Shining Violence: The Low Lows: Music". Retrieved 2010-07-23. "allmusic ((( Shining Violence > Overview )))". allmusic. ... Shining Violence is the second full-length album by The Low Lows. It was released on March 3, 2008 via the label, Monotreme. " ...
... formed in 2004 when Rian Zietsman, Loedi van Renen and Louis Nel invited George van der Spuy to join a jam. The ... Taxi Violence have taken their early material and given us a masterclass in how a band can grow, learn and become best of breed ... Taxi Violence is a South African rock band from Cape Town. The group consists of George van der Spuy (vocals), Jason Ling (bass ... Why the name 'Taxi Violence' In 2004 the band had been booked for their first show, but were yet to come up with a band name. ...
... , Abuse, Violence against women, Violence against children, Violence against men, Causes of death, Crimes, ... it classifies violence against women into three categories; one of which being domestic violence - defined as violence against ... a form of violence known as intimate partner violence, 'domestic' violence or 'spousal (or wife) abuse.' Intimate partner ... Domestic violence is often used as a synonym for intimate partner violence, which is committed by one of the people in an ...
This may include violence where a character is unharmed after the action has been inflicted. Animated violence is sometimes ... Opinions on the influences of cartoon violence vary. Some researchers believe that high level of violence in cartoons can make ... "sanitized violence". This type of violence refers to when minimal to no physical harm is shown, as well as little attention is ... the most consistent avenue of addressing violence is the use of a form of fantasy violence in which no one is injured or killed ...
Nixon defines slow violence as "a violence that occurs gradually and out of sight, a violence of delayed destruction that is ... However, slow violence is different from structural violence, as slow violence occurs over a period of many years or ... Slow violence is violence which occurs gradually and is not necessarily visible. Slow violence is 'incremental and accretive', ... Structural violence and slow violence are closely linked. Structural inequality can morph into forms of slow violence. ...
... may refer to: Israeli settler violence Settler violence in French Algeria (1830-1962) This disambiguation page ... lists articles associated with the title Settler violence. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to ...
"VIO-LENCE - OFFICIAL WEBSITE". Archived from the original on August 11, 2013. Retrieved August 9, 2018. "VIO- ... "VIO-LENCE Hopes To Record Another EP By The Fall". Retrieved February 25, 2022. "Vio-Lence - Writing New Material For Next EP ... "VIO-LENCE To Release 'Let The World Burn' EP In Early 2022". June 16, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021. "VIO- ... "VIO-LENCE Signs With METAL BLADE RECORDS". March 11, 2020. Retrieved March 11, 2020. "VIO-LENCE Covers DEAD ...
Political violence Workplace violence Schmoll, Moritz; Ting, Wang Leung (February 2023). "Explaining Physical Violence in ... Making sense of physical violence in national legislatures Explaining Physical Violence in Parliaments (CS1 Brazilian ... There has been violence in the Council of Representatives of Iraq. Kurdish MPs brawled in the Kurdistan Region Parliament over ... There has been violence during sessions of parliament, including one instance where a member was removed from the building ...
Violence was trained by U.S. Racing Hall of Fame trainer Todd Pletcher. Violence began his career on August 18 at Saratoga in a ... Violence started as the 4/5 odds-on favorite Violence hesitated at the start then was carried in, advanced between rivals near ... Nonetheless, Violence started as the 6/5 favorite and was ridden by Javier Castellano. Violence stalked mid-pack a bit off the ... "Profile of Violence". Equibase. Retrieved October 11, 2022. Hunter, Avalyn (December 28, 2012). "Violence Holds Promise of ...
... refers to acts of violence which occur within the context of industrial relations. These disputes can ... This data includes violence which did not involve a collective like that of a strike, but rather instances like damage to a ... This violence continued the following day, when Larkin, leader of the ITGWU, held a meeting (which had been banned). The paper ... The violence occurred both on behalf of the protesters and the states, and included riots, damage to property and infantrymen ...
1999). Violence Denied: Violence, Non-violence and the Rationalization of Violence in South Asian Cultural History. Leiden ; ... All the religions of the world contain narratives, symbols, and metaphors of violence and war. Religious violence is violence ... Terence Fretheim writes: For many people, ... only physical violence truly qualifies as violence. But, certainly, violence is ... not just physical violence per se. Thus, under his definition, Christian violence includes "forms of systemic violence such as ...
Review of Early Violence at AllMusic. Retrieved April 27, 2022. Crock, Jason (January 17, 2007). "Psychic Ills - Early Violence ... It is a compilation of Psychic Ills' first two releases Mental Violence I (2003) and Mental Violence II: Diamond City (2005). ... Early Violence is the debut compilation album by American rock band Psychic Ills. It was released on December 5, 2006, by the ... "Psychic Ills - Early Violence". The Social Registry. Retrieved April 27, 2022. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
Renzetti, Claire; Edleson, Jeffrey (2008). "State Violence". Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence. SAGE Publications, Inc. pp ... or juridical violence. Causes: Yuichi Kubota researched the correlation between rebel attacks and state-led violence. He found ... State violence is defined as "the use of legitimate governmental authority to cause unnecessary harm and suffering to groups, ... Kubota finds that state-led violence against rebels is selective, the government might only react when the rebel threat ...
... is a public health approach to violence prevention and reduction. It aims to stop the spread of violence in ... "Contagion of Violence" - 2012 Institute of Medicine report "Cure Violence: A Disease Control Approach to Reduce Violence and ... "Cure Violence: A disease Control Approach to Reduce Violence and Change Behavior" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on ... Violence interruption is an immediate response to imminent violence; people who perform this work are referred to as ...
