A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
A zinc-binding phosphoprotein that concentrates at focal adhesions and along the actin cytoskeleton. Zyxin has an N-terminal proline-rich domain and three LIM domains in its C-terminal half.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family ULMACEAE that is susceptible to Dutch elm disease which is caused by the ASCOMYCOTA fungus, Ophiostoma.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.
Gram-negative organisms including apparently free-living saphrophytes as well as mammalian and avian parasites, and possibly pathogens.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
Dystrophin-associated proteins that play role in the formation of a transmembrane link between laminin-2 and DYSTROPHIN. Both the alpha and the beta subtypes of dystroglycan originate via POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of a single precursor protein.
A family of transmembrane dystrophin-associated proteins that play a role in the membrane association of the DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN COMPLEX.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
Goldmann WH, Niggli V, Kaufmann S, Isenberg G (Aug 1992). "Probing actin and liposome interaction of talin and talin-vinculin ... Talin-1 can homodimerize in an antiparallel fashion,[30] however, talin-1 and its closely related counterpart, talin-2 do not ... Talin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLN1 gene.[5][6] Talin-1 is ubiquitously expressed, and is localized to ... Human talin-1 is 270.0 kDa molecular weight and 2541 amino acids.[7] The N-terminal region of talin-1 is ~50 kDa in size and ...
Additional components of focal adhesions include actin, filamin, vinculin, talin, paxillin, tensin and RSU-1. FAK is ... "Interaction of focal adhesion kinase with cytoskeletal protein talin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (28): 16995-9. ... determinant of paxillin focal adhesion localization and characterization of a novel motif on paxillin directing vinculin and ...
... vinculin-talin-integrin system and filamin2 in alpha- and gamma-sarcoglycanopathy: an immunohistochemical study". International ... Horwitz A, Duggan K, Buck C, Beckerle MC, Burridge K (1986). "Interaction of plasma membrane fibronectin receptor with talin--a ...
Intracellular integrin domains associate with the leukocyte cytoskeleton, via mediation with cytosolic factors such as talin, α ... and vinculin. This association causes a conformational shift in the integrin's tertiary structure, allowing ligand access to ...
Within the cell, the intracellular domain of integrin binds to the cytoskeleton via adapter proteins such as talin, α-actinin, ... filamin, vinculin and tensin. Many other intracellular signalling proteins, such as focal adhesion kinase, bind to and ... such as talin, paxillin and tensin. Many of these focal complexes fail to mature and are disassembled as the lamellipodia ...
... the identification of the cytoskeletal proteins vinculin and talin. Dr. Singer was elected to the National Academy of Sciences ...
... such as talin, vinculin, paxillin, and alpha-actinin. These act by regulating kinases such as FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and ... Talin binding alters the angle of tilt of the β3 chain transmembrane helix in model systems and this may reflect a stage in the ... Moreover, talin proteins are able to dimerize and thus are thought to intervene in the clustering of integrin dimers which ... In cells, the priming is accomplished by a protein talin, which binds to the β tail of the integrin dimer and changes its ...
The immunofluorescence following the increase of vinculin and talin, two cytoskeletal proteins, at the intracellular face of ...
His research on focal adhesions includes the discovery of many adhesion proteins including vinculin, talin and paxillin, and ... He discovered talin (protein) as another focal adhesion protein and then, in collaboration with Rick Horwitz's laboratory, ... Turner CE, Glenney JR, Burridge K; Glenney Jr; Burridge (September 1990). "Paxillin: a new vinculin-binding protein present in ... While developing a procedure to purify α-actinin from smooth muscle, Burridge co-purified another protein, vinculin, ...
VASP Vav Verprolin VDAC Vibrio cholerae RTX toxin Villin Vinculin Vitamin D-binding protein WIP WASp Y-box proteins YpkA (YopO ... Supervillin SipA Smoothelin Sucrose synthetase SipC Sra-1 Spinophilin Ssk2p Swinholide Talin protein Toxophilin Twinfilin Tau ...
The vinculin and talin components of the integrin-vinculin-talin complex are cytoskeletal proteins physically anchored to the ... and the integrin-vinculin-talin complex. The sarcoglycans of the DGC and the integrins of the integrin-vinculin-talin complex ... the costamere to sarcomeres by interacting with the sarcoglycans in the DGC and the integrins of the integrin-vinculin-talin ... Pardo, Jose V; Siliciano, Janet D'Angelo; Craig, Susan W (1 October 1983). "Vinculin is a component of an extensive network of ...
... talin, vinculin, paxillin, α-actinin, GTPases etc.) which cause changes in cell shape and actomyosin contractility. These ...
These proteins, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), talin, vinculin, paxillin, and α-actinin, interact with small GTPases (Rho ... The focal adhesion proteins (FAK/paxillin/vinculin) - and their phosphorylation-dependent interactions as well as their ...
... binding sites are predominantly found in talin and talin-like molecules, enabling binding of vinculin to talin, ... The combinatorial model of vinculin states that either α-actinin or talin can activate vinculin either alone or with the ... Vinculin consists of a globular head domain that contains binding sites for talin and α-actinin as well as a tyrosine ... The molecule talin is thought to be the major initiator of vinculin activation due to its presence in focal complexes. ...
In addition to actin, vinculin interacts with other structural proteins such as talin and alpha-actinins. Vinculin is a large ... Vinculin InterPro: IPR000633 Alpha-catenin InterPro: IPR001033 CTNNA1; CTNNA2; CTNNA3; CTNNAL1; VCL; Otto JJ (1990). "Vinculin ... Vinculin is a eukaryotic protein that seems to be involved in the attachment of the actin-based microfilaments to the plasma ... Alpha-catenins are proteins of about 100 kDa which are evolutionary related to vinculin. In terms of their structure the most ...
Vinculin binding sites are protein domains predominantly found in talin and talin-like molecules, enabling binding of vinculin ... MBInfo: Talin MBInfo: Talin activates Integrin Talin-1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry Q9Y490 Talin substrate for calpain - PMAP The ... Mechanical stretching of talin promotes vinculin binding. Talin consists of a large C-terminal rod domain that contains bundles ... Talin also binds with high affinity to vinculin, another cytoskeletal protein concentrated at points of cell adhesion. Finally ...
Three N-terminal YXXP motifs may serve as binding sites for talin or v-Crk SH2. Paxillin is a signal transduction adaptor ... Turner CE, Glenney JR, Burridge K (1990). "Paxillin: a new vinculin-binding protein present in focal adhesions". J. Cell Biol. ... The current working model of costamerogenesis is that in cultured, undifferentiated myoblasts, alpha-5 integrin, vinculin and ... such as vinculin and actopaxin, and regulators of actin organization, such as COOL/PIX and PKL/GIT. Paxillin is tyrosine- ...
Zemljic-Harpf A, Manso AM, Ross RS (Dec 2009). "Vinculin and talin: focus on the myocardium". Journal of Investigative Medicine ... Human talin-2 is 271.4 kDa and 2542 amino acids in length. The size of talin-2 protein is similar to talin-1, and is relatively ... Ablation of both talin isoforms, talin-2 and talin-1 prevented normal myoblast fusion and sarcomere assembly, as well as ... Talin 2 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the TLN2 gene. It belongs to the talin protein family. This gene encodes a ...
Critchley DR (2005). "Cytoskeletal proteins talin and vinculin in integrin-mediated adhesion". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 32 (Pt 5): ... "Entrez Gene: VCL vinculin".. *↑ Xu, W.; Baribault, H.; Adamson, E.D. (1998). "vinculin knockout results in heart and brain ... Co-existence of vinculin and a vinculin-like protein of higher molecular weight in smooth muscle. J. Biol. Chem. 257: 11024- ... 1993). "Organization of the human gene encoding the cytoskeletal protein vinculin and the sequence of the vinculin promoter". J ...
Talin *TLN1. *粘着斑蛋白(英语:Vinculin). *Plakophilin *PKP1 ...
Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278), is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is encoded by the FLNB gene. FLNB regulates intracellular communication and signalling by cross-linking the protein actin to allow direct communication between the cell membrane and cytoskeletal network, to control and guide proper skeletal development.[5] Mutations in the FLNB gene are involved in several lethal bone dysplasias, including boomerang dysplasia and atelosteogenesis type I.[6][7][8] ...
The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) family of proteins share similar domain structure, and are involved in transduction of signals from receptors on the cell surface to the actin cytoskeleton. The presence of a number of different motifs suggests they are regulated by a number of different stimuli, and interact with multiple proteins. These proteins, directly or indirectly, associate with the small GTPase CDC42, known to regulate formation of actin filaments, and the cytoskeletal organising complex, Arp2/3. The WASp family proteins includes WASp, N-WASp, SCAR/WAVE, WHAMM and WASH the five of them share a C- terminal VCA (verprolin, central, acidic) domain where they interact with actin nucleating complex (ARP2/3) and they differ in their terminal domains. WASp and N-WASP are analogs, they contain an N-terminal EVH1 domain, a C-terminal VCA domain and central B and GBD (GTP binding domain) domains. WASp, is expressed exclusively in hematopoietic cells and neuronal WASp (N-WASp), is ubiquitously ...
neuroaxonal damage is the pathological substrate of permanent disability in various neurological disorders. ... Here, we review what is known about the structure and function of neurofilaments, discuss analytical aspects and knowledge of age-dependent normal ranges of neurofilaments and provide a comprehensive overview of studies on neurofilament light chain as a marker of axonal injury in different neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, neurodegenerative dementia, stroke, traumatic brain injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson disease ...
The changes that occur to the myofilament in response to exercise have long been a subject of interest to exercise physiologists and the athletes who depend on their research for the most advanced training techniques. Athletes across a spectrum of sporting events are particularly interested to know what type of training protocol will result in maximal force generation from a muscle or set of muscles, so much attention has been given to changes in the myofilament under bouts of chronic and acute forms of exercise. While the exact mechanism of myofilament alteration in response to exercise is still being studied in mammals, some interesting clues have been revealed in Thoroughbred race horses. Researchers studied the presence of mRNA in skeletal muscle of horses at three distinct times; immediately before training, immediately after training, and four hours after training. They reported statistically significant differences in mRNA for genes specific to production of actin. This study provides ...
... -related disease. Mutations in MYH9 cause a Mendelian autosomal-dominant disorder known as MYH9-related disease (MYH9-RD).[36][37][38][39] All affected individuals present congenital hematological alterations consisting in thrombocytopenia, platelet macrocytosis, and inclusions of the MYH9 protein in the cytoplasm of granulocytes. Most patients develop one or more non-congenital manifestations, including sensorineural deafness, kidney damage, presenile cataracts, and/or elevation of liver enzymes.[39][40][41] The term MYH9-RD encompasses four syndromic pictures that were considered for many years as distinct disorders, namely May-Hegglin anomaly, Sebastian syndrome, Fechtner syndrome, and Epstein syndrome. After the identification of MYH9 as the gene responsible for all of these entities, it was recognized that they actually represent different clinical presentations of the same disease, now known as MYH9-RD or MYH9 disorder.[38] MYH9-RD is a rare disease: prevalence is estimated around ...
Cytoplasmic dynein, which has a molecular mass of about 1.5 megadaltons (MDa), is a dimer of dimers, containing approximately twelve polypeptide subunits: two identical "heavy chains", 520 kDa in mass, which contain the ATPase activity and are thus responsible for generating movement along the microtubule; two 74 kDa intermediate chains which are believed to anchor the dynein to its cargo; two 53-59 kDa light intermediate chains; and several light chains. The force-generating ATPase activity of each dynein heavy chain is located in its large doughnut-shaped "head", which is related to other AAA proteins, while two projections from the head connect it to other cytoplasmic structures. One projection, the coiled-coil stalk, binds to and "walks" along the surface of the microtubule via a repeated cycle of detachment and reattachment. The other projection, the extended tail, binds to the light intermediate, intermediate and light chain subunits which attach dynein to its cargo. The alternating ...
The tertiary structure of destrin was determined by the use of triple-resonance multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR.[1] The secondary and tertiary structures of destrin are similar to the gelsolin family which is another actin-regulating protein family. There are three ordered layers to destrin which is a globular protein. There is a central β sheet that is composed of one parallel strand and three antiparallel strands. This β sheet is between a long α helix along with a shorter one and two shorter helices on the opposite side. The four helices are parallel to the β strands.[1] ...
Ankyrin-B is a member of the ankyrin family of proteins. ankyrin-1 has shown to be essential in normal function of erythrocytes;[10] however, ankyrin-B and ankyrin-3 play essential roles in the localization and membrane stabilization of ion transporters and ion channels in cardiomyocytes.[9][11] Functional insights into ankyrin-B function have come from studies employing ankyrin-B chimeric proteins. One study showed that the death/C-terminal domain of ankyrin-B determines both the subcellular localization as well as activity in restoring normal inositol trisphosphate receptor and ryanodine receptor localization and cardiomyocyte contractility.[8] Further studies have shown that the beta-hairpin loops within the ankyrin repeat domain of ankyrin-B are required for the interaction with the inositol trisphosphate receptor, and a reduction of ankyrin-B in neonatal cardiomyocytes reduces the half-life of the inositol trisphosphate receptor by 3-fold and destabilizes its proper localization; all of ...
Keratin, type II cuticular Hb1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KRT81 gene.[5][6][7] The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. As a type II hair keratin, it is a basic protein which heterodimerizes with type I keratins to form hair and nails. The type II hair keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q13 and are grouped into two distinct subfamilies based on structure similarity. One subfamily, consisting of KRTHB1, KRTHB3, and KRTHB6, is highly related. The other less-related subfamily includes KRTHB2, KRTHB4, and KRTHB5. All hair keratins are expressed in the hair follicle; this hair keratin, as well as KRTHB3 and KRTHB6, is found primarily in the hair cortex. Mutations in this gene and KRTHB6 have been observed in patients with a rare dominant hair disease, monilethrix.[7] ...
The wide variety of myosin genes found throughout the eukaryotic phyla were named according to different schemes as they were discovered. The nomenclature can therefore be somewhat confusing when attempting to compare the functions of myosin proteins within and between organisms. Skeletal muscle myosin, the most conspicuous of the myosin superfamily due to its abundance in muscle fibers, was the first to be discovered. This protein makes up part of the sarcomere and forms macromolecular filaments composed of multiple myosin subunits. Similar filament-forming myosin proteins were found in cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells. However, beginning in the 1970s, researchers began to discover new myosin genes in simple eukaryotes[3] encoding proteins that acted as monomers and were therefore entitled Class I myosins. These new myosins were collectively termed "unconventional myosins"[7] and have been found in many tissues other than muscle. These new superfamily members have been grouped ...
"Interaction of focal adhesion kinase with cytoskeletal protein talin". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (28): 16995-9. PMID 7622520. doi: ... determinant of paxillin focal adhesion localization and characterization of a novel motif on paxillin directing vinculin and ...
The cytokeratins are encoded by a family encompassing 30 genes. Among them, 20 are epithelial genes and the remaining 10 are specific for trichocytes. All cytokeratin chains are composed of a central α-helix-rich domain (with a 50-90% sequence identity among cytokeratins of the same type and around 30% between cytokeratins of different type) with non-α-helical N- and C-terminal domains. The α-helical domain has 310-150 amino acids and comprises four segments in which a seven-residue pattern repeats. Into this repeated pattern, the first and fourth residues are hydrophobic and the charged residues show alternate positive and negative polarity, resulting in the polar residues being located on one side of the helix. This central domain of the chain provides the molecular alignment in the keratin structure and makes the chains form coiled dimers in solution. The end-domain sequences of type I and II cytokeratin chains contain in both sides of the rod domain the subdomains V1 and V2, which have ...
