Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).
A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
Iodinated hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen atoms, with iodine atoms covalently bonded to them, which are used in medical imaging as radiocontrast agents.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. It is the source of VINCA ALKALOIDS, used in leukemia chemotherapy.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Vinblastine derivative with antineoplastic activity against CANCER. Major side effects are myelosuppression and neurotoxicity. Vindesine is used extensively in chemotherapy protocols (ANTINEOPLASTIC COMBINED CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS).
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A lignan (LIGNANS) found in PODOPHYLLIN resin from the roots of PODOPHYLLUM plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives.
An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.
Diazomethane is an extremely hazardous and unstable organic compound, (CH2)N=N=O, with a methane substituted diazo group, that is highly explosive when heated, shocked or contaminated, and used as a powerful methylating agent in chemical syntheses, but its production and handling require special expertise and equipment due to the high risks involved.
An ansa macrolide isolated from the MAYTENUS genus of East African shrubs.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
A nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, usually as phosphate; used to treat prostatic neoplasms; also has radiation protective properties.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.
Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Three, alpha, beta, and gamma isomers of ultraviolet degradation products of colchicine that lack many of the physiological actions of the parent; used as experimental control for colchicine actions.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A rare tumor of the female genital tract, most often the ovary, formerly considered to be derived from mesonephric rests. Two varieties are recognized: (1) clear cell carcinoma, so called because of its histologic resemblance to renal cell carcinoma, and now considered to be of muellerian duct derivation and (2) an embryonal tumor (called also ENDODERMAL SINUS TUMOR and yolk sac tumor), occurring chiefly in children. The latter variety may also arise in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.

SDZ PSC 833, the cyclosporine A analogue and multidrug resistance modulator, activates ceramide synthesis and increases vinblastine sensitivity in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cells. (1/2092)

Resistance to chemotherapy is the major cause of cancer treatment failure. Insight into the mechanism of action of agents that modulate multidrug resistance (MDR) is instrumental for the design of more effective treatment modalities. Here we show, using KB-V-1 MDR human epidermoid carcinoma cells and [3H]palmitic acid as metabolic tracer, that the MDR modulator SDZ PSC 833 (PSC 833) activates ceramide synthesis. In a short time course experiment, ceramide was generated as early as 15 min (40% increase) after the addition of PSC 833 (5.0 microM), and by 3 h, [3H]ceramide was >3-fold that of control cells. A 24-h dose-response experiment showed that at 1.0 and 10 microM PSC 833, ceramide levels were 2.5- and 13.6-fold higher, respectively, than in untreated cells. Concomitant with the increase in cellular ceramide was a progressive decrease in cell survival, suggesting that ceramide elicited a cytotoxic response. Analysis of DNA in cells treated with PSC 833 showed oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation, characteristic of apoptosis. The inclusion of fumonisin B1, a ceramide synthase inhibitor, blocked PSC 833-induced ceramide generation. Assessment of ceramide mass by TLC lipid charring confirmed that PSC 833 markedly enhanced ceramide synthesis, not only in KB-V-1 cells but also in wild-type KB-3-1 cells. The capacity of PSC 833 to reverse drug resistance was demonstrated with vinblastine. Whereas each agent at a concentration of 1.0 microM reduced cell survival by approximately 20%, when PSC 833 and vinblastine were coadministered, cell viability fell to zero. In parallel experiments measuring ceramide metabolism, it was shown that the PSC 833/vinblastine combination synergistically increased cellular ceramide levels. Vinblastine toxicity, also intensified by PSC 833 in wild-type KB-3-1 cells, was as well accompanied by enhanced ceramide formation. These data demonstrate that PSC 833 has mechanisms of action in addition to P-glycoprotein chemotherapy efflux pumping.  (+info)

Testicular cancer: an oncological success story. (2/2092)

Testicular cancer has become a model for a curable neoplasm. Our studies with cisplatin combination chemotherapy allow us to conclude that: (a) short-duration intensive induction therapy with the most active agents in optimal dosage is more important than maintenance therapy; (b) modest dose escalation increases toxicity without improving therapeutic efficacy; (c) it is possible to develop curative salvage therapy for refractory germ cell tumors; and (d) preclinical models predicting synergism, such as vinblastine + bleomycin or cisplatin + etoposide have clinical relevance. Finally, testicular cancer has also become a model for new drug development. Cisplatin was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for testis and ovarian cancer, and etoposide and ifosfamide were approved for refractory germ cell tumors. The success of these studies confirms the importance of the continued search for new investigational drugs in all solid tumors.  (+info)

Phase II study of cisplatin and vinorelbine as first-line chemotherapy in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. (3/2092)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the activity and toxicity of the combination of cisplatin (80 mg/m2 day 1) and vinorelbine (25 mg/m2 days 1 and 8) in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix that has not been previously treated with chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients with cervical cancer were enrolled onto this study (27 stage IB-III, 23 stage IVB-recurrent). A two-stage optimal Simon design was applied. Thirteen responders of 29 treated patients were required to proceed beyond the first stage, and 28 responders were needed overall. RESULTS: Hematologic toxicity was mild, with neutropenia being the most frequent side effect. Nonhematologic toxicity was frequent but never severe; one patient had grade 3 peripheral neurotoxicity. Objective responses were recorded for 32 patients (64%): 11 patients (22%) achieved a complete response (CR) and 21 patients (42%) achieved a partial response (PR). The response rate was 81.5% in patients with IB-III stage (25.9% CR rate) and 43.5% in patients with IVB-recurrent disease (17.4% CR rate). Responses were seen both in stage IVB patients (one CR and two PRs, for an overall rate of 37.5%) and in patients with recurrent disease (three CRs + four PRs, for an overall rate of 46.7%). CONCLUSION: The combination of cisplatin and vinorelbine is an active regimen in the treatment of patients with early-stage and advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity of this combination is mild.  (+info)

Fas ligand-independent, FADD-mediated activation of the Fas death pathway by anticancer drugs. (4/2092)

Trimerization of the Fas receptor (CD95, APO-1), a membrane bound protein, triggers cell death by apoptosis. The main death pathway activated by Fas receptor involves the adaptor protein FADD (for Fas-associated death domain) that connects Fas receptor to the caspase cascade. Anticancer drugs have been shown to enhance both Fas receptor and Fas ligand expression on tumor cells. The contribution of Fas ligand-Fas receptor interactions to the cytotoxic activity of these drugs remains controversial. Here, we show that neither the antagonistic anti-Fas antibody ZB4 nor the Fas-IgG molecule inhibit drug-induced apoptosis in three different cell lines. The expression of Fas ligand on the plasma membrane, which is identified in untreated U937 human leukemic cells but remains undetectable in untreated HT29 and HCT116 human colon cancer cell lines, is not modified by exposure to various cytotoxic agents. These drugs induce the clustering of Fas receptor, as observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and its interaction with FADD, as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. Overexpression of FADD by stable transfection sensitizes tumor cells to drug-induced cell death and cytotoxicity, whereas down-regulation of FADD by transient transfection of an antisense construct decreases tumor cell sensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis. These results were confirmed by transient transfection of constructs encoding either a FADD dominant negative mutant or MC159 or E8 viral proteins that inhibit the FADD/caspase-8 pathway. These results suggest that drug-induced cell death involves the Fas/FADD pathway in a Fas ligand-independent fashion.  (+info)

Relationship between circadian rhythm of vinorelbine toxicity and efficacy in P388-bearing mice. (5/2092)

