The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
An enzyme that activates glutamic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.17.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.

Genesis of variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor: role of the CTXphi array and its position in the genome. (1/202)

The gene encoding cholera toxin, the principal virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae, is encoded by a filamentous, lysogenic bacteriophage known as CTXphi. The genome of V. cholerae, the host for CTXphi, consists of two chromosomes, one large and one small. Here, it is shown that localization and array of CTX prophage DNA in either the large or small chromosome of V. cholerae is likely to be one of the reasons for the emergence of O1 biotype El Tor variants isolated just before and after the V. cholerae O139 cholera outbreak in 1992. Analyses of the organization of the CTX region of the genome of pre-O139 El Tor strains revealed that these strains carry two distinct CTX prophages integrated in the small chromosome in tandem: CTX(ET), the prophage having a conserved NotI site in its repeat sequence segment which seems to be specific for the El Tor strains so far examined, followed by CTX(calc)-like genome, the prophage found in recent O139 clinical isolates from Calcutta. In sharp contrast, in post-O139 El Tor strains only one copy of the CTX(ET) prophage was found to be integrated in the large chromosome. To the authors' knowledge, the presence of CTX prophage in the small chromosome of O1 El Tor strains has not been reported previously. It is also shown that the difference in the CTX copy number and the position of the bacteriophage on the genomes of pre- and post-O139 El Tor strains have an effect on cholera toxin production. While a pre-O139 strain produced maximum cholera toxin in yeast extract/peptone medium at 30 degrees C, a post-O139 El Tor strain showed maximal yield at 37 degrees C, indicating differential regulation of cholera toxin between the strains. It appears from this study that the variation in the integration site of the CTX prophage, its copy number and the presence of diverse phage genomes in V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor may be strategically important for generating variants with subtle phenotypic modulations of virulence factor production in this longest-ruling seventh pandemic strain.  (+info)

Survey of Vibrio cholerae O1 and its survival over the winter in marine water of Port of Osaka. (2/202)

The survey of Vibrio cholerae O1 in marine area was carried out in the Port of Osaka, Japan in 1987-2001, and 51 V. cholerae O1 strains were isolated. All strains were identified to be of El Tor biotype, Ogawa serotype and classic Ubon Kappa-phage type, and were cholera toxin (CT)-negative and CT gene-negative. In order to clarify certain ecological aspects of V. cholerae O1 in the marine environment of the temperate zone, we performed molecular analysis of the isolated strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with NotI and SfiI restriction enzymes. We found the indistinguishable strains by DNA analysis using PFGE with strains passed for 1 year, and also found the closely related strains with that passed for 3 and 12 years. Those results indicated that V. cholerae O1 can survive over one winter at least, and that it survives in marine water for a long time by undergoing continuous mutation.  (+info)

Molecular subtyping of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in Hong Kong: correlation with epidemiological events from 1994 to 2002. (3/202)

Two hundred twenty isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 collected from 1994 to 2002 in Hong Kong were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Chromosomal DNAs from all V. cholerae isolates in agarose plugs were digested with the restriction enzyme NotI, resulting in 20 to 27 bands. Sixty distinctive PFGE patterns in the range of 10 to 300 kb were noted among 213 isolates typeable by PFGE. By comparing the common PFGE patterns obtained from four well-defined outbreaks of V. cholerae O1 and O139 with those obtained from other, epidemiologically unrelated isolates during the study period, indistinguishable and similar PFGE patterns were identified, indicating their close relatedness, in agreement with the results of epidemiological investigations. Heterogeneous PFGE patterns (with four to six banding differences), however, were identified among strains that were imported from other parts of Asia, including Indonesia, India, and Pakistan. Correlations with epidemiological information further support the usefulness of PFGE as an epidemiological tool in laboratory investigations of suspected outbreaks. Standardization of PFGE methodology will allow international comparison of fingerprint patterns and will form the basis of a laboratory network for tracking V. cholerae.  (+info)

Growth of Vibrio cholerae O1 in red tide waters off California. (4/202)

Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 is autochthonous to estuarine and coastal waters. However, its population dynamics in such environments are not well understood. We tested the proliferation of V. cholerae N16961 during a Lingulodinium polyedrum bloom, as well as other seawater conditions. Microcosms containing 100-kDa-filtered seawater were inoculated with V. cholerae or the 0.6- micro m-pore-size filterable fraction of seawater assemblages. These cultures were diluted 10-fold with fresh 100-kDa-filtered seawater every 48 h for four cycles. Growth rates ranged from 0.3 to 14.3 day(-1) (4.2 day(-1) +/- 3.9) for V. cholerae and 0.1 to 9.7 day(-1) (2.2 +/- 2.8 day(-1)) for bacterial assemblage. Our results suggest that dissolved organic matter during intense phytoplankton blooms has the potential to support explosive growth of V. cholerae in seawater. Under the conditions tested, free-living V. cholerae was able to reach concentrations per milliliter that were up to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the known minimum infectious dose (10(4) cell ml(-1)) and remained viable under many conditions. If applicable to the complex conditions in marine ecosystems, our results suggest an important role of the growth of free-living V. cholerae in disease propagation and prevention during phytoplankton blooms.  (+info)

Acute dehydrating disease caused by Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 induce increases in innate cells and inflammatory mediators at the mucosal surface of the gut. (5/202)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The general concept is that as Vibrio cholerae is not invasive, it mediates a non-inflammatory type of infection. This is being re-evaluated based on available data that natural cholera infection or cholera toxin induces a Th2-type of immune profile and stimulates the humoral immune response, innate cells, and mediators in the host. METHODS: To perform a comprehensive analyses of the inflammatory components, we studied mucosal biopsies from patients, both adults and children with acute watery diarrhoea caused by V cholerae O1 and O139. Patients with cholera, adults (n = 30) and children (n = 18), as well as healthy controls (n = 24) were studied. Histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies were carried out to elucidate the contribution of the different factors using paraffin and frozen duodenal and/or rectal sections as appropriate. Samples were collected during the acute stage and during early and/or late convalescence. RESULTS: Following natural cholera infection, patients responded with increases in neutrophil polymorphs during the acute stage (p<0.001) compared with healthy controls whereas mucosal mast cells (MMC) (p = 0.008) and eosinophils (p = 0.034) increased in the gut during convalescence. Electron microscopic analyses of duodenal biopsies from adult patients showed increased piecemeal degranulation in both MMC and eosinophils and accumulation of lipid bodies in MMC. Duodenal biopsies from V cholerae O1 infected patients showed upregulation of myeloperoxidase, lactoferrin, PGHS-1, SCF, tryptase, tumour necrosis factor alpha, alpha-defensin, and eotaxin during the acute stage and chymase, interleukin 3 and major basic protein during convalescence. CONCLUSION: We have shown that innate cells and their mediators are upregulated in acute watery diarrhoea. These cells and factors of the innate arm may be important in the host's defence against cholera. Such effects may need to be simulated in a vaccine to achieve long lasting protection from cholera.  (+info)

VpsT is a transcriptional regulator required for expression of vps biosynthesis genes and the development of rugose colonial morphology in Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor. (6/202)

Vibrio cholerae switches between smooth and rugose colonial variants. The rugose variant produces more vibrio polysaccharides (VPS(El Tor)) and forms well-developed biofilms. Both phenotypes depend on expression of vps biosynthesis genes. We identified a positive transcriptional regulator of vps gene expression, VpsT, which is homologous to response regulators of two-component regulatory systems. Disruption of vpsT in the rugose variant yields smooth colonies, prevents formation of mature biofilms, and decreases vps gene expression. The interaction between VpsT and VpsR, a previously identified positive regulator of vps genes, was also investigated.  (+info)

Detection of antibodies to toxin-coregulated pili in sera from cholera patients. (7/202)

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared against toxin-coregulated pili (TCP) isolated from Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor. Despite their limited bactericidal potential, two MAbs were able to mediate biotype-specific protection against experimental cholera in infant mice. These MAbs were used in immunoblotting studies to assess seroconversion to El Tor TCP following cholera. Clear anti-pilus responses were observed in five of nine patients.  (+info)

Incomplete correlation of serum vibriocidal antibody titer with protection from Vibrio cholerae infection in urban Bangladesh. (8/202)

The serum vibriocidal antibody is the only recognized predictor of protection from cholera, but no seroepidemiological data have been gathered since the emergence of Vibrio cholerae O139. We assessed the association between the vibriocidal antibody titer and protection from cholera in an endemic setting. Although a higher baseline vibriocidal titer correlated with protection from V. cholerae O1, infection still developed in some contacts with very high titers. No association between baseline vibriocidal titer and protection from V. cholerae O139 infection was found. Our findings suggest that the vibriocidal antibody is an incomplete predictor of protection from V. cholerae infection.  (+info)

