The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.
A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.
Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.
A species of halophilic bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which lives in warm SEAWATER. It can cause infections in those who eat raw contaminated seafood or have open wounds exposed to seawater.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, isolated from SHELLFISH, as well as from human diarrheal stools and ear infections.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A species of gram-negative, halophilic bacteria, in the genus VIBRIO. It is considered part of normal marine flora and commonly associated with ear infections and superficial wounds exposed to contaminated water sources.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A family of rod-shaped or filamentous bacteriophages consisting of single-stranded DNA. There are two genera: INOVIRUS and PLECTROVIRUS.
An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ALIIVIBRIO, which exhibits LUMINESCENCE. A. fischeri is found in a symbiotic relationship with the SQUID Euprymna scolopes.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.

Cloning and characterisation of a novel ompB operon from Vibrio cholerae 569B. (1/2229)

The ompB operon of Vibrio cholerae 569B has been cloned and fully sequenced. The operon encodes two proteins, OmpR and EnvZ, which share sequence identity with the OmpR and EnvZ proteins of a variety of other bacteria. Although the order of the ompR and envZ genes of V. cholerae is similar to that of the ompB operon of E. coli, S. typhimurium and X. nematophilus, the Vibrio operon exhibits a number of novel features. The structural organisation and features of the V. cholerae ompB operon are described.  (+info)

Role of DnaK in in vitro and in vivo expression of virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae. (2/2229)

The dnaK gene of Vibrio cholerae was cloned, sequenced, and used to construct a dnaK insertion mutant which was then used to examine the role of DnaK in expression of the major virulence factors of this important human pathogen. The central regulator of several virulence genes of V. cholerae is ToxR, a transmembrane DNA binding protein. The V. cholerae dnaK mutant grown in standard laboratory medium exhibited phenotypes characteristic of cells deficient in ToxR activity. Using Northern blot analysis and toxR transcriptional fusions, we demonstrated a reduction in expression of the toxR gene in the dnaK mutant strain together with a concomitant increase in expression of a htpG-like heat shock gene that is located immediately upstream and is divergently transcribed from toxR. This may be due to increased heat shock induction in the dnaK mutant. In vivo, however, although expression from heat shock promoters in the dnaK mutant was similar to that observed in vitro, expression of both toxR and htpG was comparable to that by the parental strain. In both strains, in vivo expression of toxR was significantly higher than that observed in vitro, but no reciprocal decrease in htpG expression was observed. These results suggest that the modulation of toxR expression in vivo may be different from that observed in vitro.  (+info)

Evolutionary relationships of pathogenic clones of Vibrio cholerae by sequence analysis of four housekeeping genes. (3/2229)

Studies of the Vibrio cholerae population, using molecular typing techniques, have shown the existence of several pathogenic clones, mainly sixth-pandemic, seventh-pandemic, and U.S. Gulf Coast clones. However, the relationship of the pathogenic clones to environmental V. cholerae isolates remains unclear. A previous study to determine the phylogeny of V. cholerae by sequencing the asd (aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) gene of V. cholerae showed that the sixth-pandemic, seventh-pandemic, and U.S. Gulf Coast clones had very different asd sequences which fell into separate lineages in the V. cholerae population. As gene trees drawn from a single gene may not reflect the true topology of the population, we sequenced the mdh (malate dehydrogenase) and hlyA (hemolysin A) genes from representatives of environmental and clinical isolates of V. cholerae and found that the mdh and hlyA sequences from the three pathogenic clones were identical, except for the previously reported 11-bp deletion in hlyA in the sixth-pandemic clone. Identical sequences were obtained, despite average nucleotide differences in the mdh and hlyA genes of 1.52 and 3.25%, respectively, among all the isolates, suggesting that the three pathogenic clones are closely related. To extend these observations, segments of the recA and dnaE genes were sequenced from a selection of the pathogenic isolates, where the sequences were either identical or substantially different between the clones. The results show that the three pathogenic clones are very closely related and that there has been a high level of recombination in their evolution.  (+info)

Genetic characterization of a new type IV-A pilus gene cluster found in both classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae. (4/2229)

The Vibrio cholerae genome contains a 5.4-kb pil gene cluster that resembles the Aeromonas hydrophila tap gene cluster and other type IV-A pilus assembly operons. The region consists of five complete open reading frames designated pilABCD and yacE, based on the nomenclature of related genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K-12. This cluster is present in both classical and El Tor biotypes, and the pilA and pilD genes are 100% conserved. The pilA gene encodes a putative type IV pilus subunit. However, deletion of pilA had no effect on either colonization of infant mice or adherence to HEp-2 cells, demonstrating that pilA does not encode the primary subunit of a pilus essential for these processes. The pilD gene product is similar to other type IV prepilin peptidases, proteins that process type IV signal sequences. Mutational analysis of the pilD gene showed that pilD is essential for secretion of cholera toxin and hemagglutinin-protease, mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (MSHA), production of toxin-coregulated pili, and colonization of infant mice. Defects in these functions are likely due to the lack of processing of N termini of four Eps secretion proteins, four proteins of the MSHA cluster, and TcpB, all of which contain type IV-A leader sequences. Some pilD mutants also showed reduced adherence to HEp-2 cells, but this defect could not be complemented in trans, indicating that the defect may not be directly due to a loss of pilD. Taken together, these data demonstrate the effectiveness of the V. cholerae genome project for rapid identification and characterization of potential virulence factors.  (+info)