... is violence which is perpetrated in order to achieve political goals. It can include violence which is used ... violence between non-state actors, one-sided violence which is perpetrated by a state actor against civilians, and violence ... Political violence occurs when the benefits in participating in political violence outweighs the costs. In Why Men Rebel, Ted ... In a revolution political violence is usually common. The use of political violence is usually to fulfill a revolutionary ...
... is displaced violence; that is anger and rage is directed towards members within a marginalised or oppressed ... lateral violence". Creative Spirits.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) "Lateral Violence in First ... Violence against Indigenous people in Canada, Harassment and bullying, Violence). ... Lateral Violence occurs within marginalized groups where members strike out at each other as a result of being oppressed. The ...
... (WPV), violence in the workplace (VIW), or occupational violence refers to violence, usually in the form of ... Victims of personal relationship violence are typically women. Customer/client violence occurs when there is violence between a ... Perline & Goldschmidt define two types of workplace violence: 1) Object-focused workplace violence is violence that occurs to ... The violence could be performed by the customer onto the employee or vice versa. Finally, criminal intent violence in the ...
They began recording and performing as Violence in 2010. The first Violence release was REPTILE/Hand Me Downs from Heaven ( ... Olin Caprison, better known as Violence (stylized VIOLENCE), is an American experimental musician, composer, performance artist ... Violence has toured with Mykki Blanco and Yves Tumor, performed at the Brooklyn Museum, and was a 2019 MacDowell fellow in ... "Music: VIOLENCE". Brooklyn Museum. August 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2022. Scott, Jazz. "Human Dust to Fertilize the Impotent ...
... is the fifteenth studio album by American death metal band Cannibal Corpse, released on April 16, 2021. It ... Cannibal Corpse began writing for new material in 2019, and in 2020 the group began demos for Violence Unimagined. In a new ... It's been positive all round having him for sure." Violence Unimagined received positive reviews. Sean McLennan of New Noise ... "CANNIBAL CORPSE Announces 'Violence Unimagined' Album, Officially Recruits Guitarist ERIK RUTAN". February 2 ...
If the fear of retribution or the fear of violence is not present, ethnic violence may occur. Because ethnic violence is ... Care must be taken to distinguish ethnic violence, which is violence motivated by an ethnic division, from violence that is ... Ethnic violence is a form of political violence which is expressly motivated by ethnic hatred and ethnic conflict. Forms of ... Ethnic violence obviously does not exist in exactly the same conditions in every example. Whereas one case of ethnic violence ...
The violence took place during an ongoing protest against proposed expansion of a copper smelter plant run by Sterlite ... The petitioner alleged that there was a plan to unleash violence and even "burn down the factory", and said the regulatory ... "Actor Vijay visits kin of those killed in Thoothukudi violence". The Week. 6 June 2018. "MK Stalin, Kamal Haasan question who ... Tuticorin villagers accuse Left outfit of inciting violence". The Indian Express. 6 July 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2020. "A 6-km ...
... gender violence, hate crimes, racial violence, police violence, state violence, terrorism, and war. In his book Violence: ... including family violence, gender violence, hate crimes, racial violence, police violence, state violence, terrorism, and war. ... Structural violence and direct violence are said to be highly interdependent, including family violence, ... These are classic examples of structural violence. The violence in structural violence is attributed to the specific ...
... is the second studio album by the Canadian speed metal band Exciter, released through Megaforce Records in ... "Exciter - Violence & Force". Encyclopaedia Metallum. Retrieved October 9, 2011. v t e (Use mdy dates from August 2022, Articles ... Megaforce Records will release 'Violence and Force' on November 9, 2004, with the rest of the catalogue to follow in early 2005 ... "Exciter Violence & Force review". AllMusic. Retrieved October 8, 2011. Popoff, Martin (November 1, 2005). The Collector's Guide ...
"Kasganj violence: All you need to know". Indian Express. 27 January 2018. "Kasganj violence: Muslim man's garment shop burnt ... "Kasganj violence due to 'criminalisation' of BJP, says BSP chief Mayawati". The Hindu. 28 January 2018. "Kasganj violence 'very ... Singh, Vijaita (29 January 2018). "Wary Kasganj tries to come to terms with burst of violence". The Hindu. "Kasganj Violence: ... Kasganj violence took place on 26 January 2018, in Kasganj, a district in Western Uttar Pradesh, when 22-year-old student of ...
This website provides professional publications about violence against women, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, ... World Report on Violence and Health Chapter 6: Sexual Violence [247 KB, 36 Pages, Print Only]. This document contains chapter ... National Offices of Violence Prevention Network. The National Offices of Violence Prevention Network is a coalition of local ... Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Violence Victimization Assessment Instruments for Use in Healthcare Settings [188 KB, 114 ...
It is also called domestic violence. Learn the signs and how to get help. ... Intimate partner violence (IPV) is abuse that happens in a romantic relationship. ... Domestic Violence (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish * Domestic Violence (Department of Justice, Office on ... Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2010 (Department of Justice) - PDF * National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2016 ...
... ) collates published scientific information on the main types of interpersonal violence. This includes information ... It also describes what countries report about their actions to address violence. This version contains most of the major ... This shows what the country reported about the existence of laws relevant to preventing different types of violence, and the ... This shows what the country reported about specific programmes to prevent different types of violence and services for victims ...