The relevance of chronopharmacology for improving tolerability and antitumor efficacy of the antimitotic drug vinorelbine was investigated in female B6D2F1 mice standardized with 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness. A single i.v. vinorelbine dose (26 mg/kg) was given to 279 mice at 7, 11, 19, or 23 hours after light onset (HALO). Bone marrow necrosis and leukopenia were nearly twice as large in the mice injected at 7 HALO as compared with those treated at 19 HALO (ANOVA: p <.001 and p = 0.004, respectively). The relevance of vinorelbine dosing time for antitumor efficacy was assessed in 672 P388 leukemia-bearing mice. Vinorelbine was injected as a single dose (20, 24, 26, or 30 mg/kg) or weekly (20, 24, 26, or 28 mg/kg/injection x 3) at one of six circadian times, 4 h apart. A significant correlation between single dose and median survival time was limited to vinorelbine administration at 19 or 23 HALO. An increase in the vinorelbine weekly dose shortened median survival time in the mice treated at 7 HALO (20 mg/kg: 29 days; 24 mg/kg: 17 days; and 26 mg/kg: 6 days) but significantly improved it in those treated at 19 HALO (20 mg/kg: 28.5 days; 24 mg/kg: 32 days; and 26 mg/kg: 36 days). The study demonstrates the circadian rhythm dependence of maximum tolerated dose and the need to deliver maximum tolerated dose at the least toxic time to achieve survival improvement through chronotherapy. This may be obtained with an evening administration of vinorelbine in cancer patients.  (+info)

Comparative pharmacokinetics of vinblastine after a 96-hour continuous infusion in wild-type mice and mice lacking mdr1a P-glycoprotein. (6/2092)

To determine the tissue-specific impact of P-glycoprotein on the accumulation of a substrate drug, we have studied the tissue distribution of vinblastine in mdr1a(-/-) and wild-type mice at approximately similar, relatively low plasma levels. Vinblastine was administered as a 96-h continuous infusion at dose rates of 1 to 10 microgram/h, which were delivered by a s.c.-implanted osmotic pump. Drug concentrations were determined in plasma and tissues by HPLC. In comparison to wild-type mice, 4.4- to 9.6-fold higher drug concentrations were observed in the brains of mdr1a(-/-) mice (p +info)

Subcellular distribution and redistribution of Bcl-2 family proteins in human leukemia cells undergoing apoptosis. (7/2092)

It has been suggested that the ratio of Bcl-2 family proapoptotic proteins to antiapoptotic proteins determines the sensitivity of leukemic cells to apoptosis. However, it is believed that Bcl-2 family proteins exert their function on apoptosis only when they target to the mitochondrial outer membrane. The vinblastine-resistant T-lymphoblastic leukemic cell line CEM/VLB100 has increased sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced cytochrome c release, mitochondrial respiratory inhibition, and consequently apoptosis, compared with parental CEM cells. However, there was no difference between the two cell lines in the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-XS, Bad, and Bax at the whole cell level, as analyzed by Western blotting. Bcl-2 mainly located to mitochondria and light membrane as a membrane-bound protein, whereas Bcl-XL was located in both mitochondria and cytosol. Similar levels of both Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were present in the resting mitochondria of the two cell lines. Although the proapoptotic proteins Bcl-XS, Bad, and Bax were mainly located in the cytosol, CEM/VLB100 mitochondria expressed higher levels of these proapoptotic proteins. Subcellular redistribution of the Bcl-2 family proteins was detected in a cell-free system by both Western blotting and flow cytometry after exposure to TNF-alpha. The levels of Bcl-2 family proteins were not altered at the whole cell level by TNF-alpha. However, after exposure to TNF-alpha, Bax, Bad, and Bcl-XS translocated from the cytosol to the mitochondria of both cell lines. An increase in Bcl-2 levels was observed in CEM mitochondria, which showed resistance to TNF-alpha-induced cytochrome c release. By contrast, decreased mitochondrial Bcl-2 was observed in CEM/VLB100 cells, which released cytochrome c from the mitochondria and underwent apoptosis as detected by fluorescence microscopy. We conclude that mitochondrial levels of Bcl-2 family proteins may determine the sensitivity of leukemic cells to apoptosis and that, furthermore, these levels may change rapidly after exposure of cells to toxic stimuli.  (+info)

Hodgkin's disease in 35 patients with HIV infection: an experience with epirubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and prednisone chemotherapy in combination with antiretroviral therapy and primary use of G-CSF. (8/2092)

BACKGROUND: The optimal therapeutic approach for patients with Hodgkin's disease and human immunodeficiency virus infection (HD-HIV) is unknown. In an attempt to improve the results previously obtained with EBV (epirubicin, bleomycin and vinblastine) without G-CSF (Cancer 1994; 73: 437-44), in January 1993 we started a trial using chemotherapy (CT) consisting of EBV plus prednisone (EBVP), concomitant antiretroviral therapy (zidovudine, AZT or dideoxinosyne, DDI), and G-CSF. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Up to August, 1997, 35 (30 M/5 F) consecutive previously untreated patients (median age 34, range 21-53 years) with HD-HIV were enrolled in the European Intergroup Study HD-HIV. Their median performance status was 1 (range 1-3). At diagnosis of HD, 26% of the patients had AIDS, 90% had B symptoms at HD presentation and 83% had advanced-stage HD. Patients received E 70 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1, B 10 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1, V 6 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1 and P 40 mg/m2 p.o. from day 1 to day 5 (EBVP). Courses were repeated every 21 days for six cycles. AZT (250 mg x 2/day), or DDI (200 or 300 mg x 2/day) if AZT had been previously used, were given orally from the beginning of CT. G-CSF was given at the dose of 5 mcg/kg/day s.c. from day 6 to day 20 in all cycles. RESULTS: An overall response rate of 91% was observed. There were 74% complete responses (CR) and 17% partial responses (PR). Toxicity was moderate, with grade 3-4 leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in 10 (32%) and three (10%) patients, respectively. The median number of administered cycles was 6 (range 3-6). Twenty-three of 35 patients received AZT and nine patients received DDI. Three (8%) patients had opportunistic infections (OI) during or immediately after CT. The median CD4+ cell count was 219/mm3 (6-812) at HD diagnosis and 220/mm3 (2-619) after the end of combined therapy, and these numbers remained unchanged. Ten of 26 (38%) patients who achieved CR relapsed. Twenty-three patients died of HD progression alone or in association with OI, being the cause of death in 48% and 9% of patients respectively. The median survival was 16 months, with a survival rate of 32% and a disease-free survival of 53% at 36 months. CONCLUSIONS: The combined antineoplastic and antiretroviral treatment is feasible, but HD in HIV setting is associated with a more adverse prognosis than in the general population. Although the CR rate obtained was satisfactory, the relapse rate was high. Furthermore, comparison of the results of our two consecutive prospective studies demonstrated no overall improvement in the current trial with respect to the CR rate and survival.  (+info)

Vinblastine is an alkaloid derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus) and is primarily used in cancer chemotherapy. It is classified as a vinca alkaloid, along with vincristine, vinorelbine, and others.

Medically, vinblastine is an antimicrotubule agent that binds to tubulin, a protein involved in the formation of microtubules during cell division. By binding to tubulin, vinblastine prevents the assembly of microtubules, which are essential for mitosis (cell division). This leads to the inhibition of cell division and ultimately results in the death of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells.

Vinblastine is used to treat various types of cancers, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular cancer, breast cancer, and others. It is often administered intravenously in a healthcare setting and may be given as part of a combination chemotherapy regimen with other anticancer drugs.

As with any medication, vinblastine can have side effects, including bone marrow suppression (leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding), neurotoxicity (resulting in peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and jaw pain), nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and mouth sores. Regular monitoring by a healthcare professional is necessary during vinblastine treatment to manage side effects and ensure the safe and effective use of this medication.

Colchicine is a medication that is primarily used to treat gout, a type of arthritis characterized by sudden and severe attacks of pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness in the joints. It works by reducing inflammation and preventing the formation of uric acid crystals that cause gout symptoms.

Colchicine is also used to treat familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), a genetic disorder that causes recurrent fevers and inflammation in the abdomen, chest, and joints. It can help prevent FMF attacks and reduce their severity.

The medication comes in the form of tablets or capsules that are taken by mouth. Common side effects of colchicine include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects such as muscle weakness, nerve damage, and bone marrow suppression.

It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully when taking colchicine, as taking too much of the medication can be toxic. People with certain health conditions, such as liver or kidney disease, may need to take a lower dose or avoid using colchicine altogether.

Vinca alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemicals derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant, Catharanthus roseus. They are known for their antineoplastic (cancer-fighting) properties and are used in chemotherapy to treat various types of cancer. Some examples of vinca alkaloids include vinblastine, vincristine, and vinorelbine. These agents work by disrupting the normal function of microtubules, which are important components of the cell's structure and play a critical role in cell division. By binding to tubulin, a protein that makes up microtubules, vinca alkaloids prevent the formation of mitotic spindles, which are necessary for cell division. This leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death) in cancer cells. However, vinca alkaloids can also affect normal cells, leading to side effects such as neurotoxicity, myelosuppression, and gastrointestinal disturbances.