Lipolytic action of cholera toxin on fat cells. Re-examination of the concept implicating GM1 ganglioside as the native membrane receptor. (5/2229)

The possible role of galactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM1) ganglioside in the lipolytic activity of cholera toxin on isolated fat cells has been examined. Analyses of the ganglioside content and composition of intact fat cells, their membranous ghosts, and the total particulate fraction of these cells indicate that N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide (GM3) represents the major ganglioside, with substantial amounts of N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM2) and smaller amounts of other higher homologues also present. Native GM1 was not detected in any of these preparations. Examination of the relative capacities of various exogenously added radiolabeled sphingolipids to bind to the cells indicated that GM2 and glucosylsphingosine were accumulated by the cells to extents comparable to GM1. Galactosylsphingosine and sulfatide also exhibited significant, although lesser, binding affinities for the cells. The adipocytes appeared to nonspecifically bind exogenously added GM1; saturation of binding sites for GM1 could not be observed up to the highest concentration tested (2 X 10(-4) M), wherein about 7 X 10(9) molecules were associated with the cells. Essentially all of this exogenously added GM1 was found bound to the plasma membrane "ghost" fraction. Investigation of the biological responses of the cells confirmed their sensitivities to both cholera toxin and epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis, as well as the lag period displayed during the toxin's action. While we could confirm that the toxin's lipolytic activity can be enhanced by prior treatment of the fat cells with GM1, several of the observed characteristics of this phenomenon differ from earlier reported findings. Accordingly, added GM1 was able to enhance only the subsequent rate, but not the extent, of toxin-stimulated glycerol release (lipolysis) from the cells. We also were unable to confirm the ability of GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity at either saturating or at low toxin concentrations. The limited ability of added GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity appeared in a unique bell-shaped dose-response manner. The inability of high levels of GM1 to stimulate a dose of toxin that was ineffective on native cells suggests that the earlier reported ability of crude brain gangliosides to accomplish this was due to some component other than GM1 in the crude extract. While several glycosphingolipids and some other carbohydrate-containing substances that were tested lacked the ability to mimic the enhancing effect of GM1, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside exhibited an effect similar to, although less pronounced than, that of GM1. The findings in these studies are unable to lend support to the earlier hypothesis that (a) GM1 is cholera toxin's naturally occurring membrane receptor on native fat cells, and (b) the ability of exogenously added GM1 to enhance the toxin's lipolytic activity represents the specific creation of additional natural receptors on adipocytes...  (+info)

Ribotypes of clinical Vibrio cholerae non-O1 non-O139 strains in relation to O-serotypes. (6/2229)

The emergence of Vibrio cholerae O139 in 1992 and reports of an increasing number of other non-O1 serogroups being associated with diarrhoea, stimulated us to characterize V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139 strains received at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan for serotyping. Ribotyping with the restriction enzyme BglI of 103 epidemiological unrelated mainly clinical strains representing 10 O-serotypes yielded 67 different typing patterns. Ribotype similarity within each serotype was compared by using the Dice coefficient (Sd) and different levels of homogeneity were observed (serotypes O5, O41 and O17, Sd between 82 and 90%: serotypes O13 and O141 Sd of 72; and O2, O6, O7, O11, O24 Sd of 62-66%). By cluster analysis, the strains were divided into several clusters of low similarity suggesting a high level of genetic diversity. A low degree of similarity between serotypes and ribotypes was found as strains within a specific serotypes often did not cluster but clustered with strains from other serotypes. However, epidemiological unrelated O5 strains showed identical or closely related ribotypes suggesting that these strains have undergone few genetic changes and may correspond to a clonal line. Surprisingly, 10 of 16 O141 strains studied contained a cholera toxin (CT) gene, including 7 strains recovered from stool and water samples in the United States. This is to our knowledge the first report of CT-positive clinical O141 strains. The closely related ribotypes shown by eight CT-positive strains is disturbing and suggest that these strains may be of a clonal origin and have the potential to cause cholera-like disease. Despite the low degree of correlation found between ribotypes and serotypes, both methods appears to be valuable techniques in studying the epidemiology of emerging serotypes of V. cholerae.  (+info)

Antibiotic resistance conferred by a conjugative plasmid and a class I integron in Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated in Albania and Italy. (7/2229)

Multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated during the 1994 outbreak of cholera in Albania and Italy were characterized for the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance. All strains were found to be resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin, spectinomycin, trimethoprim, sulfathiazole, and the vibriostatic compound O/129 (2,4-diamino-6,7-diisopropylteridine). Resistance genes were self-transferable by a conjugative plasmid of about 60 MDa, with the exception of spectinomycin resistance, which was conferred by the aadA1 gene cassette located in the bacterial chromosome within a class 1 integron. The resistance to trimethoprim and O/129 was conferred by the dfrA1 gene, which was present on the plasmid. Although the dfrA1 gene is known to be borne on an integron cassette, class 1, 2, or 3 intI genes were not detected as part of the plasmid DNA from the strains studied.  (+info)

Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae. (8/2229)

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

Looking for medication to treat infection+due+to+the+bacteria+vibrio+cholerae? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or reduce the symptoms of infection+due+to+the+bacteria+vibrio+cholerae
Three freshwater lakes, Lisi Lake, Kumisi Lake and Tbilisi Sea, near Tbilisi, Georgia, were studied from January 2006 to December 2007 to determine the presence of Vibrio cholerae employing both bacteriological culture method and direct detection methods, namely PCR and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA). For PCR, DNA extracted from water samples was tested for presence of V. cholerae and genes coding for selected virulence factors. Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 was routinely isolated by culture from all three lakes; whereas V. cholerae O1 and O139 were not. Water samples collected during the summer months from Lisi Lake and Kumisi Lake were positive for both V. cholerae and V. cholerae ctxA, tcpA, zot, ompU and toxR by PCR. Water samples collected during the same period from both Lisi and Kumisi Lake were also positive for V. cholerae serogroup O1 by DFA. All of the samples were negative for V. cholerae serotype O139. The results of this study provide evidence for an environmental presence of ...
Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes the severe diarrheal disease cholera. Several bacterial factors have been identified that are critical for V. cholerae intestinal colonization. The best characterized of these proteins is the type IV toxin coregulated pilus (TCP). The TCP structure is assembled by the products of the tcp operon genes as a polymer of repeating subunits of TcpA pilin that form long fibers which laterally associate into bundles. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to determine the molecular mechanism by which TCP mediates intestinal colonization. In vitro and in vivo analyses of the tcpA mutants reveal that a major function of TCP is to mediate bacterial interaction through direct pilus-pilus contact required for microcolony formation and productive intestinal colonization. In an effort to elucidate the functions of proteins involved in TCP biogenesis, in-frame deletions of the 10 tcp operon genes coding for putative pilus biogenesis proteins were ...
Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes the severe diarrheal disease cholera. Several bacterial factors have been identified that are critical for V. cholerae intestinal colonization. The best characterized of these proteins is the type IV toxin coregulated pilus (TCP). The TCP structure is assembled by the products of the tcp operon genes as a polymer of repeating subunits of TcpA pilin that form long fibers which laterally associate into bundles. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to determine the molecular mechanism by which TCP mediates intestinal colonization. In vitro and in vivo analyses of the tcpA mutants reveal that a major function of TCP is to mediate bacterial interaction through direct pilus-pilus contact required for microcolony formation and productive intestinal colonization. In an effort to elucidate the functions of proteins involved in TCP biogenesis, in-frame deletions of the 10 tcp operon genes coding for putative pilus biogenesis proteins were ...
While studying virulence gene regulation in Vibrio cholerae during infection of the host small intestine, we identified VieA as a two-component response regulator that contributes to activating expression of cholera toxin. Here we report that VieA represses transcription of Vibrio exopolysaccharide …
Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 Fatty acid metabolism regulator protein (fadR) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
Epidemic cholera is caused byVibrio cholerae serogroup O1 and a single other serogroup,V. cholerae O139, which emerged in 1992. V. cholerae O1 comprises two distinct biotypes, classical and El Tor, which differ in several biochemical traits. Data from many investigators suggests that V. cholerae O139 is likely to have derived from a V. cholerae O1 El Tor organism which underwent a recombinational event resulting in the substitution of the cluster of genes encoding the O139 serogroup antigen for the cluster of genes encoding the O1 serogroup antigen (1, 2, 4, 5,11-13). In addition to changes in the cell surface structure ofV. cholerae O139, two potentially mobile genetic elements have been found in this organism that are not present inV. cholerae O1 of the El Tor biotype. Waldor et al. (14) have described the presence in V. cholerae O139 of a conjugative transposon-like transmissible element that mediates resistance to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin. A κ-type vibriophage is ...