Workplace Violence Consequences Unit 3: Risk Factors for Type 2 Violence Unit 4: Risk Factors for Type 3 Violence Unit 5: ... Unit 4: Risk Factors for Type 3 Violence Workplace Violence Prevention for Nurses About This Course Unit 1: Definitions, Types ... Violence or Conflict?. When considering violence between coworkers its important to distinguish between an incident of true ... While conflict can be a precursor to violence most conflicts resolve positively and do not progress to violence. ...
Reports of Violence Based on figures released by the countrys national observatory for violence against healthcare workers ( ... preventing violence and making it safer for HCPs to carry out their work, and (c) reporting acts of violence and supporting ... What are the main triggers of these acts of violence against healthcare workers? In more than half the cases (53%), there is an ... To this end, Firmin Le Bodo has announced the organization of a national campaign to make the public aware of violence against ...
Violence can be broadly divided into three broad categories-direct violence, structural violence and cultural violence. Thus ... self-directed violence interpersonal violence collective violence This initial categorization differentiates between violence ... Interpersonal violence is divided into two subcategories: Family and intimate partner violence-that is, violence largely ... Many of the risk factors for sexual violence are the same as for domestic violence. Risk factors specific to sexual violence ...
In this article, domestic violence refers to the victimization of a person with whom the abuser has or has had an intimate, ... The medical literature defines domestic violence in different ways. ... Domestic violence encompasses violence against both men and women and includes violence in gay and lesbian relationships. ... Domestic violence fits within a spectrum of family violence that also includes elder abuse, child sexual abuse, and child abuse ...
The Prevention of Youth Violence: A Framework for Community Action ... Violence has become common in the United States of America. Every day we see, hear, or experience some form of violence. Murder ... Violence and violence-related injuries and deaths are particularly common among young people, and have escalated in recent ... They may be less likely to resort to violence or become victims of violence.. These educational activities can be conducted in ...
Did Gun Violence Kill More People in U.S. in 9 Weeks than U.S. Combatants Died in D-Day?. Written by: Dan MacGuill ... Tim Kaine Blamed Gun Violence for Ohio State Knife Attack?. Written by: David Emery ... June 14, 2022 Incidents of gun violence have not abated in the country. ...
In her book, Oksala shows that the arguments for the ineliminability of violence from the political are often based on ... excessively broad, ontological conceptions of violence distinct from its concrete and physical meaning and, on the other hand, ...
It is clear that further reform is required as the scourge of domestic violence continues to affect the lives of countless ... Victorias royal commission into domestic violence, which reported in 2016, did not include a domestic violence disclosure ... A domestic violence disclosure scheme is being currently trialled in NSW, and a similar pilot is due to start in South ... There are hundreds of thousands of cases of family violence reported each year. But the problem is far bigger than that; it is ...
We cannot turn our back and say that violence in films or anything that we do doesnt have a sort of influence, the actor said ... Kerry Washington added, I do think that its important when we have the opportunity to talk about violence and not just kind ... I just think, you know, theres violence in the world, tragedies happen, blame the playmakers, he said Saturday at a press ... The Django Unchained director is tired of having to defend his use of violence in film. ...
Domestic violence was dealt with like other violence, categorized on the basis of the severity of the injuries, with attacks ... "Violence with Every Step" Weak State Response to Domestic Violence in Tajikistan ... in responding to domestic violence and the failure of the authorities toadequately protect women who experience such violence. ... The new domestic violence offense in the criminal code introduced in July provides stiffer penalties for assaults in domestic ...
Jimmy Gomez, D-Calif., attend an event on the steps of the U.S. Capitol about gun violence, June 24, 2022. ... The House sent President Joe Biden the most wide-ranging gun violence bill Congress has passed in decades on Friday, a measured ... There would be money to help states enforce red flag laws and in states without those laws money for violence prevention ... And while it omits the far tougher restrictions Democrats have long championed, it stands as the most impactful gun violence ...
... sporadic incidences of violence were reported from across the state. ... sporadic incidences of violence were reported from across the state. ...
Dodgers left-hander Julio Urías was arrested and charged with felony domestic violence on Sunday night. We are aware of an ... This marks the second time that Urías has been arrested on domestic violence charges. In 2019, Urías was arrested after getting ... Dodgers left-hander Julio Urías was arrested and charged with felony domestic violence on Sunday night. ... Urías arrested and charged with domestic violence. Share. ... Urías arrested and charged with domestic violence. September ...
... Boxing Champ Jermain Taylor Arrested & Jailed ... ... Ex-USC WR Joseph Lewis Convicted of Domestic Violence, Gets 1 Year In Jail ...
We cant be silent in the face of rising violence against Asian Americans, Biden wrote on Twitter. ... The Biden administration on Tuesday announced a set of measures responding to rising anti-Asian violence, including deploying $ ... We cant be silent in the face of rising violence against Asian Americans, Biden wrote on Twitter. These attacks are wrong, ... WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The Biden administration on Tuesday announced a set of measures responding to rising anti-Asian violence ...
Framework guidelines for addressing workplace violence in the health sector. Guidelines , 01 January 2002 Reference: 92-2- ... The ILO, ICN, WHO, PSI Joint Programme on Workplace Violence in the Health Sector was launched in 2000 and has since carried ... Framework guidelines for addressing workplace violence in the health sectorpdf - 0.6 MB * ... The objective of these Framework Guidelines is to provide general guidance in addressing workplace violence in the health ...