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a type of membrane transport protein that plays a crucial role in the efflux (extrusion) of various substrates, including drugs and toxins, out of cells. It is also known as multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1).

P-gp is encoded by the ABCB1 gene and is primarily located on the apical membrane of epithelial cells in several tissues, such as the intestine, liver, kidney, and blood-brain barrier. Its main function is to protect these organs from harmful substances by actively pumping them out of the cells and back into the lumen or bloodstream.

In the context of pharmacology, P-gp can contribute to multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. When overexpressed, P-gp can reduce the intracellular concentration of various anticancer drugs, making them less effective. This has led to extensive research on inhibitors of P-gp as potential adjuvants for cancer therapy.

In summary, P-glycoprotein is a vital efflux transporter that helps maintain homeostasis by removing potentially harmful substances from cells and can impact drug disposition and response in various tissues, including the intestine, liver, kidney, and blood-brain barrier.

Antineoplastic agents, phytogenic, also known as plant-derived anticancer drugs, are medications that are derived from plants and used to treat cancer. These agents have natural origins and work by interfering with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells, helping to slow or stop the spread of the disease. Some examples of antineoplastic agents, phytogenic include paclitaxel (Taxol), vincristine, vinblastine, and etoposide. These drugs are often used in combination with other treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy, and other medications to provide a comprehensive approach to cancer care.

Bleomycin is a type of chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma, testicular cancer, and lymphomas. It works by causing DNA damage in rapidly dividing cells, which can inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells.

Bleomycin is an antibiotic derived from Streptomyces verticillus and is often administered intravenously or intramuscularly. While it can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, it can also have serious side effects, including lung toxicity, which can lead to pulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. Therefore, bleomycin should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional who is experienced in administering chemotherapy drugs.

Mechlorethamine is an antineoplastic agent, which means it is used to treat cancer. It is a type of alkylating agent, which is a class of drugs that work by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Mechlorethamine is used in the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, as well as some other types of cancer. It can be administered intravenously or topically (as a cream) to treat skin lesions caused by certain types of cancer.

Mechlorethamine is a potent drug that can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection due to suppression of the immune system. It can also cause damage to the heart, lungs, and reproductive system with long-term use. As with all chemotherapy drugs, mechlorethamine should be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Doxorubicin is a type of chemotherapy medication known as an anthracycline. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from growing and multiplying. Doxorubicin is used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and many others. It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.

Doxorubicin is usually administered through a vein (intravenously) and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to heart failure in some cases. For this reason, doctors may monitor patients' heart function closely while they are receiving doxorubicin treatment.

It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of doxorubicin therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Vincristine is an antineoplastic agent, specifically a vinca alkaloid. It is derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus). Vincristine binds to tubulin, a protein found in microtubules, and inhibits their polymerization, which results in disruption of mitotic spindles leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). It is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including leukemias, lymphomas, and solid tumors. Common side effects include peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and alopecia.

Procarbazine is an antineoplastic agent, specifically an alkylating agent, used in the treatment of certain types of cancer such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and brain tumors. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Procarbazine is often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs to increase its effectiveness.

It is important to note that procarbazine can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weakness. It can also suppress the immune system, increasing the risk of infection. Additionally, it can cause damage to cells outside of the cancerous tissue, which can result in side effects such as hair loss and mouth sores.

Procarbazine is a prescription medication that should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional. It is important for patients to follow their doctor's instructions carefully when taking this medication and to report any side effects or concerns promptly.

Microtubules are hollow, cylindrical structures composed of tubulin proteins in the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as maintaining cell shape, intracellular transport, and cell division (mitosis and meiosis). Microtubules are dynamic, undergoing continuous assembly and disassembly, which allows them to rapidly reorganize in response to cellular needs. They also form part of important cellular structures like centrioles, basal bodies, and cilia/flagella.

Hodgkin disease, also known as Hodgkin lymphoma, is a type of cancer that originates in the white blood cells called lymphocytes. It typically affects the lymphatic system, which is a network of vessels and glands spread throughout the body. The disease is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal cell, known as a Reed-Sternberg cell, within the affected lymph nodes.

The symptoms of Hodgkin disease may include painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin; fever; night sweats; weight loss; and fatigue. The exact cause of Hodgkin disease is unknown, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and infectious factors.

Hodgkin disease is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or immunotherapy, depending on the stage and extent of the disease. With appropriate treatment, the prognosis for Hodgkin disease is generally very good, with a high cure rate. However, long-term side effects of treatment may include an increased risk of secondary cancers and other health problems.

I'd be happy to help! However, it seems there might be a slight confusion in your question. Hydrocarbons and iodinated compounds are two different types of chemical substances.

Hydrocarbons refer to organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms. They can be categorized into several types, such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons, based on their structure and properties.

On the other hand, iodinated compounds are organic or inorganic molecules containing iodine atoms. These compounds have various applications, especially in medical imaging and therapy, such as radioactive iodine therapy for thyroid cancer and the use of iodinated contrast agents in X-ray and CT scans.

There isn't a specific category called "iodinated hydrocarbons" since hydrocarbons don't inherently contain iodine. However, it is possible to create molecules that combine both hydrocarbon structures and iodine atoms. An example of such a compound would be iodinated alkanes, where iodine atoms replace some hydrogen atoms in an alkane molecule.

So, if you're looking for a medical definition related to iodinated compounds, I can provide that. If you meant something else, please let me know!

Tubulin is a type of protein that forms microtubules, which are hollow cylindrical structures involved in the cell's cytoskeleton. These structures play important roles in various cellular processes, including maintaining cell shape, cell division, and intracellular transport. There are two main types of tubulin proteins: alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin. They polymerize to form heterodimers, which then assemble into microtubules. The assembly and disassembly of microtubules are dynamic processes that are regulated by various factors, including GTP hydrolysis, motor proteins, and microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Tubulin is an essential component of the eukaryotic cell and has been a target for anti-cancer drugs such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids.

Tubulin modulators are a class of drugs that target and alter the function or structure of tubulin, which is a key component of microtubules in cells. These drugs can either stabilize or destabilize microtubules by interacting with tubulin, leading to various effects on cell division and other processes that rely on microtubule dynamics.

There are two main types of tubulin modulators:

1. Microtubule stabilizers: These drugs promote the assembly and stability of microtubules by binding to tubulin, preventing its disassembly. Examples include taxanes (e.g., paclitaxel) and vinca alkaloids (e.g., vinblastine). They are primarily used as anticancer agents because they interfere with the division of cancer cells.
2. Microtubule destabilizers: These drugs inhibit the formation and stability of microtubules by binding to tubulin, promoting its disassembly. Examples include colchicine, vinca alkaloids (e.g., vinorelbine), and combretastatins. They can also be used as anticancer agents because they disrupt the mitotic spindle during cell division, leading to cancer cell death.

Tubulin modulators have various other effects on cells beyond their impact on microtubules, such as interfering with intracellular transport and signaling pathways. These diverse actions contribute to their therapeutic potential in treating diseases like cancer, but they can also lead to side effects that limit their clinical use.

'Catharanthus' is a genus of plants in the Apocynaceae family, commonly known as the dogbane family. The most well-known species is Catharanthus roseus, also known as Madagascar periwinkle or rosy periwinkle. This plant contains alkaloids that have been used in the production of drugs for cancer treatment. Vincristine and vinblastine are two such alkaloids derived from C. roseus, which have shown significant anti-cancer properties and are used to treat various types of cancers, including leukemia and lymphoma.

It is important to note that the use of Catharanthus or its derivatives should be under medical supervision due to their potent biological activities and potential side effects.

Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker medication that is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), and certain types of cardiac arrhythmias (irregular heart rhyats). It works by relaxing the smooth muscle cells in the walls of blood vessels, which causes them to dilate or widen, reducing the resistance to blood flow and thereby lowering blood pressure. Verapamil also slows down the conduction of electrical signals within the heart, which can help to regulate the heart rate and rhythm.