Vibrio cholerae O139 has recently emerged as the second etiologic agent of cholera in Asia. A study was carried out to evaluate the induction of specific immune responses to the organism in V. cholerae O139-infected patients. The immune responses to V. cholerae O139 Bengal were studied in patients by measuring antibody-secreting cells (ASC), as well as vibriocidal and antitoxic antibodies in the circulation. These responses were compared with those in patients with V. cholerae O1 disease. Strong immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM ASC responses were seen against the homologous lipopolysaccharide or serogroup of V. cholerae. The magnitude and isotype of the responses were similar in O139- and O1-infected patients. Vibriocidal antibody responses were seen against bacteria of the homologous but not heterologous serogroup, and these responses reflect the lack of cross-protection between the infections caused by the two serogroups. The two groups of patients showed comparable cholera toxin-specific ASC ...
DNA microarray technology is revolutionizing the field of bacterial pathogenesis by allowing researchers to monitor the expression of thousands of genes during the course of an in vitro or in vivo experiment. In this report, we have applied this technology to conduct a genome-wide search for V. cholerae genes belonging to the ToxR regulon, the key group of genes responsible for the virulence properties of this organism in humans. We also used microarrays to analyze the transcriptional state of vibrios shed from cholera patients.. We first compared the gene expression profiles of V. cholerae toxRS, tcpPH, and toxT mutants that were grown under in vitro conditions that are optimal for the expression of CT by El Tor O1 and O139 strains of V. cholerae. The transcriptional profile of the toxT mutant revealed the presence of few new ToxT-regulated genes. Newly identified genes include VC1091 (oligopeptide periplasmic binding protein), VC1835 (pal); VC2766 (atpA); VCA0059 (lpp); VCA0732 (conserved ...
V. cholerae and many related Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to become nonculturable under specific experimental conditions, although the time required for these cells to become nonculturable is variable (8, 9, 19-21). In this study, V. cholerae O1 cells in all microcosms became nonculturable on TCBS agar within 10-15 days, as has been reported by other investigators (19-21). V. cholerae O1 in biofilms collected from MW and in the biofilm in clinical specimens, when suspended in autoclaved MW that had tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by both culture and DFA, became nonculturable within 15 days. Conversely, MW-RT and MW-4C microcosms inoculated with freshly grown V. cholerae O1 showed culturability on TTGA and LA for 40 and 68 days, respectively. Miller et al. (22) suggested that toxigenic V. cholerae O1 could remain culturable for longer periods at a salinity of 0.25-3.0%, a pH of 8.0, and 25°C. The temperature, pH, and salinity of MW used in the studies reported here were not very ...
A toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), that is important for intestinal colonization of Vibrio cholerae O1, may be produced by vibrios of both classical and EI Tor biotypes. By comparing TCP produced by various strains of the two biotypes in immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) us …
Diversity, relatedness, and ecological interactions of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 populations in two distinctive habitats, the human intestine and the aquatic environment, were analyzed. Twenty environmental isolates and 42 clinical isolates were selected for study by matching serotype, geographic location of isolation in Bangladesh, and season of isolation. Genetic profiling was done by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-PCR, optimized for profiling by using the fully sequenced V. cholerae El Tor N16961 genome. Five significant clonal clusters of haplotypes were found from 57 electrophoretic types. Isolates from different areas or habitats intermingled in two of the five significant clusters. Frequencies of haplotypes differed significantly only between the environmental populations (exact test; P , 0.05). Analysis of molecular variance yielded a population genetic structure reflecting the differentiating effects of geographic area, habitat, and sampling time. Although a ...
Vibrio cholerae is the causative bacteria of the diarrheal disease cholera, but it also persists in aquatic environments, where it displays an expression profile that is distinct from that during infection. Upon entry into the host, a tightly regulated circuit coordinates the induction of two major virulence factors: cholera toxin and a toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). It has been shown that a set of bile salts, including taurocholate, serve as host signals to activate V. cholerae virulence through inducing the activity of the transmembrane virulence regulator TcpP. In this study, we investigated the role of calcium, an abundant mental ion in the gut, in the regulation of virulence. We show that whereas Ca2+ alone does not affect virulence, Ca2+ enhances bile salt-dependent virulence activation for V. cholerae. The induction of TCP by murine intestinal contents is counteracted when Ca2+ is depleted by the high-affinity calcium chelator EGTA, suggesting that the calcium present in the gut is a ...
Innate immune responses to V. cholerae infection have not been intensely studied in part due to the absence of a murine model for pathogenesis. The suckling mouse model has proven useful for the study of bacterial colonization and regulation of virulence factors (37). However, these 5-6-d-old mice do not have immune systems sufficiently developed for study of immunomodulation. Adult germ-free mouse models have been useful for evaluation of immunogenic potential of oral V. cholerae vaccine strains even though colonization may not occur (38), yet neither of these models is applicable for study of acute inflammatory responses. In this study, we report the use of a novel mouse model conceptually adapted from the studies of S. flexneri (30-32) and technically based on previous studies with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (39). We have demonstrated that V. cholerae can infect the lung of BALB/c mice leading to the development of inflammation.. The identity of the reactogenicity factor of V. cholerae vaccine ...
