Vinca Alkaloids: A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Vinca: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Vinca rosea has been changed to CATHARANTHUS roseus.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Vindesine: Vinblastine derivative with antineoplastic activity against CANCER. Major side effects are myelosuppression and neurotoxicity. Vindesine is used extensively in chemotherapy protocols (ANTINEOPLASTIC COMBINED CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS).Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Tubulin Modulators: Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Maytansine: An ansa macrolide isolated from the MAYTENUS genus of East African shrubs.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Podophyllotoxin: A lignan (LIGNANS) found in PODOPHYLLIN resin from the roots of PODOPHYLLUM plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Catharanthus: A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. It is the source of VINCA ALKALOIDS, used in leukemia chemotherapy.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Leukemia P388: An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Procarbazine: An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.Antimitotic Agents: Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Hydrocarbons, IodinatedColonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Dacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.KB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Demecolcine: An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Griseofulvin: An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.DiazomethaneCarcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Estramustine: A nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, usually as phosphate; used to treat prostatic neoplasms; also has radiation protective properties.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Rhodamine 123: A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)Drug Antagonism: Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that inhibit the function of agonists (DRUG AGONISM) and inverse agonists (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM) for a specific receptor. On their own, antagonists produce no effect by themselves to a receptor, and are said to have neither intrinsic activity nor efficacy.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Chlorambucil: A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)United StatesFlow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.DeoxycytidineAntibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Anthracyclines: Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Sarcoma 180Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Mitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Cyclosporins: A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Dysgerminoma: A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Cytochalasins: 11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Cystectomy: Used for excision of the urinary bladder.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Lumicolchicines: Three, alpha, beta, and gamma isomers of ultraviolet degradation products of colchicine that lack many of the physiological actions of the parent; used as experimental control for colchicine actions.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
... s are targets for anticancer drugs like the vinca alkaloid drugs vinblastine and vincristine, and Taxol. The anti-gout ... Anti-Cancer Agents. 5 (1): 65-71. doi:10.2174/1568011053352569. PMID 15720262. Karki R, Mariani M, Andreoli M, He S, Scambia G ... Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ... These include paclitaxel, colchicine, and the vinca alkaloids, each of which have a distinct binding site on β-tubulin. Class ...
The plant produces about 130 of these compounds, including vinblastine and vincristine, two drugs used to treat cancer. ... Catharanthus roseus, known formerly as Vinca rosea, is a main source of vinca alkaloids, now sometimes called catharanthus ... Like genus Vinca, they are known commonly as periwinkles. There are eight known species. Seven are endemic to Madagascar, ... Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ...
The Vinca alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine, used as anti-cancer drugs, were discovered in the 1950s from the Madagascar ... According to Cancer Research UK, "there is currently no strong evidence from studies in people that herbal remedies can treat, ... "Herbal medicine". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 26 January 2017. Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. H.; Savolainen, V.; Williamson, E. M.; ... Drug discovery from plants continued to be important through the 20th century and into the 21st, with important anti-cancer ...
Vinblastine is mainly useful for treating Hodgkin's lymphoma, advanced testicular cancer and advanced breast cancer. ... The Vinca alkaloids bind to the β-subunit of tubulin dimers at a distinct region called the Vinca-binding domain. They bind to ... First anticancer drugs approved for clinical use were Vinca alkaloids, vinblastine and vincristine in the 1960s. They were ... Tubulin Microtubule Cancer Chemotherapy Drug design Vinblastine Vincristine Vinorelbine Vinflunine Cryptophycin Halichondrin B ...
Together they isolated the anti-cancer drug vinblastine from the leaves of the Madagascar periwinkle plant (vinca rosea) at the ... he remained an Honorary Senior Research Scientist in the department of cancer endocrinology at the British Columbia Cancer ... The discovery of vinblastine is generally considered a milestone in the development of chemotherapy. In 1960, he became ... In 2003, he was made a Member of the Order of Canada Canadian Medical Hall of Fame profile His cancer breakthrough started with ...
The original vinca alkaloids are natural products that include vincristine and vinblastine. Following the success of these ... Anti-Cancer Drugs (journal) Antimicrobial chemotherapy Cancer and nausea Cancer-related fatigue Chemo brain Chemotherapy ... There are a few possible causes of resistance in cancer, one of which is the presence of small pumps on the surface of cancer ... Vinca alkaloids are derived from the Madagascar periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus (formerly known as Vinca rosea). They bind to ...