Measuring approximately 6 nm in diameter,[4] microfilaments are the thinnest fibers of the cytoskeleton. They are polymers of actin subunits (globular actin, or G-actin), which as part of the fiber are referred to as filamentous actin, or F-actin. Each microfilament is made up of two helical, interlaced strands of subunits. Much like microtubules, actin filaments are polarized. Electron micrographs have provided evidence of their fast-growing barbed-ends and their slow-growing pointed-end. This polarity has been determined by the pattern created by the binding of myosin S1 fragments: they themselves are subunits of the larger myosin II protein complex. The pointed end is commonly referred to as the minus (−) end and the barbed end is referred to as the plus (+) end. In vitro actin polymerization, or nucleation, starts with the self-association of three G-actin monomers to form a trimer. ATP-bound actin then itself binds the barbed end, and the ATP is subsequently hydrolyzed. ATP hydrolysis ...
... was first described in 1976,[16] first purified in 1977,[17] the gene was cloned in 1989,[6] and the first knockout mouse was created in 1996.[18] The function of desmin has been deduced through studies in knockout mice. Desmin is one of the earliest protein markers for muscle tissue in embryogenesis as it is detected in the somites.[12] Although it is present early in the development of muscle cells, it is only expressed at low levels, and increases as the cell nears terminal differentiation. A similar protein, vimentin, is present in higher amounts during embryogenesis while desmin is present in higher amounts after differentiation. This suggests that there may be some interaction between the two in determining muscle cell differentiation. However desmin knockout mice develop normally and only experience defects later in life.[13] Since desmin is expressed at a low level during differentiation another protein may be able to compensate for desmin's function early in development but not ...
Through alternative splicing of the fetal exon and other alternative exons in the N-terminal variable region, the expression of fsTnT during mammalian and avian development undergoes a high molecular to low molecular weight isoform switch in both fast and slow fiber dominant skeletal muscles.[20] The inclusion of more N-terminal exons increases the negative charge that tunes the overall molecular conformation of fsTnT and alters interaction with TnI, TnC and tropomyosin.[21][22][23] The alternative splicing-based addition of N-terminal negative charge in fsTnT also contributes to the tolerance to acidosis.[24] Alternative splicing of the two C-terminal mutually exclusive exons 16 and 17 appears also regulated during development.[14] Exon 17 with a sequence more similar to the counterpart segment in ssTnT and cTnT is predominantly expressed in embryonic and neonatal fsTnT.[14][25] Exon 16 of fsTnT was only found in adult skeletal muscles. Exons 16 and 17 both encode a 14 amino acids peptide ...
... vinculin and talin. We will discuss the general function of vinculin/metavinulin as well as talin1 and talin2, with emphasis on ... Vinculin and talin: focus on the myocardium.. Zemljic-Harpf A1, Manso AM, Ross RS. ... This diagram is provided to orient the reader to the location of vinculin and talin (arrows) within the cell, but is clearly a ... including ones linked to the integrin-talin-vinculin axis, as well as the dystrophic-glycoprotein complex (DGC). The ...
... and interacts with vinculin. Here we report that PtdInsP2 dissociates vinculins head-tail interaction, unmasking its talin- ... Regulation of vinculin binding to talin and actin by phosphatidyl-inositol-4-5-bisphosphate.. Gilmore AP1, Burridge K. ... including talin and actin. An intramolecular interaction between the head and tail domains of vinculin masks the binding sites ... Vinculin, a prominent cytoskeletal protein at cell-substrate adhesions (focal adhesions) and cell-cell adhesions (adherens ...
The spatiotemporal relationships between vinculin and talin in developing chicken gizzard smooth muscle were investigated. ... The localization of vinculin and talin in embryonic chicken gizzards indicated that both are primarily cytoplasmic during the ... Spatial and temporal relationships between vinculin and talin in the developing chicken gizzard smooth muscle Differentiation. ... We discuss the possible roles of vinculin and talin in the assembly of membrane-bound dense plaques during the different phases ...
Vinculin head (1-258) in complex with the talin vinculin binding site 3 (1945-1969). *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1XWJ/pdb ... Binding of vinculin to talin is thus a clear example of the unusual phenomenon of protein unfolding being required for protein/ ... Structural and Dynamic Characterization of a Vinculin Binding Site in the Talin Rod. Gingras, A.R., Vogel, K.P., Steinhoff, H.J ... The long flexible talin rod domain contains a number of binding sites for vinculin, a cytoskeletal protein important in ...
... PLoS Biol. 2011 Dec;9(12): ... expression of the talin-binding head of vinculin increased stretching to about 400 nm and suppressed dynamics. We suggest that ... talins length in vitro) after myosin inhibition. Individual talin molecules transiently stretched and relaxed. Peripheral, ... Using a functional EGFP-N-Talin1-C-mCherry to measure the length of single talin molecules, we observed that the C-terminal ...
Mechanotransduction In Vivo by Repeated Talin Stretch-Relaxation Events Depends upon Vinculin. en. ... expression of the talin-binding head of vinculin increased stretching to about 400 nm and suppressed dynamics. We suggest that ... talins length in vitro) after myosin inhibition. Individual talin molecules transiently stretched and relaxed. Peripheral, ... Using a functional EGFP-N-Talin1-C-mCherry to measure the length of single talin molecules, we observed that the C-terminal ...
1 Vinculin binding requires the structural accommodation of the talin polypeptide on the vinculin head:. Under force, talin ... Upon binding of one vinculin head molecule, the binding site helix reforms, which shortens talin by ∼1.5 nm at a force of 9 pN. ... This demonstrates that two vinculin head molecules bind simultaneously to the unfolded talin R3 domain. The point at 0 nM was ... Direct observation of a coil-to-helix contraction triggered by vinculin binding to talin Rafael Tapia-Rojo, Alvaro Alonso- ...
... vinculin, paxillin, and F-actin in differentiated talin (−/−) ES cell mutants by immunofluoresence. Cells derived from the ... Figure 9: Localization of talin, vinculin, paxillin, and F-actin in differentiated talin (−/−) ES cell mutants by ... Figure 9: Localization of talin, vinculin, paxillin, and F-actin in differentiated talin (−/−) ES cell mutants by ... whereas vinculin (-/-) ES cells were able to assemble talin-containing focal adhesions. Both talin (-/-) ES cell mutants formed ...
Structural and Dynamic Characterization of a Vinculin Binding Site in the Talin Rod By A.R. Gingras, K.-P. Vogel, H.-J. ...
Stretching Single Talin Rod Molecules Activates Vinculin Binding. By Armando del Rio, Raul Perez-Jimenez, Ruchuan Liu, Pere ...
Chlamydial virulence factor TarP mimics talin to disrupt the talin-vinculin complex ... Chlamydial virulence factor TarP mimics talin to disrupt the talin-vinculin complex. FEBS Letters, 592 (10). pp. 1751-1760. ... In talin, VBS are cryptic and require mechanical activation to bind vinculin, whereas the TarP VBS are located in disordered ... talin, vinculin, chlamydia, adhesion, molecular mimicry, crystallography Subjects:. Q Science , QH Natural history , QH301 ...
Vinculin-mediated axon growth requires interaction with actin but not talin in mouse neocortical neurons Authors (first, second ...
Mechanotransduction in vivo by repeated talin stretch-relaxation events depends upon vinculin. PLoS Biology. 2011 Dec 1;9(12). ... Mechanotransduction in vivo by repeated talin stretch-relaxation events depends upon vinculin. In: PLoS Biology. 2011 ; Vol. 9 ... Mechanotransduction in vivo by repeated talin stretch-relaxation events depends upon vinculin. / Margadant, Felix; Chew, Li Li ... title = "Mechanotransduction in vivo by repeated talin stretch-relaxation events depends upon vinculin", ...