VopE, a mitochondrial targeting T3SS effector protein of Vibrio cholerae, perturbs innate immunity by modulating mitochondrial dynamics. In the current study, ectopic expression of VopE was found to be toxic in a yeast model system and toxicity was further aggravated in the presence of various stressors. Interestingly, a VopE variant the lacking predicted mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) also exhibited partial lethality in the yeast system. With the aid of yeast genetic tools and different stressors, we have demonstrated that VopE and its derivative VopE∆MTS modulate cell wall integrity (CWI-MAPK) signaling pathway and have identified several critical residues contributing to the lethality of VopE. Furthermore, co-expression of two effectors VopE∆MTS and VopX, interfering with the CWI-MAPK cellular pathway can partially suppress the VopX mediated yeast growth inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that VopE alters signaling through the CWI-MAPK pathway, and demonstrates the
Fluoroquinolones, which display potent antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, have been used in the clinical treatment of cholera (13). However, increased therapeutic use of fluoroquinolones has resulted in the appearance of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of V. cholerae O1 and O139 in clinical isolates from around the world (3, 9, 10).. In addition to V. cholerae O1 and O139, many other bacterial species have developed clinical resistance to fluoroquinolones. The molecular basis of this antibiotic resistance has been studied extensively (2). Most of the acquired resistance can be attributed to mutations in the genes encoding DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV (Topo IV). Bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones can also be conferred by increased expression of multidrug efflux pumps or reduced expression of outer membrane proteins, such as porins, resulting in reduced intracellular concentrations of antibiotics (5). DNA gyrase consists of GyrA and GyrB subunits, encoded by the ...
Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to microorganisms. On the other hand, biofilm formation is an energetically costly process and therefore must be tightly regulated and plastic, enabling biofilm bacteria to be responsive to the various environmental cues. The quorum sensing (QS) pathway of Vibrio cholerae activates the expression of VpsR, VpsT and AphA (the main activators of biofilm formation) at low cell density and HapR (the main repressor) at high cell density. At low cell density, biofilm genes, including Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) biosynthesis genes and the major extracellular matrix genes RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1, are expressed. The QS pathway also leads to induction of virulence factors such as toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CTX), essential for colonization of the host and enterotoxicity, respectively. The VarS/VarA signaling system responds to an unknown environmental cue and represses biofilm production by ...
Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to microorganisms. On the other hand, biofilm formation is an energetically costly process and therefore must be tightly regulated and plastic, enabling biofilm bacteria to be responsive to the various environmental cues. The quorum sensing (QS) pathway of Vibrio cholerae activates the expression of VpsR, VpsT and AphA (the main activators of biofilm formation) at low cell density and HapR (the main repressor) at high cell density. At low cell density, biofilm genes, including Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) biosynthesis genes and the major extracellular matrix genes RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1, are expressed. The QS pathway also leads to induction of virulence factors such as toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CTX), essential for colonization of the host and enterotoxicity, respectively. The VarS/VarA signaling system responds to an unknown environmental cue and represses biofilm production by ...
Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to microorganisms. On the other hand, biofilm formation is an energetically costly process and therefore must be tightly regulated and plastic, enabling biofilm bacteria to be responsive to the various environmental cues. The quorum sensing (QS) pathway of Vibrio cholerae activates the expression of VpsR, VpsT and AphA (the main activators of biofilm formation) at low cell density and HapR (the main repressor) at high cell density. At low cell density, biofilm genes, including Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) biosynthesis genes and the major extracellular matrix genes RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1, are expressed. The QS pathway also leads to induction of virulence factors such as toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CTX), essential for colonization of the host and enterotoxicity, respectively. The VarS/VarA signaling system responds to an unknown environmental cue and represses biofilm production by ...
Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA) of DNA using φ29 (phi29) DNA polymerase amplifies DNA several billion-fold, which has proved to be potentially very useful for evaluating genome information in a culture-independent manner. Whole genome sequencing using DNA from a single prokaryotic genome copy amplified by MDA has not yet been achieved due to the formation of chimeras and skewed amplification of genomic regions during the MDA step, which then precludes genome assembly. We have hereby addressed the issue by using 10 ng of genomic Vibrio cholerae DNA extracted within an agarose plug to ensure circularity as a starting point for MDA and then sequencing the amplified yield using the SOLiD platform. We successfully managed to assemble the entire genome of V. cholerae strain LMA3984-4 (environmental O1 strain isolated in urban Amazonia) using a hybrid de novo assembly strategy. Using our method, only 178 out of 16,713 (1%) of contigs were not able to be inserted into either chromosome ...
