Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Chorionic Villi: The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Chorionic Villi Sampling: A method for diagnosis of fetal diseases by sampling the cells of the placental chorionic villi for DNA analysis, presence of bacteria, concentration of metabolites, etc. The advantage over amniocentesis is that the procedure can be carried out in the first trimester.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Enterocytes: Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.SucraseIntestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.DisaccharidasesPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Peyer's Patches: Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.Paneth Cells: Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Jejunal Diseases: Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Arachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Glucagon-Like Peptide 2: A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Sucrase-Isomaltase Complex: An enzyme complex found in the brush border membranes of the small intestine. It is believed to be an enzyme complex with different catalytic sites. Its absence is manifested by an inherited disease called sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Jejunoileal Bypass: A procedure consisting of the SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the proximal part of the JEJUNUM to the distal portion of the ILEUM, so as to bypass the nutrient-absorptive segment of the SMALL INTESTINE. Due to the severe malnutrition and life-threatening metabolic complications, this method is no longer used to treat MORBID OBESITY.Short Bowel Syndrome: A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mice, Inbred C57BLIleitis: Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lactase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of LACTOSE to D-GALACTOSE and D-GLUCOSE. Defects in the enzyme cause LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Placentation: The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.Serous Membrane: A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Lactase-Phlorizin Hydrolase: The multifunctional protein that contains two enzyme domains. The first domain (EC 22.214.171.124) hydrolyzes glycosyl-N-acylsphingosine to a sugar and N-acylsphingosine. The second domain (EC 126.96.36.199) hydrolyzes LACTOSE and is found in the intestinal brush border membrane. Loss of activity for this enzyme in humans results in LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mucositis: An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters: Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.PhlorhizinMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Bacterial Translocation: The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 188.8.131.52.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Myenteric Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Hydatidiform Mole: Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Glucagon-Like Peptides: Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Colostrum: The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pregnancy, Tubal: The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Duodenitis: Inflammation of the DUODENUM section of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL). Erosive duodenitis may cause bleeding in the UPPER GI TRACT and PEPTIC ULCER.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enteric Nervous System: Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Mucin-2: A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Enterocolitis, Necrotizing: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Jejunal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the JEJUNUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Blind Loop Syndrome: A malabsorption syndrome that is associated with a blind loop in the upper SMALL INTESTINE that is characterized by the lack of peristaltic movement, stasis of INTESTINAL CONTENTS, and the overgrowth of BACTERIA. Such bacterial overgrowth interferes with BILE SALTS action, FATTY ACIDS processing, MICROVILLI integrity, and the ABSORPTION of nutrients such as VITAMIN B12 and FOLIC ACID.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Ileal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the ILEUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Glutens: Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Peristalsis: A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Enteroendocrine Cells: Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Oligo-1,6-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-glucosidic linkages in isomaltose and dextrins produced from starch and glycogen by ALPHA-AMYLASES. EC 184.108.40.206.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Fetomaternal Transfusion: Transplacental passage of fetal blood into the circulation of the maternal organism. (Dorland, 27th ed)Submucous Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the enteric nervous system. The submucous (Meissner's) plexus is in the connective tissue of the submucosa. Its neurons innervate the epithelium, blood vessels, endocrine cells, other submucosal ganglia, and myenteric ganglia, and play an important role in regulating ion and water transport. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Glucose Transporter Type 5: A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.gamma-Glutamylcyclotransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of pyroglutamate from a gamma-glutamyl-amino acid, also releasing the free amino acid. The enzyme acts on derivatives of glutamate, 2-aminobutyrate, alanine and glycine. The enzyme has been proposed to have a role in a gamma-glutamyl cycle for amino acid transport into cells in the intestines. EC 220.127.116.11.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Myoelectric Complex, Migrating: A pattern of gastrointestinal muscle contraction and depolarizing myoelectric activity that moves from the stomach to the ILEOCECAL VALVE at regular frequency during the interdigestive period. The complex and its accompanying motor activity periodically cleanse the bowel of interdigestive secretion and debris in preparation for the next meal.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.
The virus invades and replicates in the villi of the small intestine. Intestinal disease may be related to virus-induced ... Coronavirus infection of the intestinal villi makes the cells more susceptible to parvovirus infection. This causes a much more ... apoptosis (programmed cell death) of cells of the epithelial mucosa of the small intestine. Canine coronavirus was originally ...
Simple columnar epithelium
Vertical section of a villus from the dog's small intestine. X 80. (Simple columnar epithelium labeled at right, third from top ... Transverse section of a villus, from the human intestine. X 350. a. Basement membrane, here somewhat shrunken away from the ... In humans, a simple columnar epithelium lines most organs of the digestive tract including the stomach, small intestine, and ... large intestine. Simple columnar epithelia line the uterus. Simple columnar epithelium is further divided into two categories: ...
List of incurable diseases
The infective larvae penetrate the villi and continue to develop in the small intestine. The young worms move to the caecum and ... The eggs hatch in the small intestine, and then move into the wall of the small intestine and develop. On reaching adulthood, ... These embryonated infective eggs are ingested and hatch in the human small intestine exploiting the intestinal microflora as ... when it infects a human large intestine. It is commonly known as the whipworm which refers to the shape of the worm; it looks ...
Glossary of biology
lacteal A lymphatic capillary that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine. lagging strand On the lagging ... which aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine. Also called gall. binary fission The process by which one ... jejunum The midsection of the small intestine of many higher vertebrates like mammals, birds, and reptiles. It is present ...
... is secreted by the tips of the villi of the epithelium in the small intestine. Its levels are reduced in response to ... Sucrase is a digestive enzyme secreted in the small intestine. Sucrase enzymes are located on the brush border of the small ... The levels increase in pregnancy, lactation, and diabetes as the villi hypertrophy. Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar, so will ... occurs when sucrase is not secreted in the small intestine. With sucrose intolerance, the result of consuming sucrose is excess ...
In the small intestine, villi are folds of the mucosa that increase the surface area of the intestine. The villi contain a ... In the large intestines, villi are absent and a flat surface with thousands of glands is observed. Underlying the epithelium is ... In the small intestine, epithelium is simple columnar and specialised for absorption. The epithelium is arranged into villi, ... This is one of the 3 features helping to distinguish between the large and small intestine. Occasionally in the large intestine ...
The adult flukes live burrowed between the villi of the host's small intestine. It only takes around 4 to 6 hours for H. ... Minute teardrop-shaped flukes found in the small intestines of fish-eating birds and mammals. The eggs are hard to tell apart ... Each worm causes a mild inflammatory reaction at its site of contact with the intestine. In heavy infections which are common ... heterophyes to get to the small intestines in the definitive host and even faster in hosts that it does not prefer. The eggs ...