Cobaxin,M. Martinez,H. Ayala,G. Holmgren,J. Sjoling,A. Sanchez,J. 2014. Cholera toxin expression by El Tor Vibrio cholerae in shallow culture growth conditions Microbial Pathogenesis, 66, 5-13 * ...
هدف: عامل کلونیزاسیون پیلی tcpAو توکسین کلرا مهم‌ترین عوامل بیماری‌زایی ویبریو کلرا هستند و توانایی تحریک سیستم ایمنی را دارند. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی بیوانفورماتیکی، بیان پروتئین کایمر نوترکیب CTXB-TCPA در باکتری اشریشیا کلی و تولید آنتی‌بادی علیه آن در موش بود. مواد و روش‌ها: کاست ژنی دربردارنده ژن‌های ctxB، tcpAو فاصله‌انداز با روش‌ بیوانفورماتیکی طراحی شد. شاخصه‌هایی از قبیل ساختار پروتئین کایمر و اپی توپ‌ها بررسی شد. برای ساخت کاست ژنی، ژن‌های ctxBو tcpAتکثیر و در ناقل pET28a همسانه‌سازی شدند. بیان ژن‌های ctxB-tcpAدر pET28a(+) تحت القای IPTG انجام شد. پروتئین نوترکیب CTXB
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A toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), that is important for intestinal colonization of Vibrio cholerae O1, may be produced by vibrios of both classical and EI Tor biotypes. By comparing TCP produced by various strains of the two biotypes in immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) us …
Vibrio cholerae O139 has recently emerged as the second etiologic agent of cholera in Asia. A study was carried out to evaluate the induction of specific immune responses to the organism in V. cholerae O139-infected patients. The immune responses to V. cholerae O139 Bengal were studied in patients by measuring antibody-secreting cells (ASC), as well as vibriocidal and antitoxic antibodies in the circulation. These responses were compared with those in patients with V. cholerae O1 disease. Strong immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM ASC responses were seen against the homologous lipopolysaccharide or serogroup of V. cholerae. The magnitude and isotype of the responses were similar in O139- and O1-infected patients. Vibriocidal antibody responses were seen against bacteria of the homologous but not heterologous serogroup, and these responses reflect the lack of cross-protection between the infections caused by the two serogroups. The two groups of patients showed comparable cholera toxin-specific ASC ...
Fluoroquinolones, which display potent antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, have been used in the clinical treatment of cholera (13). However, increased therapeutic use of fluoroquinolones has resulted in the appearance of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of V. cholerae O1 and O139 in clinical isolates from around the world (3, 9, 10).. In addition to V. cholerae O1 and O139, many other bacterial species have developed clinical resistance to fluoroquinolones. The molecular basis of this antibiotic resistance has been studied extensively (2). Most of the acquired resistance can be attributed to mutations in the genes encoding DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV (Topo IV). Bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones can also be conferred by increased expression of multidrug efflux pumps or reduced expression of outer membrane proteins, such as porins, resulting in reduced intracellular concentrations of antibiotics (5). DNA gyrase consists of GyrA and GyrB subunits, encoded by the ...
Epidemic cholera is caused byVibrio cholerae serogroup O1 and a single other serogroup,V. cholerae O139, which emerged in 1992. V. cholerae O1 comprises two distinct biotypes, classical and El Tor, which differ in several biochemical traits. Data from many investigators suggests that V. cholerae O139 is likely to have derived from a V. cholerae O1 El Tor organism which underwent a recombinational event resulting in the substitution of the cluster of genes encoding the O139 serogroup antigen for the cluster of genes encoding the O1 serogroup antigen (1, 2, 4, 5,11-13). In addition to changes in the cell surface structure ofV. cholerae O139, two potentially mobile genetic elements have been found in this organism that are not present inV. cholerae O1 of the El Tor biotype. Waldor et al. (14) have described the presence in V. cholerae O139 of a conjugative transposon-like transmissible element that mediates resistance to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin. A κ-type vibriophage is ...
An epidemiological study of Vibrio cholerae O1 in the Australian environment based on rRNA gene polymorphisms - Volume 115 Issue 3 - P. M. Desmarchelier, F. Y. K. Wong, K. Mallard
Thirty single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used to track the spread of the seventh pandemic caused by Vibrio cholerae. Isolates from the 1991 epidemic in Latin America shared a profile with 1970s isolates from Africa, suggesting a possible origin in Africa. Data also showed that the observed genotypes spread easily and widely.
In this study we have been able to demonstrate that innate cells are activated and mediators are upregulated at the mucosal surface following natural infection with V cholerae O1 and O139.. The location of mast cells at the mucosa and their ability to release potent mediators indicate that these cells play an important role in the host defence against bacterial infection.23 Mucosal mast cells are known to be activated by binding of IL-3 and SCF which may be produced from T cells and epithelial cells, among others, in the gut.24 The presence of both IL-3 and SCF in duodenal sections from adult cholera patients suggests their role in activation of MMC and release of Th2 type cytokines IL-4 and IL-5. In our study we could not detect an increase in IL-4 or IL-5 at the mucosal surface. However, physiological amounts may be enough to have significant effects on cells in the mucosa.24 It is believed that mast cells serve as a source of IL-4, which is an early response cytokine that activates T helper ...
Summary The serum IgG response of human volunteers challenged with Vibrio cholerae O1 was analysed for reactivity to V. cholerae O1 outer-membrane antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the immunoblot technique. Purified outer-membrane antigen preparations from vibrios grown in low-iron conditions were separated by SDS-PAGE. Specific immunoblot reactions of human sera showed that an 18-kDa antigen, cholera protective antigen, was the major antigen with which sera reacted. ELISA revealed an increase in antibody to the 18-kDa antigen in nine of 10 challenged volunteers. This response was independent of the biotype and serotype of the V. cholerae O1 challenge strain. Cholera protective antigen appears to be one of the major outer-membrane antigens involved in the human immune response to infection with V. cholerae.
Background Cholera outbreaks have occurred in Tanzania since 1974. To date, the genetic epidemiology of these outbreaks has not been assessed.
The crystal structure of the murine Fab S-20-4 from a protective anti-cholera Ab specific for the lipopolysaccharide Ag of the Ogawa serotype has been determined in its unliganded form and in complex with synthetic fragments of the Ogawa O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP). The upstream terminal O-SP monosaccharide is shown to be the primary antigenic determinant. Additional perosamine residues protrude outwards from the Ab surface and contribute only marginally to the binding affinity and specificity. A complementary water-excluding hydrophobic interface and five Ab-Ag hydrogen bonds are crucial for carbohydrate recognition. The structure reported here explains the serotype specificity of anti-Ogawa Abs and provides a rational basis toward the development of a synthetic carbohydrate-based anti-cholera vaccine.
Weekly cases of selected notifiable diseases ( ≥ 1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and selected low frequency diseases, United States and U.S. territories, week ending December 29, 2018 (WEEK 52). TABLE 2r, Vibriosis (any species of the family Vibrionaceae, other than toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139 ...
Weekly cases of selected notifiable diseases ( ≥ 1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and selected low frequency diseases, United States and U.S. territories, week ending September 8, 2018 (WEEK 36). TABLE 2r, Vibriosis (any species of the family Vibrionaceae, other than toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139 ...
1F4W: Crystal structure of an anti-carbohydrate antibody directed against Vibrio cholerae O1 in complex with antigen: molecular basis for serotype specificity.
1F4X: Crystal structure of an anti-carbohydrate antibody directed against Vibrio cholerae O1 in complex with antigen: molecular basis for serotype specificity.
2-Oxocarboxylic acids, also called 2-oxo acids and alpha-keto acids, are the most elementary set of metabolites that includes pyruvate (2-oxopropanoate), 2-oxobutanoate, oxaloacetate (2-oxosuccinate) and 2-oxoglutarate. This diagram illustrates the architecture of chain extension and modification reaction modules for 2-oxocarboxylic acids. The chain extension module RM001 is a tricarboxylic pathway where acetyl-CoA derived carbon is used to extend the chain length by one. The chain modification modules RM002 (including RM032) and RM033, together with a reductive amination step (RC00006 or RC00036), generate basic and branched-chain amino acids, respectively. The modification module RM030 is used in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, a class of plant secondary metabolites, for conversion to oxime followed by addition of thio-glucose moiety. Furthermore, the chain extension from 2-oxoadipate to 2-oxosuberate is followed by coenzyme B biosynthesis in methonogenic archaea ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Vibrio cholerae O1 Serovar Inaba antibody (ab79793) : Vibro cholerae Agglutination Protocol
On 13 November, WHO reported 4 additional cases of cholera in Mexico. Since the beginning of the outbreak in September 2013, Mexico has reported 180 confirmed cases of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O:1 Ogawa, including one death.. ...
On 13 November, WHO reported 4 additional cases of cholera in Mexico. Since the beginning of the outbreak in September 2013, Mexico has reported 180 confirmed cases of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O:1 Ogawa, including one death.. ...
Transduction with TLC-Knϕ1 phage cures cell filamentation of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains which have likely defects in resolution of chromosome dimers. Panels a
Attridge, Stephen R. et al Sensitive Microplate Assay for Detection of Bactericidal Antibodies to Vibrio cholerae O139. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 9.2 (2002): 383-387. Web. 15 Aug. 2020. ...
In the present study, using biochemical and genetic approaches, we have investigated the stability, localization, and protein-protein interaction of TcpT with respect to the TCP biogenesis apparatus components. We present evidence for IM localization of TcpT in WT V. cholerae. The fact that TcpT localizes to the IM in WT V. cholerae is consistent with previously reported IM localization of the cognate ATPases of other Tfp and T2SS complexes (4, 8, 32, 34, 40). We used a collection of in-frame tcp single-gene deletion mutants to investigate the requirement of the corresponding TCP components in tethering TcpT to the IM and found that TcpR was necessary for TcpT association with the IM. TcpR is a predicted bitopic IM protein that is a GspL homolog (33). Our results add to a common theme emerging from various studies showing IM localization of the cognate ATPase by a bitopic IM protein, GspL, of the IM platform of a T2SS or a Tfp (4, 8, 32, 35, 40).. In this study, we have demonstrated interaction ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Fig. 1 Chr1 and Chr2 replication coordination is promoted by the presence of a timer on Chr1 and not by the requirement to terminate their replication synchronously.. (A) Top: Genome structure of wild-type (WT) V. cholerae. Ovals indicate the origins of replication (ori1 and ori2) and triangles show dif sites (dif1 and dif2) on Chr1 (green) and Chr2 (red). Bottom: MFA of exponentially growing WT cultures using a corrected reference sequence of Chr1 (fig. S1). Log2 of number of reads starting at each base (normalized against reads from a stationary phase WT control) is plotted against their relative position on Chr1 and Chr2. Positions of ori1 and ori2 are set to 0 for a better visualization of the bidirectional replication. Any window containing repeated sequences is omitted; thus, the large gap observed in the right arm of Chr2 consists of filtered repeated sequences within the superintegron (28). Green (Chr1) and red (Chr2) dots indicate the average of 1000-bp windows; black dots indicate the ...
The Talk star Carrie Ann Inaba spoke out following her return to the CBS show on Monday. The Talk had been put on hiatus for a month
P-124 濾胞樹状細胞腫瘍の一例(リンパ・血液,一般演題・示説,第47回日本臨床細胞学会総会(春期大会)) (2006 ...
Three freshwater lakes, Lisi Lake, Kumisi Lake and Tbilisi Sea, near Tbilisi, Georgia, were studied from January 2006 to December 2007 to determine the presence of Vibrio cholerae employing both bacteriological culture method and direct detection methods, namely PCR and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA). For PCR, DNA extracted from water samples was tested for presence of V. cholerae and genes coding for selected virulence factors. Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 was routinely isolated by culture from all three lakes; whereas V. cholerae O1 and O139 were not. Water samples collected during the summer months from Lisi Lake and Kumisi Lake were positive for both V. cholerae and V. cholerae ctxA, tcpA, zot, ompU and toxR by PCR. Water samples collected during the same period from both Lisi and Kumisi Lake were also positive for V. cholerae serogroup O1 by DFA. All of the samples were negative for V. cholerae serotype O139. The results of this study provide evidence for an environmental presence of ...
Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1, Serotype Ogawa, Biotype El Tor Strain -- La Huasteca Region, Mexico, 2013. Díaz-Quiñonez, Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; Montes-Colima, Norma; Moreno-Pérez, Asunción; Galicia Nicolás, Adriana; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Carmona Ramos, Concepción; Sánchez-Mendoza, Miroslava; Cruz Rodríguez-Martínez, José; Suárez-Idueta, Lorena; Eugenia Jiménez-Corona, María; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo // MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report;6/27/2014, Vol. 63 Issue 25, p552 The article reports on the outbreak of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor strain in the La Huasteca region in Mexico in September 2013. Topics discussed include the identification of two cases of cholera in Mexico City by Mexicos National System of... ...
V. cholerae and many related Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to become nonculturable under specific experimental conditions, although the time required for these cells to become nonculturable is variable (8, 9, 19-21). In this study, V. cholerae O1 cells in all microcosms became nonculturable on TCBS agar within 10-15 days, as has been reported by other investigators (19-21). V. cholerae O1 in biofilms collected from MW and in the biofilm in clinical specimens, when suspended in autoclaved MW that had tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by both culture and DFA, became nonculturable within 15 days. Conversely, MW-RT and MW-4C microcosms inoculated with freshly grown V. cholerae O1 showed culturability on TTGA and LA for 40 and 68 days, respectively. Miller et al. (22) suggested that toxigenic V. cholerae O1 could remain culturable for longer periods at a salinity of 0.25-3.0%, a pH of 8.0, and 25°C. The temperature, pH, and salinity of MW used in the studies reported here were not very ...
Diversity, relatedness, and ecological interactions of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 populations in two distinctive habitats, the human intestine and the aquatic environment, were analyzed. Twenty environmental isolates and 42 clinical isolates were selected for study by matching serotype, geographic location of isolation in Bangladesh, and season of isolation. Genetic profiling was done by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-PCR, optimized for profiling by using the fully sequenced V. cholerae El Tor N16961 genome. Five significant clonal clusters of haplotypes were found from 57 electrophoretic types. Isolates from different areas or habitats intermingled in two of the five significant clusters. Frequencies of haplotypes differed significantly only between the environmental populations (exact test; P , 0.05). Analysis of molecular variance yielded a population genetic structure reflecting the differentiating effects of geographic area, habitat, and sampling time. Although a ...
Background Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 has two major serotypes, Ogawa and Inaba, which may alternate among cholera epidemics. The rfbTgene is responsible for the conversion between the two...
Innate immune responses to V. cholerae infection have not been intensely studied in part due to the absence of a murine model for pathogenesis. The suckling mouse model has proven useful for the study of bacterial colonization and regulation of virulence factors (37). However, these 5-6-d-old mice do not have immune systems sufficiently developed for study of immunomodulation. Adult germ-free mouse models have been useful for evaluation of immunogenic potential of oral V. cholerae vaccine strains even though colonization may not occur (38), yet neither of these models is applicable for study of acute inflammatory responses. In this study, we report the use of a novel mouse model conceptually adapted from the studies of S. flexneri (30-32) and technically based on previous studies with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (39). We have demonstrated that V. cholerae can infect the lung of BALB/c mice leading to the development of inflammation.. The identity of the reactogenicity factor of V. cholerae vaccine ...