In addition to its cardiovascular effects, verapamil is sometimes used off-label for the treatment of other conditions such as migraine headaches, Raynaud's phenomenon, and certain types of tremors. It is available in various forms, including immediate-release tablets, extended-release capsules, and intravenous (IV) injection.

It is important to note that verapamil can interact with other medications, so it is essential to inform your healthcare provider about all the drugs you are taking before starting this medication. Additionally, verapamil should be used with caution in people with certain medical conditions, such as heart failure, liver disease, and low blood pressure.

Vindesine is a type of chemotherapy medication known as a vinca alkaloid. It is derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant and works by interfering with the formation of microtubules, which are necessary for cell division. This causes the cancer cells to stop growing and dividing, ultimately leading to their death.

Vindesine is used to treat several types of cancer, including lung cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, and certain types of leukemia. It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs. The medication is typically administered intravenously (through an IV) in a healthcare setting.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, vindesine can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and increased risk of infection. It may also cause peripheral neuropathy, which is damage to the nerves that can result in numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands and feet. Vindesine can also affect blood cell production, leading to anemia, bleeding, or bruising.

It's important for patients receiving vindesine to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage any side effects and adjust the dosage as needed.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Dacarbazine is a medical term that refers to a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various types of cancer. It is an alkylating agent, which means it works by modifying the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Dacarbazine is often used to treat malignant melanoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and soft tissue sarcomas.

The drug is typically administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, and the dosage and schedule may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health and response to treatment. Common side effects of dacarbazine include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weakness or fatigue. More serious side effects, such as low white blood cell counts, anemia, and liver damage, may also occur.

It is important for patients receiving dacarbazine to follow their doctor's instructions carefully and report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly. Regular monitoring of blood counts and other laboratory tests may be necessary to ensure safe and effective treatment.

"Multiple drug resistance" (MDR) is a term used in medicine to describe the condition where a patient's infection becomes resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs. This means that the bacteria, virus, fungus or parasite that is causing the infection has developed the ability to survive and multiply despite being exposed to medications that were originally designed to kill or inhibit its growth.

In particular, MDR occurs when an organism becomes resistant to at least one drug in three or more antimicrobial categories. This can happen due to genetic changes in the microorganism that allow it to survive in the presence of these drugs. The development of MDR is a significant concern for public health because it limits treatment options and can make infections harder, if not impossible, to treat.

MDR can develop through several mechanisms, including mutations in the genes that encode drug targets or enzymes involved in drug metabolism, as well as the acquisition of genetic elements such as plasmids and transposons that carry resistance genes. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial drugs are major drivers of MDR, as they create selective pressure for the emergence and spread of resistant strains.

MDR infections can occur in various settings, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, and communities. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, although certain populations may be at higher risk, such as those with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. Preventing the spread of MDR requires a multifaceted approach that includes surveillance, infection control, antimicrobial stewardship, and research into new therapies and diagnostics.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "KB cells" is not a widely recognized or established term in medical or scientific communities. It's possible that "KB cells" may refer to a specific cell line used in scientific research. KB cells are a type of cell line derived from a human carcinoma (a type of cancer) of the nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose). They are often used in studies related to cancer, virology, and other areas of biomedical research.

However, without more context or information, it's difficult to provide a more precise definition of "KB cells." If you have more information about where you encountered this term or what specific context it was used in, I may be able to give a more accurate answer.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

Podophyllotoxin is a pharmaceutical agent derived from the podophyllum plant. It is an antimitotic compound that inhibits microtubule assembly, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. It is primarily used in topical form as a treatment for genital warts, caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Podophyllotoxin works by interfering with the growth of the wart cells, eventually causing them to die off.

It's important to note that podophyllotoxin is a potent cytotoxic agent and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional. It should not be taken orally or applied to open wounds, and it should be kept out of reach of children.

Demecolcine is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs called anticholinergics. It is derived from the plant alkaloid colchicine and has been used in medical research for its ability to arrest cells in metaphase, a specific stage of cell division. This property makes demecolcine useful in various laboratory procedures such as chromosome analysis and the production of cultured cell lines.

In clinical settings, demecolcine is not commonly used due to its narrow therapeutic index and potential for toxicity. However, it has been used off-label in some cases to treat conditions associated with uncontrolled cell division, such as certain types of cancer. Its use in these situations is typically reserved for when other treatments have failed or are not well tolerated.

It's important to note that demecolcine should only be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional and its use is generally avoided in pregnant women due to the risk of fetal harm.

Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancers, including testicular, ovarian, bladder, head and neck, lung, and cervical cancers. It is an inorganic platinum compound that contains a central platinum atom surrounded by two chloride atoms and two ammonia molecules in a cis configuration.

Cisplatin works by forming crosslinks between DNA strands, which disrupts the structure of DNA and prevents cancer cells from replicating. This ultimately leads to cell death and slows down or stops the growth of tumors. However, cisplatin can also cause damage to normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hearing loss, and kidney damage. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

Griseofulvin is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal infections, including those affecting the skin, hair, and nails. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi, particularly dermatophytes, which cause these infections. Griseofulvin can be obtained through a prescription and is available in oral (by mouth) and topical (on the skin) forms.

The primary mechanism of action for griseofulvin involves binding to tubulin, a protein necessary for fungal cell division. This interaction disrupts the formation of microtubules, which are crucial for the fungal cell's structural integrity and growth. As a result, the fungi cannot grow and multiply, allowing the infected tissue to heal and the infection to resolve.

Common side effects associated with griseofulvin use include gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), headache, dizziness, and skin rashes. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking griseofulvin, as improper usage may lead to reduced effectiveness or increased risk of side effects.

It is important to note that griseofulvin has limited use in modern medicine due to the development of newer and more effective antifungal agents. However, it remains a valuable option for specific fungal infections, particularly those resistant to other treatments.

Diazomethane is a highly reactive, explosive organic compound with the chemical formula CH2N2. It is a colorless gas or pale yellow liquid that is used as a methylating agent in organic synthesis. Diazomethane is prepared by the reaction of nitrosomethane with a base such as potassium hydroxide.

It is important to handle diazomethane with care, as it can be explosive and toxic. It should only be used in well-ventilated areas, and protective equipment such as gloves and safety glasses should be worn. Diazomethane should not be stored for long periods of time, as it can decompose spontaneously and release nitrogen gas.

Diazomethane is used to introduce methyl groups into organic molecules in a process called methylation. It reacts with carboxylic acids to form methyl esters, and with phenols to form methyl ethers. Diazomethane is also used to synthesize other organic compounds such as pyrazoles and triazoles.

It is important to note that the use of diazomethane in the laboratory has declined due to its hazardous nature, and safer alternatives are now available for many of its applications.

Maytansine is not typically defined in a medical dictionary as it is not a medical term itself, but rather a chemical compound. Maytansine is a natural product that was initially isolated from the bark of the African shrub Maytenus ovatus. It is a potent antimitotic agent, which means it interferes with cell division and has been studied for its potential use in cancer treatment.

In medical contexts, maytansine is often discussed in relation to specific drugs or therapies that utilize this compound. For example, the drug DM1 (also known as maytansinoid 1) is a derivative of maytansine and has been conjugated with monoclonal antibodies for targeted cancer therapy.

Therefore, when discussing 'Maytansine' in a medical context, it generally refers to the chemical compound or its derivatives that have potential use as anticancer agents.

Methotrexate is a medication used in the treatment of certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. It is an antimetabolite that inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, essential components of DNA and RNA. By blocking this enzyme, methotrexate interferes with cell division and growth, making it effective in treating rapidly dividing cells such as cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer treatment, methotrexate is also used to manage autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In these conditions, methotrexate modulates the immune system and reduces inflammation.

It's important to note that methotrexate can have significant side effects and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider. Regular monitoring of blood counts, liver function, and kidney function is necessary during treatment with methotrexate.

Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent derived from the bark of the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia). It is an antimicrotubule agent that promotes the assembly and stabilization of microtubules, thereby interfering with the normal dynamic reorganization of the microtubule network that is essential for cell division.