Bone morphogenetic protein
Villi contribute to increase the effective absorption of nutrients by extending the surface area in small intestine. Gain or ... Moreover, BMP signaling is involved in the formation of foregut and hindgut, intestinal villus patterning, and endocardial ... Katherine et al,. (2016). "Villification in the mouse: Bmp signals control intestinal villus patterning". The Company of ... lose function of BMP signaling altered the patterning of clusters and emergence of villi in mouse intestinal model. BMP signal ...
They are covered with small fingerlike projections called villi (singular, villus). Each villus, in turn, is covered with ... are large valvular flaps projecting into the lumen of the small intestine. The entire small intestine has circular folds of ... In the lower part of the descending portion, below the point where the bile and pancreatic ducts enter the small intestine, ... These differences can assist in distinguishing the small intestine from the colon on an abdominal x-ray. The majority extend ...
Rankin EB, Xu W, Silberg DG, Suh E (May 2004). "Putative intestine-specific enhancers located in 5' sequence of the CDX1 gene ... with high expression in intestinal crypts and diminishing expression along intestinal villi. This gene is a member of the ... CDX1 is expressed in the developing endoderm and its expression persists in the intestine throughout adulthood. CDX1 protein ... The encoded DNA-binding protein regulates intestine-specific gene expression and enterocyte differentiation. It has been shown ...
... s are formed in the endoplasmic reticulum in the absorptive cells (enterocytes) of the small intestine. The villi, ... lymphatic vessels originating in the villi of the small intestine, and are then secreted into the bloodstream at the thoracic ... Chylomicrons transport lipids absorbed from the intestine to adipose, cardiac, and skeletal muscle tissue, where their ... They transport dietary lipids from the intestines to other locations in the body. Chylomicrons are one of the five major groups ...
... present predominantly along the brush border membrane of the differentiated enterocytes lining the villi of the small intestine ... It is located in the brush border of the small intestine of humans and other mammals. Lactase is essential to the complete ... Lactase is encoded by a single genetic locus on chromosome 2. It is expressed exclusively by mammalian small intestine ... resulting in diminished lactase expression in the small intestine, which causes the common symptoms of adult-type hypolactasia ...
The highest expression of hephaestin is found in small intestine. It is limited to enterocytes of the villi (where the iron ... In addition to the transport of iron from the intestine and into the circulation, ferroxidases also seem to play an important ... However, when the protein was ablated in murine models, both intestine-specific and whole-body hephaestin knockout (KO) strains ... "Decreased hephaestin activity in the intestine of copper-deficient mice causes systemic iron deficiency". J. Nutr. 136 (5): ...
Human digestive system
These are then absorbed by villi on the intestinal wall. If fats are not absorbed in this way in the small intestine problems ... The lower gastrointestinal tract (GI), includes the small intestine and all of the large intestine. The intestine is also ... The last part of the small intestine is the ileum. This also contains villi and vitamin B12; bile acids and any residue ... The large intestine includes the rectum and anal canal. Food starts to arrive in the small intestine one hour after it is eaten ...
In 40% of cases it is limited to the small intestine. Coeliac disease - caused by an autoimmune reaction to gluten by ... It has also been observed to cause villus ischemia, and increase intestinal motility. The net result of these changes is ... Enteritis is inflammation of the small intestine. It is most commonly caused by food or drink contaminated with pathogenic ... Inflammation of both the stomach and small intestine is referred to as gastroenteritis. Signs and symptoms of enteritis are ...
Glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor
Biopsy of the small intestine shows dilation of the lacteals of the villi and distension of the lymphatic vessels. Reduced ... When it occurs in the intestines of dogs, and more rarely humans, it causes a disease known as "intestinal lymphangiectasia." ... Rupture of the lymphatics causes protein loss into the intestines. The most common cause of lymphangiectasia was congenital ... lymph flow leads to a malabsorption syndrome of the small intestine, especially of fat and fat-soluble vitamins. ...
The alteration of the villi leads to an inability of nutrient and water absorption from the intestine, resulting in diarrhea, ... The species Giardia intestinalis uses enzymes that break down proteins to attack the villi of the brush border and appears to ... Symptoms are caused by Giardia organisms infecting the cells of the duodenum and jejunum of the small intestine and blocking ... Ultimately, the community of microorganisms that lives in the intestine may overgrow and may be the cause of further symptoms, ...
It lasts about 5-6 days then the worm matures and attaches itself to the last part of the small intestine. The whole time ... H. nana's larval stage occurs either inside an auto infected host's intestinal villus or an intermediate rat host. In H. ... The worm matures in the duodenum, the first portion of the small intestine, and attach to the mucosa lining. Fertilized eggs ... The proglottids that are disintegrated in the intestine cannot be detected. Egg output could be sporadic so a couple stool ...
EC cells are small polygonal cells located in the crypts between intestinal villi. They are discriminated from other cells of ... The name 'enterochromaffin' comes from the Greek word "enteron" (ἔντερον), in relation to intestines, and "chromaffin" as a ... predominantly in the small intestine, colon and appendix. The proportion of high-density cell populations varies between ...
... in the small intestine there are microvilli on the epithelial lining and in the large intestine there are intestinal villi. ... Herophilus was able to discover and describe not only the salivary glands, but the small intestine and liver. He showed that ... Smooth muscle is found in the walls of the uterus, bladder, intestines, stomach, oesophagus, respiratory airways, and blood ...
The larvae then pass through the stomach for a second time into the intestine, where they become adult worms. It is a type of ... The malabsorption may be due to a loss of brush border enzymes, erosion and flattening of the villi, and inflammation of the ... The eggs hatch in the intestines, burrow through the gut wall, and migrate to the lungs via the blood. There they break into ... A bolus of worms may obstruct the intestine; migrating larvae may cause pneumonitis and eosinophilia. Adult worms have a ...
Mannan oligosaccharide-based nutritional supplements
... therefore the surface of the small intestine should be covered with long healthy villi. Yang et al. reported better energy ... To protect the villi and intestinal surface, the gut produces protecting mucus. This mucus is produced in specific cells called ... A shallow crypt is a good indicator for an efficient small intestine, which requires fewer nutrients for renewal. With a low ... Several studies with MOS in poultry have looked at the intestinal structure and discovered longer villi and a more shallow ...