Vinblastine and vincristine, chemotherapy medications used to treat several types of cancers, are found in the plant and are ... vinca-de-gato ("cats' vinca"), vinca-branca (white vinca), vinca or boa-noite in Portuguese (European), vinca del Cabo, vinca ... Many of the vinca alkaloids were first isolated from Catharanthus roseus, including vinblastine and vincristine used in the ... Other English names include '"Cape periwinkle" and "old-maid". It was formerly included in the genus Vinca as Vinca rosea. Two ...
This includes breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. It is given by injection into a vein or by mouth. Common side ... Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ... Keglevich, Péter; Hazai, Laszlo; Kalaus, György; Szántay, Csaba (2012). "Modifications on the basic skeletons of vinblastine ... Vinorelbine is approved for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. It is used off-label for other cancers such as ...
... such as the vinca alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine, which are formed from the coupling of catharanthine and vindoline. The ... "Safety and efficacy of vinorelbine in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer". Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology. 5: ... because they are extracted from vinca plants such as Vinca rosea (Catharanthus roseus); these are called vinca alkaloids. ... Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ...
Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ... The newer semi-synthetic chemotherapeutic agent vinorelbine is used in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer and is not ... Keglevich, Péter; Hazai, Laszlo; Kalaus, György; Szántay, Csaba (2012). "Modifications on the basic skeletons of vinblastine ... "Safety and efficacy of vinorelbine in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer". Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology. 5: ...
... the vinca alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine, the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel, the proteasome inhibitors such as ... Cancers most likely to cause DVT are pancreatic cancer, stomach cancer, brain tumors, advanced breast cancer and advanced ... Invasion of bone by cancer is the most common source of cancer pain. About 70 percent of breast and prostate cancer patients, ... Cancer Treatment Reports. 1986;70:691-2. PMID 3708626. Twycross R & Bennett M. Cancer pain syndromes. In: Sykes N, Bennett MI ...
... and childhood cancers, as well as several other types of cancer and some non-cancerous conditions. Vinblastine is a chemical ... "Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer". cancer.org. American Cancer Society. February 12, 2016. Retrieved June 22, 2017. Hirata, K ... American Cancer Society. May 31, 2016. Retrieved June 22, 2017. "Chemotherapy for Neuroblastoma". cancer.org. American Cancer ... "Chemotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer". cancer.org. American Cancer Society. May 16, 2016. Retrieved June 22, 2017. " ...
... s are used in chemotherapy for cancer. They are a class of cell cycle-specific cytotoxic drugs that work by ... These compounds include vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, and vinorelbine. Additional researched vinca alkaloids include ... Vinca alkaloids are now produced synthetically and used as drugs in cancer therapy and as immunosuppressive drugs. ... basionym Vinca rosea) and other vinca plants. The Madagascan periwinkle Catharanthus roseus L. is the source for a number of ...
... s are used in chemotherapy for cancer. They are a class of cell cycle-specific cytotoxic drugs that work by ... These compounds include vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, and vinorelbine. Additional researched vinca alkaloids include ... Vinca alkaloids are now produced synthetically and used as drugs in cancer therapy and as immunosuppressive drugs. ... and the vinca alkaloids it produces from them: leurosine and the chemotherapy agents vinblastine[3] and vincristine,[4] all of ...
... an anticancer drug of the vinca alkaloid class. They also developed vinflunine, a fluorinated vinca alkaloid derivative ... Keglevich, Péter; Hazai, Laszlo; Kalaus, György; Szántay, Csaba (2012). "Modifications on the basic skeletons of vinblastine ... "Safety and efficacy of vinorelbine in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer". Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology. 5: ... Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ...
This includes Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-small cell lung cancer, bladder cancer, brain cancer, melanoma, and testicular cancer. It ... Vinblastine is a vinca alkaloid and a chemical analogue of vincristine. It binds tubulin, thereby inhibiting the assembly of ... Vinblastine is a chemotherapy medication, typically used with other medications, to treat a number of types of cancer. ... Vinblastine works by blocking cell division. Vinblastine was isolated in 1958. It is on the World Health Organization's List of ...