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Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA) of DNA using φ29 (phi29) DNA polymerase amplifies DNA several billion-fold, which has proved to be potentially very useful for evaluating genome information in a culture-independent manner. Whole genome sequencing using DNA from a single prokaryotic genome copy amplified by MDA has not yet been achieved due to the formation of chimeras and skewed amplification of genomic regions during the MDA step, which then precludes genome assembly. We have hereby addressed the issue by using 10 ng of genomic Vibrio cholerae DNA extracted within an agarose plug to ensure circularity as a starting point for MDA and then sequencing the amplified yield using the SOLiD platform. We successfully managed to assemble the entire genome of V. cholerae strain LMA3984-4 (environmental O1 strain isolated in urban Amazonia) using a hybrid de novo assembly strategy. Using our method, only 178 out of 16,713 (1%) of contigs were not able to be inserted into either chromosome ...
In this dissertation, I present an examination of the role of two biotic interactions in the population dynamics of Vibrio cholerae. Traits with a genetic basis such as size, physiological processes, stress tolerance, and even behavior, are key factors in competition among individuals. The allocation of resources to these traits can influence the performance of a strain under a given set of conditions. In Chapter Two, I explore the competitive abilities of one strain of O1 El Tor biotype and two strains of O1 classical biotype, under carbon-limiting conditions. Although I only examined competition under very simple conditions, the ability to turn a limited resource into growth more quickly or more efficiently can affect the dominance of a particular biotype in the presence of such factors (Northrup et al. 1972, Faruque et al. 2005). Determining what factors lead to the dominance of one V. cholerae strain over another could be important because of the range in virulence between strains. In ...
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
We present the draft genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae InDRE 3140 recovered in 2013 during a cholera outbreak in Mexico. The genome showed the Vibrio 7th pandemic islands VSP1 and VSP2, the pathogenic islands VPI-1 and VPI-2, the integrative and conjugative element SXT/R391 (ICE-SXT), and both prophages CTXφ and RS1φ. ...
Chitin concentrations greater than 0.04% (wt/wt) protected cholera vibrios against killing at low temperature. This protective effect was detected with both the soluble form of chitin, glycol chitin, and the insoluble particulate form of chitin. Some amino acids or peptides also showed the same protective effect. ...
Chitin concentrations greater than 0.04% (wt/wt) protected cholera vibrios against killing at low temperature. This protective effect was detected with both the soluble form of chitin, glycol chitin, and the insoluble particulate form of chitin. Some amino acids or peptides also showed the same protective effect. ...
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General Information: Vibrio cholerae O395 is a classical O1 serotype strain of the Ogawa biotype. This genus is abundant in marine or freshwater environments such as estuaries, brackish ponds, or coastal areas; regions that provide an important reservoir for the organism in between outbreaks of the disease. Vibrio can affect shellfish, finfish, and other marine animals and a number of species are pathogenic for humans. Vibrio cholerae can colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestines of humans where it will cause cholera, a severe and sudden onset diarrheal disease. One famous outbreak was traced to a contaminated well in London in 1854 by John Snow, and epidemics, which can occur with extreme rapidity, are often associated with conditions of poor sanitation. The disease has a high lethality if left untreated, and millions have died over the centuries. There have been seven major pandemics between 1817 and today. Six were attributed to the classical biotype, while the 7th, which started ...
General Information: Vibrio cholerae O395 is a classical O1 serotype strain of the Ogawa biotype. This genus is abundant in marine or freshwater environments such as estuaries, brackish ponds, or coastal areas; regions that provide an important reservoir for the organism in between outbreaks of the disease. Vibrio can affect shellfish, finfish, and other marine animals and a number of species are pathogenic for humans. Vibrio cholerae can colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestines of humans where it will cause cholera, a severe and sudden onset diarrheal disease. One famous outbreak was traced to a contaminated well in London in 1854 by John Snow, and epidemics, which can occur with extreme rapidity, are often associated with conditions of poor sanitation. The disease has a high lethality if left untreated, and millions have died over the centuries. There have been seven major pandemics between 1817 and today. Six were attributed to the classical biotype, while the 7th, which started ...
Many mathematical models have been made from the cholera outbreak in Haiti, but our model is unique because it incorporated empirical data on the isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 from surface waters in the Ouest Department of Haiti. We noticed that while the weekly reported cases seemed to be declining in the third and fourth years of the outbreak, the frequency of isolation of toxigenic V. cholerae in the environment was actually increasing. Under the current dogma of cholera transmission models, V. cholerae shed by humans into the environment only exists in a transient state governed by a constant rate of decay. The assumption is that although V. cholerae is an aquatic pathogen, it lacks the ability to replicate and survive for prolonged periods in surface waters. Given our understanding of V. cholerae biology, this is likely an oversimplification which precluded the possibility for an increase in environmental concentrations during a period where cholera incidence was infrequent or declining, ...
Looking for medication to treat infection+due+to+the+bacteria+vibrio+cholerae? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or reduce the symptoms of infection+due+to+the+bacteria+vibrio+cholerae
The Ministry of Health in Mexico has reported an additional four cases of infection with Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa. Of these, two are from the state of Hidalgo and two from the state of Veracruz.
The death toll from a cholera outbreak in Haiti has risen to more than 150 confirmed deaths, according to health officials with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and the U.S. Agency for International Development.
As death toll from Hurricane Matthew reaches 1,000 with almost 800 people missing, aid agencies warn that Haiti may be struck by fresh cholera outbreak
While the United Nations warned that protests were hampering efforts to save lives in the Haiti cholera outbreak, a leading non-profit group lashed out at organizations for what it called an inadequate response.
The conflict in Mali could turn a cholera outbreak that has already killed 60 people in the Sahel this year into a serious regional epidemic, the UN childrens agency said Tuesday.
The preparedness of the health cluster to respond to cholera outbreak; effective partner coordination, and swift activation of the emergency operation centre, efficient case management and surveillance were the strong points that helped disrupt transmission and reduce mortality by about one per cent, he said. ...
The humanitarian group said 10,000 people have been affected by the fast-spreading cholera outbreak and 175 people have died in some northeast states as of early November 2018
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) measures the physical association between a protein and DNA in the cell. In combination with next-generation sequencing, the technique enables the identification of DNA targets for the corresponding protein across an entire genome. Here we describe the immunoprecipitation of Vibrio cholerae DNA bound to the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) tagged with the Flag epitope. The quality of the DNA obtained in this protocol is suitable for next-generation sequencing. The procedure described herein can be readily adapted to other bacteria and DNA-binding proteins. ...
The type 6 secretion system (T6SS) is a nanomachine used by many Gram-negative bacteria, including |i|Vibrio cholerae|/i|, to deliver toxic effector proteins into adjacent eukaryotic and bacterial cells. Because the activity of the T6SS is dependent on direct contact between cells, its activity is l …
Mohammad Murshid Alam, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan and Firdausi Qadri-Short Communication on: Study of Avidity of Antigen-Specific Antibody as a Means of Understanding Development of Long-Term Immunological Memory after Vibrio cholerae O1 Infection
Alternative names: dysentery (though dysentery is actually a different condition, the two are often confused). Type of infection: bacterial. Incubation period: 12 hours to 5 days. Mortality rate: up to 50% when untreated. Vector: contaminated water. History The earliest reports of cholera-like symptoms are from India, about 1000 years ago, but there have been notable outbreaks around the world right up into current times. During an outbreak in England in 1854, contaminated water was discovered to be the root of the epidemic. That discovery led to the decline of the disease as citys began to improve their drinking water systems with more sanitary conditions. Catching Cholera Drinking unclean water that has been contaminated with cholera bacteria is the typical usual route for getting sick, though eating food that has been exposed to dirty water will also do it. It is not transferred from person to person in any way. Signs and Symptoms Severe diarrhea and vomiting are the main symptoms of ...
As the cholera epidemic in Haiti rages on, the local population struggles not only to gain access to clean water, but also to learn about how to prevent a
CIDRAP News) The first cases in Haitis cholera outbreak were confirmed nearly a year ago, and public health lessons from the experience and scientific clues about the Vibrio cholerae strain continue to emerge, including new details from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and its research partners. ...
Only in recent years has it been revealed that V. cholerae is a normal inhabitant of esturine and riverine waters. This means that even if the disease can be...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
电穿孔是用于将DNA导入细菌中称为转化的过程中通常采用的方法。为电感受态细胞的制备传统的协议是耗时且劳动密集型的。本文介绍了一种替代,快速,并为电感受态细胞通过一些实验室目前使用的高效制备方法。...
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UN officials have not processed claims of wrongdoing in Haiti, nor have they done so in any of the nations in which theyve launched peacekeeping missions.
weather El Tor - Egypt - WeatherOnline. Weather forecast up to 14 days including temperature, weather condition and precipitation and much more.
Dive into the research topics where Chikako Ogawa is active. These topic labels come from the works of this person. Together they form a unique fingerprint ...
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"NTPase [Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar El Tor str. N16961]". National Center for Biotechnology Information. pTarget Archived 2009-06 ... The DUF84 region is found in the genome of a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae. The region consists of approximately 183 amino ... V. cholorae causes cholera and stomach flu in humans. The DUF84 region alone is about 160 amino acid residues. It is the only ...
"The protective activity of tea catechins against experimental infection by Vibrio cholerae O1". Microbiology and Immunology. 36 ...
"Evolutionary Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae O1 following a Single-Source Introduction to Haiti". mBio. 4 (4): e00398-13. doi: ... Cholera is a diarrheal disease that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. V. cholerae has been a popular bacterium for ... cholerae revealed that there was one single point source of the cholera outbreak in Haiti and it was similar to O1 strains ... This outbreak strain of cholera in Haiti showed signs of an altered or hybrid strain of V. cholerae associated with high ...
"Clonal Origins of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Strains, Papua New Guinea, 2009-2011". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17 (11): 2063- ... This is the first confirmed cholera outbreak since the 1960s and PNG officials fear it will further burden their struggling ... In 2009, the World Health Organization reported cholera cases in the village of Situm. In Morobe Province settlements of East ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Cholera outbreak kills 11 in PNG". The Age. September 7, 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2014 ...
eds.). Cholera, Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, and Other Pathogenic Vibrios in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of ... Vibrio cholerae (cholera) Clostridium difficile (pseudomembranous enterocolitis) Shigella (shigellosis / bacillary dysentery) ... Diseases caused by fecal-oral transmission include diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, polio and hepatitis. Although fecal-oral ... Salmonella typhii (typhoid fever) Vibrio parahaemolyticus Escherichia coli Campylobacter Hepatitis A Hepatitis E Enteroviruses ...
In Vibrio cholerae T6SS studies, it has been observed that serotype O37 has high vas gene expression. Serotypes O139 and O1 on ... The T6SS of Vibrio cholerae has a dual role, being able to target both bacterial and eukaryotic cells. At least one substrate ... In Vibrio cholerae, autoinducer-1 (AI-1) signals are detected by LuxQ, a sensor kinase. LuxQ activates LuxU, which then acts on ... While often reported that the T6SS was discovered in 2006 by researchers studying the causative agent of cholera, Vibrio ...
... of N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate deacetylase with activity against N-acetylglucosamine from Vibrio cholerae non-O1". ...
Outer Membrane Protein OmpW Is the Receptor for Typing Phage VP5 in the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Biotype. J Virol. Ziebell K, ... Turbadkar SD, Ghadge DP, Patil S, Chowdhary AS, Bharadwaj R (April 2007). "Circulating phage type of Vibrio cholerae in Mumbai ...
Vibrio cholerae, the species of bacteria that causes cholera, has over 200 serotypes, based on cell antigens. Only two of them ... have been observed to produce the potent enterotoxin that results in cholera: O1 and O139. Serotypes were discovered by the ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 has 33 proteins with GGDEF domains, Escherichia coli K-12 has 19, and Vibrio cholerae O1 has 41. In ...
Rasheduzzaman; Desai, Ishaan (2014-02-06). "Evaluation in Mice of a Conjugate Vaccine for Cholera Made from Vibrio cholerae O1 ... to the O-Specific Polysaccharide and Lipopolysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Bangladeshi Adult Patients with Cholera". ... "Memory B Cell Responses to Vibrio cholerae O1 Lipopolysaccharide Are Associated with Protection against Infection from ... "Memory B Cell Responses to Vibrio cholerae O1 Lipopolysaccharide Are Associated with Protection against Infection from ...
N-acetyl-perosamine is found in the O-antigen of Gram-negative bacteria such as Vibrio cholerae O1, E. coli O157:H7 and ... "Expression and identification of the RfbE protein from Vibrio cholerae O1 and its use for the enzymatic synthesis of GDP-D- ...
1998). "Molecular Evidence that a Distinct Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotype El Tor Strain in Calcutta May Have Spread to the African ... El Tor is a particular strain of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. Also known as V. cholera ... He did not think it was cholera, since it was hemolytic for human and animal red cells, while the true Vibrio cholera is not. ... Jude, B.A.; Kirn, T.J.; & Taylor, R.K. (2005). "A colonization factor links vibrio cholerae environmental survival and human ...
Non-O139 Vibrio Cholerae Isolate from China". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 16 (8): 1125-1129. doi:10.1111/j.1469- ... Sun, J (1 Aug 2010). "Original Article: Characterization of Two Novel Gene Cassettes, Dfra27 and Aada16, in a Non-O1, ... Rapa RA, Labbate M (2013). "The function of integron-associated gene cassettes in Vibrio species: the tip of the iceberg". ...
... of polymerase chain reaction-generated amplicons to identify three types of cholera toxin subunit B in Vibrio cholerae O1 ...
Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 was said to be present in the river due to migrating salmon which had consumed crustacean ... A sacred river blessing was conducted by a travelling witch doctor at the River Severn after rumours of a cholera risk. ...
... which specifically targets Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, has acquired a CRISPR/Cas system that targets a V. cholera PICI-like ...
Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcal enteritis Streptococcus Vibrio cholerae, including O1 and non-O1 Vibrio parahaemolyticus ... Vibrio cholerae, and Yersinia. For example, as of 1984 it was estimated that in the United States, 200,000 people were ... certain species of Pseudomonas and Vibrio, and some other bacteria, produce the lethal tetrodotoxin, which is present in the ... Vibrio vulnificus Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Less common bacterial agents:[citation needed] ...
Vibrio cholerae MeSH B03.440.450.900.859.225.075 - Vibrio cholerae non-O1 MeSH B03.440.450.900.859.225.151 - Vibrio cholerae O1 ... Vibrio cholerae MeSH B03.660.250.830.830.100.075 - Vibrio cholerae non-O1 MeSH B03.660.250.830.830.100.151 - Vibrio cholerae O1 ... Vibrio cholerae O139 MeSH B03.440.450.900.859.300 - Vibrio fischeri MeSH B03.440.450.900.859.500 - Vibrio mimicus MeSH B03.440. ... Vibrio cholerae O139 MeSH B03.660.250.830.830.250 - Vibrio fischeri MeSH B03.660.250.830.830.500 - Vibrio mimicus MeSH B03.660. ...
eds.). Cholera, Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, and Other Pathogenic Vibrios. In: Barron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of ... "Genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a pathogenic mechanism distinct from that of V. cholerae". The Lancet. 361 (9359): ... Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a curved, rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium found in brackish saltwater, which, when ingested, ... Like other members of the genus Vibrio, this species is motile, with a single, polar flagellum. While infection can occur by ...