Solitary lymphatic nodule
The Solitary lymphatic nodules (or solitary follicles) are structures found in the small intestine and large intestine. The ... Their free surfaces are covered with rudimentary villi, except at the summits, and each gland is surrounded by the openings of ... but are irregularly scattered also over the rest of the intestine. They are similar to those of the small intestine. This ... The solitary lymphatic nodules of the large intestine are most abundant in the cecum and vermiform process, ...
... marked with abnormal flattening of the villi and inflammation of the lining of the small intestine. It differs significantly ... with the flattening of the villi and small intestine inflammation and is caused by an autoimmune disorder in genetically ... Abnormal flattening of villi and inflammation of the lining of the small intestine, observed during an endoscopic procedure. ... Presence of inflammatory cells (most often lymphocytes) in the biopsy of small intestine tissue. Low levels of vitamins A, B12 ...
Specifically, structural changes within the intestine include smaller villi, larger crypts (called crypt hyperplasia), ... Chronic inflammation leads to both functional and structural changes which alter gut permeability and ability of the intestine ... In the 1960s, researchers reported a syndrome of non-specific histopathological and functional changes to the small intestine ... The inflammatory response results in multiple pathological changes to the gastrointestinal tract: Smaller villi, larger crypts ...
Rotaviruses replicate mainly in the gut, and infect enterocytes of the villi of the small intestine, leading to structural and ... It infects and damages the cells that line the small intestine and causes gastroenteritis (which is often called "stomach flu" ... Healthy enterocytes secrete lactase into the small intestine; milk intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a symptom of ...
In the small-bowel this causes an inflammatory reaction and may produce shortening of the villi lining the small intestine ( ... The capsule was swallowed and allowed to pass into the small intestine. After x-ray verification of its position, suction was ... Strict adherence to the diet allows the intestines to heal, leading to resolution of all symptoms in most cases and, depending ... Most people with coeliac disease have a small intestine that appears to be normal on endoscopy before the biopsies are examined ...
গলবিল - উইকিপিডিয়া
গলবিল (ইংরেজি: Pharynx) মুখ ও নাসিকানালীর ঠিক পেছনে ও অন্ননালীর উপরে ঘাড় ও গলাতে অবস্থিত পরিপাকনালীর (এবং শ্বাসনালীর) অংশ।ফ্যারিনক্স পাচক সিস্টেমের অংশ এবং শ্বাসযন্ত্রের পরিচালনা অঞ্চল। (পরিচালনাকারী অঞ্চল যা নাক, ল্যারিনক্স, ট্র্যাচিয়া, ব্রোঞ্চি এবং ব্রোঞ্চিওল-ফিল্টারগুলি, ওয়ার্ম এবং বায়ুকে আর্দ্র করে এবং ফুসফুসের মধ্যে সঞ্চালিত করে।) ফ্যারেনক্সটি গলার অংশটিকে অবিলম্বে পিছনে ...
পাকস্থলী - উইকিপিডিয়া
অন্ননালী ও ডুওডেনাম এর মাঝখানে পাকস্থলী একটি থলির মতো অঙ্গ। এর দৈর্ঘ্য প্রায় ২৫ সে.মি.।এটি উদরীয় গহ্বরের উপরের বাম দিকে থাকে। এর উপর প্রান্ত ডায়াফ্রামের বিপরীতে থাকে।পাকস্থলির পিছনে অগ্ন্যাশয় আছে।বৃহত্তর বক্রতা(greater curvature) থেকে বৃহত্তর ওমেন্টাম নামে। প্রাচীর পুরু ও পেশিবহুল। পাকস্থলিতে দুটি স্ফিংক্টার থেকে-অন্ননালী এবং পাইলরিক। পাকস্থলি প্যারাসিমপ্যাথেটিক ও ...
Intestinal villi (singular: villus) are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine. Each ... Villus capillaries collect amino acids and simple sugars taken up by the villi into the blood stream. Villus lacteals (lymph ... Micrograph of the small intestine mucosa showing villi - top half of image. H&E stain ... Villi are specialized for absorption in the small intestine as they have a thin wall, one cell thick, which enables a shorter ...
Human digestive system
These are then absorbed by villi on the intestinal wall. If fats are not absorbed in this way in the small intestine problems ... The lower gastrointestinal tract (GI), includes the small intestine and all of the large intestine. The intestine is also ... The last part of the small intestine is the ileum. This also contains villi and vitamin B12; bile acids and any residue ... The small intestine can also be obstructed by a volvulus, a loop of intestine that becomes twisted enclosing its attached ...
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity
... this causes an inflammatory reaction and may produce shortening of the villi lining the small intestine (villous atrophy).[ ... Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.[10 ... The capsule was swallowed and allowed to pass into the small intestine. After x-ray verification of its position, suction was ... Most people with coeliac disease have a small intestine that appears to be normal on endoscopy before the biopsies are examined ...
... and intestines. The esophagus develops as part of the foregut tube. The innervation of the esophagus develops from the ... so that the esophagus effectively runs from the pharynx directly to the intestine, and is therefore somewhat longer. ... Small intestine. Microanatomy. *Intestinal villus. *Intestinal gland. *Enterocyte. *Enteroendocrine cell. *Goblet cell ...
The intestine ends via the large intestine in the vent or cloaca which serves as the common exit for renal and intestinal ... "Gastric digestion of protein through pancreozyme action optimizes intestinal forms for absorption, mucin formation and villus ... A .Mature ovum, B. Infundibulum, C. Magnum, D. Isthmus, E. Uterus, F. Vagina, G. Cloaca, H. Large intestine, I. rudiment of ... The partially digested and pulverized gizzard contents are passed into the intestine, where pancreatic and intestinal enzymes ...
ކުޑަ ގޮހޮރު - ވިކިޕީޑިއާ
ޚާއްޞަކޮށް ވިލަސް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Villus) ތަކުގެ ކޮޅު ނިވާކޮށްދޭ ކުދިކުދި ވިލަސް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Microvillus) ތަކުގައެވެ. ... ކުޑަ ގޮހޮރު(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Small intestine) އަކީ ހަޖަމުކުރާ ނިޒާމްގައި ހިމެނޭ ގުނަވަނެކެވެ. މިގުނަވަން އޮންނަނީ ... ކުޑަ ގޮހޮރުގެ ބައިތަކުގެ އެތެރޭގެ ތެތް ދުލިފަށަލައިގައި ހިމެނޭ ވިލަސް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: villus) ތައް އަކީ ކާނާގެ ބައިތައް ... މިއަށް ކިޔަނީ ވިލަސް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Villus) އެވެ. އަދި ހަމަ ތެތްދުލިފަށުގެ ސަތަހައިގައި ކުދި ހޮޅިތަކެއްގެ ސިފަޔަށް ހުންނަ ...
large and small intestine Duodenitis, jejunitis and ileitis are subtypes of enteritis which are only localised to a specific ... It has also been observed to cause villus ischemia, and increase intestinal motility. The net result of these changes is ... Enteritis is inflammation of the small intestine. It is most commonly caused by food or drink contaminated with pathogenic ... Ischemic enteritis is uncommon compared to ischemic colitis due to the highly vascularised nature of the small intestine, ...