... non-small cell lung cancer, bladder cancer, brain cancer, melanoma, and testicular cancer.[1] It is given by injection into a ... Vinblastine is a vinca alkaloid[8][9][10] and a chemical analogue of vincristine.[11][12] It binds tubulin, thereby inhibiting ... so it was hypothesized that vinblastine might be effective against cancers of the white blood cells such as lymphoma.[20] ... "Vinblastine". Retrieved 28 November 2015.. *^ British national formulary : BNF 69 (69 ed.). British Medical Association. 2015. ...
Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ... Keglevich, Péter; Hazai, Laszlo; Kalaus, György; Szántay, Csaba (2012). "Modifications on the basic skeletons of vinblastine ... Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 101 (1): 37-47. doi:10.1093/jnci/djn418. PMC 2639295 . PMID 19116379. Rybak LP, ... The vinca alkaloids, including vincristine, are also associated with reversible ototoxicity. Topical skin preparations such as ...
"The Vinca Alkaloids: A New Class of Oncolytic Agents" (pdf). Cancer Research. 23 (8 Part 1): 1390-1427. PMID 14070392. "Eli ... Sears, J.; Boger, D. (2015). "Total Synthesis of Vinblastine, Related Natural Products, and Key Analogues and Development of ... NCI Cancer Bulletin. Feb 23, 2010 [archived 2011-12-11];7(4):6. Graf, W. D.; Chance, P. F.; Lensch, M. W.; Eng, L. J.; Lipe, H ... It is a vinca alkaloid that can be obtained from the Madagascar periwinkle Catharanthus roseus. Vincristine is delivered via ...
May 2007). "Preclinical evaluation of EC145, a folate-vinca alkaloid conjugate". Cancer Res. 67 (9): 4434-42. doi:10.1158/0008- ... vinblastine). EC145 was found to produce marked anti-tumor effect against well-established, subcutaneous FR-positive tumor ... Non-mucinous ovarian cancer (the majority of ovarian cancers) was the first tumor type to be associated with FR "over- ... Campbell IG, Jones TA, Foulkes WD, Trowsdale J (October 1991). "Folate-binding protein is a marker for ovarian cancer". Cancer ...
... the vinca alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine, the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel, the proteasome inhibitors such as ... Paice JA, Ferrell B. The management of cancer pain. CA - A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2011;61(3):157-82. doi:10.3322/caac. ... A 2007 American Cancer Society study found that most patients did not recall being told to expect CIPN, and doctors monitoring ... Cancers of the Colon and Rectum: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Diagnosis and Management. Demos Medical Publishing. p. 233. ...
Vinblastine-used to treat leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer and testicular cancer. It is ... Docetaxel-used to treat breast, ovarian, and non-small cell lung cancer. Vinca alkaloids are amines produced by the ... Vindesine-used to treat leukaemia, lymphoma, melanoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer. Vinorelbine-used to treat breast cancer ... Paclitaxel-used to treat lung cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and advanced forms of Kaposi's sarcoma. ...
The original vinca alkaloids are natural products that include vincristine and vinblastine.[44][45][46][47] Following the ... Cancer. 9 (1): 28-39. PMID 19104514. doi:10.1038/nrc2559.. *^ Hanahan D, Weinberg RA (Jan 2000). "The hallmarks of cancer". ... Vinca alkaloids are derived from the Madagascar periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus[42][43] (formerly known as Vinca rosea). They ... Lung cancer. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine,. CAV. Colorectal cancer. 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid, oxaliplatin. ...
Chemotherapy drugs thalidomide, the epothilones such as ixabepilone, the vinca alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine, the ... PCCI is often seen in patients treated for breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and other reproductive cancers, as ... "Ocular toxicity and cancer chemotherapy." "Cancer", 78: 1359-1373. Doctors are finding it harder to deny "Chemobrain" The ... One underwent chemotherapy treatment for breast cancer, while the other did not have cancer and was not treated with ...
The technology has also been tested for treatment of prostate cancer, both in a dog model[3] and in human prostate cancer ... Vinca alkaloids (Vinblastine#. *Vincristine#. *Vinflunine§. *Vindesine. *Vinorelbine#). Block microtubule disassembly. *Taxanes ... can penetrate cancer cells and, after being irradiated with light, destroy the cancer cells.[22][23] ... J. Cancer. 95 (2): 189-96. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603241. PMC 2360622. PMID 16819545.. ...