Analysis of the Behavior of Talin and Vinculin ES Cell Mutants. Wild-type ES cells and the talin (−/−) A28 and vinculin (−/−) ... Generation of Talin and Vinculin Gene Targeting Constructs. The talin genomic clone 5Tλ2 was digested with BamHI and a 2.4-kb ... Localization of talin, vinculin, paxillin, and F-actin in undifferentiated talin (−/−) ES cell mutants by immunofluoresence. ... Localization of talin, vinculin, paxillin, and F-actin in differentiated talin (−/−) ES cell mutants by immunofluoresence. ...
Talin possesses at least two actin-binding sites and three binding sites for vinculin (Gilmore et al., 1993). Vinculin can also ... vinculin, paxillin, and phosphotyrosine at focal adhesions located at the termini of actin stress fibers. Talin and vinculin ... Fluorescence images of β1 integrin- (A-F), talin- (G-L), and vinculin- (M-R) IRs. Each series of images represent retinal ... 3E), talin (Fig. 3K), vinculin (Fig. 3Q), paxillin (Fig. 4E), and phosphotyrosine (Fig. 4K) were expressed in the OFL as well ...
"Central region of talin has a unique fold that binds vinculin and actin.". Gingras A.R., Bate N., Goult B.T., Patel B., Kopp P. ... IPR036723, Alpha-catenin/vinculin-like_sf. IPR017997, Vinculin. IPR006077, Vinculin/catenin. IPR000633, Vinculin_CS. ... IPR036723, Alpha-catenin/vinculin-like_sf. IPR017997, Vinculin. IPR006077, Vinculin/catenin. IPR000633, Vinculin_CS. ... "Identification of a talin binding site in the cytoskeletal protein vinculin.". Jones P., Jackson P., Price G.J., Patel B., ...
0/Fibronectins; 0/Integrin alpha5beta1; 0/Integrins; 0/Talin; 125361-02-6/Vinculin; 21820-51-9/Phosphotyrosine; EC 2.7.10.2/ ... Importantly, FAK expression regulated integrin activation, and talin was required for the FAK-dependent effects. A role for FAK ...
1996) Talin contains three actin-binding sites each of which is adjacent to a vinculin-binding site. J Cell Sci 109:2715-2726. ... These studies provide insights into the role of talin in adhesions. Although adhesion strength does not depend on talin, talin ... Indeed, we recently observed that talin increases its binding to the cytoskeletal protein vinculin when subjected to force (37 ... 2009) Stretching single talin rod molecules activates vinculin binding. Science 323:638-641. ...
2009) Stretching single talin rod molecules activates vinculin binding. Science 323(5914):638-641. ...
Recently, talin-1 expression was reported to be downregulated in human atherosclerotic plaques. However, blood levels of ... i,Aims.,/i, Talin-1 is a cytoskeletal protein that binds integrin, thereby leading to integrin activation and affecting focal ... soluble talin-1 (sTalin-1) in patients with atherosclerotic disease, such as coronary artery disease (CAD), have not been ... M. von Essen, R. Rahikainen, N. Oksala et al., "Talin and vinculin are downregulated in atherosclerotic plaque; Tampere ...
In vitro reconstitution of the core focal adhesion proteins talin and vinculin with actin reveals lipid-dependent release of ... Phosphoinositides regulate force-independent interactions between talin, vinculin, and actin Charlotte F Kelley et al. ...
Among the mechanisms that are thought to activate vinculin are binding of the vinculin head to talin, binding of the vinculin ... To support the activation of vinculin, a 26-amino-acid long sequence from the vinculin-binding partner talin, the vinculin- ... 2006). The vinculin binding sites of talin and alpha-actinin are sufficient to activate vinculin. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 7228-7236 ... 2006). A conformational switch in vinculin drives formation and dynamics of a talin-vinculin complex at focal adhesions. J. ...
... vinculin, talin, integrins, desmin, plectin, etc. We describe as well the diseases associated with deficiency thereof, ... T RII immunofluorescent staining revealed a striated organization in cardiomyocytes, which was co-localized with vinculin ... 0 (Desmin); 0 (Dystrophin); 0 (Dystrophin-Associated Proteins); 0 (Integrins); 0 (Plectin); 0 (Talin); 0 (dystrobrevin); 0 ( ...
Vinculin binding sites are protein domains predominantly found in talin and talin-like molecules, enabling binding of vinculin ... MBInfo: Talin MBInfo: Talin activates Integrin Talin-1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry Q9Y490 Talin substrate for calpain - PMAP The ... Mechanical stretching of talin promotes vinculin binding. Talin consists of a large C-terminal rod domain that contains bundles ... Talin also binds with high affinity to vinculin, another cytoskeletal protein concentrated at points of cell adhesion. Finally ...
2009) Stretching single talin rod molecules activates vinculin binding. Science 323(5914): 638-41. * View Article ...
What is the function of the Vinculin-talin-Integrin complex? Focal adhesion complex of skeletal msucle. Co-localises with the ... Talin 1 is central for integrin signalling. - interacts with the cytoplsmic domain of beta-1 integrin and with focal adhesion ... Talin 2 is expressed at higher levels in skeletal muscle that Talin1 ... but both Talin 1 and 2 are essential for skeletal muscle development ...
Abbreviations: vin, vinculin; pax, paxillin; tal, talin; par, parvin; pin, particularly interesting new cysteine-histidine-rich ... We were also unable to identify two actin binding proteins, parvin and vinculin (figure 4c). The absence of a vinculin gene is ... talin and vinculin appear to be Amorphea-specific innovations, as they are also present in amoebozoans [26]. Many of these ... biforma conspicuously lacks a vinculin-binding domain, which is otherwise present in talin homologues found throughout Amorphea ...
When vinculin interacted with other partners, the central long alpha-helix of the first domain becomes bent. This bending ... In order to provide useful information for a better understanding of its activation, we analyze the motion mode of vinculin ... The activation mechanism of vinculin is still controversial. ... Vinculin is an important protein for the linkage between ... the complex of vinculin with talins vinculin binding site 3). The second group is for the complex in which vinculin D1 ...
... talin, vinculin, and zyxin. Vinculin and zyxin are adaptors for other FA proteins, such as α-actinin, talin, F-actin, and VASP ... Regulation of vinculin binding to talin and actin by phosphatidyl-inositol-4-5-bisphosphate. Nature. 381:531-535. ... The FA proteins FA kinase (FAK), β1-integrin, talin, zyxin, and vinculin were downregulated and/or mislocalized in ES cells ... Similarly, in the case of Talin, mRNA levels in Srf(−/−) ES cells were reduced to ∼60% of wild-type levels, whereas talin ...