Paclitaxel is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including ovarian, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. It works by inhibiting the disassembly of microtubules, which prevents the separation of chromosomes during mitosis, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Common side effects of paclitaxel include neutropenia (low white blood cell count), anemia (low red blood cell count), alopecia (hair loss), peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage causing numbness or tingling in the hands and feet), myalgias (muscle pain), arthralgias (joint pain), and hypersensitivity reactions.

Etoposide is a chemotherapy medication used to treat various types of cancer, including lung cancer, testicular cancer, and certain types of leukemia. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called topoisomerase II, which is involved in DNA replication and transcription. By doing so, etoposide can interfere with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells.

Etoposide is often administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, although it may also be given orally in some cases. The medication can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It can also have more serious side effects, such as bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, bleeding, and a weakened immune system.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, etoposide is not without risks and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider. It is important for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks of this medication with their doctor before starting treatment.

Estramustine is an antineoplastic agent, which is a type of medication used to treat cancer. It is a chemical compound that consists of estradiol, a form of the female hormone estrogen, combined with nitrogen mustard, a type of alkylating agent that is used in chemotherapy.

Estramustine works by binding to proteins in the cells, including those involved in the division and growth of cancer cells. This helps to prevent the cancer cells from dividing and growing, which can slow down or stop the spread of the cancer.

Estramustine is used to treat prostate cancer that has not responded to other forms of treatment, such as surgery or radiation therapy. It is usually given as a tablet that is taken by mouth, and it may be given in combination with other medications as part of a treatment plan.

Like all medications, estramustine can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and changes in sexual function. It can also increase the risk of blood clots, so it is important to be monitored by a healthcare provider while taking this medication.

Cytochalasin B is a fungal metabolite that inhibits actin polymerization in cells, which can disrupt the cytoskeleton and affect various cellular processes such as cell division and motility. It is often used in research to study actin dynamics and cell shape.

Rhodamine 123 is not a medical term, but a chemical compound. It's a fluorescent dye used in various scientific and research applications, particularly in the field of cell biology. Rhodamine 123 has an affinity for mitochondria, the energy-producing structures in cells, making it useful as a marker to study mitochondrial function and distribution within cells.

In summary, Rhodamine 123 is not a medical definition itself, but it can be used in medical research contexts to investigate cellular processes.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a type of corticosteroid hormone. It is primarily used to reduce inflammation in various conditions such as asthma, allergies, arthritis, and autoimmune disorders. Prednisone works by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by the adrenal glands, suppressing the immune system's response and reducing the release of substances that cause inflammation.

It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed to be taken at specific times during the day, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of prednisone include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and easy bruising. Long-term use or high doses can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Healthcare providers closely monitor patients taking prednisone for extended periods to minimize the risk of adverse effects. It is essential to follow the prescribed dosage regimen and not discontinue the medication abruptly without medical supervision, as this can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a rebound of the underlying condition.

Chlorambucil is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called alkylating agents. It is an antineoplastic drug, which means it is used to treat cancer. Chlorambucil works by interfering with the DNA in cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. This makes it useful for treating certain types of cancer, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Chlorambucil is available in tablet form and is typically taken once a day. It is important to take chlorambucil exactly as directed by your healthcare provider, as the dosage and schedule will depend on your individual medical condition and response to treatment.

Like all medications, chlorambucil can cause side effects. Common side effects of chlorambucil include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. It can also cause more serious side effects, such as a decrease in the number of white blood cells (which can increase the risk of infection), anemia (low red blood cell count), and thrombocytopenia (low platelet count). Chlorambucil may also increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and solid tumors.

It is important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of chlorambucil with your healthcare provider before starting treatment. They can help you understand the potential side effects and how to manage them, as well as any other precautions you should take while taking this medication.

An azide is a chemical compound that contains the functional group -N=N+=N-, which consists of three nitrogen atoms joined by covalent bonds. In organic chemistry, azides are often used as reagents in various chemical reactions, such as the azide-alkyne cycloaddition (also known as the "click reaction").

In medical terminology, azides may refer to a class of drugs that contain an azido group and are used for their pharmacological effects. For example, sodium nitroprusside is a vasodilator drug that contains an azido group and is used to treat hypertensive emergencies.

However, it's worth noting that azides can also be toxic and potentially explosive under certain conditions, so they must be handled with care in laboratory settings.

Urologic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate, and urethra. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common types of urologic neoplasms include renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, and testicular cancer. It is important to note that early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for patients with urologic neoplasms.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

Cyclosporins are a group of cyclic undecapeptides that have immunosuppressive properties. The most well-known and widely used cyclosporin is cyclosporine A, which is commonly used in organ transplantation to prevent rejection. It works by inhibiting the activation of T-cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. By suppressing the activity of T-cells, cyclosporine A reduces the risk of an immune response against the transplanted organ.

Cyclosporins are also used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, where they help to reduce inflammation and prevent damage to tissues. Like all immunosuppressive drugs, cyclosporins can increase the risk of infection and cancer, so they must be used with caution and under close medical supervision.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Leukemia P388" is not a widely recognized medical term or a specific type of leukemia. The term "P388" is often used to refer to a particular type of mouse leukemia that is commonly used in laboratory research for testing potential anti-cancer drugs.

Leukemia, in general, is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow and results in an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells (leukocytes). These abnormal cells crowd out the healthy cells in the bone marrow, leading to a weakened immune system and various complications.

There are many different types of leukemia, classified based on the type of white blood cell affected (myeloid or lymphocytic) and the speed of progression (acute or chronic). If you're looking for information about a specific type of leukemia, I would be happy to help if you could provide more details.

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a type of cancer that develops in the transitional epithelium, which is the tissue that lines the inner surface of the urinary tract. This includes the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer and can also occur in other parts of the urinary system.

Transitional cells are specialized epithelial cells that can stretch and change shape as the organs they line expand or contract. These cells normally have a flat, squamous appearance when at rest but become more cuboidal and columnar when the organ is full. Transitional cell carcinomas typically start in the urothelium, which is the innermost lining of the urinary tract.

Transitional cell carcinoma can be classified as non-invasive (also called papillary or superficial), invasive, or both. Non-invasive TCCs are confined to the urothelium and have not grown into the underlying connective tissue. Invasive TCCs have grown through the urothelium and invaded the lamina propria (a layer of connective tissue beneath the urothelium) or the muscle wall of the bladder.

Transitional cell carcinoma can also be categorized as low-grade or high-grade, depending on how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope and how likely they are to grow and spread. Low-grade TCCs tend to have a better prognosis than high-grade TCCs.

Treatment for transitional cell carcinoma depends on the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy.

Cytochalasins are a group of fungal metabolites that have the ability to disrupt the organization and dynamics of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. They bind to the barbed end of actin filaments, preventing the addition or loss of actin subunits, which results in the inhibition of actin polymerization and depolymerization. This can lead to changes in cell shape, motility, and cytokinesis (the process by which a cell divides into two daughter cells).

There are several different types of cytochalasins, including cytochalasin A, B, C, D, and E, among others. Each type has slightly different effects on the actin cytoskeleton and may also have other cellular targets. Cytochalasins have been widely used in research to study the role of the actin cytoskeleton in various cellular processes.

In addition to their use in research, cytochalasins have also been investigated for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some studies have suggested that cytochalasins may have anti-cancer properties by inhibiting the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. However, more research is needed before these compounds can be developed into effective treatments for human diseases.

Daunorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and breast cancer. It works by intercalating with DNA and inhibiting topoisomerase II, which results in DNA damage and ultimately cell death.

The drug is administered intravenously and may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and damage to the heart muscle (cardiotoxicity) with long-term use. Regular monitoring of cardiac function is recommended during treatment with daunorubicin.

It's important to note that this medication should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as it can have serious and potentially life-threatening consequences if not used correctly.

Mitomycin is an antineoplastic antibiotic derived from Streptomyces caespitosus. It is used in cancer chemotherapy, particularly for the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors, head and neck cancers, and sensitive skin cancers like squamous cell carcinoma. Mitomycin works by forming cross-links in DNA, which prevents DNA replication and transcription, ultimately leading to cell death. It is often administered through intravenous injection or topically during surgery for local treatment of certain cancers. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and potential myelosuppression (decrease in blood cells).