Cancer[edit]. Bleomycin is mostly used to treat cancer.[1] This includes testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, and Hodgkin's ... Vinca alkaloids (Vinblastine#. *Vincristine#. *Vinflunine§. *Vindesine. *Vinorelbine#). Block microtubule disassembly. *Taxanes ... testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, and cervical cancer among others.[1] Typically used with other cancer medications,[1] it can ... It may also be put inside the chest to help prevent the recurrence of a pleural effusion due to cancer.[1] For scarring down ...
Vinca alkaloids are used in chemotherapy for cancer. They are a class of cell cycle-specific cytotoxic drugs that work by ... These compounds include vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, and vinorelbine. Additional researched vinca alkaloids include ... Vinca alkaloids are now produced synthetically and used as drugs in cancer therapy and as immunosuppressive drugs. ... and the vinca alkaloids it produces from them: leurosine and the chemotherapy agents vinblastine[3] and vincristine,[4] all of ...
Vinca alkaloids (vincristine, vinblastine). Anti-cancer. Rosy periwinkle. Various folk remedies across the world, including use ... Vinca alkaloids (vincristine, vinblastine). Anti-cancer. Rosy periwinkle. Various folk remedies across the world, including use ... Anti-cancer. Synthesized from podophyllotoxin, produced by the mandrake plant. Various remedies in Chinese, Japanese and ... Anti-cancer. Synthesized from podophyllotoxin, produced by the mandrake plant. Various remedies in Chinese, Japanese and ...
Vinca alkaloids synonyms, Vinca alkaloids pronunciation, Vinca alkaloids translation, English dictionary definition of Vinca ... Related to Vinca alkaloids: vinblastine, vincristine, paclitaxel, Taxanes. Vinca alkaloids. Cytotoxic drugs used to prevent the ... ATMs belong to a class of anti-cancer drug known as anti-mitotics, including the current taxanes and vinca alkaloids.. Novogen ... These include the taxanes (paclitaxel, docetaxel) and the vinca alkaloids (vincristine, vinblastine).. NOVOGEN ADDS TECHNOLOGY ...
Book] Cancer can be cured by Father Romano Zago. Allopathic cancer drugs from nature. [Vinca rosea.]Vinblastine sulfate: Damage ... HERBS FOR CANCER. [back] Cancer Therapies Herbs. [Here are 3 drugs made from herbs. The cancer industry likes you to think ... 1 - The ideal anti-cancer formula should attack and destroy cancer tissue. Of the herbs listed in the above formulas, here are ... Herbs used for cancer: Essiac formula: burdock root (Arctium lappa), slippery elm inner bark (Ulmus rubra), sheep sorrel (Rumex ...
... vinca alkaloids (e.g., vincristine or vinblastine); or other neurotoxic chemotherapy agents (e.g., bortezomib, lenalidomide, or ... Diagnosis of cancer,. *Received or currently receiving neurotoxic chemotherapy including, but not limited to, taxanes (e.g., ... Support Care Cancer. 2012 Mar;20(3):625-32. doi: 10.1007/s00520-011-1141-9. Epub 2011 Apr 12. ... Support Care Cancer. 2011 Jun;19(6):833-41. doi: 10.1007/s00520-010-0911-0. Epub 2010 May 25. ...
Vinca alkaloids (e.g., vincristine or vinblastine). * Experiencing pain or symptoms of peripheral neuropathy for at least 1 ... Lamotrigine in Treating Peripheral Neuropathy Caused by Chemotherapy in Patients With Cancer. The safety and scientific ... Patients are stratified according to neurotoxic chemotherapy received (taxanes vs platinum-based compounds vs vinca alkaloids ... and other symptoms of peripheral neuropathy caused by chemotherapy in patients with cancer. ...
Vinblastine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Vinblastine is in a class of medications called vinca alkaloids. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells in ... Vinblastine is also sometimes used to treat bladder cancer, certain types of lung cancer, Kaposis sarcoma, and certain brain ... Before receiving vinblastine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to vinblastine, any other medications, or ...