পাকস্থলী - উইকিপিডিয়া
In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear and the terms middle intestine or mid-gut may be used instead of ... The villi of the jejunum look like long, finger-like projections, and are a histologically identifiable structure. ... Jejunum is derived from the Latin word jējūnus, meaning "fasting." It was so called because this part of the small intestine ... The jejunum is the second part of the small intestine in humans and most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and ...
মুখবিবর - উইকিপিডিয়া
মুখবিবর বা মুখ (ইংরেজি: Mouth বা Oral cavity) পরিপাকনালীর প্রথম অংশ যা খাদ্য গ্রহণ করে এবং প্রাথমিক পরিপাক শুরু করে। এখানে শক্ত খাবার যান্ত্রিকভাবে ভেঙে ছোট ছোট অংশে পরিণত হয় এবং লালার সাথে মিশ্রিত হয়। খাওয়া, পান করা, পরিপাক ছাড়াও কথা বলা, বিভিন্ন ইঙ্গিত করা, শ্বাস-প্রশ্বাস চালানো, চুমু খাওয়া, ইত্যাদিতে মুখ কাজে আসে। ...
However fats are mainly digested in the small intestine. The presence of fat in the small intestine produces hormones that ... The intestinal walls are lined with villi, and their epithelial cells is covered with numerous microvilli to improve the ... The major part of digestion takes place in the small intestine. The large intestine primarily serves as a site for fermentation ... In the large intestine the passage of food is slower to enable fermentation by the gut flora to take place. Here water is ...
... in the small intestine there are microvilli on the epithelial lining and in the large intestine there are intestinal villi. ... Smooth muscle is found in the walls of the uterus, bladder, intestines, stomach, oesophagus, respiratory airways, and blood ... Herophilus was able to discover and describe not only the salivary glands, but the small intestine and liver. He showed ...
Instead they are absorbed into the fatty walls of the intestine villi and reassemble again into triglycerides. The ... They are taken in through the intestine in chylomicrons, but also exist in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and low density ... Short- and medium-chain fatty acids are absorbed directly into the blood via intestine capillaries and travel through the ...
Another method of prenatal testing is Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS). Chorionic villi are projections from the placenta that ... Large amount of abnormally thick mucus in the lungs and intestines; leads to congestioni, pneumonia, diarrhea and poor growth ... During this method of prenatal testing, a sample of chorionic villi is removed from the placenta to be tested. This test is ...
সিকাম - উইকিপিডিয়া
পাচনতন্ত্রে বৃহদন্ত্রের প্রথম ভাগ। ক্ষুদ্রান্ত্র আসলে বৃহদন্ত্রের একদম গোড়াতে প্রবেশ করে না। ক্ষুদ্রান্ত্রের পরেই খাদ্য বৃহদন্ত্রের অ্যাসেন্ডিং কোলন অংশে সম্মুখচালিত হয়। কিন্তু ক্ষুদ্রান্ত্র আর বৃহদন্ত্রের সংযোগস্থল থেকে বিপরীত গামী অন্ধ-গলি (ব্লাইন্ড পাউচ) হল সিকাম। মানুষের সিকাম খুব ক্ষুদ্র এবং ভার্মিফর্ম অ্যাপেন্ডিক্সে পর্যবসিত। পশ্চাত-জঠর-পাচী (haind gut fermenting) প্রাণীদের ...
The stomach needs to push food into the small intestine only when the intestine is not busy. While the intestine is full and ... In humans, the stomach lies between the oesophagus and the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It is in the left ... A stomach rumble is actually noise from the intestines. The stomach has to regenerate a new layer of mucus every two weeks, or ... In humans and many other animals, the stomach is located between the oesophagus and the small intestine. It secretes digestive ...
Chorionic villus sampling. Amniocentesis. Blood. Triple test. Quad test. Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling. Apt test. ... Surgical connection between blood vessels or other tubular or hollow structures such as loops of intestine is called ... Resection of organs such as intestines involves reconnection. Internal suturing or stapling may be used. ...
Abnormal flattening of villi and inflammation of the lining of the small intestine, observed during an endoscopic procedure. ... marked with abnormal flattening of the villi and inflammation of the lining of the small intestine. It differs significantly ... with the flattening of the villi and small intestine inflammation and is caused by an autoimmune disorder in genetically ... Presence of inflammatory cells (most often lymphocytes) in the biopsy of small intestine tissue. ...
The duodenum is largely responsible for the breakdown of food in the small intestine, using enzymes. The villi of the duodenum ... In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear, and the terms anterior intestine or proximal intestine may be ... The duodenum precedes the jejunum and ileum and is the shortest part of the small intestine . In humans, the duodenum is a ... These are distinct glands not found in the ileum or jejunum, the other parts of the small intestine. Dog Duodenum 100X Duodenum ...
Onset of action
A triglyceride is broken down into two fatty acids and a monoglyceride, which are absorbed by the villi on the intestine walls ... In addition, past the small intestine (which is normally responsible for absorbing fat from food) the gastrointestinal tract ... that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In humans, bile is produced continuously by the liver (liver bile), ... the first section of the small intestine. Bile salts also act as bactericides, destroying many of the microbes that may be ...
Intact function of Lgr5 receptor-expressing intestinal stem cells in the absence of Paneth cells | PNAS
This treatment resulted in YFP expression in villus cells within 5 d (Fig. S1F) and uniform YFP expression in villi 3 wk later ... Intestines of control Lgr5GFP-IRES-CreER and VillinCreER;Lgr5GFP-IRES-CreER;Atoh1flx/flx mice were dissected and washed in cold ... 4 A and B). Although villus cells derived from Lgr5+ CBCs lacked secretory markers, as expected because of the Atoh1−/− genetic ... Scale bars: 50 μm in A-F.) (G) Quantitation of three independent intestines from each group of mice; at least 250 Lgr5+ CBCs ...
Villi - Small Intestine
Small Intestine in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of professional healthcare and anatomy chart templates that ... Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Villi - ... Villi - Small Intestine. Create healthcare diagrams like this ... Villi. Illustration showing cellular level of small intestine.. Epithelial Cells. Capillary Network. Connective Tissue Core. ... example called Villi - Small Intestine in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of professional healthcare and ...