Antimitotic agents are a class of chemotherapeutic drugs that work by disrupting the normal mitosis (cell division) process in cells. These agents bind to and inhibit the function of specific proteins involved in the formation of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for proper chromosome separation during cell division.

By doing so, antimitotic agents prevent cancer cells from dividing and growing, ultimately leading to their death. However, these drugs can also affect normal cells that divide rapidly, such as those in the bone marrow, digestive tract, and hair follicles, which can result in side effects like anemia, nausea, vomiting, and hair loss.

Examples of antimitotic agents include vincristine, vinblastine, paclitaxel, docetaxel, and ixabepilone. They are often used to treat various types of cancer, such as leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and lung cancer.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Nocodazole is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a pharmacological agent used in medical research and clinical settings. It's a synthetic chemical compound that belongs to the class of drugs known as microtubule inhibitors. Nocodazole works by binding to and disrupting the dynamic assembly and disassembly of microtubules, which are important components of the cell's cytoskeleton and play a critical role in cell division.

Nocodazole is primarily used in research settings as a tool for studying cell biology and mitosis, the process by which cells divide. It can be used to synchronize cells in the cell cycle or to induce mitotic arrest, making it useful for investigating various aspects of cell division and chromosome behavior.

In clinical settings, nocodazole has been used off-label as a component of some cancer treatment regimens, particularly in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Its ability to disrupt microtubules can interfere with the proliferation of cancer cells and enhance the effectiveness of certain anti-cancer drugs. However, its use is not widespread due to potential side effects and the availability of alternative treatments.

Drug resistance in neoplasms (also known as cancer drug resistance) refers to the ability of cancer cells to withstand the effects of chemotherapeutic agents or medications designed to kill or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. This can occur due to various mechanisms, including changes in the cancer cell's genetic makeup, alterations in drug targets, increased activity of drug efflux pumps, and activation of survival pathways.

Drug resistance can be intrinsic (present at the beginning of treatment) or acquired (developed during the course of treatment). It is a significant challenge in cancer therapy as it often leads to reduced treatment effectiveness, disease progression, and poor patient outcomes. Strategies to overcome drug resistance include the use of combination therapies, development of new drugs that target different mechanisms, and personalized medicine approaches that consider individual patient and tumor characteristics.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lumicolchicines" does not appear to be a recognized term in medical science or pharmacology. It is possible that there may be a spelling error or misunderstanding of the term. If you could provide more context or clarify what you are looking for, I would be happy to help you further.

Testicular neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the testicle that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They are a type of genitourinary cancer, which affects the reproductive and urinary systems. Testicular neoplasms can occur in men of any age but are most commonly found in young adults between the ages of 15 and 40.

Testicular neoplasms can be classified into two main categories: germ cell tumors and non-germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors, which arise from the cells that give rise to sperm, are further divided into seminomas and non-seminomas. Seminomas are typically slow-growing and have a good prognosis, while non-seminomas tend to grow more quickly and can spread to other parts of the body.

Non-germ cell tumors are less common than germ cell tumors and include Leydig cell tumors, Sertoli cell tumors, and lymphomas. These tumors can have a variety of clinical behaviors, ranging from benign to malignant.

Testicular neoplasms often present as a painless mass or swelling in the testicle. Other symptoms may include a feeling of heaviness or discomfort in the scrotum, a dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin, and breast enlargement (gynecomastia).

Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan, and blood tests to detect tumor markers. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Regular self-examinations of the testicles are recommended for early detection and improved outcomes.

Dysgerminoma is a type of germ cell tumor that develops in the ovaries. It is a malignant (cancerous) tumor that primarily affects girls and women of reproductive age, although it can occur at any age. Dysgerminomas are composed of large, round, or polygonal cells with clear cytoplasm and distinct cell borders, arranged in nests or sheets. They may also contain lymphoid aggregates and may produce hormones such as estrogen or testosterone.

Dysgerminomas are usually unilateral (affecting one ovary), but they can be bilateral (affecting both ovaries) in about 10-15% of cases. They tend to grow and spread rapidly, so early detection and treatment are crucial for a favorable prognosis.

The standard treatment for dysgerminoma is surgical removal of the affected ovary or ovaries, followed by chemotherapy with agents such as bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). With appropriate treatment, the five-year survival rate for patients with dysgerminoma is high, ranging from 80% to 95%.

Alkaloids are a type of naturally occurring organic compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. They are often found in plants, and are known for their complex ring structures and diverse pharmacological activities. Many alkaloids have been used in medicine for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and therapeutic properties. Examples of alkaloids include morphine, quinine, nicotine, and caffeine.

Mesonephroma is a very rare type of kidney tumor that originates from the mesonephric duct remnants, which are the embryonic precursors of the male reproductive system. This tumor typically affects older adults and is more common in men than women.

Mesonephromas are usually slow-growing and asymptomatic, making them difficult to detect at an early stage. When symptoms do occur, they may include flank pain, hematuria (blood in the urine), a palpable abdominal mass, and weight loss.

On imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, mesonephromas typically appear as well-circumscribed masses within the kidney. The diagnosis is usually confirmed through a biopsy or surgical excision of the tumor.

Mesonephromas are composed of tubular structures lined with cuboidal to low columnar epithelial cells, often with clear cytoplasm. They may also contain areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. The treatment of mesonephroma typically involves surgical excision, and the prognosis is generally favorable, with a low risk of recurrence or metastasis. However, long-term follow-up is recommended due to the rarity and limited data on this type of tumor.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Dihydropyridines are a class of compounds that contain a core structure of two fused rings, each containing six carbon atoms, with a hydrogen atom attached to each of the two central carbon atoms. They are commonly used in pharmaceuticals, particularly as calcium channel blockers in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Calcium channel blockers, including dihydropyridines, work by blocking the influx of calcium ions into cardiac and vascular smooth muscle cells. This leads to relaxation of the muscles, resulting in decreased peripheral resistance and reduced blood pressure. Dihydropyridines are known for their potent vasodilatory effects and include medications such as nifedipine, amlodipine, and felodipine.

It is important to note that while dihydropyridines can be effective in treating hypertension and angina, they may also have side effects such as headache, dizziness, and peripheral edema. Additionally, they may interact with other medications, so it is essential to consult a healthcare provider before starting or changing any medication regimen.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Neoplasms, germ cell and embryonal are types of tumors that originate from the abnormal growth of cells. Here's a brief medical definition for each:

1. Neoplasms: Neoplasms refer to abnormal tissue growths or masses, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled cell division and may invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis.
2. Germ Cell Tumors: These are rare tumors that develop from the germ cells, which give rise to sperm and eggs in the reproductive organs (ovaries and testes). They can be benign or malignant and may occur in both children and adults. Germ cell tumors can also arise outside of the reproductive organs, a condition known as extragonadal germ cell tumors.
3. Embryonal Tumors: These are a type of malignant neoplasm that primarily affects infants and young children. They develop from embryonic cells, which are immature cells present during fetal development. Embryonal tumors can occur in various organs, including the brain (medulloblastomas), nervous system (primitive neuroectodermal tumors or PNETs), and other areas like the kidneys and liver.

It is essential to note that these conditions require professional medical evaluation and treatment by healthcare professionals with expertise in oncology and related fields.

Urinary Bladder Neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the urinary bladder, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant neoplasms can be further classified into various types of bladder cancer, such as urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. These malignant tumors often invade surrounding tissues and organs, potentially spreading to other parts of the body (metastasis), which can lead to serious health consequences if not detected and treated promptly and effectively.

Mitosis is a type of cell division in which the genetic material of a single cell, called the mother cell, is equally distributed into two identical daughter cells. It's a fundamental process that occurs in multicellular organisms for growth, maintenance, and repair, as well as in unicellular organisms for reproduction.

The process of mitosis can be broken down into several stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. During prophase, the chromosomes condense and become visible, and the nuclear envelope breaks down. In prometaphase, the nuclear membrane is completely disassembled, and the mitotic spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes at their centromeres.

During metaphase, the chromosomes align at the metaphase plate, an imaginary line equidistant from the two spindle poles. In anaphase, sister chromatids are pulled apart by the spindle fibers and move toward opposite poles of the cell. Finally, in telophase, new nuclear envelopes form around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes decondense and become less visible.