  • Talin is a key protein involved in linking integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. (rcsb.org)
  • The focal adhesion protein vinculin connects the actin cytoskeleton, through talin and integrins, with the extracellular matrix. (biologists.org)
  • These data demonstrate that Src-mediated phosphorylation is necessary for vinculin activation, and that phosphorylation controls cytoskeletal mechanics by regulating force transmission between the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, high matrix forces are primarily supported by clustered α 5 β 1 integrins, while less stable links to α v β 3 integrins initiate mechanotransduction, resulting in reinforcement of integrin-cytoskeleton linkages through talin-dependent bonds. (pnas.org)
  • Talin-1 is recognized to be a potent integrin activator and to influence the integrin functions, which are associated with cell adhesions, migration, apoptosis, and cytoskeleton remodeling [ 1 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • One proteomic study of 16 coronary arterial samples reported that 5 cytoskeleton proteins, including talin-1, were downregulated in atherosclerotic coronary media [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Vinculin is an important protein for the linkage between adhesion molecules and the actin cytoskeleton. (mdpi.com)
  • As a cytoskeletal protein, vinculin is associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions through the link between the integrin adhesion molecules and the actin cytoskeleton [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • It is capable of linking integrins to the actin cytoskeleton either directly or indirectly by interacting with vinculin and α-actinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Talin, in turn, links integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Talin-1 functions to mediate cell-cell adhesion via the linkage of integrins to the actin cytoskeleton and in the activation of integrins . (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] The N-terminal region of talin-1 is ~50 kDa in size and homologous to members of the ERM protein family which have a globular FERM domain (residues 86-400) that links the actin cytoskeleton to adhesion proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary function of talin-1 involves the linkage of integrins to the actin cytoskeleton and in the energy-dependent activation of integrins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian cells, vinculin is a membrane-cytoskeletal protein in focal adhesion plaques that is involved in linkage of integrin adhesion molecules to the actin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinculin is associated with focal adhesion and adherens junctions, which are complexes that nucleate actin filaments and crosslinkers between the external medium, plasma membrane, and actin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study clarifies the division of roles between the force-regulated unfolding of a talin protein (talin 1) and its function as a physical linker between integrins and the cytoskeleton. (biologists.org)
  • At the molecular level, talin is one of the first proteins involved in the connection between the ECM and the actin cytoskeleton. (hindawi.com)
  • Talin 1 and 2 connect integrins to the actin cytoskeleton and regulate the affinity of integrins for ligands. (biologists.org)
  • Talin 1/2-deficient myoblasts express functionally active β1 integrins, suggesting that defects in muscle development are not primarily caused by defects in ligand binding, but rather by disruptions of the interaction of integrins with the cytoskeleton. (biologists.org)
  • IACs were visualised by immunofluorescence staining for vinculin (red) and the actin cytoskeleton was visualised by staining with fluorophore-conjugated phalloidin (blue). (nih.gov)
  • Although talin can bind directly to actin, binding of vinculin is necessary for strong connection to the actin cytoskeleton. (abcam.com)
  • [3] He later made important discoveries on the interaction between the cytoskeleton and the cell membrane, resulting in, among other things, the identification of the cytoskeletal proteins vinculin and talin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinculin (VCL) is a cytoskeleton protein that is closely related to cell-matrix interactions and cell-cell junctions. (selfgrowth.com)
  • We found that CMG2 was able to bind the actin cytoskeleton through Talin and Vinculin when free of its extracellular ligand. (epfl.ch)
  • Vinculin is a protein 117 kiloDaltons in size that is associated with focal adhesion and adherens junctions, which are complexes that serve as nucleation sites for actin filaments and as crosslinkers between the external medium, plasma membrane, and actin cytoskeleton. (fsu.edu)
  • Both talin (-/-) ES cell mutants formed embryoid bodies, but differentiation was restricted to two morphologically distinct cell types.Interestingly, these differentiated talin (-/-) ES cells were able to spread and form focal adhesion-like structures containing vinculin and paxillin on fibronectin.Moreover, the levels of the beta1 integrin subunit were comparable to those in wild-type ES cells. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, these differentiated talin (-/-) ES cells were able to spread and form focal adhesion-like structures containing vinculin and paxillin on fibronectin. (nih.gov)
  • Localization of talin, vinculin, paxillin, and F-actin in differentiated talin (−/−) ES cell mutants by immunofluoresence. (nih.gov)
  • After 48 h, the cells were stained for talin and F-actin, vinculin and F-actin or paxillin and F-actin. (nih.gov)
  • Differentiated HM1 cells displayed a variety of morphologies, but all showed strong staining for talin, vinculin and paxillin in focal adhesions at the ends of actin filaments. (nih.gov)
  • The differentiated talin (−/−) ES cell mutants adopted a spread morphology with clear evidence of vinculin and paxillin-containing focal adhesion-like structures at the ends of actin filaments. (nih.gov)
  • However, in all cases there was prominent staining for talin, vinculin and paxillin at the ends of actin filaments (Fig. 9). (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, the differentiated talin (−/−) A28 cells also contained actin filaments, and in some cells, the ends of these filaments showed staining for vinculin and paxillin, but not talin. (nih.gov)
  • The Vh domain contains binding sites for talin and α-actinin, while the Vt domain contains binding sites for F-actin [ 8 ] and paxillin [ 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Vinculin consists of a globular head domain that contains binding sites for talin and α-actinin as well as a tyrosine phosphorylation site, while the tail region contains binding sites for F-actin, paxillin, and lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex at the focal adhesions consists of several proteins such as vinculin, α-actinin, paxillin, and talin, at the intracellular face of the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In more specific terms, the amino-terminus of vinculin binds to talin, which, in turn, binds to β-integrins, and the carboxy-terminus binds to actin, phospholipids, and paxillin-forming homodimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The consensus adhesome is likely to represent a core cell adhesion machinery, centred around four axes comprising ILK-PINCH-kindlin, FAK-paxillin, talin-vinculin and α-actinin-zyxin-VASP, and includes underappreciated IAC components such as Rsu-1 and caldesmon. (nih.gov)
  • These were talin, VASP and interestingly the p130Cas-Crk-DOCK180 scaffold, while FAK, paxillin and vinculin were absent. (diva-portal.org)
  • This protein has multi-ligand properties and has been found to interact with various microfilament-associated proteins, such as talin, a-actinin, and paxillin, which are reported to bind to the head or tail domains of vinculin. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The activation of PTK2 and Paxillin over VEGFR2 leads to recruitment Talin and Vinculin to the focal adhesion plaque 4 . (antibodies-online.com)
  • PTK2 und Paxillin werden ebenfalls durch VEGFR2 aktiviert, sie binden die Actin-Ankerproteine Talin und Vinculin an Fokale Adhäsionen 4 . (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Immunofluorescence showed that focal adhesion plaques containing talin, vinculin and paxillin were most apparent in cells on PE grafted with PEG or BSA + C, and the fibres containing α-actin, β-actin or SM1 and SM2 myosins were thicker, more numerous and more brightly stained in the cells on all modified PE samples than on pristine PE. (mdpi.com)
  • The head region of vinculin contains the binding sites for the proteins talin and alpha -actinin, and its tail region, which is rod-like in shape, contains the binding sites for filamentous actin and paxillin. (fsu.edu)
  • Among other proteins, focal adhesion junctions contain integrin-type receptors that are attached to the extracellular matrix and are associated with complexes containing vinculin (a universal focal adhesion marker), talin, alpha -actinin, tensin, paxillin, zyxin, and focal adhesion kinase. (fsu.edu)
  • In vitro reconstitution of the core focal adhesion proteins talin and vinculin with actin reveals lipid-dependent release of autoinhibition. (elifesciences.org)
  • Of potential molecular regulators, the linker proteins talin and vinculin are of particular interest because mechanical extension of talin induces vinculin binding with talin, which reinforces the actin-integrin linkage. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed increased concentrations of focal adhesion proteins talin and vinculin and also a cytoskeletal protein β-actin in cells on PE modified with BSA + C. A contractile protein α-actin was increased in cells on PE grafted with PEG or Gly. (mdpi.com)
  • Shown are some of the key structural elements of the costameric protein complex of the cardiac myocyte, including ones linked to the integrin-talin-vinculin axis, as well as the dystrophic-glycoprotein complex (DGC). (nih.gov)
  • Vinculin, a prominent cytoskeletal protein at cell-substrate adhesions (focal adhesions) and cell-cell adhesions (adherens junctions), interacts with other cytoskeletal proteins, including talin and actin. (nih.gov)
  • Quantitative immunoblotting analysis indicated that the vinculin content (relative to total extracted protein) is virtually constant during the last week of embryonic life. (nih.gov)