What Is the Function of the Villi in the Small Intestine?
The primary function of the villi in the small intestine is to increase the absorption of nutrients from food passing through ... Compared to an intestine with no villi, the small intestine with villi has an absorption rate of 30 to 600 times higher. Villi ... Home / Science / Human Anatomy / What Is the Function of the Villi in the Small Intestine? ... What Is the Function of the Villi in the Small Intestine? By Staff WriterLast Updated Apr 15, 2020 4:39:58 PM ET ...
How is the villus the functional unit of the small intestine
Function of villi in small intestine? The function of Villi is to 1.) make the the small intestine longer so food will take ... How does the structure of the villus of the small intestine fits its function? The villi increase the surface area of the small ... Intestinal villi are tiny finger-like outgrowths, in the lining of the small intestine. Villi effectively increase the surface ... In the large intestine - After passing through the small intestine, food passes into the large intestine. In the large ...
Small intestine villi, section - Stock Image P520/0243 - Science Photo Library
Villi are finger-like projections from the inner lining of the small intestine that serve to increase the surface area ... Each villus has a red outer layer surrounding blood vessels that carry the nutrients into the bloodstream. Cell nuclei have ... Villi in the small intestine, fluorescent light micrograph. ... small intestine, villi, villus Licence fees: A licence fee will ... Caption: Villi in the small intestine, fluorescent light micrograph. Villi are finger-like projections from the inner lining of ...
Villi In The Small Intestine Increase The Surface Area For The Absorption Of Nutrients Stock Photo | Getty Images
Small intestine villus, SEM - Stock Image - P520/0136 - Science Photo Library
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a freeze fracture section through a villus of the intestinal lining. ... Small intestine villus. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a freeze fracture section through a villus of the ... Villi are finger-like projections that increase the surface area of a structure. The outer surface is mostly columnar ...
The Highly Coiled Endoparasitic Nematode Worm Seen In A Rodents Intestine Associated Closely With Its Villi On The Right Sem...
Vibrio cholerae O1 adherence to villi and lymphoid follicle epithelium: in vitro model using formalin-treated human small...
... in vitro model using formalin-treated human small intestine and correlation between adherence and cell-associated hemagglutinin ... V. cholerae O1 adhered better to epithelium over ileal lymphoid follicles than to epithelium of jejunal or ileal villi. Cells ... Vibrio cholerae O1 adherence to villi and lymphoid follicle epithelium: in vitro model using formalin-treated human small ... Vibrio cholerae O1 adherence to villi and lymphoid follicle epithelium: in vitro model using formalin-treated human small ...
What else can cause villus atrophy in the small intestine other than celiac disease? | University of Chicago Celiac Disease...
The Fingerlike Villi In The Mammal Small Intestine Mucosa Greatly Increase The Surface Area For The Digestion And Absorption Of...
The Highly Coiled Endoparasitic Nematode Worm Seen In A Rodents Intestine Associated Closely With Its Villi On The Right Sem...
Guarda Foto stock di The Highly Coiled Endoparasitic Nematode Worm Seen In A Rodents Intestine Associated Closely With Its ... Villi On The Right Sem X135. Cerca foto premium ad alta risoluzione su Getty Images. ... seen in a rodents intestine associated closely with its villi on the right. SEM X135. ...
Lose of weight, diagnosed as small intestine is lined with lesions, villi not absorbing nutrients. Suggestion? - Doctor's...
... villi not absorbing nutrients. Suggestion?. Ask a Doctor about Small intestine, Ask a General & Family Physician ... diagnosed as small intestine is lined with lesions, ... Erosion on small intestine cancer. *Heaviness in small ... Lose of weight, diagnosed as small intestine is lined with lesions, villi not absorbing nutrients. Suggestion?. ... My friend has had a small intestine scope and was told her small intestine is lined with lesions or sores, she has lost ...
Paper - On the development of the villi of the human intestine - Embryology
This historic 1900 paper by Berry describes the development of villi in the human intestine. Modern Notes: intestine ... Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, August 19) Embryology Paper - On the development of the villi of the human intestine. ... On the development of the villi of the human intestine. (1900) Anat. Anz. Bd. 17, S. 242-249. ... 1910 Mucous membrane Oesophagus to Small Intestine , 1910 Large intestine and Vermiform process , 1911-13 Intestine and ...
Mucosal villus | anatomy | Britannica.com
... that of tiny projections called villi. The villi usually vary from 0.5 to 1 mm in height. Their diameters vary from ... The villi are covered by a single layer of tall columnar cells called goblet cells because of their rough resemblance to empty ... Other articles where Mucosal villus is discussed: human digestive system: Absorption: … ... structure of small intestine. *. In human digestive system: Absorption. …that of tiny projections called villi. The villi ...
Science Source - Villi of small intestine
... image of villi of the human small intestine (ileum). Structure may be finger-like, leaf-like or ridge-like as seen in this ... Villi of small intestine - SS2104023 Color enhanced scanning electron microscope (SEM) ... Color enhanced scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of villi of the human small intestine (ileum). Structure may be finger- ...
Small intestine, villus, mammal │ Jeulin
Structural flexibility of the small intestine and liver of garter snakes in response to feeding and fasting | Journal of...
The intestinal villi of fasting snakes averaged 0.6±0.2 mm. Two days after feeding, intestinal villi measured 1.2±0.2 mm. ... Small intestine mass was lowest in fasting snakes (3.11±0.22 %). Two days after feeding, the fresh mass of the small intestine ... and downregulation of small intestine size in garter snakes are based on mechanical expansion of the intestinal villi. ... and the height of the villi from the muscle layer to the top of the villi. We measured 10 sections per tissue sample and took ...
Digestive Health & The Small Intestine -- Jon Barron Newsletter
Understand the anatomy of the small intestine, large intestine and complete intestinal tract in order to make sense of ... A great deal of digestion still occurs in the small intestine, but the overall emphasis is on absorption. ... with approximately 40 villi/sq mm inside the wall of the small intestine. As discussed earlier, each single villus contains an ... Mucosa - villi. This is the grand prize, where most of the action in the small intestine takes place. Accordingly, we will now ...
Celiac Disease Vector & Photo (Free Trial) | Bigstock
Download high-quality Celiac disease affected small intestine villi. images, illustrations and vectors perfectly priced to fit ... Celiac disease affected small intestine villi. Healthy villi and unhealthy villi with damaged cells on a blue technology ... intestine, lines, lining, medical, microvilli, nutrient, organ, pain, poster, science, scientific, small, structure, surface, ...