Mitosis is followed by cytokinesis, a process that divides the cytoplasm of the mother cell into two separate daughter cells. The result of mitosis and cytokinesis is two genetically identical cells, each with the same number and kind of chromosomes as the original parent cell.

Drug screening assays for antitumor agents are laboratory tests used to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of potential drugs or compounds that can inhibit the growth of tumor cells or induce their death. These assays are typically performed in vitro (in a test tube or petri dish) using cell cultures of various types of cancer cells.

The assays measure different parameters such as cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and cytotoxicity to determine the ability of the drug to kill or inhibit the growth of tumor cells. The results of these assays can help researchers identify promising antitumor agents that can be further developed for clinical use in cancer treatment.

There are different types of drug screening assays for antitumor agents, including high-throughput screening (HTS) assays, which allow for the rapid and automated testing of a large number of compounds against various cancer cell lines. Other types of assays include phenotypic screening assays, target-based screening assays, and functional screening assays, each with its own advantages and limitations.

Overall, drug screening assays for antitumor agents play a critical role in the development of new cancer therapies by providing valuable information on the activity and safety of potential drugs, helping to identify effective treatments and reduce the time and cost associated with bringing new drugs to market.

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"Vinblastine (Velban®, Velsar®)". "Robert Laing Noble citation". Canadian Medical Hall of Fame. v t e (Articles with hCards, ... In the 1950s he helped with the discovery of vincristine and vinblastine, widely used anti-cancer drugs. In 1997, he was ... was a Canadian physician who was involved in the discovery of vinblastine. Born in Toronto, Ontario, he received his M.D. from ...
"Vinblastine Sulfate - NCI". 2011-02-03. Retrieved 2022-11-29. Triarico, Silvia; Romano, Alberto; Attinà, ...
Vinblastine bound to tubulin. Colchicine bound to tubulin. Vinblastine and vincristine were isolated from the Madagascar ... The upper skeletal modification of vinblastine gave vinorelbine which shows comparable activity as that of vinblastine. Another ... Vinblastine is a highly potent drug which also has serious side effects especially on the neurological system. Therefore, new ... The most interesting thing was that vinblastine and vincristine, were found to lower the number of white cells in blood. A high ...
... vinblastine, and strychnine Shown below is the fourth step in the synthesis of (+)-Vinblastine, the application of the Fukuyama ... Vinblastine". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124 (10): 2137-9. CiteSeerX doi:10.1021/ja0177049. PMID 11878966. Kaburagi, Y ...
Lochnericine Liu, J; Zhu, J; Tang, L; Wen, W; Lv, S; Yu, R (2014). "Enhancement of vindoline and vinblastine production in ... Vindoline is a chemical precursor to vinblastine. Vindoline is formed through biosynthesis from Tabersonine. ...
Substrates include anticancer drugs such as vinblastine; therefore, this protein appears to contribute to drug resistance in ...
... and it is more potent than the anti-mitotic agent vinblastine (IC50 3.0×10−6). Moroidin has the same potency as vinblastine. ... Moroidin and its analogous celogentins all have activity comparable to that of vinblastine, and a third group of celogentins ...
... vinblastine). EC145 was found to produce marked anti-tumor effect against well-established, subcutaneous FR-positive tumor ...
Clayton, F. C.; Francoeur, R. T. (1971). "Some teratogenic effects of vinblastine on the external morphology of Drosophila ... Francoeur, R. T.; Wilber, C. G. (1968). "Amphibian regeneration and the teratogenic effects of vinblastine". Oncology. 22 (4): ... Francoeur, R. T. (1968). "General and selective inhibition of amphibian regeneration by vinblastine and dactinomycin". Oncology ...
Bleomycin Vinblastine Dacarbazine (similar to procarbazine, designated as P in MOPP and in COPP) As of 2007, ABVD is widely ... vinblastine, and imidazole carboxamide versus MOPP". Cancer. 36 (1): 252-9. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(197507)36:1. 3.0.CO;2-7. PMID ... vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy in the adult human ovary". Human Reproduction. 32 (1): 165-174. doi:10.1093/ ... vinblastine + dacarbazine regimen?". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 22 (8): 1532-3. doi:10.1200/JCO.2004.99.010. PMID 15084636. ...
These compounds include vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, and vinorelbine. Additional researched vinca alkaloids include ... Sears, Justin E.; Boger, Dale L. (2015). "Total Synthesis of Vinblastine, Related Natural Products, and Key Analogues and ... Keglevich, Péter; Hazai, Laszlo; Kalaus, György; Szántay, Csaba (2012). "Modifications on the basic skeletons of vinblastine ... leurosine and the chemotherapy agents vinblastine and vincristine, all of which can be obtained from the plant. The newer semi- ...
... is a microtubule-depolymerizing drug like vinblastine. It acts by two distinct mechanisms. At very low ...
Keglevich P, Hazai L, Kalaus G, Szántay C (May 2012). "Modifications on the basic skeletons of vinblastine and vincristine". ... leurosine and the chemotherapy agents vinblastine and vincristine, all of which can be obtained from the plant. The newer semi- ...
Keglevich P, Hazai L, Kalaus G, Szántay C (May 2012). "Modifications on the basic skeletons of vinblastine and vincristine". ... On the other hand, therapies with low risk of gonadotoxicity include plant derivatives such as vincristine and vinblastine, ... The original vinca alkaloids are natural products that include vincristine and vinblastine. Following the success of these ...
Bisindole alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine are produced in the reaction involving catharanthine (alkaloid of type Iboga) ... Besides, bisindole alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine show antineoplastic effect. Because of structural similarities with ... and bisindole alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine are antitumor agents. Animal studies have shown that ibogaine has a ... vinblastine, vincristine). Apart from bisindole alkaloids, dimeric alkaloids exist which are formed via dimerization of the ...
Vinblastine is a chemical analogue of vincristine and is also used to treat various forms of cancer. Dimeric alkaloids such as ... Sears, Justin E.; Boger, Dale L. (2015). "Total Synthesis of Vinblastine, Related Natural Products, and Key Analogues and ... Keglevich, Péter; Hazai, Laszlo; Kalaus, György; Szántay, Csaba (2012). "Modifications on the basic skeletons of vinblastine ... vincristine and vinblastine are produced by the coupling the smaller indole alkaloids vindoline and catharanthine. In addition ...
... such as the vinca alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine, which are formed from the coupling of catharanthine and vindoline. The ... "Modifications on the basic skeletons of vinblastine and vincristine". Molecules. 17 (5): 5893-5914. doi:10.3390/ ...
Keglevich P, Hazai L, Kalaus G, Szántay C (May 2012). "Modifications on the basic skeletons of vinblastine and vincristine". ... the vinca alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine, the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel, the proteasome inhibitors such as ...
Keglevich, Péter; Hazai, Laszlo; Kalaus, György; Szántay, Csaba (2012). "Modifications on the basic skeletons of vinblastine ... leurosine and the chemotherapy agents vinblastine and vincristine, all of which can be obtained from the plant. The newer semi- ...
Keglevich, Péter; Hazai, Laszlo; Kalaus, György; Szántay, Csaba (2012). "Modifications on the basic skeletons of vinblastine ...
The drugs vinblastine and vincristine are vinca alkaloids, used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, and other cancers, were ... Sears, Justin E.; Boger, Dale L. (2015). "Total Synthesis of Vinblastine, Related Natural Products, and Key Analogues and ... Keglevich, Péter; Hazai, Laszlo; Kalaus, György; Szántay, Csaba (2012). "Modifications on the basic skeletons of vinblastine ...
"Modifications on the basic skeletons of vinblastine and vincristine". Molecules. 17 (5): 5893-914. doi:10.3390/ ...
The plant produces about 130 of these compounds, including vinblastine and vincristine, two drugs used to treat cancer. ... Keglevich, Péter; Hazai, Laszlo; Kalaus, György; Szántay, Csaba (2012). "Modifications on the basic skeletons of vinblastine ...