Diarrhoea is a major health problem throughout the world, and responsible for high morbidity and mortality in Nepal. The crosssectional prospective study was carried out to screen ESBL producer from MDR Vibrio Cholerae, Salmonella and Shigella from 268 diarrhoeal stools from Nepalgunj Cholera outbreak and different hospitals of Nepal during April 2010 to January 2011. The specimens were processed by standard microbiological methods and confirmed with serology. Altogether 14.18% of bacteria were isolated with 8.21% V. cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa, 2.24% Shigella flexneri B and 3.73% Salmonella spp. Highest bacterial culture (47.36%) were isolated in Kathmandu while highest V. cholerae (77.27%) were isolated in Nepalgunj. The highest number of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were isolated from Kanti Childrens Hospital. Highest bacteria isolation (47.36%) and highest V. cholerae isolation (81.81%) were observed in the August. The bacteria isolation was significantly associated with places and months ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reaction intermediates in the heme degradation reaction by HutZ from. T2 - Vibrio cholerae. AU - Uchida, Takeshi. AU - Sekine, Yukari. AU - Dojun, Nobuhiko. AU - Lewis-Ballester, Ariel. AU - Ishigami, Izumi. AU - Matsui, Toshitaka. AU - Yeh, Syun Ru. AU - Ishimori, Koichiro. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - HutZ is a heme-degrading enzyme in Vibrio cholerae. It converts heme to biliverdin via verdoheme, suggesting that it follows the same reaction mechanism as that of mammalian heme oxygenase. However, none of the key intermediates have been identified. In this study, we applied steady-state and time-resolved UV-vis absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopy to study the reaction of the heme-HutZ complex with H2O2 or ascorbic acid. We characterized three intermediates: oxyferrous heme, meso-hydroxyheme, and verdoheme complexes. Our data support the view that HutZ degrades heme in a manner similar to mammalian heme oxygenase, despite their low sequence and structural ...
Summary The serum IgG response of human volunteers challenged with Vibrio cholerae O1 was analysed for reactivity to V. cholerae O1 outer-membrane antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the immunoblot technique. Purified outer-membrane antigen preparations from vibrios grown in low-iron conditions were separated by SDS-PAGE. Specific immunoblot reactions of human sera showed that an 18-kDa antigen, cholera protective antigen, was the major antigen with which sera reacted. ELISA revealed an increase in antibody to the 18-kDa antigen in nine of 10 challenged volunteers. This response was independent of the biotype and serotype of the V. cholerae O1 challenge strain. Cholera protective antigen appears to be one of the major outer-membrane antigens involved in the human immune response to infection with V. cholerae.
The Gram-negative pathogen Vibrio cholerae uses variety of regulatory molecules to modulate expression of virulence factors. One important regulatory element of microorganisms is small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), which control various cell functions such as expression of cell membrane proteins, mRNA decay and riboswitches. In this thesis studies, we demonstrated the roles of the sRNAs VrrA in regulation of outer membrane protein expression, biofilm formation and expression of ribosome binding proteins. In addition, we showed that VrrB, a newly discovered sRNA, played a role in amino acid dependent starvation survival of V. cholerae and might functioned as a riboswitch.. VrrA, a 140-nt sRNAs in V. cholerae, was controlled by the alternative sigma factor σE. The outer membrane protein, OmpT is known to be regulated by environmental signals such as pH and temperature via the ToxR regulon and carbon source signals via the cAMP-CRP complex. Our studies provide new insight into the regulation of OmpT by ...
We present the draft genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae InDRE 3140 recovered in 2013 during a cholera outbreak in Mexico. The genome showed the Vibrio 7th pandemic islands VSP1 and VSP2, the pathogenic islands VPI-1 and VPI-2, the integrative and conjugative element SXT/R391 (ICE-SXT), and both prophages CTXφ and RS1φ. ...
Surveillance was conducted during February and March 1991 in the pediatric emergency department of Cayetano Heredia Hospital, Lima, Peru, to contrast the characteristics of children with epidemic cholera with those of children with non-cholera-associated diarrhea. Among 626 patients 14 years of age or younger, Vibrio cholerae O1 was isolated...
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Background Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 has two major serotypes, Ogawa and Inaba, which may alternate among cholera epidemics. The rfbTgene is responsible for the conversion between the two...
The Vibrio cholerae genome revealed the presence of multiple sets of chemotaxis genes, including three cheA gene homologs. We found that the cheA-2, but not cheA-1 or cheA-3, gene is essential for chemotaxis under standard conditions. Loss of chemotaxis had no effect on virulence factor expression in vitro.. ...
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We examined the distribution of class I integrons and SXT elements in Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains, isolated in Calcutta, India, before and after the V. cholerae O139 outbreak in 1992. Class I integrons, with aadA1 gene cassette, were detected p ...
The complete genome of Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961 consists of two circular chromosomes (2,961,146 and 1,072,313 base pair) with 3,890 predicted open reading frames (2,775 and 1,115 on each chromosome respectively). The majority of recognizable genes for essential cell functions (such as DNA replication, transcription, translation, etc.) and pathogenicity (such as toxin, surface antigens, and adhesion) are located on the large chromosome. The small chromosome contains a large percentage of hypothetical genes, more genes that appear to have origins other than the Proteobacteria, a gene capture system (integron island) that suggests this may have been a mega-plasmid captured by an ancestral Vibrio species. The Vibrio cholerae genome sequence provides a starting point for understanding how a free living, environmental microorganism is also a human pathogen. Source: The Institute for Genomic Research ...