Biology Journal: Root Hair Cells Of Plants & Cells of Villi In Small Intestines
The function of the villi is also to increase the surface area for absorption in our small intestines, thus the small intestine ... Therefore, we can see that the similarities of root hair cells and the villi is that:. - Both absorb food in the simplest form ... cross the epithelium that the small intestinal villi covers, these molecules diffuse into a capillary network and into our ... is covered by millions of villi which have 4 layers and extend about 1 mm into the lumen. Once the molecules of amino acids, ...
Effect of Dietary Selenium on Small Intestine Villus Integrity in...
... target enterocytes on intestinal villi causing villus dysfu... ... Effect of Dietary Selenium on Small Intestine Villus Integrity ... mortality in broiler chickens, target enterocytes on intestinal villi causing villus dysfunction and decreased digestion and ... is more effective than either no Se or sodium selenite supplementation in protecting the integrity of the small intestine villi ... Intestinal tracts from 21-d-old chickens were examined histomorphometrically revealing longer and more narrow villi, greater ...
Celiac Disease Vector Illustration. Labeled Diagram With Its Structure Stock Vector - Illustration of graphic, disorder:...
Illustration about graphic, disorder, intestine, antibodies, body, autoimmune, allergy, diagnosis - 129114701 ... Celiac disease Small intestine lining damage. good and damaged villi . leaky gut progression. Celiac disease. Coeliac disease ... Autoimmune illness in stomach and intestine. Scheme with nutrients, healthy and destroyed villi. ... Celiac Coeliac Intestine Disease. Celiac disease signs and symptoms.. ...
Ausgezeichnet Villi In The Small Intestine Bilder - Anatomy Of Human Body Images - Romanosupertech.info
... villi anatomy small intestine lining villi in the small intestine intestinal villi anatomy small intestine lining villi and ... intestine showing crypts villi andvilli in the small intestine iwvbbqtnmdbawceezgsmall intestine villi in the small intestine ... in the small intestine main qimg faaedbabcaddvilli in the small intestine villi and absorption villi in the small intestine ... small intestine villi in the small intestine fbabvilli in the small intestine ymqftpghunwhwvillusvilli in the small intestine ...
Villi In The Ileum Region Of The Mammal Small Intestine Sem X500 Foto de stock | Getty Images
Intestinal villus - Wikipedia
The intestinal villi are much smaller than any of the circular folds in the intestine. Villi increase the internal surface area ... Intestinal villi (singular: villus) are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine. Each ... Villus capillaries collect amino acids and simple sugars taken up by the villi into the blood stream. Villus lacteals (lymph ... represent the principal cell types of the epithelium of the villi in the small intestine. There, the villi and the microvilli ...
The Small Intestine | Blausen Medical
The small intestine is part of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). It is approximately 20 feet long and is the site where ... The small intestine is part of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). It is approximately 20 feet long and is the site where ... Intestinal Mucosa and Villi Topics: Anatomy & Physiology, Digestive 0 Other videos. 00:29 00:29 ...
The Small Intestine (Interior) | Blausen Medical
The small intestine makes up the digestive tract between the stomach and the large intestine. The intestinal lining has many ... Intestinal Mucosa and Villi Topics: Anatomy & Physiology, Digestive 00:15 00:15 ... The small intestine makes up the digestive tract between the stomach and the large intestine. The intestinal lining has many ...
You - Wikitravel
Paleo Nutrition: For Health, Longevity, Performance, and Looking Good
Kids' Health - Topics - Coeliac disease and gluten sensitivity
In the small intestine there are villi - tiny hair-like cells which take in the vitamins and nutrients as the food goes through ... coeliac; celiac; bowel; nutrients; gluten; intolerance; digestive; system; intestine; villi; Contents. *What is coeliac disease ... That gives the villi can do their job of making sure your body gets all the energy, vitamins and nutrients it needs. *Eat rice ... If a person is gluten intolerant, these villi get attacked by the bodys immune system when the person eats something with ...
CryptsLength of the small intestineDuodenumColonCellsGene expressionTranscriptionDigestiveStomachLining of the small intestinePassing through the small intestineJejunumCecumFunction of the VilliWall of the small intestineSection of the small intestineCapillaryNutrients from foodEpithelium of the small intestineIncrease the absorptive areaAbsorption in the Small IntestineAbsorbLine the small intestineEnzymesChymeBlood vesselsFingerlikeFoldsLargeStructuresDigestion and absorptionSections of the small intestineCapillariesAnatomySurface area of the intestinalMicrographLymphaticBileProjections covering thLiverBloodstreamEnterocytesPlicaeCrypt-villusParts of the intestineLumen of the intestine
Length of the small intestine1
- Two small intestine crypt-cell populations are able to generate all four cell types over extended periods: Lgr5-expressing crypt base columnar cells (CBCs), which lie deep in the crypt, interspersed among Paneth cells ( 5 ), and Bmi1-expressing cells that occupy several crypt tiers, most notably the +4 position ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
- In the intestine, Lgr5 gene expression responds to Wnt signaling ( 5 ), which controls essential stem-cell properties ( 12 , 13 ), but the source of Wnt ligands and the requisite cellular constituents of the stem-cell niche are unclear. (pnas.org)
- Taken together, these findings define the SI gene as a useful model for studies of differentiation, cell lineage determination, and mechanisms of complex spatial gene expression in the intestine. (jax.org)
- In the small intestine, bile (produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder), pancreatic enzymes, and other digestive enzymes produced by the inner wall of the small intestine help in the breakdown of food. (answers.com)
- The small intestine makes up the digestive tract between the stomach and the large intestine. (blausen.com)
- An important part of the digestive system is the small intestine, which is lined with villi (say: VIL-eye). (kidshealth.org)
- Celiac disease is a disease of the digestive system in which the inside lining of the small intestine (mucosa) is damaged after eating wheat, rye, oats, or barley, resulting in interference with the absorption of nutrients from food. (encyclopedia.com)
- Celiac disease is a digestive problem that hurts your small intestine. (massgeneral.org)
- Celiac disease symptoms usually involve the intestines and digestive system, but they can also affect other parts of the body. (healthline.com)
- Most of the digestive enzymes that act in the small intestine are secreted by the pancreas and enter the small intestine via the pancreatic duct. (thefullwiki.org)
- The small intestine is a part of the human body's digestive system, coming after the stomach and before the large intestine in the sequence of food digesti. (reference.com)
- The two organs that produce digestive fluids that are secreted into the small intestine. (jeopardylabs.com)
- In fact, if you ignore exceptions like the direct absorption of alcohol from an empty stomach, close to 100% of all nutrient absorption in the human body takes place in the small intestine. (jonbarron.org)
- Autoimmune illness in stomach and intestine. (dreamstime.com)
- The chyme enters the small intestine after leaving the stomach. (wikibooks.org)