As UCLA Professor Mark S. Kaplan told TalkPoverty last year, limiting gun violence is akin to harm reduction. "What guns do to ... To make our world more equal - and to rid it of gun violence - we cant let banks continue to make money off the suffering of ... "At BB&T, were deeply concerned with the increasing amount of gun violence in our schools and communities," the bank emailed ... Is Your Bank Profiting From Gun Violence?. A coalition of activists is challenging the financial industrys ties to the gun ...
A UN report says criminals are recruiting and abusing young people as violence soars. ... Gangs used sexual violence in particular to spread fear in areas where they fought for control, it says: During gang attacks, ... The victim in one particular incident was a three-month-old baby while in a surge of violence in an area of the capital ... Ms Silva described how there had been a shift in the violence in recent weeks as rival armed groups appeared to have united and ...
Voices of Campus Sexual Violence Activists calls for a cultural reset in institutional cultures to end sexual violence on ... and sexual violence. In Voices of Campus Sexual Violence Activists, Ana M. Martínez-Alemán and Susan B. Marine share the ... and sexual violence. In Voices of Campus Sexual Violence Activists, Ana M. Martínez-Alemán and Susan B. Marine share the ... The stories and strategies of student activists fighting against sexual violence in the #MeToo era.. The global #MeToo movement ...
Ethnic Violence Rages on in Northeast India. Posted July 24th, 2012 at 4:40 am (UTC-5) ... Security forces continue to patrol the worst violence-hit areas of Assam state, where members of the Bodo tribe and Muslim ... Indian troops deployed to quell ethnic violence in the northeastern state of Assam are under orders to shoot suspected rioters ... Four Killed in Ethnic Violence in Northeast India. Posted July 24th, 2012 at 12:35 pm (UTC-5) ...
Violence also follows children at school. Responding to a U-Report Jamaica poll last year, 74 per cent of U-Reporters said they ... Back to school after losing a parent to violence What was supposed to be Rhyims last long vacation holiday, suddenly became ... Jamaica is a Pathfinder country in the Global Partnership to End Violence Against Children, and is due to launch its plan of ... Giving a voice to Jamaican children suffering from violence Reflections from the winner of the UNICEF Award for Excellence in ...
Pope calls for halt in Middle East violence. By JERUSALEM POST STAFF. JANUARY 28, 2007 14:33 * ... Pope Benedict XVI called Sunday for a halt to violence in Lebanon and the Gaza Strip, saying he was hugely saddened by the pain ... Speaking of the past days violence in Lebanon, the pope said that "it is unacceptable that one should take this path to affirm ... Benedict also appealed for the cessation of violence in the Gaza strip "as soon as possible" and called on all involved to " ...
Egyptian superhero breaks taboo on sexual violence France 24. France 24 photo. ...
Sexual and Interpersonal Violence. Sexual and Interpersonal Violence. * Resources for Students * Survivors * Your Options * ... Sexual and Interpersonal Violence Prevention. Lewis & Clark. 615 S. Palatine Hill Road Portland OR 97219 ... Interpersonal violence will not be an obstacle to any community member achieving excellence in their education or work. ... The general culture of L&C becomes such that all community members know that sexual and interpersonal violence is not tolerated ...
CARE has issued the following statement in response to the UN resolution on sexual violence in conflict. ... CARE stands with all survivors of sexual violence in conflict as they seek the services they need to ensure their health and ... Fight back against violence, hunger, injustice, and poverty in the fiercest way-with CARE. ... CARE knows well that any comprehensive effort to combat and confront sexual violence must include critical reproductive health ...
  • This compendium provides researchers and prevention specialists with a compilation of tools designed to measure victimization from and perpetration of intimate partner violence. (
  • This technical assistance document is intended to be a starting place for practitioners and their campus partners to begin planning and implementing sexual violence prevention strategies in a college or university setting. (
  • This document is intended to begin the dialogue about what it means to move sexual violence prevention upstream. (
  • The information is from the WHO Global status report on violence prevention 2014. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that victims of severe domestic violence annually miss 8 million days of paid work-the equivalent of 32,000 full-time jobs, and approximately 5.6 million days of household productivity. (
  • In December 1990, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the Minority Health Professions Foundation responded to the growing concern of African- American and other minority communities about violence among youth by convening a conference entitled Forum on Youth Holence in Minority Communities: Setting the Agenda for Prevention. (
  • The results of a two-year data-gathering exercise overseen by the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), with the assistance of the governments of Malawi, Nigeria, Uganda, and Zambia, reveal that, overwhelmingly, people who were the victims of violence as children are most likely to perpetrate violence as adults. (
  • Toward a Lifetime Commitment to Violence Prevention: The Alameda County Blueprint, adopted by the Alameda County Board of Supervisors in July 2005, is a comprehensive violence prevention plan designed to reduce all forms of violence affecting county communities and families. (
  • RWI recently held a workshop on the prevention of violence against women in Myanmar for the Myanmar National Human Rights Commission. (
  • There he underlined Sweden's continued focus on women's rights and also said that the workshop was timely, as it would contribute towards the feedback for a draft law on prevention of violence against women. (
  • IPV is also known as domestic violence. (
  • You can contact the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 800-799-SAFE (7233) or 800-787-3224 (TTY). (
  • The medical literature defines domestic violence in different ways. (
  • In this article, domestic violence refers to the victimization of a person with whom the abuser has or has had an intimate, romantic, or spousal relationship. (
  • Domestic violence encompasses violence against both men and women and includes violence in gay and lesbian relationships. (
  • Domestic violence consists of a pattern of coercive behaviors used by a competent adult or adolescent to establish and maintain power and control over another competent adult or adolescent. (
  • Domestic violence may be associated with physical or social isolation (eg, denying communication with friends or relatives, or making it so difficult that the victim stops attempting communication) and deprivation (eg, abandonment in dangerous places, refusing help when sick or injured, prohibiting access to money or other basic necessities). (