The early 2000s marked the end of the Golden age of the antibiotics and the beginning of the awareness on the potential threat to human health due to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. As a base-line study, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of 99 strains of non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolated fromwastewater and shellfish in 2000/2001 within La Rance estuary (Brittany, France). All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, imipenem, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin. The only resistances were to streptomycin, sulfonamides and ampicillin: 54.6% of the isolates had acquired resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent among them and only six isolates from cockles were multidrug resistant. On the basis of the distribution of a limited selection of resistance associated genes, our study shows that V. cholerae can constitute
Vibrio cholerae merupakan bakteri gram negatif, berbentuk koma (batang yang melengkung) dan bersifat motil (dapat bergerak), memiliki struktur antogenik dari antigen flagelar H dan antigen somatik O, gamma-proteobacteria, mesofilik dan kemoorganotrof, berhabitat alami di lingkungan akuatik dan umumnya berasosiasi dengan eukariot.[1] Spesies Vibrio kerap dikaitkan dengan sifat patogenisitasnya pada manusia, terutama V. cholerae penyebab penyakit kolera di negara berkembang yang memiliki keterbatasan akan air bersih dan memiliki sanitasi yang buruk.[2] V. cholerae ditemukan pertama kali oleh ahli anatomi dari Italia bernama Filippo Pacini pada tahun 1854.[3]. Namun, penemuan awal ini baru dikenal luas setelah Robert Koch, yang mempelajari penyakit kolera di Mesir, pada tahun 1883 membuktikan bahwa bakteri tersebut adalah penyebab kolera.[3] ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The ability of V. cholerae to form biofilms has been postulated to contribute to cholera epidemics by enhancing environmental persistence of the organisms in aquatic reservoirs. Expression of the EPS encoded by the vps genes is necessary to form the mature biofilms seen when V. cholerae is grown under the laboratory conditions utilized in this study (42, 44). A recent report (17) has shown that this particular EPS may be utilized only by the O139 strain MO10 found in freshwater biofilms, while a vps-independent MO10 biofilm, dependent on the O139 antigen, appears to form in saltwater environments (18). Considering that cholera infections are frequently derived from freshwater sources, especially in areas of endemicity, understanding the regulation of vps-dependent EPS expression is likely to be directly relevant to understanding the environmental persistence of epidemic strains.. Some of the details of the induction of EPS in V. cholerae are beginning to be understood. Two recent reports (8, 45) ...
Vibrio cholerae in O-group 139 was first isolated in 1992 and by 1993 had been found throughout the Indian subcontinent. This epidemic expansion probably resulted from a single source after a lateral gene transfer (LGT) event that changed the serotype of an epidemic V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain to O139. However, some studies found substantial genetic diversity, perhaps caused by multiple origins. To further explore the relatedness of O139 strains, we analyzed nine sequenced loci from 96 isolates from patients at the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Calcutta, from 1992 to 2000. We found 64 novel alleles distributed among 51 sequence types. LGT events produced three times the number of nucleotide changes compared to mutation. In contrast to the traditional concept of epidemic spread of a homogeneous clone, the establishment of variant alleles generated by LGT during the rapid expansion of a clonal bacterial population may be a paradigm in infections and epidemics ...
The occurrence of Salmonella and Vibrio cholerae in brackishwater ponds was monitored over a 2-year period in one of the major prawn exporting countries in Southeast Asia. The principal production areas were identified and regular samples taken for Salmonella and V. cholerae analysis. Results demonstrated that brackishwater ponds and cultured prawns were inherently contaminated with both bacterial pathogens. Salmonella spp. were present in 16.0% of prawns and 22.1% of mud/water samples from ponds; and V. cholerae present in 1.5% of prawns and 3.1% of mud/water samples. Culturing by intensive methods tended to favour contamination by these pathogens, which is most likely due to the accumulation of waste and increase in the volume of sediments in ponds. Typical environmental factors such as water temperature, pH, and salinity were all favourable for growth of microorganisms. The incidence of the pathogens increased during the wet season and was marginally higher when ponds were located close to ...
Vibrio cholerae is the pathogenic agent of the diarrhoeal disease cholera and the major determinant of the disease is the elaboration by the bacteria of the potent enterotoxin cholera toxin (CT). In order to successfully colonise a host V. cholerae must co-ordinately regulate the expression of genes necessary for survival and virulence. ToxR regulates the expression of 17 virulence genes including CT in response to environmental signals like temperature, pH and osmolarity. The change in environment from the external to the human host activates ToxR and the expression of virulence genes under its control. Although this regulon is well characterised it is possible that other regulators are involved. Two-component regulators are a family of proteins that have been isolated from different bacteria which control gene expression in response to environmental signals. The proteins in the family share a high degree of similarity which was exploited in the design of degenerate primers that were used ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of the vibriocidal antibody response in cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O139 bengal with the response in cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O1. AU - Qadri, F.. AU - Mohi, G.. AU - Hossain, J.. AU - Azim, T.. AU - Khan, A. M.. AU - Salam, M. A.. AU - Sack, R. B.. AU - Albert, M. J.. AU - Svennerholm, A. M.