- It lies between the stomach and large intestine , and receives bile and pancreatic juice through the pancreatic duct to aid in digestion . (wikipedia.org)
- To do this, a long, thin tube (endoscope) is placed in your mouth, down to your stomach and into your small intestine. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- her biopsy revealed her villi were entirely gone, and some of her stomach lining was gone too. (celiac.com)
- In vertebrates , the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) following the stomach and followed by the large intestine , and is where the vast majority of digestion and absorption of food takes place. (thefullwiki.org)
- The hormone secretin also causes bicarbonate to be released into the small intestine from the pancreas in order to neutralize the potentially harmful acid coming from the stomach. (thefullwiki.org)
- Chemical breakdown begins in the stomach and continues in the small intestine. (thefullwiki.org)
- As food exits the stomach it enters the small intestine and moves through the small intestine. (sophia.org)
- your small intestine which is connected to the stomach on one end and to the large intestine on the other end. (sophia.org)
- Stomach, small intestine and colon, abstract. (123rf.com)
Lining of the small intestine5
- Intestinal villi are tiny finger-like outgrowths, in the lining of the small intestine. (answers.com)
- Villi are finger-like projections from the inner lining of the small intestine that serve to increase the surface area available for absorption of nutrients from food. (sciencephoto.com)
- The lining of the small intestine has an extensive surface area made up of large, circular folds of epithelium. (gettyimages.pt)
- (pl. villi) a finger-like outgrowth, as in the lining of the SMALL INTESTINE . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Although as a simple tube the length and diameter of the small intestine would have a surface area of only about 0.5m 2 , the surface complexity of the inner lining of the small intestine increase its surface area by a factor of 500 to approximately 200m 2 , or roughly the size of a tennis court. (thefullwiki.org)
Passing through the small intestine2
- The jejunum runs from the ligament of Treitz to the mid-small bowel and encompasses roughly 40% of the length of the small intestine. (jonbarron.org)
- As mentioned above, when referencing the jejunum, the small intestine is not flat internally, but is thrown into circular folds. (jonbarron.org)
- Close-up of the tongue-shaped villi of the jejunum region of the small intestine as viewed from the lumen. (gettyimages.pt)
- It is about 3 m long, and contains villi similar to the jejunum. (wikipedia.org)
Function of the Villi3
- What Is the Function of the Villi in the Small Intestine? (reference.com)
- The function of the villi is also to increase the surface area for absorption in our small intestines, thus the small intestine is covered by millions of villi which have 4 layers and extend about 1 mm into the lumen. (blogspot.com)
- Another function of the villi is to help move food through the small intestines. (reference.com)
Wall of the small intestine2
Section of the small intestine3
- The final section of the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
- The last section of the small intestine which connects to the large intestine. (sophia.org)
- This is a cross-section of the small intestine, so the lumen is the actual tube part of the intestine that food will pass through, which is the opening or the hollow part of the intestine. (sophia.org)
- Once the molecules of amino acids, glucose etc. cross the epithelium that the small intestinal villi covers, these molecules diffuse into a capillary network and into our bloodstream. (blogspot.com)
- Villus lacteals (lymph capillary) collect absorbed chylomicrons, which are lipoproteins composed of triglycerides, cholesterol and amphipathic proteins, and are taken to the rest of the body through the lymph fluid. (wikipedia.org)
- What are the 2 capillary plexuses in the small intestine? (brainscape.com)
Nutrients from food6
- Without villi, the body can't absorb vitamins and nutrients from food. (kidshealth.org)
- The villi help your body take in nutrients from food into your blood. (massgeneral.org)
- When the villi become damaged, the body is unable to absorb nutrients from food. (healthline.com)
- Called villi, they normally allow nutrients from food to be absorbed into the bloodstream. (foxnews.com)
- These fingerlike villi lie on the inside wall of the gut and are crucial in the uptake of nutrients from food by effectively increasing the absorptive surface area 30-fold. (phys.org)
- Villi, fingerlike structures on the inside wall of the gut, are crucial in the uptake of nutrients from food by effectively increasing the absorptive surface area. (phys.org)
Epithelium of the small intestine1
Increase the absorptive area1
- Protruding from the wall of the intestine are tiny, finger-like projections called villi that increase the absorptive area and the surface area of the intestinal wall. (google.com)
Absorption in the Small Intestine1
- Villi can absorb fluids, amino acids, simple sugars and other substances. (reference.com)
- The villi are important because they absorb nutrients into the body. (kidshealth.org)
- The main function of the small intestine is to absorb nutrients from our food. (sophia.org)
- If there is a flattening of the villi, those finger-like projections that absorb nutrients, the doctor or a registered dietitian will work with the patient to create a gluten-free diet. (foxnews.com)
- that line the small intestine and provide a large surface area with which to absorb nutrients. (medlineplus.gov)
- When food molecules reach your small intestine, specialized lymph capillaries, called lacteals, absorb fat nutrients. (genengnews.com)
Line the small intestine2
- If the diet consists primarily of cooked and refined carbohydrates and fats, and if no supplemental enzymes are taken with your meals, these compounds will be mostly intact when they reach the small intestine. (jonbarron.org)
- The enzymes enter the small intestine in response to the hormone cholecystokinin , which is produced in the small intestine in response to the presence of nutrients. (thefullwiki.org)
- In summation, these enzymes aid with the break down and absorption of these different nutrients as they pass through the lumen of the small intestine. (sophia.org)
- Surface enzymes present on the villi aid in the digestion of food. (reference.com)
- Each villus has a red outer layer surrounding blood vessels that carry the nutrients into the bloodstream. (sciencephoto.com)
- The villi are connected to the blood vessels so the circulating blood then carries these nutrients away. (wikipedia.org)
- Intestinal villi are specialized for the absorption of soluble food material: each contains blood vessels and a lymph vessel (see lacteal ). (encyclopedia.com)
- Because of the increased surface area provided by the villi, their thin walls and their proximity to blood vessels, they facilitate quick, efficient nutrient absorption and distribution. (reference.com)
- The intestinal villi are much smaller than any of the circular folds in the intestine. (wikipedia.org)
- The epithelium is lined with villi that project outwards from each of the many folds. (gettyimages.pt)
- Intestinal villi, with their branching projections and folds, increase the surface area for absorption tremendously. (medscape.com)
- The tiny projections that cover the surface of the folds in the small intestine. (jeopardylabs.com)
- What is the function of the large and small intestine? (answers.com)