  • Domestic violence is not a new epidemic-it spans history and cultures. (
  • Domestic violence exacts a multitude of costs. (
  • Police in the United States spend approximately a third of their time responding to domestic violence calls. (
  • Of women presenting to the emergency department (ED), research suggests that between 4 and 15% are there because of problems related to domestic violence. (
  • Calls to the police and visits to the ED sometimes are used by victims of domestic violence to strategically manage the episode by de-escalating the violence. (
  • A study in the Northwest found that 95% of women with diagnosed domestic violence sought care 5 or more times per year and that 27% sought medical care more than 20 times per year. (
  • Victims of acute domestic violence are those patients in the ED whose complaints directly relate to an incident of abuse. (
  • Two to 4% of women who present for treatment of injuries, excluding those sustained in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), are victims of domestic violence. (
  • because prosecutors tell us they dropped the charges in his domestic violence case. (
  • one for domestic violence and one for child endangerment. (
  • Short has been arrested for and charged with domestic violence in the past. (
  • The scourge of domestic violence. (
  • It is clear that further reform is required as the scourge of domestic violence continues to affect the lives of countless Australians. (
  • A domestic violence disclosure scheme is being currently trialled in NSW, and a similar pilot is due to start in South Australia in October. (
  • Victoria's royal commission into domestic violence, which reported in 2016, did not include a domestic violence disclosure scheme in its 277 recommendations, primarily because it feared it could create a false sense of security. (
  • Budapest) - Police inaction, ineffective restraining orders, insufficient shelter spaces, and legal and policy gaps leave women survivors of domestic violence in Hungary at risk of further abuse, Human Rights Watch said in a report released today. (
  • The 58-page report, "Unless Blood Flows: Lack of Protection from Domestic Violence in Hungary," documents chronic brutal violence against women by their intimate partners and the challenges women face in seeking state protection and services. (
  • It documents the gaps in Hungary's legal and policy framework, despite a recent legal reform, in responding to domestic violence and the failure of the authorities toadequately protect women who experience such violence. (
  • Hungary's system for addressing domestic violence simply isn't working," said Lydia Gall , Eastern Europe researcher at Human Rights Watch and author of the report. (
  • To meet these obligations, the Hungarian government should amend the 2009 act on temporary preventive restraining orders and the domestic violence provision in the criminal code so as not to exclude categories of women and rectify current shortcomings in policies and practices, Human Rights Watch said. (
  • Hungary should improve training for police, prosecutors, judges, social workers, and doctors, and increase the capacity of shelters for victims of domestic violence. (
  • Hungary should also ratify the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence. (
  • Until July 1, 2013, domestic violence was not even a specific criminal offense in Hungary. (
  • Domestic violence was dealt with like other violence, categorized on the basis of the severity of the injuries, with attacks that resulted in wounds that healed within eight days deemed minor, and requiring the victim rather than police or prosecutors to initiate legal action. (
  • The new domestic violence offense in the criminal code introduced in July provides stiffer penalties for assaults in domestic situations, and makes the prosecutor, not the victim, responsible for initiating criminal action against the abuser. (
  • But the new provision only offers this protection after two separate instances of domestic violence, and it doesn't protect women who do not live with their abusive partner, unless they have children with the abuser. (
  • Despite tighter laws and policies, domestic violence is on the rise at all levels of society, according to the Council of Europe, a grouping of 47 nations that promotes human rights, democracy and the rule of law. (
  • Political and public awareness of domestic violence, and the wider problem of violence against women, has improved, and there have been significant improvements in both statutory and voluntary sector services responses," Nicola Harwin, chief executive of Women's Aid Federation, the oldest national network of specialist domestic violence services in Britain tells IPS. (
  • Women's Aid domestic and sexual violence services supported more than 108,690 women and 39,130 children last year, besides responding to more than 150,000 calls to the national domestic violence helpline. (
  • In France, one woman is killed every three days in domestic violence, according to the interior ministry. (
  • Physicians need to be prepared to provide information about local community services, including counseling, domestic violence centers, shelters, and advocacy groups. (
  • The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), which first passed in 1994 and has been reauthorized twice since then, increased federal penalties for domestic violence and provided funding for groups and services that aid victims of domestic abuse. (
  • There is an epidemic of domestic violence on Native American reservations. (
  • According to the National Congress of American Indians, a Native American rights advocacy group, about 40 percent of Native American women will face domestic violence. (
  • State and federal prosecutors have the authority to prosecute domestic violence on reservations, but for geographic and logistical reasons, it often goes unaddressed. (
  • A federal prosecutor is not going to be able to expend the kind of energy on misdemeanors that local police officers would spend energy on," says Paulette Moore, vice president for public policy at the National Network to End Domestic Violence. (
  • As Mother Jones reported last year, local authorities' inability or unwillingness to deal with domestic violence cases in Native American communities has contributed to an underground industry of vigilantes for hire who take matters into their own hands. (
  • The current version of the Violence Against Women Act would allow tribal authorities to prosecute non-Indians for domestic violence cases on Indian reservations, but Republicans are opposing it because they don't like the idea of Native American law applying to non-tribe members. (
  • The original Violence Against Women Act contained provisions that allow undocumented victims of domestic violence to apply for legal status, called a U visa, if they agree to cooperate with law enforcement. (
  • The U visas are crucial for domestic violence victims because they give them work authorization along with legal status, which means they aren't reliant on their abuser for income. (