NCBI: Vibrio cholerae O1 (serogroup) NCBI: Vibrio cholerae O139 (serogroup) Harris, Jason B.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Qadri, ... Copepods and cholera in untreated water Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961 Genome Page [hmepage] Type strain of Vibrio cholerae at ... Two serogroups of V. cholerae, O1 and O139, cause outbreaks of cholera. O1 causes the majority of outbreaks, while O139 - first ... Biology portal Drinking water Haiti cholera outbreak Cholera vaccine "Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Vibrio cholerae ...
Finkelstein R (1996). "Cholera, Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, and Other Pathogenic Vibrios". Medical microbiology. University of ... If an epidemic of cholera is suspected, the most common causative agent is V. cholerae O1. If V. cholerae serogroup O1 is not ... Society and Politics in the Cholera Years, 1830-1910. London 1987 "Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection , Cholera , CDC". www. ... In 2017, an outbreak of cholera was declared in Zambia after laboratory confirmation of Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, ...
... heat-killed whole cells of Vibrio cholerae O1 and a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit, was licensed in 1991, mainly for ... cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139. mORCVAX is only available in Vietnam. Bacterial strains of both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes and ... cholerae O1 plus additional recombinant cholera toxin B subunit. BivWC (marketed as "Shanchol" and "mORCVAX") is a bivalent ... cholerae O1. The anti-toxin intestinal antibodies prevent the cholera toxin from binding to the intestinal mucosal surface, ...
... tests showed that the specific strain of cholera found in samples taken from Haitian patients was Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 ... Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae that when ingested can cause diarrhea and vomiting within several hours to 2 ... Without proper treatment including oral rehydration, cholera can be fatal. The suspected source of Vibrio cholerae in Haiti was ... therefore resulting in high rates of exposure to Vibrio cholerae. The cholera outbreak began ten months after the January 2010 ...
... diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the toxigenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 or O139". In ... "Cholera Epidemics." Cholera Epidemics - Ohio History Central, www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Cholera_Epidemics. "Cholera - Vibrio ... Cholera epidemic in Lexington, Kentucky was a major cholera epidemic in 1833. An estimated 502 out of 7,000 people died as a ... Cholera is "caused by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. In an epidemic, the source of the ...
The serotype of vibrio cholerae O1 involved is Ougawa. The earliest cases were predominantly in the capital, Sana'a, with some ... Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It is spread mostly by unsafe water ... "Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection Information for Public Health & Medical Professionals". Centers for Disease Control and ... Chironomidae are natural reservoirs and carriers of the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. It has been suggested that adult ...
In 1992 a new strain appeared in Asia, a non-O1, nonagglutinable vibrio (NAG), which was named O139 Bengal. It was first ... "Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection , Cholera , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2017-05-16. Archived from the original on 2015-03-17. ... Beardsley GW (2000). "The 1832 Cholera Epidemic in New York State: 19th Century Responses to Cholerae Vibrio (part 1)". The ... and identification of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae by Filippo Pacini and Robert Koch. After a long hiatus, a seventh cholera ...
Cassedy JH (1973). "John L. Riddell's Vibrio biceps: Two documents on American microscopy and cholera etiology 1849-59". J Hist ... O1 Optical Microscopy Archived 24 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine By Katarina Logg. Chalmers Dept. Applied Physics. 20 ... binocular microscope while carrying out one of the earliest and most extensive American microscopic investigations of cholera. ...
Kapitola Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1. (po anglicky). *. Swerdlow DL, Mintz ED, Rodriguez M, Tejada E, Ocampo C, Espejo L, ... A00.0: Cholera zapríčinená Vibrio cholerae 01, biovar cholerae (klasická cholera). *A00.1: Cholera zapríčinená Vibrio cholerae ... ktorej pôvodcom je gramnegatívna baktéria Vibrio cholerae, najčastejšie biotypy Vibrio cholerae a Vibrio El Tor. ... Vibrio cholerae produkuje enterotoxín choleragén, ktorý je príčinou vodnatých hnačiek - človek tak môže strácať až 25 litrov ...
... of polymerase chain reaction-generated amplicons to identify three types of cholera toxin subunit B in Vibrio cholerae O1 ...
... of polymerase chain reaction-generated amplicons to identify three types of cholera toxin subunit B in Vibrio cholerae O1 ...
... which specifically targets Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, has acquired a CRISPR/Cas system that targets a V. cholera PICI-like ...
কলেরা ভিব্রিও কলেরা (Vibrio cholerae) নামক ব্যাকটেরিয়া ঘটিত ক্ষুদ্রান্ত্রের একটি সংক্রামক রোগ। [১] [২] এ ব্যাধি উপসর্গবিহীন ... O1) এবং ও১৩৯ (O139) সেরোগ্রুপ কলেরা মহামারী ও অতিমারী ঘটায়। মানব শরীরে সংক্রমণের প্রধান বাহক দূষিত পানি অথবা দূষিত খাদ্য। ... কলেরা Vibrio cholerae-র কয়েকটি সেরোটাইপ দিয়ে হতে পারে। এদের মধ্যে কিছু সেরোটাইপ অন্যগুলোর চেয়ে বেশি মারাত্মক রোগ ঘটাতে পারে। ... "Cholera" https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera ... ক খ
"The development and application of a bacteriocinogenotyping scheme for Vibrio cholerae non-group O-1 strains". [[Zentralbl ... Israil AM, Nacescu N, Ciufecu C, Stefanescu C (1983). "Studies on bacteriocin production by NAG-strains of Vibrio cholerae as a ... They have been used for abortive classification schemes of the vibrio, particularly to type various kinds of cholera, against ... Chakrabarty AN, Adhya S, Basu J, Dastidar SJ (1970). "Bacteriocin Typing of Vibrio cholerae". Infection and Immunity. 1 (3): ...
... the animal model of cholera, and successfully demonstrated the method of transmission of cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. ... cholerae O1, which was abruptly replaced by El Tor biotype [producing less cholera toxin] in Calcutta from 1963. This new ... coli and Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin: detection, characterization, and role of adherence" and "Characterization of cholera ... Enterotoxicity of bacteria-free culture-filtrate of Vibrio cholerae. Nature 183: 1533-1534, 1959. Garfield, E. Mapping cholera ...
Mekalanos JJ (1983). "Duplication and amplification of toxin genes in Vibrio cholerae". Cell. 35 (1): 253-63. doi:10.1016/0092- ... a system initially found to be capable of conferring increased virulence in non-O1/non-O139 strain strains of V. cholerae, ... 2006). "Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model ... was focused on studying the genetic and biochemical analysis of the cholera toxin secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...
"Relationship between Distinct African Cholera Epidemics Revealed via MLVA Haplotyping of 337 Vibrio cholerae Isolates". PLoS ... cholerae O1 in the Haitian Aquatic Environment During the 2012 Rainy Season". PLoS Curr. 5. doi:10.1371/currents.outbreaks. ... "Relationship between Distinct African Cholera Epidemics Revealed via MLVA Haplotyping of 337 Vibrio cholerae Isolates". PLoS ... "Relationship between Distinct African Cholera Epidemics Revealed via MLVA Haplotyping of 337 Vibrio cholerae Isolates". PLOS ...
Vibrio eltor. ›Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar EI Tor. ›Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar eltor. ›Vibrio cholerae biovar El Tor. ›Vibrio ... Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar El Tor. Taxonomy navigation. › Vibrio cholerae O1. Choose one. > Vibrio cholerae B33. > Vibrio ...
Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Minnesota linked to raw shrimp. ... Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Minnesota linked to raw shrimp. ... Shrimp samples yielded V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139, but V. cholerae O1 was not isolated. In response to the outbreak results, ... Notes from the Field: Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1, Serotype Inaba - Minnesota, August 2016. Weekly / September 15, 2017 / 66( ... Notes from the Field: Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1, Serotype Inaba - Minnesota, August 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66: ...
Whole genome sequencing of environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 from 10 nanograms of DNA using short reads. ... Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Vibrionales; Vibrionaceae; Vibrio. Data source. GenBank (Assembly: GCA_ ... Vibrio cholerae O1 LMA3984-4. Genome info. Pathway map. Brite hierarchy. Module. Genome map. Blast. Taxonomy. ...
A new variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor causing cholera in India.. Goel AK, Jain M, Kumar P, Bhadauria S, Kmboj DV, Singh L. ...
Two-component system - Vibrio cholerae O1 IEC224 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Vibrio cholerae O1 Serovar Inaba antibody (ab79793) : Vibro cholerae Agglutination ...
Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar El Tor str. N16961. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: adk, VC_0986. EC: 2.7.4.3. ... Find proteins for Q9KTB7 (Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 (strain ATCC 39315 / El Tor Inaba N16961)) ... Crystal Structure of Adenylate Kinase from Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar eltor. Kim, Y., Zhou, M., Grimshaw, S., Anderson, W.F., ... Crystal Structure of Adenylate Kinase from Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar eltor. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4NP6/pdb ...
Cloning and nucleotide sequence determination of a heat-stable enterotoxin gene from Vibrio cholerae non-O1.. Ogawa A1, Kato J ...
Genomic profiles of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 in cholera-endemic areas of Bangladesh. Young-Gun ... Genomic profiles of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 in cholera-endemic areas of Bangladesh ... Genomic profiles of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 in cholera-endemic areas of Bangladesh ... Genomic profiles of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 in cholera-endemic areas of Bangladesh ...
Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 (strain M66-2). Vibrio cholerae. Vibrio cholerae O139. Vibrio cholerae B33. Vibrio cholerae 2740-80 ... Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 (strain M66-2). Vibrio cholerae. Vibrio cholerae O139. Vibrio cholerae B33. Vibrio cholerae 2740-80 ... Vibrio cholerae (strain MO10). Vibrio cholerae RC385. Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 (strain ATCC 39541 / Classical Ogawa 395 / ... Vibrio cholerae (strain MO10). Vibrio cholerae RC385. 556. UniRef100_Q9KTA6. Cluster: Glutamine--tRNA ligase. 9. ...
Pichel, M.; Rivas, M.; Chinen, I.; Martín, F.; Ibarra, C.; Binsztein, N. (2003) Genetic diversity of Vibrio cholerae O1 in ... Isolation and genetic characterization of an environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Amazon is reported. This strain lacks ... Cholera emerged in South America in 1991, reaching Brazil at the same year through the Amazon region. V. cholerae O1 strains ... Biotyping of Vibrio cholerae O1: Time to redefine the scheme. Indian J Med Res., 128, 695-698. [ Links ]. ...
... cholerae O1.. V. cholerae O1 Cells in Pond Water Microcosms.. Autoclaved MW microcosms inoculated with V. cholerae O1 yielded ... cholerae O1 cells shed by cholera patients increase transmissibility of cholera, such in vivo-formed clumps of V. cholerae O1, ... Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 are associated with epidemic and pandemic cholera. Cholera is endemic in the Ganges ... cholerae O1.. The nonculturable V. cholerae O1 cells from originally cholera-positive stools and maintained in MW microcosms at ...
Vibrio cholerae. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: hutG. EC: 3.5.3.8. Find proteins for Q9KSQ2 (Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 (strain ... 1.8A crystal structure of formiminoglutamas from Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar eltor str. N16961. Wu, R., Zhang, R., Shonda, C., ... 1.8A crystal strucutre of formiminoglutamase from Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar eltor str. N16961. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1XFK/pdb ...
... that is important for intestinal colonization of Vibrio cholerae O1, may be produced by vibrios of both classical and EI Tor ... Epitope differences in toxin-coregulated pili produced by classical and El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1 Microb Pathog. 1991 Sep;11(3 ... A toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), that is important for intestinal colonization of Vibrio cholerae O1, may be produced by ...
Emerging hybrid variants of Vibrio cholerae O1. In: Faruque SM, Nair GB, editors. Vibrio cholerae: genomics and molecular ... Nair GB, Qadri F, Holmgren J, Svennerholm A-M, Safa A, Bhuiyan NA, Cholera due to altered El Tor strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 ... To the Editor: The traditional causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae O1, has 2 biotypes, classical and El Tor. The ... Detection of cholera toxin genes. In: Wachsmuth IK, Blake PA, Olsvik O, editors. Vibrio cholerae and cholera: molecular to ...
To the Editor: Cholera, caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139, continues to be a major cause of illness and ... Mandomando I, Espasa M, Vallès X, Sacarlal J, Sigaúque B, Ruiz J, Antimicrobial resistance of Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa ... Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor among hospitalised patients with cholera in ... Emergence of tetracycline-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Inaba, in Kolkata, India. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2008;61:128-9. ...
Possible factors influencing the epidemiology of cholera; Drug of choice for cholera; Resistance of Vibrio cholerae O1 to ... The article describes cases of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa in patients with diarrhea in Yangon, Myanmar ... cholerae have been described from Laos. Elsewhere, non cholera-toxin producing, non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae have been ... Spread of cholera in West Bengal is known to be related to its ecosystem which favours Vibrio cholerae. Incidence of cholera ...
Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 was routinely isolated by culture from all three lakes; whereas V. cholerae O1 and O139 were ... Detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in freshwater lakes of the former Soviet Republic of Georgia. ... Detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in freshwater lakes of the former Soviet Republic of Georgia. ... cholerae serogroup O1 by DFA. All of the samples were negative for V. cholerae serotype O139. The results of this study provide ...
Cholera - Monitoring of Vibrio cholerae O139 = Choléra - Surveillance de Vibrio cholerae O139  ... CHOLERA SURVEILLANCE : Appearance of Classical Biotype of Vibrio cholerae = SURVEILLANCE DU CHOLERA : Apparition du biotype ... In the past decade the importance of non-O1 and non-O139 strains of Vibrio cholerae has been highlighted globally. This study ... Isolation frequency and susceptibility pattern of non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae in a tertiary health care laboratory, ...
Bacteriophage VP4 is a lytic phage of the Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, and it is used in phage subtyping of V. cholerae ... O Antigen Is the Receptor of Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1 El Tor Typing Phage VP4. Jialiang Xu, Jingyun Zhang, Xin Lu, Weili ... Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor galU and galE mutants: influence on lipopolysaccharide structure, colonization, ... A putative pathway for perosamine biosynthesis is the first function encoded within the rfb region of Vibrio cholerae O1. Gene ...
Cholera outbreaks caused by an altered Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strain producing classical cholera toxin B in Vietnam ... A new variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor causing cholera in India. J. Infect. 57:280-281. ... Genome sequence of hybrid Vibrio cholerae O1 MJ-1236, B-33, and CIRS101 and comparative genomics with V. cholerae. J. Bacteriol ... The disease cholera is caused by V. cholerae strains of serogroups O1 and O139 that can produce a potent enterotoxin, cholera ...
Differences in whole-genome expression patterns between the classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1 were determined ... Differences in gene expression between the classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1.. ... Differences in gene expression between the classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1.. ... Differences in gene expression between the classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1.. ...
Occurrence of Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 in Maryland and Louisiana estuaries.. R R Colwell, R J Seidler, J Kaper, S W Joseph, ... Occurrence of Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 in Maryland and Louisiana estuaries.. R R Colwell, R J Seidler, J Kaper, S W Joseph, ... Occurrence of Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 in Maryland and Louisiana estuaries.. R R Colwell, R J Seidler, J Kaper, S W Joseph, ... Occurrence of Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 in Maryland and Louisiana estuaries. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates belonging to the Ogawa serotype, El Tor biotype, harbouring the classical CTX prophage were first ... Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates belonging to the Ogawa serotype, El Tor biotype, harbouring the classical CTX prophage were first ... Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor isolates from Mozambique that harbour the classical CTX ... as O1 El Tor N16961, a representative of the current seventh cholera pandemic. Analysis of the CTX prophage in the Mozambique ...
Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strains from the Latin American cholera epidemic ... Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strains from the Latin American cholera epidemic ... Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strains from the Latin American cholera epidemic ... Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strains from the Latin American cholera epidemic ...
In this study, a total of 97 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from Mathbaria, Bangladesh, collected during 2010 and 2014 were ... The classical cholera toxin gene, ctxB1, was detected in 87 isolates, while eight had ctxB7. Of 95 CTX+V. cholerae O1, 90 ... The classical cholera toxin gene, ctxB1, was detected in 87 isolates, while eight had ctxB7. Of 95 CTX+ V. cholerae O1, 90 ... Sixteen of the V. cholerae O1 isolates showed higher MIC for azithromycin (≥0.5 μg/ml) and were further examined for ten ...
We examined vibriocidal titers for 1 year after an episode of severe cholera in patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh; 16 of 53 (30%) ... These data and others suggest that an episode of severe cholera protects against symptomatic disease for several years, but ... Repeated exposures to V. cholerae in endemic areas may be a necessary component for long-lasting protection against severe ... patients had a fourfold or greater increase in vibriocidal titer between 6 and 12 months after an episode of severe cholera, ...
Active surveillance for Vibrio cholerae O1 and vibriophages in sewage water as a potential tool to predict cholera outbreaks.. ... Active surveillance for Vibrio cholerae O1 and vibriophages in sewage water as a potential tool to predict cholera outbreaks. ... Active surveillance for Vibrio cholerae O1 and vibriophages in sewage water as a potential tool to predict cholera outbreaks. ... Active surveillance for Vibrio cholerae O1 and vibriophages in sewage water as a potential tool to predict cholera outbreaks. ...
  • MDH has detected 26 V. cholerae infections, 21 (81%) of which a similar illness with a similar incubation period after eating were non-O1, non- O139, and five of which were O1. (cdc.gov)
  • Shrimp samples yielded V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139, but V. cholerae O1 was not isolated. (cdc.gov)
  • Whereas multiple serogroups can cause vibriosis, only serogroups O1 and O139 that also contain the cholera toxin are classified as causes of cholera ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Since 1996, MDH has detected 26 V. cholerae infections, 21 (81%) of which were non-O1, non- O139, and five of which were O1. (cdc.gov)
  • The serotype shift from O1 to O139 was notable in its effect on the differential age structure of cholera patients ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 are associated with epidemic and pandemic cholera. (pnas.org)
  • Cholera, caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139, continues to be a major cause of illness and death, particularly in developing countries. (cdc.gov)
  • The article discusses a study which investigated the coexistence of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor and O139 Bengal strains in Bangladesh. (ebscohost.com)
  • Background: Human infections with non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae have been described from Laos. (ebscohost.com)
  • Elsewhere, non cholera-toxin producing, non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae have been described from blood cultures and ascitic fluid, although they are exceedingly rare isolates. (ebscohost.com)
  • Presents a study that investigated the reemergence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O139 in Bangladesh. (ebscohost.com)
  • whereas V. cholerae O1 and O139 were not. (umd.edu)
  • All of the samples were negative for V. cholerae serotype O139. (umd.edu)
  • In the past decade the importance of non-O1 and non-O139 strains of Vibrio cholerae has been highlighted globally. (who.int)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of non-OI and non-O139 V. cholerae in Pakistan. (who.int)
  • Data of stool specimens yielding growth of non-O1 and non-O139 V. cholerae isolated at a national referral laboratory from 1999 to 2012 were retrospectively analysed and evaluated for resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and ofloxacin. (who.int)
  • A total of 95 800 stool samples submitted over 1999-2012 yielded 3668 strains of V. cholerae, of which 6% were non-O1 and non-O139 V cholerae. (who.int)
  • Au cours des dix dernieres annees, [‎‎‎Importance des souches de Vibrio cholerae non-OI et non-O139 a ete mise en avant a I'echelle mondiale. (who.int)
  • La presente etude visait a evaluer la frequence de 1'isolation des souches de Vibrio cholerae non-OI et non-O139 et leur profil de sensibilite aux antimicrobiens au Pakistan. (who.int)
  • Les donnees d'echantillons de selles ayant permis la croissance de V. cholerae non-OI et non-O139 isoles dans un laboratoire national specialise entre 1999 et 2012 onteteanalyseesetevalueesretrospectivement pour leur resistance a Tarn picilline, latetracycline,au chloramphenicol, au co-trimoxazole et a I'ofloxacine.Au total, 95800 echantillonsde selles soumis entre 1999 et 2012 ontproduit3668 souches de V. cholerae, parmi Iesquelles6%etaient des souches de V. cholerae non-OI etnon-O139. (who.int)
  • Among the more than 208 O-antigen serogroups of V. cholerae , only the O1 and O139 serogroups have been found to cause epidemic cholera ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • CUMBANA, A and LE ROUX, W . A survey of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 in estuarine waters and sediments of Beira, Mozambique . (scielo.org.za)
  • This study determined whether the estuarine and freshwater environment in Beira, Mozambique, serves as a reservoir of Vibrio cholerae Ol and O139. (scielo.org.za)
  • The samples were analysed for the presence of V. cholerae O1 and O139 using culture methods, the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a single-primer pair for the ompW gene and a semi-nested PCR selecting for the ctxA gene, encoding subunit A of cholera toxin. (scielo.org.za)
  • DFA results showed 37 V. cholerae O1- and 6 O139-positive samples. (scielo.org.za)
  • Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 were observed on the scales of 4 of the 5 fish. (scielo.org.za)
  • The findings of the study provided in situ evidence for V. cholerae O1 and O139, predominantly as viable but non-culturable cells in the aquatic environment of Beira. (scielo.org.za)
  • This is the first record of the presence of V. cholerae O139 in the estuarine environment on the coast of Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • The DNA was screened for the presence of the sodB, rfb, FlaE, 16S rRNA and ctxA genes associated with V. cholerae, V. cholerae O1, V. cholerae O139 using 2 multiplex polymerase chain reactions (m-PCR). (scielo.org.za)
  • 1974). Among the 193 currently recognised O serogroups of V. cholerae , only O1 and O139 have caused epidemics of cholera (Fraga et al. (scielo.org.za)
  • 2007). More than 95% of the strains belonging to serogroups O1 and O139 produce the cholera toxin (CT), which is central to the disease process (Chakraborty et al. (scielo.org.za)
  • 2003) reported that 2 genes, rfb and wbe , are associated with the synthesis of the O-antigen in V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 and can be used to distinguish the 2 serogroups from each other. (scielo.org.za)
  • Comparison of immune responses in patients infected with Vibrio cholerae O139 and O1. (asm.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae O139 has recently emerged as the second etiologic agent of cholera in Asia. (asm.org)
  • A study was carried out to evaluate the induction of specific immune responses to the organism in V. cholerae O139-infected patients. (asm.org)
  • The immune responses to V. cholerae O139 Bengal were studied in patients by measuring antibody-secreting cells (ASC), as well as vibriocidal and antitoxic antibodies in the circulation. (asm.org)
  • The magnitude and isotype of the responses were similar in O139- and O1-infected patients. (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that despite having a polysaccharide capsule, V. cholerae O139 induces systemic and intestine-derived ASC responses in peripheral blood comparable to those seen in patients with V. cholerae O1 disease. (asm.org)
  • To perform a comprehensive analyses of the inflammatory components, we studied mucosal biopsies from patients, both adults and children with acute watery diarrhoea caused by V cholerae O1 and O139. (bmj.com)
  • 10 As innate immunity may be needed for the host to mount an appropriate adaptive immune response to an infection, 11 we have studied the possible interaction of inflammatory mediators over the course of the disease following natural infection with V cholerae O1 and O139. (bmj.com)
  • V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains are frequently isolated from aquatic ecosystems worldwide. (umd.edu)
  • Less frequently isolated are V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139, the aetiological agents of cholera. (umd.edu)
  • We describe here a method for DNA extraction from coastal water and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for O1 and O139 serogroups. (umd.edu)
  • The specificity of multiplex O1/O139 PCR was investigated by analysing 120 strains of V. cholerae, Vibrio and other Bacteria species. (umd.edu)
  • All V. cholerae O1 and O139 tested were positive. (umd.edu)
  • For cholera surveillance of aquatic environments and ballast water, total DNA extraction, followed by V. cholerae PCR, and O1/O139 serogroup and tcpA/ctxA genes by multiplex PCR offers an efficient system, permitting risk analysis for cholera in coastal areas. (umd.edu)
  • Using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), the coagglutination test detected Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 serogroups both in the bacterial culture and in the stool specimens. (scialert.net)
  • Detection of V. cholerae O1 and O139 from the cultures of different V. cholerae O1 and O139 strains and non-O1 and non-O139 strains showed a specificity of 100%, a sensitivity of 100% and a 100% positive predictive value. (scialert.net)
  • RÉSUMÉ Au cours des dix dernières années, l'importance des souches de Vibrio cholerae non-O1 et non-O139 a été mise en avant à l'échelle mondiale. (who.int)
  • La présente étude visait à évaluer la fréquence de l'isolation des souches de Vibrio cholerae non-O1 et non-O139 et leur profil de sensibilité aux antimicrobiens au Pakistan. (who.int)
  • Les données d'échantillons de selles ayant permis la croissance de V. cholerae non-O1 et non-O139 isolés dans un laboratoire national spécialisé entre 1999 et 2012 ont été analysées et évaluées rétrospectivement pour leur résistance à l'ampicilline, la tétracycline, au chloramphénicol, au co-trimoxazole et à l'ofloxacine. (who.int)
  • Au total, 95 800 échantillons de selles soumis entre 1999 et 2012 ont produit 3668 souches de V. cholerae, parmi lesquelles 6 % étaient des souches de V. cholerae non-O1 et non-O139. (who.int)
  • Only two serogroups, O1 and O139, have thus far been demonstrated to cause epidemic and pandemic cholera. (springer.com)
  • Investigations were carried out to study the production of factors associated with the innate immune response in the systemic and mucosal compartments in adults and children infected with Vibrio cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139. (asm.org)
  • The levels of nonspecific mediators of the innate defense system, i.e., prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ), and lactoferrin (Lf), as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO), were elevated at the acute stage of the disease in stools obtained from both O1- and O139-infected adults and children. (asm.org)
  • Very little difference was seen in the levels of the different inflammatory mediators in patients infected with V. cholerae O1 or the encapsulated V. cholerae O139. (asm.org)
  • In summary, these results suggest that elevated concentrations of Lf, MPO, PGE 2 , LTB 4 , and NO · , as well as other metabolites, during the acute stage of the disease indicate that the innate defense system, as well as the inflammatory process, is activated in both adults and pediatric patients infected with V. cholerae O1 and O139. (asm.org)
  • Acute watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 induces strong mucosal and systemic antibody responses to cholera toxin (CT) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as to other cell surface components, resulting in a long-lasting protection from cholera ( 8 , 10 , 22 , 25 - 27 ). (asm.org)
  • We describe the development and evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test for Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 based on lipopolysaccharide detection using gold particles. (asm.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae strains belonging to the O1 and O139 serogroups are capable of causing epidemic and pandemic cholera. (asm.org)
  • Serogroup O139, which appeared in India in 1992, has spread rapidly throughout Asian countries and is considered to be the potential eighth pandemic strain of cholera. (asm.org)
  • The others detect the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen of V. cholerae O1 ( 3 , 6 , 8 , 12 , 16 ) or O139 ( 1 , 10 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Recently, a multistep colloidal-gold-based colorimetric immunoassay known as SMART was also developed for direct detection of V. cholerae O1 ( 9 , 11 ) or V. cholerae O139 ( 15 ) in stool specimens and has demonstrated 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity for O1 strains ( 11 ) and 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity for O139 strains ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • In our effort to develop a conjugate vaccine that targets V. cholerae O1 and O139, we have developed monoclonal antibodies specific to V. cholerae O1 or O139 LPS ( 4 , 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Here we have exploited the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies to develop rapid diagnostic tests for cholera O1 or O139 using colloidal gold particles and based on a recently optimized ( 7 ) one-step, vertical-flow immunochromatography principle ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • The detection threshold with purified LPS was 10 ng/ml for V. cholerae O1 and 50 ng/ml for V. cholerae O139. (asm.org)
  • A minimum of ca. 10 7 CFU of V. cholerae O1/ml or 10 6 CFU of V. cholerae O139/ml is required to give an unequivocal positive reaction. (asm.org)
  • Distribution of virulence markers in clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains isolated in Brazil from 1991 to 2000. (semanticscholar.org)
  • One hundred seventy nine Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains from clinical and different environmental sources isolated in Brazil from 1991 to 2000 were serogrouped and screened for the presence of four different virulence factors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Evolutionary and functional analyses of variants of the toxin-coregulated pilus protein TcpA from toxigenic Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 serogroup isolates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molecular analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, non-O1, and non-O139 strains: clonal relationships between clinical and environmental isolates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Type III secretion is essential for the rapidly fatal diarrheal disease caused by non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • However, certain non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae strains, such as AM-19226, do not produce cholera toxin or TCP, yet they still cause severe diarrhea. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The molecular basis for the pathogenicity of non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae has not been extensively characterized, but many of these strains encode related type III secretion systems (TTSSs). (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Here, we used infant rabbits to assess the contribution of the TTSS to non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae pathogenicity. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • In aggregate, our results suggest that the TTSS-dependent virulence in non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae represents a new type of diarrheagenic mechanism. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Illnesses caused by strains of V. cholerae other than toxigenic V. cholerae O1 or O139 should not be reported as cases of cholera. (cdc.gov)
  • The etiologic agent of a case of cholera should be reported as either V. cholerae O1 or V. cholerae O139. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae O1/O139, is an acute dehydrating enteric disease with high mortality rate if untreated. (ac.bd)
  • 200 serogroups, public health across Pakistan, where previously sporad- only serogroups O1 and O139 are associated with epi- ic cases of cholera had been reported ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Are the environmental niches of Vibrio cholerae O139 different from those of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor? (elsevier.com)
  • Methods: This study identifies environmental risk factors for cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 El Tor and O139 and environmental niches of the two strains present in Matlab, a cholera endemic area of Bangladesh. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: The study suggests the niches of O1 El Tor and O139 strains of V. cholerae appear to be similar, based on common environmental risk factors. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: The results of this study support a theory that O1 El Tor could possibly be replaced by the newer O139 strain in the future. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Are the environmental niches of Vibrio cholerae O139 different from those of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor? (elsevier.com)
  • A total of 26% Vc positive samples were obtained out of 100 [ponds-48, household (HH)-29, and PSFs-23] where 13% cases were pathogenic ( Vc O1) and 13% were non-pathogenic ( Vc non-O1/non-O139). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although none of the samples was identified with pathogenic Vc O139, the statistics represents a significant and augmentative risk of cholera outbreak in the focused area. (frontiersin.org)