1) Vinca domain binders. - Vinca alkaloids (e.g vincristine, vinblastine) and Eribulin. - Used in chemotherapy to treat cancers ... Every cancer is its own unique disease:. - Genetic factors differ. - Time point of cancer formation. - Time point of diagnosis ... differences are in expression levels of genes but limited number of cancer specific mutations. - Result is that anti cancer ... 3) Do not fully understand the action of anti cancer drugs. 4) Complicated disease. 5) Cancer cell populations are highly ...
Acts primarily in M phase of cancer cell cycle Vinca alkaloid: Vincristine, Vinblastine (TOPNOTCH) ... Inhibits DNA topoisomerase I, cell cycle specific; For advanced ovarian cancer (2nd line), small cell lung cancer ... For chronic HBV, HCV infection, Kaposi sarcoma, genital warts, prevents dissemination of HZV in cancer patients and decreased ... Highly lipophilic allowing ease of passage through BBB into the CNS ; For brain tumors, melanoma, skin cancer ...
vinca alkaloids used to treat certain cancers, eg vincristine, vinblastine, vinflunine. * zolpidem. ...
Vinorelbine Definition Vinorelbine is a drug used to treat certain types of cancer. Vinorelbine is available under the trade ... a vinca alkaloid that is administered intravenously or orally in the treatment of advanced breast cancer and non-small-cell ... Vinorelbine is a semisynthetic derivative of vinblastine , a naturally occurring compound that is extracted from periwinkle ... Alternative trade… Paclitaxel , Paclitaxel Definition Paclitaxel is a drug used to treat certain types of cancer. Paclitaxel is ...
Vinca alkaloids are used in chemotherapy for cancer. They are a class of cell cycle-specific cytotoxic drugs that work by ... These compounds include vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, and vinorelbine. Additional researched vinca alkaloids include ... Vinca alkaloids are now produced synthetically and used as drugs in cancer therapy and as immunosuppressive drugs. ... basionym Vinca rosea) and other vinca plants. The Madagascan periwinkle Catharanthus roseus L. is the source for a number of ...
Relieving such side effects is an important part of cancer care. This is called palliative care or supportive care. Talk with ... Nervous system side effects are common from cancer and cancer treatments. ... Vinca alkaloids, including vincristine (Vincasar), vinorelbine (Navelbine), and vinblastine (Velban). * Platinum-based drugs, ... Other cancer-related side effects. Other conditions or symptoms related to cancer or cancer treatments can affect the nervous ...
are taking vincristine, vinblastine and other "vinca alkaloids" (medicines used to treat cancer). ... Vinca Alkaloids. Most of the vinca alkaloids (e.g., vincristine and vinblastine) are substrates of CYP3A4. Concomitant ... Reserve azole antifungals, including Noxafil, for patients receiving a vinca alkaloid, including vincristine, who have no ... a low white blood cell count due to chemotherapy for blood cancers (hematologic malignancy) ...
Vinblastine sulfate blocks cell growth by stopping cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of vinca alkaloid and ... vinblastine sulfate (vin-BLAS-teen SUL-fayt) listen A drug used to treat breast cancer and choriocarcinoma (a type of ... It is also used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Kaposi sarcoma, mycosis fungoides, and testicular cancer. It ... is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. ...
... vinblastine concentration 2.50 mg/mL and vinblastine solution flow rate 6.7 mL/min). The vinblastine was characterized by ... It was concluded that physicochemical properties of crystalline vinblastine could be improved by physical modification, such as ... the supercritical antisolvent process was a powerful methodology for improving the physicochemical properties of vinblastine. ... The objective of the study was to prepare vinblastine microparticles by supercritical antisolvent process using N-methyl-2- ...
cyclophosphamide or vinca alkaloids such as vincristine or vinblastine for treatment of cancer ... Although not studied, Fluconazole may increase the plasma levels of the vinca alkaloids (e.g., vincristine and vinblastine) and ... Vinca Alkaloids. Vitamin A. Zidovudine. Oral hypoglycemics Clinically significant hypoglycemia may be precipitated by the use ... In patients with serious conditions such as AIDS or cancer, rare cases of severe rashes with skin peeling have been reported. ...
Examples of anti-carcinogens include vinblastine and vincristine from Catharanthus (Vinca) rosea and Taxolreg. (paclitaxel) ... New medicinal crops could assist in the battle with diseases such as cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... Between 1960 and 1982, the National Cancer Institute screened 35,000 plant samples for anticancer activity. An anticancer drug ... proved effective for arresting ovarian and metastatic breast cancers and created a tremendous demand for the drug (Piesch et al ...