  • The concentration of metavinculin (a 160-Kd vinculin-related protein) showed only a limited increase after hatching. (nih.gov)
  • The long flexible talin rod domain contains a number of binding sites for vinculin, a cytoskeletal protein important in stabilizing integrin-mediated cell-matrix junctions. (rcsb.org)
  • 1H,15N]-HSQC spectra of the talin fragment indicate that vinculin binding caused approximately two-thirds of the protein to adopt a flexible random coil. (rcsb.org)
  • Binding of vinculin to talin is thus a clear example of the unusual phenomenon of protein unfolding being required for protein/protein interaction. (rcsb.org)
  • We now report that the adhesion protein, talin, is repeatedly stretched by 100-350 nm in vivo by myosin contraction of actin filaments. (nih.gov)
  • Talin-1 is a cytoskeletal protein that binds integrin, thereby leading to integrin activation and affecting focal adhesions. (hindawi.com)
  • Vinculin head (Vh), the N-terminal of the protein, is a globular part, and it contains four domains (D1, D2, D3 and D4). (mdpi.com)
  • Talin is a high-molecular-weight cytoskeletal protein concentrated at regions of cell-substratum contact and, in lymphocytes, at cell-cell contacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovered in 1983 by Keith Burridge and colleagues, talin is a ubiquitous cytosolic protein that is found in high concentrations in focal adhesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Talin also binds with high affinity to vinculin, another cytoskeletal protein concentrated at points of cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Talin is a mechanosensitive protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinculin binding sites are protein domains predominantly found in talin and talin-like molecules, enabling binding of vinculin to talin, stabilising integrin-mediated cell-matrix junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Talin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLN1 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinculin is a eukaryotic protein that seems to be involved in the attachment of the actin-based microfilaments to the plasma membrane. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Vinculin is a large protein of 116 kDa (about a 1000 residues). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The uvomorulin-anchorage protein alpha catenin is a vinculin homologue. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Vinculin is a cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions, where it is thought to function as one of several interacting proteins involved in anchoring F-actin to the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinculin is a 117-kDa cytoskeletal protein with 1066 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • When vinculin resides in its inactive form, the protein is kept designated to the cytoplasm unlike the focal adhesion points bound from the active state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linker protein talin has both β-integrin- and actin-binding sites [ 24 ] and is responsible for the formation of the initial link between actin filaments and integrin at cell adhesion sites [ 25 - 27 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Vinculin, a plasma protein, links fibers to talin, which is a cell membrane protein. (medscape.com)
  • Talin protein is one of the key components in integrin-mediated adhesion complexes. (biologists.org)
  • Talin is a large protein made of a globular FERM domain followed by an elongated rod-shaped domain. (hindawi.com)
  • Vinculin is a globular protein approximately 115 x 85 x 65 angstroms in linear dimension. (wikidoc.org)
  • We show that polarization of talin, an actin-binding protein, occurs in response to integrin engagement. (jimmunol.org)
  • Filamentous actin ( 17 , 18 ) and the actin-binding protein talin ( 15 ) accumulate at the T cell:APC interface, and the T cell microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) 3 , which was previously in the trailing uropod ( 12 ), is actively recruited into the portion of the cytoplasm proximal to the APC ( 14 , 15 , 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Vinculin tail protein is chosen as a model system as conformational changes within the vinculin protein are believed to be important for its biological function at the sites of cell adhesion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MD simulations were performed on vinculin tail protein both in water and in vacuo environments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results suggest the localization of dynamic and flexible regions of the vinculin tail protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vinexin: a novel vinculin-binding protein with multiple SH3 domains enhances actin cytoskeletal organization. (sdbonline.org)
  • We also measured zonulin level as well as zonulin, occludin, vinculin, aquaporin 4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies in the sera of 30 patients with celiac disease and 30 controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology. (immunoscienceslab.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the C-terminus region of human Talin 1. (genetex.com)
  • Talin 1 antibody [C3], C-term detects TLN1 protein at cytosol on H357 xenograft by immunohistochemical analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Talin 1 antibody detects Talin 1 protein by western blot analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Recent studies of vinculin suggest that the role the protein plays in cellular adhesion, motility, and intercellular communication varies depending upon alterations in the three-dimensional structure of the protein. (fsu.edu)
  • PtdInsP2 regulates several actin-binding proteins, including profilin, gelsolin and alpha-actinin, and interacts with vinculin. (nih.gov)
  • A number of cytoskeletal-associated proteins that are concentrated in focal contacts, namely alpha-actinin, vinculin, talin, and integrin, have been shown to interact in vitro such that they suggest a potential link between actin filaments and the membrane. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The vinculin binding sites of talin and alpha-actinin are sufficient to activate vinculin. (sdbonline.org)
  • The binding of talin and alpha-actinin to the D1 subdomain of vinculin induces a helical conversion of this subdomain, leading to disruption of intramolecular interaction and exposure of the cryptic domain of F-actin binding of Vt. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Disruption of the talin gene compromises focal adhesion assembly in undifferentiated but not differentiated embryonic stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that talin is essential for beta1 integrin expression and focal adhesion assembly in undifferentiated ES cells, but that a subset of differentiated cells are talin independent for both characteristics. (nih.gov)
  • A myriad of infectious agents mimic vinculin binding sites (VBS), enabling them to hijack the adhesion machinery and facilitate cellular entry. (kent.ac.uk)
  • We demonstrate that the TarP VBS can uncouple talin:vinculin complexes, which may lead to adhesion destabilisation. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Such data have lead to a model of the focal adhesion in which integrins are linked to F-actin either directly via talin or α-actinin, or indirectly via interactions between talin, vinculin and α-actinin (Burridge et al. (rupress.org)
  • Compared to cells expressing wild-type or constitutively active vinculin, we found reduced tractions, cytoskeletal stiffness, adhesion strength, and increased vinculin dynamics in cells expressing constitutively inactive vinculin or vinculin where Src-mediated phosphorylation was blocked by replacing tyrosine at position 100 and/or 1065 with a non-phosphorylatable phenylalanine residue. (biologists.org)
  • Replacing tyrosine residues with phospho-mimicking glutamic acid residues restored cellular tractions, stiffness and adhesion strength, as well as vinculin dynamics, and facilitated vinculin-actin binding. (biologists.org)
  • Importantly, we did not detect a role of either integrin α v β 3 or talin 1 or 2 in maintaining adhesion strength. (pnas.org)
  • Talin-1 also promotes cell proliferation by activating focal adhesion proteins and by influencing integrin adhesions with cell cycle progression [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Once a shortage of the vinculin has occurred, various functions of the cell will be affected, such as the disruption of the focal adhesion complex [ 5 ] and the prevention of cell adhesion and spreading. (mdpi.com)
  • Talin-1 is involved in each part of extravasation affecting adhesion, trans-endothelial migration and the invasion stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of the VBS leads to the recruitment of vinculin to form a complex with the integrins which aids stable cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Talin carries mechanical force (of 7-10 piconewton) during cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently Kumar et al combined cellular electron cryo-tomography with FRET based tension measurements and find that the regions of high talin tension within focal adhesion have highly aligned and linear underlying filamentous actin structures while regions of low talin tension have less well-aligned actin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conformational states during vinculin unlocking differentially regulate focal adhesion properties. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Vinculin is located at the cytoplasmic side of focal contacts or adhesion plaques [ PMID: 2112986 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Based on research, it has been postulated that the lack of vinculin may decrease cell adhesion by inhibiting focal adhesion assembly and preventing actin polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, overexpression of vinculin may restore adhesion and spreading by promoting recruitment of cytoskeletal proteins to the focal adhesion complex at the site of integrin binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, vinculin appears to play a key role in shape control based on its ability to modulate focal adhesion structure and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • These changes occur when vinculin interacts with focal adhesion points to which it is binding to. (wikipedia.org)