  • Other than V. cholerae O139, this is the first V. cholerae CPS for which a structure has been fully elucidated and the genetic locus responsible for biosynthesis identified. (mdsoar.org)
  • Besides Staphylococcus aureus a non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strain could be isolated from patient samples. (akjournals.com)
  • Risk assessment of choleragenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 in warm water shrimp for international trade : interpretative summary and technical report. (who.int)
  • This severe diarrheal disease is caused by the Gram-negative pathogen Vibrio cholerae belonging to serogroups O1 and O139. (elsevier.com)
  • The remaining 6 nontoxigenic environmental strains were classified as non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae. (who.int)
  • DNA fingerprinting of the strains showed considerable diversity between toxigenic clinical and nontoxigenic environmental O1 Ogawa isolates and between the O1 and non-O1, non-O139 isolates. (who.int)
  • V. cholerae serotypes are divided into two main groups: the O1 and O139 group and the non-O1/non-O139 group. (beds.ac.uk)
  • O1 and O139 V. cholerae are related to cholera infection, whereas non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae (NOVC) can cause cholera-like diarrhea. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Multidrug resistant V. cholerae O1 with different genotypes and pathogenicity are present in water sources and co-exist with non O1/O139 in the study area. (springer.com)
  • For V. cholerae O1 or O139 to cause epidemics, it must have the ability to express virulence factors such as cholera toxin (CT) and toxin co-regulated pilus (tcp). (springer.com)
  • Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1, Serotype consumers. (cdc.gov)
  • The isolate was identified as serogroup O1, serotype Inaba at MDH. (cdc.gov)
  • In slide agglutination tests, the colonies agglutinated with V. cholerae O1 polyvalent antiserum and Ogawa serotype antiserum (Denka-Seiken, Tokyo, Japan). (cdc.gov)
  • The article describes cases of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa in patients with diarrhea in Yangon, Myanmar from February 2012-June 2013. (ebscohost.com)
  • Presents a study which examined the change in serotype and appearance of tetracycline resistance in Vibrio cholerae O1 in India. (ebscohost.com)
  • Occurrence of Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 in Maryland and Louisiana estuaries. (asm.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 has been isolated from Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and estuaries and sewers in Louisiana. (asm.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates belonging to the Ogawa serotype, El Tor biotype, harbouring the classical CTX prophage were first isolated in Mozambique in 2004. (nih.gov)
  • Of note, 90% of the current V. cholerae O1 El Tor isolates were of serotype Ogawa, while a year earlier, all were of serotype Inaba. (ajtmh.org)
  • The crystal structure of the murine Fab S-20-4 from a protective anti-cholera Ab specific for the lipopolysaccharide Ag of the Ogawa serotype has been determined in its unliganded form and in complex with synthetic fragments of the Ogawa O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP). (pasteur.fr)
  • The structure reported here explains the serotype specificity of anti-Ogawa Abs and provides a rational basis toward the development of a synthetic carbohydrate-based anti-cholera vaccine. (pasteur.fr)
  • RESULTS: Sixteen toxigenic clinical strains and 2 nontoxigenic environmental strains belonged to O1 serogroup, Ogawa serotype and El Tor biotype. (who.int)
  • V. cholerae serotype Ogawa biotype El tor is the main biotype circulating in Ghana with the emergence of a hybrid strain. (springer.com)
  • The serotype of vibrio cholerae O1 involved is Ougawa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ongoing cholera seventh pandemic, as well the previous one, and most of the cholera epidemics up to date, is due to V. cholerae from the O1 serogroup. (scielo.br)
  • Fatal bacteremia due to immotile Vibrio cholerae serogroup O21 in Vientiane, Laos -- a case report. (ebscohost.com)
  • Water samples collected during the same period from both Lisi and Kumisi Lake were also positive for V. cholerae serogroup O1 by DFA. (umd.edu)
  • Bacteriophage VP4 is a lytic phage of the Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, and it is used in phage subtyping of V. cholerae biotype El Tor. (asm.org)
  • The O1 serogroup is divided into the main serotypes Inaba and Ogawa and two distinct biotypes, designated classical and El Tor ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Background: Protective immunity against cholera is serogroup specific. (harvard.edu)
  • Serogroup specificity in Vibrio cholerae is determined by the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (harvard.edu)
  • Strong immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM ASC responses were seen against the homologous lipopolysaccharide or serogroup of V. cholerae. (asm.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 has two major serotypes, Ogawa and Inaba, which may alternate among cholera epidemics. (springer.com)
  • The vast majority of strains within the O1 serogroup display one of two serotypes, Ogawa or Inaba. (springer.com)
  • The O1 serogroup is subdivided into two serotypes, Ogawa and Inaba. (asm.org)
  • Clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O141 carry the CTX phage and the genes encoding the toxin-coregulated pili. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease typically caused by O1 serogroup strains of Vibrio cholerae. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Considering the recent emergence of " hybrid biotype" and "El Tor variant", we propose to redefine the biotyping scheme for Vibrio cholerae O1 serogroup . (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of V. cholerae serogroup O1 associated with specific zooplankton taxa in an estuary and the adjacent continental shelf of the southeastern Brazilian coast. (umd.edu)
  • Between November 2010, and May 2011, eleven cases of cholera, unrelated to a concurrent outbreak on the island of Hispaniola, were recorded, and the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75, was traced to oysters harvested from Apalachicola Bay, Florida. (omictools.com)
  • Genomic analysis demonstrated the presence of a suite of mobile elements previously shown to be involved in the disease process of cholera (ctxAB, VPI-1 and -2, and a VSP-II like variant) and a phylogenomic analysis showed the isolates to be sister taxa to toxigenic V. cholerae V51 serogroup O141, a clinical strain isolated 23 years earlier. (omictools.com)
  • V. cholerae serogroup O31 NRT36S, a human pathogen that produces a heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST), is encapsulated. (mdsoar.org)
  • Although it doesn´t harbor the major V. cholerae virulence determinants - cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-corregulated pilus (TCP) - LMA 3984-4 strain could potentially express several toxins with well described biological functions and identified in several clinical V. cholerae strains, as those coded by the hly and rtx genes. (scielo.br)
  • A toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), that is important for intestinal colonization of Vibrio cholerae O1, may be produced by vibrios of both classical and EI Tor biotypes. (nih.gov)
  • These differences translate to histidine at amino acid position 39 and threonine at amino acid position 68 for the B subunit of cholera toxin (CT) in the classical biotype and tyrosine and isoleucine, respectively, for the corresponding amino acids in the El Tor biotype ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The classical cholera toxin gene, ctxB1 , was detected in 87 isolates, while eight had ctxB7 . (frontiersin.org)
  • Attachment of the organisms to the intestinal epithelium is the first step in the disease process, maximizing the effect of the cholera toxin produced by the adherent organisms. (asm.org)
  • A number of colonization factors of V. cholerae O1 such as toxin-coregulated pili ( 14 ), mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin pili ( 8 ), fucose-sensitive hemagglutinin ( 7 ), and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) ( 9 , 10 , 12 ) have been proposed. (asm.org)
  • Although toxin-coregulated pilus has been shown to be important for colonization of the intestine by classical V. cholerae O1, it has no adhesive properties ( 12 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Intranasal administration of an El Tor O1 V. cholerae strain deleted of cholera toxin genes ( ctxAB ) caused diffuse pneumonia characterized by infiltration of PMNs, tissue damage, and hemorrhage. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, the reduced virulence of KFV101 makes it a prototype for multi-toxin deleted vaccine strains that could be used for protection against V. cholerae without the adverse effects of the accessory cholera toxins. (rupress.org)
  • The virulence factor predominantly responsible for this watery diarrhea is cholera toxin (CT), * a powerful enterotoxin encoded by the ctxA and ctxB genes carried on the transmissible prophage CTXΦ ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • The genes coding for the cholera toxin can also be used to distinguish between toxigenic and non-toxigenic V. cholerae . (scielo.org.za)
  • The two groups of patients showed comparable cholera toxin-specific ASC responses, with the IgG isotype dominating over the IgA isotype, as well as comparable antitoxic immune responses in plasma. (asm.org)
  • This is being re-evaluated based on available data that natural cholera infection or cholera toxin induces a Th2-type of immune profile and stimulates the humoral immune response, innate cells, and mediators in the host. (bmj.com)
  • 2- 5 Natural cholera infection or cholera toxin induces a Th2-type of cytokine response, resulting in an increase in specific IgG4 and IgE isotypes of antibodies 6- 8 and also increases in interleukin (IL)-6 production by mast cells, 9 suggesting involvement of innate cells in the immune response. (bmj.com)
  • These strains have two main virulence-associated factors, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin co-regulated pilus (TCP). (umd.edu)
  • Some detect the cholera toxin ( 2 , 19 ). (asm.org)
  • Extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation on Vero and HeLa cells in vitr o by the Vibrio cholerae pore forming toxin HlyA, has been previously reported by our group. (thescipub.com)
  • The pathogenicity of all pandemic V. cholerae O1 strains relies on two critical virulence factors: cholera toxin, a potent enterotoxin, and toxin coregulated pilus (TCP), an intestinal colonization factor. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • A total of 10 strains including 5 each of rough and smooth strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 were tested and found positive for toxin production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Richardson's and AKI media. (elsevier.com)
  • EDLB (specifically the Epidemic Investigations Laboratory) requests that state public health labs immediately forward all suspect V. cholerae isolates for serogrouping and cholera toxin testing as well as biotype and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. (cdc.gov)
  • Strains were divided into toxigenic and nontoxigenic groups according to the presence or absence of genes encoding cholera toxin. (openaire.eu)
  • Mousavi S M, Zeinoddini M, Azizi A, Saeedinia A, Monazah A. Molecular Detection of Zonula Occludens Toxin (zot) Genes in Vibrio Cholerae O1 using PCR. (ac.ir)
  • Zot ( Zonula occludens toxin) is one of the secretion toxins of Vibrio cholerae in small intestine that binds to certain receptors in the epithelial cells and causes a change in the structure of tight junction. (ac.ir)
  • 2. Vivian Joseph Ratnam P, Sundararaj T, Rajkumar S. Genotyping of Vibrio cholerae strains based on the cholera toxin and virulence associated genes. (ac.ir)
  • 9. Yamazaki W, Seto K, Taguchi M, Ishibashi M, Inoue K. Sensitive and rapid detection of cholera toxin-producing Vibrio cholerae using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification. (ac.ir)
  • Distribution of the zot (zonula occludens toxin) gene among strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 and non-01. (ac.ir)
  • Cloning of a gene (zot) encoding a new toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae. (ac.ir)
  • Cholera toxin (CT) is the prime virulence factor and is directly responsible for the disease mani-festation. (elsevier.com)
  • The ctxB gene encodes cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) whereas the A subunit (CTA) is the product of ctxA gene. (elsevier.com)
  • Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains produced much more cholera toxin than did prototype El Tor strains. (okayama-u.ac.jp)
  • The amount of cholera toxin produced by El Tor variant strains both in vitro and in vivo was more or less equivalent to that produced by classical strains. (okayama-u.ac.jp)
  • Vibrio cholerae toxin gene was detected in 82.4% of the isolates. (springer.com)
  • The ctx genetic element which has been reported to comprise the genome of a filamentous transportable phage (ctxΦ) [ 3 ] encodes the cholera toxin [ 4 ] and the pathogenicity island (VPI) that codes for the TCP, a type IV pilus, functions in colonization and acts as a receptor for ctxΦ. (springer.com)
  • sea water and plankton samples from Peru were positive for V. cholerae O1 and found to contain ctx toxin [ 7 ]. (springer.com)
  • V. cholera has over 150 serogroups and has been identified in a wide range of aquatic life, including seafood ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • It is classified into 206 serogroups (O1-O206) on the basis of an outer-membrane O antigen and, further, into biotypes - e.g. (scielo.br)
  • abstract = "Background: Vibrio cholerae are known to be normal inhabitants of surface water. (elsevier.com)
  • It appears that clonal shifts in the causative agent of cholera represent a fundamental characteristic of cholera dynamics (see Background , which is published as supporting information on the PNAS web site, www.pnas.org ). (pnas.org)
  • The traditional causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae O1, has 2 biotypes, classical and El Tor. (cdc.gov)
  • Vibrio cholerae , the causative agent of cholera, is autochthonous to the estuarine and marine environment worldwide. (frontiersin.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae O1 is a causative agent of cholera. (asm.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae ( V. cholerae ), the causative agent of cholera, has been responsible for various outbreaks worldwide and may be associated with animal faeces. (scielo.org.za)
  • After overnight incubation at 37°C, suspected colonies were tested biochemically and confirmed by slide agglutination with polyvalent O1 and monovalent Ogawa and Inaba antiserum (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA). (cdc.gov)
  • During the 2004-2009 surveillance period, we isolated 809 V. cholerae O1 organisms, among which 624 (77%) were Ogawa and 185 (23%) were Inaba serotypes. (cdc.gov)
  • One Step Vibrio Cholera O1 Inaba (VC O1) Test is a rapid and convenient immunochromatographic in vitro assay. (gv-medic.com)
  • It is used for detection of vibrio cholera O1 Inaba antigen in the specimens of feces or environment water. (gv-medic.com)
  • One step Vibrio Cholera O1 (VCO1) rapid test cassette is a chromatographic immunoassay for the qualitative detection of vibrio cholera O1 Inaba and vibrio cholera O1 ogawa in human feces, rectal swab specimens or environment water. (invitro-test.com)
  • Summary: D-Glucuronic acid and D-glucosamine have an immunodominant role in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen of both the Ogawa and the Inaba subtypes of Vibrio cholerae O1. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • V. cholerae O1 strains from the El Tor biotype - the lineage determinant of the seventh cholera pandemic - were isolated and characterized from clinical cases since the beginning of the epidemic (3, 4). (scielo.br)
  • Both V. cholerae O1 Ogawa isolates showed positive results in Vogues-Proskauer, chicken cell agglutination, and tube hemolysin tests and were resistant to polymyxin B (50 international units), results that suggest the El Tor biotype ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Differences in whole-genome expression patterns between the classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1 were determined under conditions that induce virulence gene expression in the classical biotype. (jcvi.org)
  • Two of the first six cholera pandemics are known to have been caused by the classical biotype, while the ongoing seventh pandemic, which began in 1961, is caused by the El Tor biotype. (springer.com)
  • The classical biotype of Vibrio cholerae O1 was responsible for the first six cholera pandemics, but is relatively unknown, with only 20 genome sequences (50% of which come from the same geographic area) for this biotype available from public databases. (pasteur.fr)
  • The seventh cholera pandemic, characterized by Vibrio chol-erae O1 biotype El Tor, is still present around the world. (openaire.eu)
  • Two distinct V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains were also identified from cholera-like diarrhea in the Brazilian Amazon during the 1991 - 1996 epidemic: a non-toxigenic strain called the Amazonia variant (5) and a sucrose late fermenting variant (6). (scielo.br)
  • The last case of cholera recorded in the state of Pará was in 1995, since then no other clinical or environmental V. cholerae O1 strain was isolated in the Brazilian Amazon. (scielo.br)
  • By September 2007, in the context of environmental monitoring (8), a V. cholerae O1 strain was isolated from a superficial water sample. (scielo.br)
  • In order to determine the genetic similarity of the LMA 3984-4 strain with other epidemic V. cholerae O1 strains, NotI digested genomic DNA was separated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and analyzed as previously described (10, 11). (scielo.br)
  • The outer membrane protein OmpU of Vibrio cholerae O1 strain 86B3 was characterized with reference to colonization of the intestine by the organism. (asm.org)