Vinblastine (Velbane): An anti-cancer drug in a class called vinca alkaloids. Vinblastine slows or stops the growth of cancer ... Vinorelbine (Navelbine): An anti-cancer drug in a class called vinca alkaloids. It slows or stops the growth of cancer cells in ... An anti-cancer drug that works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.. Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan): An anti-cancer ... Methotrexate treats cancer by slowing the growth of cancer cells.. Mucosal surfaces: The moist tissues of the head and neck. ...
cyclophosphamide or vinca alkaloids such as vincristine or vinblastine for treatment of cancer ... Although not studied, fluconazole may increase the plasma levels of the vinca alkaloids (e.g., vincristine and vinblastine) and ... In patients with serious conditions such as AIDS or cancer, rare cases of severe rashes with skin peeling have been reported. ... In some patients, particularly those with serious underlying diseases such as AIDS and cancer, changes in renal and ...
Constipation can develop for several reasons in people with cancer. Learn about causes, symptoms and diagnosis, and preventing ... chemotherapy drugs such as the vinca alkaloids, which include vincristine (Oncovin), vinblastine (Velbe) or vinorelbine ( ... People with cancer can have constipation for a number of reasons, including the cancer itself or cancer treatments. The cells ... To find a cancer organization in your country, visit Union for International Cancer Control or International Cancer Information ...
Vinblastine is a vinca alkaloid antineoplastic agent. The vinca alkaloids are structurally similar compounds comprised of 2 ... For treatment of breast cancer, testicular cancer, lymphomas, neuroblastoma, Hodgkins and non-Hodgkins lymphomas, mycosis ... The vinca alkaloids are considered to be cell cycle phase-specific.. Mechanism of action. The antitumor activity of vinblastine ... Vinblastine binds to the microtubular proteins of the mitotic spindle, leading to crystallization of the microtubule and ...
Tubulins are targets for anticancer drugs like the vinca alkaloid drugs vinblastine and vincristine, and Taxol. The anti-gout ... Anti-Cancer Agents. 5 (1): 65-71. doi:10.2174/1568011053352569. PMID 15720262. Karki R, Mariani M, Andreoli M, He S, Scambia G ... Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ... These include paclitaxel, colchicine, and the vinca alkaloids, each of which have a distinct binding site on β-tubulin. Class ...
Some critical aspects of cardiac side effects of cancer chemotherapy are also discussed, focusing on cardiac cytoskeleton and ... The application of plant bioactives in the treatment of cancer has resulted in increased therapeutic efficacy through targeting ... In this overview we describe the main plant-derived bioactive compounds used in cancer therapy which has the cell cytoskeleton ... Vincristine, vinblastine, and vindesine are the first vinca alkaloids used as antitumor drugs. Vinorelbine is the first new ...
Vinca alkaloids are commonly used in cancer therapy (50). However, they lack selectivity for tumor cells versus normal cells ... Vinblastine, infusion, bleomycin, and cis-dichlorodiammine-platinum chemotherapy in metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 1981;48(6): ... Preclinical evaluation of EC145, a folate-vinca alkaloid conjugate. Cancer Res. 2007;67(9):4434-4442.. View this article via: ... Inhibition of tubulin-microtubule polymerization by drugs of the Vinca alkaloid class. Cancer Res. 1976;36(4):1499-1502.. View ...