  • Infants coming from homes with domestic violence often go on to have worse academic outcomes in school due to neurodevelopmental lags and a higher risk for a variety of health issues, including gastrointestinal distress, trouble eating and sleeping, as well as stress and illness. (
  • Bullock helped implement the Domestic Violence Enhanced Perinatal Home Visits (DOVE) program in rural Missouri, which empowered safety planning and reduced domestic violence for hundreds of abused pregnant women. (
  • Domestic violence is physical, sexual, or psychologic abuse between people who live together. (
  • Doctors may suspect domestic violence based on injuries, inconsistent or puzzling symptoms, or the behavior of the victim and/or the victim's partner. (
  • Domestic violence can occur between children and parents or guardians, grandparents, or siblings, as well as intimate partners. (
  • Women are more commonly victims of domestic violence than are men. (
  • About 95% of people who seek medical attention as a result of domestic violence are women. (
  • In the United States, domestic violence is as prevalent (or more prevalent) among lesbian and bisexual women, gay and bisexual men, and transgender people as among the general population. (
  • During the COVID-19 pandemic, domestic violence became more common in many countries. (
  • Domestic violence can happen to anyone. (
  • Physical abuse is the most obvious form of domestic violence. (
  • McCoy M. Domestic violence: clues to victimization. (
  • Domestic violence in an inner-city ED. Ann Emerg Med . (
  • Identification and Referral to Improve Safety (IRIS) of women experiencing domestic violence with a primary care training and support programme: a cluster randomised controlled trial. (
  • Hugl-Wajek JA, Cairo D, Shah S, McCreary B. Detection of domestic violence by a domestic violence advocate in the ED. J Emerg Med . (
  • Domestic violence screening: prevalence and outcomes in a Canadian HIV population. (
  • Characteristics of participants in domestic violence. (
  • Abbott J. Injuries and illnesses of domestic violence. (
  • Bonds DE, Ellis SD, Weeks E, Palla SL, Lichstein P. A practice-centered intervention to increase screening for domestic violence in primary care practices. (
  • This chapter is focused on raising awareness about the problem of sexual violence globally, and to make the case that violence is preventable. (
  • In 2013, of the estimated 405,000 deaths due to interpersonal violence globally, assault by firearm was the cause in 180,000 deaths, assault by sharp object was the cause in 114,000 deaths, and the remaining 110,000 deaths from other causes. (
  • Globally, half of students aged 13-15 - some 150 million - report experiencing peer-to-peer violence in and around school. (
  • In a paper published in the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report , the researchers, led by Elizabeth Swedo of the organisation's Epidemic Intelligence Service cite research from 2011 and 2016 that collectively found high levels of violence perpetrated by men in countries as diverse as Brazil, Chile, Croatia, India, Mexico, Rwanda, and South Africa. (
  • Mexico's National Human Rights Commission said Wednesday, May, 11, 2016, that the violence unleashed by organized crime has forced thousands of people to abandon their homes adding to the country's internally displaced population. (
  • Summary reports from NISVS present data on the national prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual violence (SV), and stalking among women and men in the United States. (
  • Nordic countries are the most gender equal countries in the world, but at the same time they have disproportionally high prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. (
  • The Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean is following the guidelines and recommendations of the World Report on Violence and Health to implement programmes and draft strategies to address this menace in the Region and its countries. (
  • Results from the 1994 prohibiting violence. (
  • Violence in many forms can be preventable. (
  • There is a profound and pressing need to stop the carnage associated with the fact that violence by a partner or former partner is the leading preventable contributor to death, disability and illness for women aged 15 to 45 in our nation. (
  • Of the deaths in 2013, roughly 842,000 were attributed to self-harm (suicide), 405,000 to interpersonal violence, and 31,000 to collective violence (war) and legal intervention. (
  • The World Health Organization divides violence into three broad categories: self-directed violence interpersonal violence collective violence This initial categorization differentiates between violence that a person inflicts upon themself, violence inflicted by another individual or by a small group of individuals, and violence inflicted by larger groups such as states, organized political groups, militia groups and terrorist organizations. (
  • Interpersonal violence is divided into two subcategories: Family and intimate partner violence-that is, violence largely between family members and intimate partners, usually, though not exclusively, taking place in the home. (
  • Interpersonal violence and the education of physicians. (
  • When considering violence between coworkers it's important to distinguish between an incident of true workplace violence versus a situation that can be better described as a conflict based on a momentary misunderstanding. (
  • Far from a haven for learning and community, school can be a place of bullying, sexual harassment, corporal punishment, verbal abuse and other forms of violence. (
  • Adopt laws prohibiting corporal punishment and other forms of violence. (
  • The violence comes a day before the Indian prime minister visits the state, where sporadic rioting continues more than a month after it witnessed India's worst communal violence in a decade. (
  • Since then, communal tensions have been simmering, and sporadic violence has continued. (
  • As Bengal went to its first civic poll under the new regime with Trinamool Congress at the helm, sporadic incidences of violence were reported from across the state. (
  • CDC's Resource for Action, formerly known as, "technical package," that highlights strategies based on the best available evidence to help states and communities prevent intimate partner violence, support survivors, and lessen the short and long-term harms of intimate partner violence. (
  • The guide describes CDC's public health activities and research related to intimate partner and sexual violence. (
  • This document is a summary of CDC's work to address sexual violence on college and university campuses. (
  • CDC's Resource for Action, formerly known as, "technical package," that highlights strategies based on the best available evidence to help states and communities prevent and reduce sexual violence. (
  • This document is a set of recommendations designed to promote consistency in the use of terminology and data collection related to sexual violence. (