  • For understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanism of rigidity sensing at cell-substrate adhesion sites, we constructed a simple physical model to examine a role of talin extension in the stiffness-dependent regulation of actin-integrin linkage. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The model predicts that, in adhesion complexes containing ≈30 talin links, talin is extended enough for vinculin binding when the substrate is stiffer than 1 kPa. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Our results suggest that talin extension is a key step in sensing and responding to substrate stiffness at cell adhesion sites. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Talins transmit mechanical forces between β-integrin and actin, and regulate adhesion complex composition and signaling through the force-regulated unfolding of talin rod domain. (biologists.org)
  • The transmission of mechanical forces regulates adhesion complex composition and phosphotyrosine signaling even in the absence of the mechanically regulated talin rod subdomains. (biologists.org)
  • In addition to its role as a structural scaffold, talin acts as a central adhesion complex mechanosensor. (biologists.org)
  • Consistent with this finding, assembly of integrin adhesion complexes is perturbed in the remaining muscle fibers of talin 1/2-deficient mice. (biologists.org)
  • In migrating cells, it has been shown that the locations of vinculin activation coincide with areas of high cellular tension, and that the highest recorded tensions across vinculin are associated with adhesion assembly. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Experimental data of vinculin during various stages of the focal adhesion lifecycle are consistent with the proposed force-regulated activation pathway. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Our data explain how fast switching between active and inactive conformations of talin could regulate FA turnover, a process critical for cell adhesion and signaling. (rcsb.org)
  • Structural basis for vinculin activation at sites of cell adhesion. (sdbonline.org)
  • Vinculin regulates the recruitment and release of core focal adhesion proteins in a force-dependent manner. (sdbonline.org)
  • We are studying the roles of talin and vinculin in heart assembly/remodeling in the zebrafish with the goal of describing the cellular mechanisms responsible for adhesion between cardiomyocytes in normal and damaged heart muscle. (mercer.edu)
  • Richard H. Singiser and Richard O. McCann (2006).Evidence that talin alternative splice variants from Ciona intestinalis have different roles in cell adhesion. (mercer.edu)
  • The localization of vinculin and talin in embryonic chicken gizzards indicated that both are primarily cytoplasmic during the first 2 embryonic weeks. (nih.gov)
  • Förster resonance energy transfer analysis showed a reduced co-localization of Talin-1 to the integrin's β3-subunit, which is required for receptor activation and fibrinogen binding. (uniprot.org)
  • Both the early recruitment of talin in nascent adhesions [ 5 ] and its requirement for the 2 pN integrin-actin bond in nascent adhesions support the early role of talin [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The assembly of focal adhesions requires the recruitment and activation of vinculin. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • In living cells, RIAM overexpression stimulates and RIAM knockdown blocks talin recruitment to αIIbβ3, which is monitored by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. (rupress.org)
  • Mutations in talin or β3 that disrupt their mutual interaction block both talin recruitment and αIIbβ3 activation. (rupress.org)
  • [15] [16] Talin-1 N-terminal region also binds acidic phospholipids for insertion into lipid bilayers . (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinculin consists of a globular head and tail domain, which undergo conformational changes from a closed auto-inhibited conformation in the cytoplasm to an open conformation in focal adhesions. (biologists.org)
  • An intramolecular interaction between the head and tail domains of vinculin masks the binding sites for both proteins. (nih.gov)
  • b) Schematic representation of the functional domains of vinculin and some of its ligands. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vinculin is a central component of mechanosensitive adhesive complexes that form between cells and the extracellular matrix. (kent.ac.uk)
  • In addition to actin, vinculin interacts with other structural proteins such as talin and alpha-actinins. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Investigations indicate that a proline-rich domain between the head and tail of vinculin interacts with vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein ( VASP ), a substrate of cyclic AMP-dependent or cyclic GMP-dependent kinases. (fsu.edu)
  • The adherent culture of BPAE cells featured in the digital image above was immunofluorescently labeled with primary anti-vinculin mouse monoclonal antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse Fab heavy and light chain fragments conjugated to Rhodamine Red-X. In addition, the specimen was simultaneously stained for DNA with the ultraviolet-absorbing probe DAPI, and for the cytoskeletal filamentous actin network with Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated to phalloidin. (fsu.edu)
  • An adherent culture of the HeLa cervical carcinoma epithelial cells (illustrated above) was immunofluorescently labeled with anti-vinculin mouse monoclonal primary antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse Fab heavy and light chain fragments conjugated to Cy3 (red emission). (fsu.edu)
  • Molecular mechanism of vinculin activation and nanoscale spatial organization in focal adhesions. (sdbonline.org)
  • Here we report that PtdInsP2 dissociates vinculin's head-tail interaction, unmasking its talin- and actin-binding sites. (nih.gov)
  • In the cytoplasm, vinculin exhibits an auto-inhibitory head-to-tail interaction. (biologists.org)
  • The tail domain of vinculin (Vt), connected to D4 by a proline-rich linker region, is grabbed by a pincer-like structure formed from D1 and D3. (mdpi.com)
  • Formation of the complex between VBS and vinculin requires prior unfolding of this middle domain: once released from the talin hydrophobic core, the VBS helix is then available to induce the 'bundle conversion' conformational change within the vinculin head domain thereby displacing the intramolecular interaction with the vinculin tail, allowing vinculin to bind actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • And, when transforming to the 'active' form, such as when talin triggers binding, the intramolecular interaction between the tail and head is severed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinculin is present in the cytoplasm in an autoinhibited conformation in which its tail is held pincerlike by its head domains, further stabilized by two high-affinity head-tail interfaces. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Vinculin has binding sites for talin and F-actin, but effective binding requires vinculin activation to release its head-tail associations. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Specifically, at zero or low forces, vinculin activation requires substantial destabilization of the main head-tail interface, which is rigid and undergoes very limited fluctuations, despite the other being relatively flexible. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • instead, higher forces favor an alternative pathway, which seeks to release the vinculin tail from its pincerlike head domains before destabilizing the head-tail interfaces. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Vinculin exists in two distinct conformations depending on an intra-molecular interaction between its head (Vh) and tail (Vt) domains (cf. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the site specific behaviour of the vinculin tail in its inactive conformation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this state, vinculin is held in a "closed", auto-inhibited conformation by intra-molecular interactions between the head and tail domains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Head/tail interaction of vinculin influences cell mechanical behavior. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have used gene disruption to isolate two talin (-/-) ES cell mutants that contain no intact talin. (nih.gov)
  • 8 ] reported that TLN1 (a gene encoding talin-1) expression was downregulated in atherosclerotic plaques (68 samples from carotid, aortic or femoral arteries) compared with normal artery samples. (hindawi.com)
  • The vinculin gene occurs as a single copy and what appears to be no close relative to take over functions in its absence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinculin gene is non-essential in Drosophila melanogaster. (sdbonline.org)
  • Individual talin molecules transiently stretched and relaxed. (nih.gov)
  • The shape of the distribution follows a single-molecule enzymatic model, where two vinculin head molecules bind simultaneously to unfolded R3. (sciencemag.org)
  • This demonstrates that two vinculin head molecules bind simultaneously to the unfolded talin R3 domain. (sciencemag.org)
  • We show that talin molecules linking between retrograding actin filaments and substrate-bound integrin are extended in a manner dependent on substrate stiffness. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Stretching single talin rod molecules activates vinculin binding. (sdbonline.org)
  • Further, the role of the actin motor myosin X, which previously has been implicated in formation of filopodia, was studied in the GD25Β1B cells and it was shown that myosin X not was important for filopodia formation, but that it recruited FAK and vinculin to the tip complexes of filopodia. (diva-portal.org)
  • Vinculin, on the other hand, remains primarily cytoplasmic and appears in the plaques only 1-3 days after hatching. (nih.gov)
  • Talin was also found to bind to synthetic peptides corresponding to the cytoplasmic domain of the β3 subunit, but it also bound to an αIIb cytoplasmic domain peptide suggesting that integrin α-subunits might also participate in the interaction. (rupress.org)