- In the large intestine, some of the water and electrolytes (chemicals like sodium) are removed from the food. (answers.com)
- Many microbes (bacteria like Bacteroides, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella) in the large intestine help in the digestion process. (answers.com)
- In invertebrates such as worms, the terms "gastrointestinal tract" and "large intestine" are often used to describe the entire intestine . (thefullwiki.org)
- Although the small intestine is much longer than the large intestine (typically around 3 times longer), it gets its name from its comparatively smaller diameter. (thefullwiki.org)
- Yet, three-dimensional (3-D) sectioning of the intestine leads to a large dataset that produces unnecessary storage and processing overload. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- We developed a routine that extracts the relevant information from a large image stack and provides quantitative analysis of the intestine morphology. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- The other disease is Ulcerative Colitis which solely affects the large intestine and leads to sores and ulcers in the lining. (selfgrowth.com)
- Colorectal cancer affects the large intestine, leading to loss of white adipose tissue (WAT) and alterations in adipokine secretion. (mdpi.com)
- The organs of the right hypochondrial region include the liver, gall bladder, kidney, small intestine and large intestine. (reference.com)
- The liquid that breaks down large fat droplets into smaller ones so they can mix more easily with the juices from the small intestine and pancreas. (jeopardylabs.com)
- When the feces move through the large intestine too quickly and there's not enough time for water to be absorbed (too much water in the feces). (jeopardylabs.com)
- These pass through the walls of the large intestine into the bloodstream. (jeopardylabs.com)
- Is there plicae circulares in large intestine? (sporcle.com)
- The small intestine is so called because its lumen diameter is smaller than that of the large intestine, although it is longer in length than the large intestine. (medscape.com)
- The rest of the small intestine is a 4-6-m long convoluted tube occupying the center of the abdomen and the pelvis, surrounded on 2 sides and above by the colon (a part of the large intestine). (medscape.com)
- The midgut also gives rise to the proximal large intestine (up to the proximal two thirds of the transverse colon). (medscape.com)
- and small intestine and the lungs and large intestine. (scirp.org)
- The resulting inflammation causes damage to the delicate finger-like structures in the intestine, called villi, where food absorption actually takes place. (encyclopedia.com)
- finger-like structures) lining the small intestine are damaged or destroyed. (osu.edu)
- These structures stem from the intestinal wall's lining and increase the surface area of the small intestine. (reference.com)
- The principles guiding the growth of intestinal structures called villi are surprisingly similar across chickens, frogs, mice, and snakes. (phys.org)
- Their findings, published in a recent issue of Science , reveal that the principles guiding the growth of intestinal structures called villi are surprisingly similar across chickens , frogs , mice, and snakes. (phys.org)
- Previous studies into villi development only looked at the later stages of their growth, which is driven by stem cells in the structures' bases, but by pooling their expertise, the two labs postulated and confirmed that early villus growth is driven not by stem cell generation but by mechanical forces from the different muscle layers of the gut. (phys.org)
Digestion and absorption3
- The final digestion and absorption of these substances occurs in the villi, which line the inner surface of the small intestine. (answers.com)
- Enteric Avian Reoviruses (ARV), associated with malabsorption, lower weight gains and increased mortality in broiler chickens, target enterocytes on intestinal villi causing villus dysfunction and decreased digestion and absorption of nutrients. (umm.ac.id)
- Villi greatly increase the surface area for the digestion and absorption of nutrients. (gettyimages.pt)
Sections of the small intestine1
- Villus capillaries collect amino acids and simple sugars taken up by the villi into the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
- Each villus has a core of delicate areolar and reticular connective tissue supporting the epithelium, various capillaries, and often a single lymphatic lacteal that fills with milky white chyle during the digestion of a fatty meal. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A single layer of columnar epithelium containing capillaries and lymphatic vessels lines the villus. (medscape.com)
- Lacteals and blood capillaries run inside the villi and take in different food molecules. (genengnews.com)
- In this issue, we will explore the anatomy of the small intestine to give us a functional understanding of how it is constructed to do its job and also provide us with a shared vocabulary that we can subsequently use as we explore exactly how the small intestine completes digestion of food and selectively absorbs the nutrients your body needs. (jonbarron.org)
Surface area of the intestinal2
- Increased blood pressure and lymphatic pressure in the connective tissue of the villi have been suggested to be the driving forces of organ size changes ( Starck and Beese, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
- The lymphatic system also transports fatty acids from the intestines to the circulatory system. (innerbody.com)
- What is the function of bile in the small intestine? (answers.com)
- Located over the entire surface of the small intestine, the villus can be found from about the common bile duct to the ileocecal valve. (medscape.com)
- The bile salts are the "middle man" that holds the triglycerides in the watery surroundings until the lipase can break them into the smaller components that are able to enter the villi for absorption. (thefullwiki.org)
Projections covering th1
- We studied the dynamics, reversibility and repeatability of size changes of the small intestine and liver using ultrasonography. (biologists.org)
- In all feeding trials, the size of the small intestine and the liver increased rapidly after feeding. (biologists.org)
- Upregulation of small intestine and liver size was always associated with the incorporation of lipid droplets into enterocytes and hepatocytes. (biologists.org)
- Enterocytes, along with goblet cells, represent the principal cell types of the epithelium of the villi in the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
- METHODS The action of PGE 2 on carbohydrate absorption in the ex situ perfused rat small intestine and on 3- O -[ 14 C]methylglucose uptake in isolated villus tip enterocytes was determined. (bmj.com)
- High levels of EP2R mRNA and EP4R mRNA were detected in villus tip enterocytes. (bmj.com)
- 5 In addition, in the isolated perfused small intestine and in suspensions of mature enterocytes of the rat, enteroglucagon-37 (oxyntomodulin) cAMP-dependently increased glucose absorption via the SGLT1. (bmj.com)
- and enterocytes (green) that move upwards and cover the villus. (nih.gov)
Parts of the intestine1
Lumen of the intestine3
- They are positioned on the interface between the lumen of the intestine and the blood and tissues (inside the body). (getrevising.co.uk)
- Diffusion results in an equal concentration of glucose in the lumen of the intestine and the blood. (getrevising.co.uk)
- We speculate that biofilm cells adhere more strongly to the villi, so they are better able to resist being swept away by the flow in the lumen of the intestine. (eurekalert.org)