  • This document is a compilation of existing tools for assessing intimate partner violence and sexual violence victimization in clinical/healthcare settings. (
  • This media guide includes definitions and key terms, statistics, language considerations, and resources to aid in reporting about sexual violence. (
  • NISVS is an ongoing, population-based survey that collects the most current and comprehensive national- and state-level data on intimate partner violence, sexual violence and stalking victimization in the United States. (
  • Sexual violence which involves forcing or attempting to force a partner to take part in sexual activity when the partner does not or cannot consent. (
  • One in four Australian women has experienced physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner. (
  • Global estimates of intimate partner violence perpetrated by men against women indicate that in the African, Eastern Mediterranean and South-East Asia Regions, approximately 37% of ever-partnered women report experiencing physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner in their lives. (
  • According to the latest report by the National Statistics Institute, ISTAT, 6.7 million women are estimated to have been victims of physical or sexual violence during their lifetime, out of a population of 60.3 million. (
  • Perpetration of physical or sexual violence was prevalent among both males and females, ranging among males from 29.5% in Nigeria to 51.5% in Malawi and among females from 15.3% in Zambia to 28.4% in Uganda," the researchers report. (
  • Strong associations between youths' experiences of violence and subsequent perpetration of physical or sexual violence were observed in all four studied countries," the researchers write. (
  • About 1 in 4 women and nearly 1 in 10 men have experienced sexual violence, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner during their lifetime. (
  • The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. (
  • However there is still much more to be done to provide effective protection and support for all victims of violence against women and their children. (
  • Tellingly, those who admitted committing acts of violence were also highly likely to have been the victims of violence during their own childhoods. (
  • This web page discusses the risk factors for distress after a mass violence event. (
  • All members of the community are expected to maintain a working and learning environment free from violence, threats of harassment, violence, and intimidation. (
  • Interviews with four women who experienced violence after July 1 indicate that in practice little has changed. (
  • Two women are murdered every week in England and Wales at the hands of their partners or ex-partners, according to data released by the Sussex police, and included in the latest report of Women against Violence in Europe (WAVE), a European network of women's shelters. (
  • Women's Aid supports the new government strategy to check violence against women and girls. (
  • In Italy, violence against women is rising. (
  • The report says 690,000 women were victims of repeated violence by partners, often with their children as witnesses. (
  • However, all women are at risk of being harmed by violence, and a violence history should be obtained as part of the intake protocol for all patients. (
  • There are three reasons some Republicans are trying to block the reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act: Gays, immigrants, and Native Americans. (
  • When nurses are visiting homes to check in on pregnant women and their developing babies, we want them to be trained in recognizing the warning signs of potential intimate partner violence," Bullock said. (
  • Violence against women: Estimates from the redesigned survey August 1995. (
  • Sareen J, Pagura J, Grant B. Is intimate partner violence associated with HIV infection among women in the United States? (
  • This article analyses latent violence to highlight important aspects of our empirical data: qualitative interviews with women who have been subjected to violence by their siblings. (
  • To establish itself as a capable and credible institution is essential, and organizing workshops on relevant topics such as violence against women is a way to contribute to this work. (
  • Courage2Report is staffed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and provides a CONFIDENTIAL means to report school violence. (
  • This 3-page fact sheet provides a basic overview of school violence. (
  • View, download or print the full text of Understanding School Violence [PDF 344KB] . (
  • Many children also experience school violence associated with gang culture, weapons and fighting. (
  • Whether the Capitol riot signals a new era in American politics - one where violence is not an outgrowth of systemic oppression and injustice but is used to try to overthrow the results of a legitimate election - remains to be seen. (
  • A new survey from the American Enterprise Institute examined attitudes toward the 2020 election and looked specifically at whether Americans support the concept of using violence for political ends. (
  • All of them are complicit not just in Trump's absurd lie that Biden stole the election, but in the violence that followed. (
  • This manual, which gives a framework for community action, is but one part of an increased effort by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to reduce the number of injuries and deaths produced by violence. (
  • Violence and violence-related injuries and deaths are particularly common among young people, and have escalated in recent years. (
  • Social anthropologist Anna Hedlund has studied violence in places like Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Bouganville and the Solomon Islands, all the while knowing that it was in the eastern Congo that exposure was at its worst. (
  • In your doctoral dissertation "Exile Warriors: Violence and Community among the Hutu Rebels in the Eastern Congo" you want to answer the question: What is it that makes people expose others to violence? (
  • Violence, including suicide and homicide, is a leading worldwide public health problem that affects US citizens traveling, working, or residing internationally. (
  • Collective violence that is committed to advance a particular social agenda includes, for example, crimes of hate committed by organized groups, terrorist acts and mob violence. (
  • Intimate partner violence (IPV) is abuse that happens in a romantic relationship. (
  • By contrast, worker-on-worker violence and abuse are often persistent, systematic, and irrational (though the abuser may feel otherwise) and frequently involve a power differential. (
  • When conflict becomes persistent or systematic it may be regarded as abuse or violence. (
  • Resolving conflict between coworkers early, before it can escalate to more serious forms, is an effective method for preventing violence and abuse between coworkers. (
  • Self-directed violence is subdivided into suicidal behaviour and self-abuse. (
  • It includes intimate partner violence, which refers to physical, sexual, or psychologic abuse by a current or former sex partner or spouse. (