  • These include paclitaxel, colchicine, and the vinca alkaloids, each of which have a distinct binding site on β-tubulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, colchicine is also an old medicine targeted for the treatment of cancer, fibrosis and inflammation. (selfgrowth.com)
  • the term is often used of those which cause metaphase-arrest such as colchicine and the vinca alkaloids . (academic.ru)
  • Using an approach involving exchanging homologous segments of MDR1 and MDR2 and site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated that MDR1 residues Q330, V331, and L332 in transmembrane domain 6 are sufficient to allow an MDR2 backbone in the N-terminal half of P-gp to transport several MDR1 substrates, including bisantrene, colchicine, vinblastine, and rhodamine-123. (asm.org)
  • A human bladder cancer cell line resistant to doxorubicin, KK47/ADM has been established in vitro by exposing KK47 parent cells to progressively higher concentrations of the drug over a period of 16 months. (nih.gov)
  • It may also be used to treat breast cancer that has not improved after treatment with other medications and gestational trophoblastic tumors (a type of tumor that forms inside a woman's uterus while she is pregnant) that has not improved after surgery or treatment with other medications. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A drug used to treat breast cancer and choriocarcinoma (a type of gestational trophoblastic tumor) that have not gotten better with other treatment. (cancer.gov)
  • Deep vein thrombosis Between 15 and 25 percent of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is caused by cancer (often by a tumor compressing a vein). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerve infiltration or compression Infiltration or compression of a nerve by a primary tumor causes peripheral neuropathy in one to five percent of cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brachial plexopathy Brachial plexopathy is a common product of Pancoast tumor, lymphoma and breast cancer, and can produce severe burning dysesthesic pain on the back of the hand, and cramping, crushing forearm pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compelling data demonstrate that centrosomes are implicated in cancer, because there are important oncogenic and tumor suppressor proteins that are localized in this organelle and drive centrosome aberrations. (dovepress.com)
  • CD47, also called integrin-associated protein (IAP), is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on normal, healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and overexpressed on the surface of a variety of cancer cells. (cancer.gov)
  • Any strategy by which a cytotoxic drug is targeted to the tumor, thus increasing the therapeutic index of the drug, is a way of improving cancer chemotherapy and minimizing systemic toxicity. (barnardhealth.us)
  • We found that the serum concentration of Hcy fluctuated in circulation coinciding with that of tumor marker in individual cancer patients unless taking anti-neoplastic drug. (lifeextension.com)
  • One of the essential traits of cancer progression is the underlying high mutational capacity of tumor cells [ 7 - 9 ], having as a consequence the rapid adaptive capacity of the disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a consequence, cancer cells which have lost essential genes by a mutation are eliminated from the tumor population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A number of studies in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated that Vinblastine sulfate produces a stathmokinetic effect and various atypical mitotic figures. (drugs.com)
  • Aurora inhibitors - Aurora kinases regulate cell cycle transit from G2 through cytokinesis and, thus, are targets in cancer therapy [Andrews PD, Knatko E, Moore WJ, Swedlow JR. Mitotic mechanics: the auroras come into view. (academic.ru)
  • In addition, glutamic acid and aspartic acid have protected mice from lethal doses of Vinblastine sulfate. (drugs.com)
  • People who have to get repeated doses of vinblastine may feel symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (tingling sensation and numbness in the fingers and toes), this needs to be reported to your doctor immediately. (rxwiki.com)
  • The concentration of vinblastine that prevents polymerization by 50% was 4.3 × 10 -7 mole/liter for a tubulin concentration of 3.0 mg/ml, and this concentration is consistent with levels achieved in vivo following routine pharmacological doses in humans. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In combination with antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor, low doses of [vinblastine] increased antitumor response considerably, even in tumors resistant to direct cytotoxic effects of the drug. (happyhomeinc.ca)
  • These two lines with different chemosensitivity are thus considered to be a useful model for developing new chemotherapeutic strategies against multidrug resistant bladder cancer. (nih.gov)
  • oak Viscum (Quercus) is recommended for cancer of the digestive tract (oesophagus, stomach, gall bladder, colon and so on). (alternative-doctor.com)
  • The cancers for which chemo reportedly made no difference toward five-year survival were melanoma, multiple myeloma, and soft-tissue sarcoma, as well as pancreatic, uterine, prostate, bladder, and kidney cancers. (greensmoothiegirl.com)
  • Exposure to chemicals may occur by virtue of occupational and environmental means as well as life style habits the association of aniline dye exposure and bladder cancer is one such example. (blogspot.com)
  • Since the 1950s, drug developers in many countries and regions, including the United States, began to focus on natural small molecules that have anti-cancer effects. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Strategies commonly used for this purpose are liposomal encapsulation ( 14 , 15 ), conjugation to antibodies or small molecules targeted to antigens that are up-regulated in certain cancer types ( 16 , 17 ), and polymer conjugation ( 18 , 19 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cytotoxicity studies were also carried out against two cancerous cell lines, HeLa and A549, to investigate the potential anti-cancer activities of the extracts. (biomedcentral.com)