  • In undifferentiated cultures of myoblasts, talin-1 expression is perinuclear, and then progresses to a cytoplasmic distribution followed by a sarcomlemmal , costameric -like pattern by day 15 of differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two of these, talin and kindlin, bind directly to the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin β subunit and are key regulators of integrin affinity ("inside-out" activation). (abcam.com)
  • The cytoplasmic domains of the integrins interact with cytoskeletal components (including vinculin, talin, actin, α-actinin, and tropomyosin). (humpath.com)
  • We thus set out to analyze how integrins α 5 β 1 and α v β 3 and their binding to fibronectin and talin regulate these steps. (pnas.org)
  • We conclude that talin 1 and 2 are crucial for skeletal muscle development, where they regulate myoblast fusion, sarcomere assembly and the maintenance of MTJs. (biologists.org)
  • For example, it has been demonstrated that by alternating between an active and inactive form, vinculin can regulate the mobility of cells, and may, therefore, be involved in wound healing, embryonic tissue development, and the metastasis of cancerous tumors. (fsu.edu)
  • Cells derived from the embryoid bodies formed by wild-type (+/+) ES cells (HM1) and the talin (−/−) A28 ES cell mutant were seeded onto fibronectin-coated glass coverslips. (nih.gov)
  • Because the differentiated talin (−/−) A28 and J26 ES cells that migrate out of embryoid bodies are able to adopt a spread morphology on gelatin-coated dishes, we investigated whether these cells could form focal adhesions and actin stress fibers when plated on fibronectin. (nih.gov)
  • Cell-fibronectin binding is increased by fibronectin clustering ( 2 - 7 ) and integrin binding to talin ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, whether the two integrins have different functions, and how fibronectin clustering and talin affect these functions, remains thus far unknown. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that in response to matrix rigidity and density, force transmission and transduction are explained by the mechanical properties of the actin-talin-integrin-fibronectin clutch. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We also demonstrate that compacted talin1 reversibly unfolds to an ∼60-nm string-like conformation, revealing interaction sites for vinculin and actin. (rcsb.org)
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that talin 1 is central for integrin signaling. (biologists.org)
  • Vinculin contains 1066 amino acids with a 117-kDa molecular weight. (mdpi.com)
  • Human talin-1 is 270.0 kDa molecular weight and 2541 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we emphasize such an approach that illustrates the potential of molecular dynamics simulations in analyzing experimental results determined by EPR spectroscopy on vinculin as an example. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Only around days 16-18 does talin apparently become associated with the plasma membrane, this being concomitant with the appearance of distinct myofilament-bound dense plaques. (nih.gov)
  • In these situations, talin codistributes with concentrations of integrins in the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, FAK expression regulated integrin activation, and talin was required for the FAK-dependent effects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The key binding determinants are buried in the interior of the helical bundle, suggesting that a substantial structural change in the talin polypeptide is required for vinculin binding. (rcsb.org)
  • In talin, VBS are cryptic and require mechanical activation to bind vinculin, whereas the TarP VBS are located in disordered regions, and so are constitutively active. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Mechanical stretching of talin promotes vinculin binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also allows cells to measure extracellular rigidity, since cells in which talin is prevented from forming mechanical linkages can no longer distinguish whether they are on a soft or rigid surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • [38] It has been shown, however, that talin-1 expression is minor in adult cardiomyocytes , and becomes more prominent at costameres during cardiac hypertrophy induced by pharmacological and mechanical stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, many of the interactions of the talin rod domain are regulated by mechanical force. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, in vitro binding studies suggest that integrins bind to talin, although with low affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thus proposed that the interactions of the dense plaque with myofilaments or with the membrane do not depend on the presence of vinculin in the plaque. (nih.gov)
  • The experiment is conducted in the presence of vinculin head, and the extension changes due to folding or binding are measured with nanometer resolution. (sciencemag.org)
  • The phosphorylation of vinculin on tyrosine residues 100 and 1065, mediated by SRC kinases, affects cell spreading. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The FA proteins FA kinase (FAK), β1-integrin, talin, zyxin, and vinculin were downregulated and/or mislocalized in ES cells lacking SRF, leading to inefficient activation of the FA signaling kinase FAK. (rupress.org)
  • [42] Conditional knockout of talin-1 in cardiomyocytes shows that mice have normal cardiac function at baseline, but improved function, blunted hypertrophy, and attenuated fibrosis when subjected to pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy , which correlated with blunted ERK1/2 , p38 , Akt , and glycogen synthase kinase 3 responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, we showed that the Src-like kinase family are involved in the release of Talin upon ligand binding and that CMG2 binding to its extracellular ligand is critical for the correct orientation of the mitotic spindle of zebrafish epiblast cells, which allows cell division along the Animal/Vegetal axis. (epfl.ch)
  • Actomyosin-dependent formation of the mechanosensitive talin-vinculin complex reinforces actin anchoring. (sdbonline.org)
  • However, within 3 days of hatching, the vinculin concentration increases remarkably to over twice the embryonic level, and then slowly increases until it reaches the adult levels, which are three to four times higher than the embryonic level. (nih.gov)
  • To explore the role of phosphorylation in vinculin activation, we used knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts re-expressing different vinculin mutants in traction microscopy, magnetic tweezer microrheology, FRAP and actin-binding assays. (biologists.org)
  • [37] Homozygous disruption of TLN1 in mice is embryonic lethal, demonstrating that talin-1 is required for normal embryogenesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • As shown in Figure 1 , the crystal structure (PDB ID: 1TR2 [ 6 ]) of full-length human vinculin contains five distinct domains. (mdpi.com)
  • Crystal structure of human vinculin. (sdbonline.org)
  • In contrast to an adherens junction of a similar composition recently described in cultured fibroblasts, the slit diaphragm complex does not contain vinculin, which was found in nearby focal contacts. (asnjournals.org)
  • Antibodies to cytolethal distending toxin B (CdtB) and vinculin are novel biomarkers that rule-in and differentiate irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) from other causes of diarrhea and healthy controls. (selfgrowth.com)
  • [5] [6] Talin-1 is ubiquitously expressed, and is localized to costamere structures in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, and to focal adhesions in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex then serves to anchor actin filaments to the membrane and thus, helps to reinforce force on talin within the focal adhesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Talin links integrins to actin filaments, a bond which is further stabilized by vinculin. (biologists.org)
  • In skeletal muscle, talin 1 regulates the stability of myotendinous junctions (MTJs), but the function of talin 2 in skeletal muscle is not known. (biologists.org)
  • Vinculin and zyxin are adaptors for other FA proteins, such as α-actinin, talin, F-actin, and VASP. (rupress.org)
  • Under force, talin unfolds and the vinculin-binding sites become unstructured polypeptide chains. (sciencemag.org)
  • This event is resolved as a ∼3-nm contraction that occurs in the unfolded talin polypeptide due to the reformation of the α-helices of its two vinculin-binding sites (red arrow, inset). (sciencemag.org)
  • The binding contraction scales with force following the FJC polymer model with a contour length of 7.3 nm, which agrees with the simultaneous formation of the two α-helices of the vinculin-binding sites. (sciencemag.org)
  • The consensus sequence for vinculin binding sites is LxxAAxxVAxxVxxLIxxA, with a secondary structure prediction of four amphipathic helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rod domain contains multiple vinculin-binding sites (VBSs). (hindawi.com)
  • The C-terminus contains binding sites for proteins such as beta-1-integrin, actin, and vinculin. (genetex.com)
  • B ) Distribution of vinculin head binding times at different concentrations, and a force of 9 pN. (sciencemag.org)
  • Proteins identified with lower concentrations, such as Talin-1, Vinculin, Myosin-9, Filmain-A, and Actin play critical roles in integrin αIIbβ3 signaling and thus platelet aggregation. (uniprot.org)
  • Vinculin is present in equilibrium between an active and inactive state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinculin is supposed to cycle between active and inactive conformations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like other talin rod polypeptides, it consists of a helical bundle, in this case a four-helix bundle with a right-handed topology. (rcsb.org)
  • Vinculin activation by talin through helical bundle conversion. (sdbonline.org)
  • Furthermore, changes in actin velocity drastically shift the range of substrate stiffness that induces talin-vinculin binding. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • They suggested that talin-1 downregulation causes the loosening of cell-ECM interactions, thereby leading to the injury and disintegration of vascular walls in atherosclerosis. (hindawi.com)