Vinblastine and vincristine, chemotherapy medications used to treat several types of cancers, are found in the plant and are ... It is a source of the drugs vincristine and vinblastine, used to treat cancer. It was formerly included in the genus Vinca as ... Despite the medical importance and wide use, the desired alkaloids (vinblastine and vincristine) are naturally produced at very ... In the 1950s, vinca alkaloids, including vinblastine and vincristine, were isolated from Catharanthus roseus while screening ...
Keglevich P, Hazai L, Kalaus G, Szántay C (May 2012). "Modifications on the basic skeletons of vinblastine and vincristine". ... Tubulins are targets for anticancer drugs such as vinblastine and vincristine, and paclitaxel. The anti-worm drugs mebendazole ...
... methotrexate and vinblastine (CMV). Response rate for cisplatin-based combination ranges from 39 to 65% and complete response ... vinblastine, doxorubicin, cisplatin (MVAC) and gemcitabine with cisplatin (GC). Other regimens include dose dense MVAC (DDMVC) ... vinblastine, doxorubicin, with cisplatin (MVAC) or gemcitabine with cisplatin (GC). Alternative regimens include paclitaxel ... and cisplatin, methotrexate and vinblastine (CMV). Although, the optimal regimen has not been established, the preferred ...
Mooberry SL, Stratman K, Moore RE (September 1995). "Tubercidin stabilizes microtubules against vinblastine-induced ...
The most common chemotherapy agents used are vincristine, vinblastine, and doxorubicin. Radiotherapy may be required if ...
The ATPase activity of Sav1866 is known to be stimulated by cancer drugs such as doxorubicin, vinblastine and others, which ... Drugs such as colchicine and vinblastine, which block assembly of microtubules, freely cross the membrane into the cytosol, but ... Martin C, Higgins CF, Callaghan R (Dec 2001). "The vinblastine binding site adopts high- and low-affinity conformations during ... Horio M, Gottesman MM, Pastan I (May 1988). "ATP-dependent transport of vinblastine in vesicles from human multidrug-resistant ...
"Vinblastine sulfate- vinblastine sulfate injection". DailyMed. 31 December 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2020. "Vinblastine". ... Vinblastine works by blocking cell division. Vinblastine was isolated in 1958. An example of a natural herbal remedy that has ... Vinblastine paracrystals may be composed of tightly packed unpolymerized tubulin or microtubules. Vinblastine is reported to be ... Vinblastine is a component of a number of chemotherapy regimens, including ABVD for Hodgkin lymphoma. It is also used to treat ...
Vinblastine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before receiving vinblastine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to vinblastine, any other medications, or ... If you become pregnant while receiving vinblastine injection, call your doctor. Vinblastine may harm the fetus. ... Vinblastine comes as a powder or solution (liquid) to be injected intravenously (into a vein) by a doctor or nurse in a medical ...
Vinblastine indications, usages and related health products lists ... Where to buy Vinblastine brand or generic online:. Buy ... Vinblastine information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Thissen Laboratoires, ...
Were unable to give specific advice, but recommend you read A Quicklook at Vets, an excellent book by member Bob Lehner MRCVS. Were delighted to be able to offer an excerpt here. ...
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pentacyclic ring systemhydroxymethyl groupstereochemical coursebondcycloaddition cascadeapproachproduct structuresvinblastine ... Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Vindorosine, Vindoline, and Key Vinblastine Analogues. Cite. Download (. 19.04 kB. ). Share. ... These analogues, bearing key modifications at C6−C8, were incorporated into vinblastine analogues and used to probe the unusual ... analoguesring expansion reactionsynthesisstereocenteroxadiazolevindolinecore structureKey Vinblastine AnaloguesConcisecascade ...
Get up-to-date information on Vinblastine side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about ... Vinblastine treats certain types of cancer. Vinblastine can cause tingling sensation and numbness in the fingers and toes. ... "Vinblastine Sulfate", DailyMed: Current Medication Information; U.S. National Library of Medicine "Vinblastine," Medline Plus: ... In the case of vinblastine there are no specific foods that you must exclude from your diet when receiving vinblastine. ...
The Role of mdr1a P-Glycoprotein in the Biliary and Intestinal Secretion of Doxorubicin and Vinblastine in Mice. Judith van ... The Role of mdr1a P-Glycoprotein in the Biliary and Intestinal Secretion of Doxorubicin and Vinblastine in Mice. Judith van ... The Role of mdr1a P-Glycoprotein in the Biliary and Intestinal Secretion of Doxorubicin and Vinblastine in Mice. Judith van ... The direct secretion of unchanged vinblastine through the gut wall was 6.7 and 3.3% of the dose in wild-type andmdr1a(−/−) mice ...
Intratumoral dosing of INT230-6 with an equivalent of 10 mg of vinblastine led to approximately 5% systemic absorption when ... "INT230-6 is composed of cisplatin, vinblastine, and an amphiphilic cell-penetration excipient small molecule that improves ... Intratumoral Injection of Cisplatin and Vinblastine, with or without Pembrolizumab, Improves Intracellular Transport in ...
... such as vinblastine (VLB). Using isothermal titration calorimetry and analytical ultracentrifugation, we show that VLB ... Stathmin/Op18 is a novel mediator of vinblastine activity. FEBS Letters, 2008, 582 (17), pp.2484 - 2488. ⟨10.1016/j.febslet. ... such as vinblastine (VLB). Using isothermal titration calorimetry and analytical ultracentrifugation, we show that VLB ...
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Vinblastine inhibits microtubule formation, which disrupts formation of the mitotic spindle, causing cell proliferation to ... Interferon and the chemotherapy agents dacarbazine, cisplatin, and vinblastine are approved by the US Food and Drug ...
VINBLASTINE,VLB,Velban,Vinblastine,[3H]-Vinblastine,canSAR982758 , Compound overview, Drug targets, Compound forms, Similar ...
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Marketed formulations contain vinblastine sulfate (PubChem CID 5388983). Ligand Activity Visualisation Charts. These are box ... There is some ambiguity surrounding the exact stereochemistry of vinblastine. The chirality shown here corresponds to the ...
Synthesis of (+)-vinblastine and its analogues」の研究トピックを掘り下げます。これらがまとまってユニークなフィンガープリントを構成します。 ... Synthesis of (+)-vinblastine and its analogues. / Miyazaki, Tohru; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Simizu, Siro その他. In: Organic Letters, ... Miyazaki T, Yokoshima S, Simizu S, Osada H, Tokuyama H, Fukuyama T. Synthesis of (+)-vinblastine and its analogues. Organic ... Synthesis of (+)-vinblastine and its
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Vinblastine (865-21-4). Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS). Research Triangle Park, NC (USA): National Toxicology ... Vinblastine (865-21-4). DOI: ...
This will allow us to bridge the period until there is a new supply of vinblastine and better ensure continuity of treatment. ... By concentrating this treatment at one location, we can make the best possible use of the available supply of vinblastine. ... A national shortage of the drug vinblastine is looming and therefore this temporary measure applies. ... Treatment with vinblastine temporarily only at the Máxima Center. 13-11-2023. Starting today, children treated with vinblastine ...
Vinblastine, and Vincristine-specifically allow IV push, notwithstanding their devastating effects when extravasated. ...
dose-dense methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin *cisplatin, methotrexate, and vinblastine. *gemcitabine and ...
Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives * Vinblastine / therapeutic use Substances * Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized * ...
Vinblastine but not other microtubule inhibitors block transferrin endocytosis and iron uptake by reticulocytes (English) ... Vinblastine but not other microtubule inhibitors block transferrin endocytosis and iron uptake by reticulocytes. scientific ...
Vinblastine (Velban®). *Vincristine (Oncovin®). *Etoposide (VP-16). More than half of KS patients treated with chemo will ...
Enhanced efflux of actinomycin d, vincristine, and vinblastine in adriamycin-resistant subline of p388 leukemia. ...
Vinblastine. *Vinorelbine. *Voclosporin. Using this medicine with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of ...
Antineoplastic (vinblastine);. -. Antibiotics (erythromycin).. Flavonoids contained in grapefruit juice, such as naringinine ...
vinblastine, vincristine. For vincristine and vinblastine, consider temporarily withholding the cobicistat-containing ... hematologic or gastrointestinal side effects when PREZCOBIX is administered concurrently with vincristine or vinblastine. If ...

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