  • Based on figures released by the country's national observatory for violence against healthcare workers (the ONVS), this plan is not only needed, but also vital to combat the sheer number of acts of violence reported. (
  • Figures show that more than half of the country's young men have committed acts of violence. (
  • While conflict can be a precursor to violence most conflicts resolve positively and do not progress to violence. (
  • Political violence includes war and related violent conflicts, state violence and similar acts carried out by armed groups. (
  • For each single death due to violence, there are dozens of hospitalizations, hundreds of emergency department visits, and thousands of doctors' appointments. (
  • There is a strong relationship between levels of violence and modifiable factors in a country such as an concentrated (regional) poverty, income and gender inequality, the harmful use of alcohol, and the absence of safe, stable, and nurturing relationships between children and parents. (
  • If we are to survive as healthy, responsible, and caring people, we must teach ourselves and our children that violence does not solve problems. (
  • Children who are subjected to violence may experience physical injury, sexually transmitted infections, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicidal thoughts. (
  • Children who grow up around violence have a greater chance of replicating it for a new generation of victims. (
  • UNICEF works with governments, schools, teachers, families, children and young people to prevent and respond to violence in schools. (
  • As part of Safe to Learn - an inter-agency and multi-country initiative dedicated to ending violence in and around schools - UNICEF also works to increase the protection of children, improve learning outcomes, better leverage investments in education, and raise awareness of violence in schools. (
  • Children exposed to intimate partner violence: Impact of multiple father figures" was recently published in Maternal Child Health Journal . (
  • Their strategies show that children subject to latent sibling violence should be understood not as passive victims, but as actively strategizing to cope with situations that many cannot escape due to their age and lack of parental understanding. (
  • Alienation, isolation, violence and a life on the run is the only reality they know, and many children grow up here. (
  • Some communities of color are severely affected by violence. (
  • Mr. Modi has been severely criticized for failing to control the violence, and for not providing adequate relief and rehabilitation to muslims. (
  • Based on these observations, the campaign against violence in healthcare focuses on three points of increasing importance: (a) raising public awareness and training healthcare workers, (b) preventing violence and making it safer for HCPs to carry out their work, and (c) reporting acts of violence and supporting victims. (
  • Internationally, violence resulted in deaths of an estimated 1.28 million people in 2013 up from 1.13 million in 1990. (
  • Nevertheless, deaths are only a fraction of the health and social burden arising from violence. (
  • The latest violence is one of the worst incidents to be reported from Gujarat since riots erupted in late February after Muslims killed 58 Hindu activists, prompting revenge attacks by Hindu mobs. (
  • In recent days, Hindu-Muslim clashes have been reported from villages and districts which had not been affected by violence earlier. (
  • Out-of-hospital violence injury surveillance: quality of data collection. (
  • In India's western state of Gujarat, six people have been killed in fresh sectarian violence. (
  • Three other people also died in violence in the northwest of the country, Sierra said. (
  • In Zambia, for example, people who experienced physical, sexual or emotional violence before the age of 18 were 20 times more likely than those who did not to go on to commit violent acts. (
  • 1.6 million people lose their lives to violence, and only one-fifth of that total is due to armed conflict. (
  • I certainly do not support their political and ideological beliefs, and nothing can justify the violence they have exposed other people to. (
  • Rypi, A & Burcar Alm, V 2023, ' Latent sibling violence ', International Review of Victimology . (
  • However, the global population grew by roughly 1.9 billion during those years, showing a dramatic reduction in violence per capita. (
  • Potential strategies include improved access to therapeutic services and counselling, support and education of parents, reduction of community violence, and improving gender equity. (
  • There may be multiple determinants of violence against civilians in such situations. (
  • Swedo and colleagues note that acts of physical, sexual and emotional violence claim about 1.3 million lives each year, but population-based data describing the scope of the problem in many countries is scarce or absent. (
  • The strong association between experiencing physical, sexual, or emotional violence in childhood and later perpetration of violence highlights the importance of long-term, comprehensive interventions for both victims and perpetrators," they conclude. (
  • Hungary has clear international obligations to act with due diligence to protect women's human rights to live free from violence, to non-discrimination, and to effective judicial remedies. (
  • Leaders of women's organisations say more anti-violence centres have come up as a consequence of the Beijing platform of action. (
  • Economic violence includes attacks motivated by economic gain-such as attacks carried out with the purpose of disrupting economic activity, denying access to essential services, or creating economic division and fragmentation. (
  • Modern technology brings on-the-scene coverage of gun-battles, sniper attacks, riots, and other physical violence directly into our homes from our own cities and towns and from around the world. (
  • In summer 1862, national newspapers reported violence against blacks in Toledo, Cincinnati, Chicago, and New Albany, i where July 21, a fight between black and white men ii sparked two days of attacks by white mobs on blacks and their property. (
  • National newspapers reported these attacks and the mob violence in New Albany. (
  • After the submission last June of an initial report that had been drawn up by Jean-Christophe Masseron, MD, chair of France's privately funded 24-hour doctor service SOS Médecins, and Nathalie Nion, senior healthcare executive at Paris' Hospital Trust, the health minister spent all summer planning how to tackle violence against healthcare professionals (HCPs) with the implementation of 42 measures. (
  • What are the main triggers of these acts of violence against healthcare workers? (
  • Violence is commonly perceived as an issue for law and order, not for health. (
  • Although the concept has been applied to family and intimate partner violence, it is also useful to describe sibling violence. (
  • To this end, Firmin Le Bodo has announced the organization of a national campaign to make the public aware of violence against healthcare workers. (