  • Anti-OmpU serum did not agglutinate strain 86B3 or other V. cholerae organisms. (asm.org)
  • The presence of this organism in faecal samples, taken close to water sources used by the villagers, raises the possibility that the causative V. cholerae O1 strain of the most recent outbreak in South Africa was present in the area 6 months prior to the outbreak. (scielo.org.za)
  • A gene responsible for multidrug resistance was cloned from the chromosomal DNA of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae NCTC 4716 by using as a host drug-hypersensitive Escherichia coli strain KAM32, which lacks major multidrug efflux pumps. (asm.org)
  • Patients who had either strain of cholera identified in a laboratory were included in the study. (elsevier.com)
  • To increase understanding of drug-resistant Vibrio cholerae, we studied selected molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial drug resistance in the 2010 Haiti V. cholerae outbreak strain. (cdc.gov)
  • El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1 carrying ctxBC trait, so-called El Tor variant that causes more severe symptoms than the prototype El Tor strain , first detected in Bangladesh was later shown to have emerged in India in 1992. (bvsalud.org)
  • We successfully managed to assemble the entire genome of V. cholerae strain LMA3984-4 (environmental O1 strain isolated in urban Amazonia) using a hybrid de novo assembly strategy. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Temperature sensitive sterile worms (SS104 glp-4(bn2)) strain, obtained from Caenorhabditis Genetics Center were transferred to NGM plates containing V. cholerae wild type strains E7946, CP1112, CP1114, CP1115 or E. coli OP 50 bacterial lawns and incubated at 25°C with ∼20-30 L4 stage worms added to each plate. (omictools.com)
  • In this study, mutagenesis of a defined region within the VipA protein was used to identify residues important for VipB binding in V. cholerae O1 strain A1552. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine the biological consequences of a diminished VipA-VipB interaction in V. cholerae O1 strain A1552, the mutants were assessed for their ability to bind to and stabilize VipB, promote secretion of Hcp, and compete against E. coli in a competition assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two etiology of domestic foodborne outbreaks, particularly when additional patrons reported experiencing a gastrointestinal foods eaten include those from V. cholerae O1-endemic areas. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, investigators should include nontoxigenic V. cholerae as a possible etiology of domestic foodborne outbreaks, particularly when foods eaten include those from V. cholerae O1-endemic areas. (cdc.gov)
  • An epidemiological and ecological survey of V. cholerae in the coastal ecosystem of the Bay of Bengal provided firm evidence that nonculturable V. cholerae O1 cells are present between epidemics in biofilms in samples collected from bodies of water serving as drinking water source for the Mathbaria area of Bangladesh, where outbreaks of cholera occur annually ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cholera outbreaks occur each year in the remote coastal areas of Bangladesh and epidemiological surveillance and routine monitoring of cholera in these areas is challenging. (frontiersin.org)
  • Active surveillance for Vibrio cholerae O1 and vibriophages in sewage water as a potential tool to predict cholera outbreaks. (asm.org)
  • Nontoxigenic" variants of V. cholerae that do not carry the integrated CTXΦ prophage also cause disease, including sporadic outbreaks of watery diarrhea and isolated incidences of extraintestinal infections, septicemia, and inflammatory enterocolitis ( 2 , 6 - 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • Cholera outbreaks have occurred in Tanzania since 1974. (springer.com)
  • We conclude that genetically related V. cholerae cluster in outbreaks, and distinct strains circulate simultaneously. (springer.com)
  • It has been difficult to determine whether cholera outbreaks in Tanzania are from a single or multiple sources, or whether the outbreak strains are genetically related to each other, because these isolates have not yet been characterized by modern genetic methods. (springer.com)
  • Here, we use two established methods, multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole genome sequencing (WGS), to determine the genetic relatedness and establish transmission patterns of outbreak strains, which can lead to conclusions on the source(s) of these cholera outbreaks. (springer.com)
  • Clinical V. cholerae isolates were collected from the five regions (Fig. 1 ) which experienced outbreaks between December 2011 and November 2015. (springer.com)
  • However, there is a paucity of data on genetic relatedness and diversity of the Vibrio cholerae isolates responsible for these outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • Seventy-two V. cholerae isolates from outbreaks in 2009/2010, 2016, and 2017/2018 in Zambia were characterized using multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). (cdc.gov)
  • We found at least 2 sources of cholera in Pakistan Nubra, and the Hunza, converging in the northern region during the 2010 epidemic and illustrate the value of a global and flowing through the provinces of Ladakh, Baltistan, genomic data bank in contextualizing cholera outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2010, a surge in cholera cases seriously threatened outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the environmental niches of the different strains of cholera are not well known, and therefore, populations at risk for cholera outbreaks cannot be clearly identified. (elsevier.com)
  • But the pond water in Bangladesh is heavily contaminated with fecal coliforms (FCs), and other pathogenic bacteria ( 1 ) and several previous cholera outbreaks also represent the facts ( 4 , 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In the Bengal delta, the cholera outbreaks are subject to strong spatiotemporal influences, and its occurrences follow the pattern spatially from coast to inland and seasonally from spring to fall. (frontiersin.org)
  • In recent years, emergence of V. cholerae Haitian variant strains with ctxB7 allele and their rapid spread throughout the globe has been linked to various cholera outbreaks in Africa and Asia. (elsevier.com)
  • Consequently, cholera outbreaks may be triggered predominantly in densely populated urban areas. (springer.com)
  • Encountered increasing resistance of V. cholerae to commonly used antibiotics such as tetracycline has led to major challenges in the treatment of this disease .The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of drug resistance as well as molecular bases of resistant V.cholerae strains which were isolated from patients in cholera outbreaks during summer of 2013 in Iran. (ijmrhs.com)
  • For PCR, DNA extracted from water samples was tested for presence of V. cholerae and genes coding for selected virulence factors. (umd.edu)
  • SXT integrase genes were present in six V. cholerae isolates but apparently were not associated with known SXT-associated resistance genes. (asm.org)
  • Prevalence of virulence-associated genes in clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Brazil between 1991 and 1999. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Most resistance resulted from acquired genes located on an integrating conjugative element showing high homology to an integrating conjugative element identified in a V. cholerae isolate from India. (cdc.gov)
  • The capsule polysaccharide structure and biogenesis for non-O1 Vibrio cholerae NRT36S: genes are. (umbc.edu)
  • We investigated clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholera e O1 in Accra to determine their virulence genes, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and environmental factors maintaining their persistence in the environment. (springer.com)
  • Genes that code for ctx and tcp have been associated with toxigenic V. cholerae acquired from their marine environment [ 6 ]. (springer.com)
  • The progressive increase in resistance to multiple drugs among strains causing clinical cases of cholera in developing countries is becoming a serious concern. (cdc.gov)
  • We arbitrarily defined an outbreak as five or more reported cases of cholera in a week. (asm.org)
  • Illnesses due to strains of V. cholerae other than toxigenic V. cholerae 01 should not be reported as cases of cholera. (cdc.gov)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) (http://www.who.int/wer) reported a 30% increase in cases of cholera worldwide between 2004 (101,383 cases) and 2005 (131,943 cases) and a further 79% increase between 2005 and 2006 (236,860 cases), whereas the number of countries reporting cases has remained constant. (openaire.eu)
  • Genomic diversity of clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Brazil between 1991 and 2001 as revealed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thus, it was of interest to investigate the characteristics of V. cholerae O1 strains isolated chronologically (from 1986 to 2009) in Thailand . (bvsalud.org)
  • Here we report that Haitian variant V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in Kolkata produced higher amount of CT compared to contemporary O1 El Tor variant strains under in vitro virulence inducing conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • METHODS: The 16 strains of V. cholerae isolated from hospitalized patients and 8 environmental V. cholerae strains isolated from the environment were phenotypically and genotypically characterized using a variety of standard techniques. (who.int)
  • Susceptibly testing was performed on V.cholerae strains isolated from stool of patients suffering from cholera in Iranian reference health laboratory by E -test MIC method as recommended by CLSI guideline. (ijmrhs.com)
  • The recurrent cholera epidemics in Africa and Latin America raise the question of endemicity of cholera versus geographical expansion, i.e., spread from the Bay of Bengal, where it is endemic, to other geographical areas otherwise believed to be free of endemic cholera, vs. Vibrio cholerae being autochthonous to estuarine, riverine, and coastal sites, as has been recently demonstrated ( 2-4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, clonal shifts in the composition of a toxigenic V. cholerae population are hypothesized to be significant in changes that occur in the progress of cholera epidemics, especially if a change occurs in the survival capacity of each V. cholerae clone combating intestine immunity or stresses in environmental habitats. (pnas.org)
  • It is concluded that biofilms can act as a reservoir for V. cholerae O1 between epidemics because of its long-term viability in biofilms. (pnas.org)
  • The question of whether such nonculturable cells in aquatic environments are capable of returning to an actively growing state to initiate cholera epidemics has been debated. (pnas.org)
  • Some of the coccoid nonculturable cells retain metabolic activity ( 5 , 8 , 9 ), although little is known about the reservoir of V. cholerae between epidemics and the mechanism whereby nonculturable cells become culturable to initiate seasonal epidemics of cholera. (pnas.org)
  • Continued monitoring of V. cholerae in Haiti will illuminate the processes influencing the origin and fate of genome variants, which will facilitate interpretation of genetic variation in future epidemics. (asm.org)
  • Unique Clones of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor with Haitian Type ctxB Allele Implicated in the Recent Cholera Epidemics from Nigeria, Africa. (msf.org)
  • To clarify the population in Pakistan before 2010, seasonal epidemics are known to dynamics and transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Pakistan, have occurred every year since then. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera is endemic in the Ganges delta, occurring twice yearly in epidemic form ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Tetracycline is not used for prophylaxis in Kolkata, a known cholera-endemic area. (cdc.gov)
  • These data and others suggest that an episode of severe cholera protects against symptomatic disease for several years, but reexposure to the organism occurs frequently in an endemic area, with immunological boosts beginning as early as 6 months after severe disease. (ajtmh.org)
  • Repeated exposures to V. cholerae in endemic areas may be a necessary component for long-lasting protection against severe disease. (ajtmh.org)
  • Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant in a cholera-endemic zone of Kenya. (msf.org)
  • tion have established favorable conditions for travel-asso- ciated cholera from regions to which it is endemic. (cdc.gov)
  • However, it was observed that natural infections in cholera endemic areas provide longer term protective immunity lasting for 7-10 years, but the mechanism is not completely understood. (ac.bd)
  • Cholera is endemic we sequenced the genomes of all V. cholerae O1 El Tor to South Asia ( 6 ) and the Bay of Bengal ( 7 , 8 ) and is spread isolates and compared the sequences to a global collection through contaminated food and water, often after civil un- of 146 V. cholerae strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera has been endemic in Ghana since its detection in 1970. (springer.com)
  • Cholera is an endemic disease in Iran. (ijmrhs.com)
  • MDH) was notified of a case of Vibrio cholerae infection. (cdc.gov)
  • On August 20, 2016, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) was notified of a case of Vibrio cholerae infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Influence of relative humidity in Vibrio cholerae infection: A time series model. (ebscohost.com)
  • Elaborate mutations of the O antigen may imbue V. cholerae strains with resistance to phage infection. (asm.org)
  • Vibriocidal antibody is a marker of recent exposure to Vibrio cholerae O1 infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • Of 197 patients meeting the clinical case definition, 174 (88%) had confirmed Vibrio cholerae O1 infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of the Lewis blood group antigens with susceptibility to cholera, as well as severity of disease and immune responses to infection. (harvard.edu)
  • Methodology: We determined Lewis and ABO blood groups of a cohort of patients infected by Vibrio cholerae O1, their household contacts, and healthy controls, and analyzed the risk of symptomatic infection, severity of disease if infected and immune response following infection. (harvard.edu)
  • Principal Findings: We found that more individuals with cholera expressed the Le(a+b−) phenotype than the asymptomatic household contacts (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.03-3.56) or healthy controls (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.13-3.21), as has been seen previously for the risk of symptomatic ETEC infection. (harvard.edu)
  • In addition, individuals with Le(a-b−) phenotype also had lessened plasma IgA responses to V. cholerae O1 lipopolysaccharide on day 7 after infection compared to individuals in the other two Lewis blood group phenotypes. (harvard.edu)
  • Thus, in addition to stimulating fluid secretion through activation of adenylate cyclase activity ( 4 ), CT suppresses induction of inflammation during V. cholerae infection. (rupress.org)
  • The general concept is that as Vibrio cholerae is not invasive, it mediates a non-inflammatory type of infection. (bmj.com)
  • Cholera has long been considered a classic paradigm of a non-inflammatory toxigenic diarrhoea until observations showed that Vibrio cholerae O1 infection induces an increase in inflammatory cells. (bmj.com)
  • Increased concentrations of C-reactive protein were seen in the sera of adult cholera patients at the acute stage of infection. (asm.org)
  • After the recovery of patients from cholera, the concentration of the majority of the metabolites decreased to baseline levels by day 30 after the onset of infection. (asm.org)
  • A revised biotyping scheme will play a significant role to understand the ecology , epidemiology and nature of infection of V. cholerae O1 strains in future . (bvsalud.org)
  • Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the receptor that phage VP4 uses to bind to El Tor strains of V. cholerae and found that it infects strains through adsorbing the O antigen of V. cholerae O1. (asm.org)
  • Presence of this histo-blood group antigen may be included in evaluating the risk for cholera in a population, as well as in vaccine efficacy studies, as is currently being done for the ABO blood group antigens. (harvard.edu)
  • Monoclonal antibodies to V. cholerae O-antigen are used in the test device as both capturer and detector materials. (invitro-test.com)
  • A pink T line will be visible in the result window if enough V.cholerae O1 antigen is present in the sample. (invitro-test.com)
  • Vibrio cholerae are oxidase-positive bacteria that are classified into various serotypes based on the O surface antigen. (beds.ac.uk)
  • V. cholerae is the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. (asm.org)
  • Cholera, an ancient diarrheal disease, continues to be a serious threat in countries of Asia, Africa, and South America. (frontiersin.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae , a gram-negative noninvasive enteric pathogen, is the causative agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera. (asm.org)
  • Differences in gene expression between the classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1. (jcvi.org)
  • Hybrid & El Tor variant biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Thailand. (bvsalud.org)
  • In Thailand , hybrid V. cholerae O1 (mixed biotypes), was found since 1986. (bvsalud.org)
  • 4. Brumfield KD, Carignan BM, Ray JN, Jumpre PE, Son MS. Laboratory techniques used to maintain and differentiate biotypes of Vibrio cholerae clinical and environmental isolates. (ac.ir)
  • Focuses on the Vibrio cholerae bacteria. (ebscohost.com)
  • In an attempt to design a cholera surveillance program in the capital city of Lima, weekly sewage samples were collected between August 1993 and May 1996 and examined for the presence of Vibrio cholerae O1 bacteria and V. cholerae O1 bacteriophages (i.e., vibriophages). (asm.org)
  • Pathogen lawns for survival assays along with control bacteria E. coli OP50 were prepared by inoculating Nematode Growth Medium (NGM), in 6-cm Petri dishes, with 50 µl of an overnight V. cholerae culture. (omictools.com)
  • It is therefore impossible to determine whether V. cholerae -positive rivers constitute perennial reservoirs of the bacteria or whether they act only as transient vectors of the pathogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Vibrio cholerae are curved gram-negative rod (GNR) bacteria that are oxidase positive. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Historically, seven pandemics of cholera have been recorded, the worst being the recent and continuing seventh pandemic that began in 1961, after a hiatus of 33 years ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Kuwait was affected by cholera in the mid 1960s during the current seventh pandemic. (cdc.gov)
  • Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis using nine genetic loci showed that the Mozambique isolates have the same sequence type (ST) as O1 El Tor N16961, a representative of the current seventh cholera pandemic. (nih.gov)
  • The genome showed the Vibrio 7th pandemic islands VSP1 and VSP2, the pathogenic islands VPI-1 and VPI-2, the integrative and conjugative element SXT/R391 (ICE-SXT), and both prophages CTXφ and RS1φ. (asm.org)
  • Whole genome sequencing of environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 from 10 nanograms of DNA using short reads. (genome.jp)
  • Genetic profiling was done by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-PCR, optimized for profiling by using the fully sequenced V. cholerae El Tor N16961 genome. (pnas.org)
  • We applied whole-genome sequencing to a temporal series of V. cholerae isolates from Haiti to gain insight into the mode and tempo of evolution in this isolated population of V. cholerae O1. (asm.org)
  • 96 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from five regions were characterized, and their genetic relatedness assessed using multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). (springer.com)
  • We present the draft genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae InDRE 3140 recovered in 2013 during a cholera outbreak in Mexico. (asm.org)
  • The DUF84 region is found in the genome of a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae. (wikipedia.org)
  • A method of polyclonal stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells followed by an enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to study memory B cell responses specific to V. cholerae O1 antigens, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Ospecific polyscaccharide (OSP) of LPS. (ac.bd)
  • Vibrio cholerae is a ubiquitous bacterium of aquatic ecosystems and some of its strains are the etiological agents of the Asian cholera disease. (scielo.br)
  • Vibrio cholerae is a free-living bacterium found in water and in association with plankton. (umd.edu)
  • Cholera is a severe disease characterized by watery diarrhea that is caused by the gram-negative bacterium V. cholerae . (springer.com)
  • A structural study of a nutrient-uptake protein that allows the bacterium responsible for cholera to thrive in brackish waters could help scientists develop new vaccines or treatments for the diarrheal illness. (natureindex.com)
  • The results reveal a crucial role for the protein, known as Vc ChiP, in the survival of the cholera bacterium under harsh aquatic conditions when chitinous sugars are often the only source of sustenance. (natureindex.com)
  • Vibrio cholerae O1 was detected in chaetognaths, pluteus larvae of echinoderms and planktonic fish eggs (Engraulidae), all new sites for this bacterium. (umd.edu)
  • Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strains from the Latin American cholera epidemic. (asm.org)
  • 14. Barzamini B, Moghbeli M, Arbab Soleimani N. Vibrio cholerae detection in water and wastewater by polymerase chain reaction assay. (ac.ir)
  • Novel multiple mutations in the topoisomerase gene of Haitian variant Vibrio cholerae O1. (msf.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae is the classic example of a noninvasive enteric pathogen that induces a highly secretory diarrhea in the absence of an inflammatory response ( 1 , 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • A team led by scientists from the Vidyasirimedhi Institute of Science and Technology characterized the channel protein used by the cholera pathogen to absorb sugars found in crustacean shell waste. (natureindex.com)
  • Vibrio cholera O1 is widely acknowledged as one ofthe most important pathogen causing gastrointestinal disorders. (gv-medic.com)
  • Detection of viable and viable nonculturable Vibrio cholerae O1 through cultures and immunofluorescence in the Tucumán rivers, Argentina. (ac.ir)
  • The drug resistance pattern of the clinical and environmental strains of V. cholerae showed marked differences with the patient strains being resistant to more number of drugs as compared to the environmental strains. (who.int)
  • INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: In this outbreak of cholera, the O1 strains of V. cholerae from clinical and environmental sources belonged to two different clones and the environmental strains could perhaps be the future cholera outbreak causing clones. (who.int)
  • Three freshwater lakes, Lisi Lake, Kumisi Lake and Tbilisi Sea, near Tbilisi, Georgia, were studied from January 2006 to December 2007 to determine the presence of Vibrio cholerae employing both bacteriological culture method and direct detection methods, namely PCR and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA). (umd.edu)
  • V. cholerae is naturally present in the environment and autochthonous to coastal and estuarine ecosystems. (springer.com)
  • They differed from nontoxigenic clones isolated in Latin America and on the U.S. Gulf Coast and are probably autochthonous Mexican V. cholerae O1 variants. (openaire.eu)
  • On August 16, she presence of nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 from environmental experienced profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal and shrimp samples in India and Southeast Asia ( 5 - 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Among the same foods at restaurant A. the four O1 type cases identified before the current outbreak, On August 22, MDH sanitarians visited restaurant A and all patients had a recent travel history to Micronesia or India. (cdc.gov)
  • Previous studies have documented the presence of nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 from environmental and shrimp samples in India and Southeast Asia ( 5 - 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Among the four O1 type cases identified before the current outbreak, all patients had a recent travel history to Micronesia or India. (cdc.gov)
  • A new variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor causing cholera in India. (nih.gov)
  • We report the emergence of tetracycline-resistant V. cholerae O1 in a well-defined population in Kolkata, India, during 2007-2009. (cdc.gov)
  • Haitian variant ctxB producing Vibrio cholerae O1 with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin is persistent in Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India, after causing a cholera outbreak. (msf.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae O1 with ctxB7 variant genotype acquired qnrVC mediated ciprofloxacin resistance in Yavatmal, India. (msf.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Molecular comparison of toxigenic clinical & non-toxigenic environmental strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa isolated during an outbreak of cholera in south India. (who.int)
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: While investigating a cholera outbreak in south India, toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 were isolated from patients and from the environment, respectively. (who.int)
  • We have evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the rapid dipstick tests in the laboratory setting and in two areas of cholera endemicity, namely, in Madagascar and in Bangladesh. (asm.org)
  • Isolation and genetic characterization of an environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Amazon is reported. (scielo.br)
  • We have hereby addressed the issue by using 10 ng of genomic Vibrio cholerae DNA extracted within an agarose plug to ensure circularity as a starting point for MDA and then sequencing the amplified yield using the SOLiD platform. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • For in silico genomic island BLASTN and phylogenetic analyses the RAST-annotated ORFs of V. cholerae CP1110 were used as a reference. (omictools.com)
  • The goals of the study were to estimate the prevalence of cholera, describe its epidemiology, and identify potential risk factors that could be addressed by public health strategies. (cdc.gov)
  • Evaluation of a RAPD-based typing scheme in a molecular epidemiology study of Vibrio cholerae O1, Brazil. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Epidemiology, genetics, and ecology of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. (ac.ir)
  • We are grateful to the Haitian Directorate of Epidemiology Laboratory and Research and Doctors without Borders from Switzerland for providing cholera case data from the Leogane cholera treatment unit. (cdc.gov)
  • The aquatic environment acts as a major part in the ecology, transmission, and epidemiology of V. cholerae . (springer.com)
  • 1XFK: 1.8A crystal strucutre of formiminoglutamase from Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar eltor str. (rcsb.org)
  • 1.8A crystal structure of formiminoglutamas from Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar eltor str. (rcsb.org)
  • Structure of the conserved hypothetical protein VC1805 from pathogenicity island VPI-2 of Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar eltor str. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Diversity, relatedness, and ecological interactions of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 populations in two distinctive habitats, the human intestine and the aquatic environment, were analyzed. (pnas.org)
  • In conclusion, the resulting population structure supports the hypothesis that spatial and temporal fluctuations in the composition of toxigenic V. cholerae populations in the aquatic environment can cause shifts in the dynamics of the disease. (pnas.org)
  • It is now widely accepted that the aquatic environment is the reservoir of toxigenic V. cholerae ( 3 , 9-11 ) and also is a habitat that can support survival of toxigenic clones by providing protective or nutrient microhabitats, e.g., particulate organic detritus and biomass of aquatic fauna and flora ( 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae persists in aquatic environments predominantly in a nonculturable state. (pnas.org)
  • However, fluorescent antibody-based studies show that V. cholerae O1 is, nevertheless, present in aquatic environments throughout the year ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The occurrence of V. cholerae O1 in the aquatic environment in the absence of human disease suggests that this organism survives and multiples in the natural environment. (asm.org)
  • By extracting total DNA from aquatic samples, the presence of pathogenic strains can be determined quickly and used to improve a microbiological risk assessment for cholera in coastal areas. (umd.edu)
  • O1 in a viable but not necessarily culturable state in ecological niches in aquatic environments during inter-epidemic periods, and investigation on the survival of this microorganism in such sites is therefore of the utmost importance. (scielosp.org)
  • From 179 water samples and 144 aquatic animals and plants, they obtained 7 V. cholerae O1 isolates, including 3 ctx -positive toxigenic strains. (cdc.gov)
  • We conclude that V. cholerae should not be overlooked as a differential diagnosis to otitis infections, especially when patients present with extra-intestinal infections after contact with brackish- or saltwater aquatic environments. (akjournals.com)
  • Aquatic environments such as rivers, estuaries and seas are the recognized reservoir for V. cholerae, where it can be found as free-living cells or attached to biotic or abiotic surfaces [ 2 ]. (springer.com)
  • The discovery of V. cholerae in the aquatic environment therefore, cannot be underestimated in the management and prevention of the disease. (springer.com)
  • On August 18, she sought care and This outbreak of domestically acquired, nontoxigenic V. chol- submitted the stool specimen that yielded the V. cholerae isolate. (cdc.gov)
  • The resistance profile and its correlation with mobile genetic elements were investigated in 11 Vibrio cholerae O1 and 2 Vibrio parahaemolyticus clinical isolates, as well as in 1 V. cholerae O1 and 1 V. cholerae non-O1 environmental isolate, isolated between 1991 and 1996 in different provinces of Angola. (asm.org)
  • reported a survey of water sources in Haiti conducted to isolate Vibrio cholerae ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In 2007, a sudden upsurge in tetracycline resistance was noted among V. cholerae isolates, from 1% in 2004 to 76% in 2007 before decreasing to ≈50% in 2009. (cdc.gov)
  • however, during the 6-year period, we observed the emergence of tetracycline resistance among V. cholerae O1 isolates and a sudden upsurge in such resistance in 2007 when 76% of the isolates were resistant. (cdc.gov)
  • 16 of 53 (30%) patients had a fourfold or greater increase in vibriocidal titer between 6 and 12 months after an episode of severe cholera, suggesting reexposure to the organism. (ajtmh.org)
  • 3. Chua AL, Elina HT, Lim BH, Yean CY, Ravichandran M, Lalitha P. Development of a dry reagent-based triplex PCR for the detection of toxigenic and non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. (ac.ir)
  • However, she had consumed first V. cholerae O1 case identified in a nontraveler in Minnesota ceviche made with raw shrimp and raw oysters at restaurant A since active surveillance for Vibrio began in 1996. (cdc.gov)
  • This outbreak of domestically acquired, nontoxigenic V. cholerae infections, likely from shrimp consumption, included the first V. cholerae O1 case identified in a nontraveler in Minnesota since active surveillance for Vibrio began in 1996. (cdc.gov)
  • Africa has been the continent with the highest number of officially reported cholera cases since 1996. (openaire.eu)
  • Hence, this study was aimed at analyzing the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae ( Vc ) in the alternative drinking waters of Mathbaria, a coastal subdistrict neighboring the Bay of Bengal, the efficacy of pond sand filter (PSF) and the co-association among Bacillus -like spore formers (Sf) and Vc . (frontiersin.org)
  • Cholera affects more than 75 countries and every continent (Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, World Health Organization, www.who.org ). (pnas.org)
  • Genetic similarity with epidemic strains is evaluated and the importance of V. cholerae surveillance in the Amazon is emphasized. (scielo.br)
  • A phage biotyping scheme has been used to subtype the Chinese O1 El Tor strains for 40 years ( 11 ), and it has played an important role in surveillance and source tracing of cholera. (asm.org)
  • During the 144 weeks of surveillance, 6,323 cases of clinically defined cholera were recorded in Lima. (asm.org)
  • In Peru, active surveillance for V. cholerae O1 and possibly vibriophages in sewage water appears to be a feasible and effective means of predicting and outbreak of cholera. (asm.org)
  • Since 1991, cholera surveillance in Peru has been based mainly on clinical recognition. (ajtmh.org)
  • To determine the proportion of reported cholera patients who actually have cholera and to evaluate the clinical case definition used in surveillance, we cultured rectal swabs from patients presenting with acute diarrhea in March 1992 in Trujillo, Peru. (ajtmh.org)
  • Our results provide a comprehensive picture of the rfbT gene mutations among the V. cholerae O1 strains in different epidemic periods, which could be further used as the tracing markers in clonality analysis and dissemination surveillance of the epidemic strains. (springer.com)
  • However, the actual numbers of cholera cases globally are estimated to be much higher than officially reported, due to underreporting and other limitations of surveillance systems. (openaire.eu)
  • Thus, the Mexican Gulf Coast, like the U.S. Gulf Coast, may act as an environmental reservoir of V. cholerae O1. (openaire.eu)
  • Cloning and nucleotide sequence determination of a heat-stable enterotoxin gene from Vibrio cholerae non-O1. (nih.gov)
  • OmpU, one of the major OMPs of V. cholerae , is regulated by the toxR gene ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • The V. cholerae sodB gene was detected in 74 of the 230 samples tested. (scielo.org.za)
  • Rectal swabs samples from patient with diarrhea were obtained, placed in Cary-Blair transport medium, and transported to the laboratory where they were processed for isolation and identification of Vibrio spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera in Lima, Peru, Correlates with Prior Isolation of Vibrio cholerae from the Environment. (ebscohost.com)
  • This analysis coupled with isolation data of V. cholerae O75 and O141 suggests these strains may represent an underappreciated clade of cholera-causing strains responsible for significant disease burden globally. (omictools.com)
  • High temperature, salinity, total dissolved solids and conductivity was found to significantly correlate positively with isolation of V. cholerae O1. (springer.com)
  • Cholera continues to pose a serious health threat globally, notably in those countries where clean drinking water is not available to local populations. (pnas.org)
  • This, in turn, may be a key element for V. cholerae to evolve new strains that can escape immunologic detection by host populations. (mdsoar.org)
  • A specialized phage can infect only a narrow range of hosts, so phage typing schemes are used in epidemiological studies of many bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( 2 ), Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ( 3 ), Vibrio cholerae ( 4 , 5 ), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( 6 - 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Prompt diagnosis of cholera is of key importance to initiate effective therapy and to institute proper epidemiological measures. (asm.org)
  • An outbreak of cholera began in Yemen in October 2016, and is ongoing as of December 2020. (wikipedia.org)