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139, now considered to be the second organism capable of causing epidemic severe dehydrating cholera, contains a capsular polysaccharide which makes it difficult for it to be used in the conventional vibriocidal antibody assay optimized for V. cholerae O1. After modification of the procedure, which involved tile use of specific bacterial strains, a lower bacterial inoculum, and increased amounts of complement, the vibriocidal antibody responses to V. cholerae O139 were measured in acute- and convalescent-phase sera from 33 V. choleras O139-infected and 18 V. cholerae O1-infected patients and in single serum samples ...
The nontoxigenic V. cholerae El Tor strains ferment sorbitol faster than the toxigenic strains, hence fast-fermenting and slow-fermenting strains are defined by sorbitol fermentation test. This test has been used for more than 40 years in cholera surveillance and strain analysis in China. Understanding of the mechanisms of sorbitol metabolism of the toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains may help to explore the genome and metabolism divergence in these strains. Here we used comparative proteomic analysis to find the proteins which may be involved in such metabolic difference. We found the production of formate and lactic acid in the sorbitol fermentation medium of the nontoxigenic strain was earlier than of the toxigenic strain. We compared the protein expression profiles of the toxigenic strain N16961 and nontoxigenic strain JS32 cultured in sorbitol fermentation medium, by using fructose fermentation medium as the control. Seventy-three differential protein spots were found and further identified by MALDI
Coastal marine Vibrio cholerae populations usually exhibit high genetic diversity. To assess the genetic diversity of abundant V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 populations in the Central European lake Neusiedler See, we performed a phylogenetic analysis based on recA, toxR, gyrB and pyrH loci sequenced for 472 strains. The strains were isolated from three ecologically different habitats in a lake that is a hot-spot of migrating birds and an important bathing water. We also analyzed 76 environmental and human V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 isolates from Austria and other European countries and added sequences of seven genome-sequenced strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the lake supports a unique endemic diversity of V. cholerae that is particularly rich in the reed stand. Phylogenetic trees revealed that many V. cholerae isolates from European countries were genetically related to the strains present in the lake belonging to statistically supported monophyletic clades. We hypothesize that the observed
TY - JOUR. T1 - Duration of serum antitoxin response following Vibrio cholerae infection in North Americans. T2 - Relevance for seroepidemiology. AU - Levine, Myron M.. AU - Young, Charles R.. AU - Hughes, Timothy P.. AU - Odonnell, Sylvia. AU - Black, Robert E.. AU - Clements, Mary Lou. AU - Robins-browne, Roy. AU - Lim, Yu Leong. PY - 1981/9. Y1 - 1981/9. N2 - Because of repeated infections with bacterial enteropathogens elaborating antigenically related enterotoxins, persons living in less-developed areas even where cholera is not endemic have high prevalence and levels of cholera antitoxin. Thus, in less-developed areas, antitoxin is not helpful for the seroepidemiology of cholera. In contrast, since diarrheal infections due to pathogens elaborating cholera-like enterotoxins are rare in industrialized countries, this study reviewed the magnitude and duration of the serum antitoxin response to cholera infections in North Americans to develop guidelines for use of antitoxin as a ...
We identified 281 Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strains from patients with diarrhea in Kolkata, India. Cholera-like diarrhea was the major symptom (66.0%); some patients (20.3%) had severe dehydration. These strains lacked the ctxA gene but many had hlyA, rtxA, and rtxC genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed no genetic link among strains.
Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1, Serotype Ogawa, Biotype El Tor Strain -- La Huasteca Region, Mexico, 2013. Díaz-Quiñonez, Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; Montes-Colima, Norma; Moreno-Pérez, Asunción; Galicia Nicolás, Adriana; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Carmona Ramos, Concepción; Sánchez-Mendoza, Miroslava; Cruz Rodríguez-Martínez, José; Suárez-Idueta, Lorena; Eugenia Jiménez-Corona, María; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo // MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report;6/27/2014, Vol. 63 Issue 25, p552 The article reports on the outbreak of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor strain in the La Huasteca region in Mexico in September 2013. Topics discussed include the identification of two cases of cholera in Mexico City by Mexicos National System of... ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficacy of solar disinfection of Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella Typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae. AU - Berney, M.. AU - Weilenmann, H. U.. AU - Simonetti, A.. AU - Egli, T.. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Aims: To determine the efficacy of solar disinfection (SODIS) for enteric pathogens and to test applicability of the reciprocity law. Methods and Results: Resistance to sunlight at 37°C based on F99 values was in the following order: Salmonella Typhimurium , Escherichia coli , Shigella flexneri , Vibrio cholerae. While F90 values of Salm. Typhimurium and E. coli were similar, F99 values differed by 60% due to different inactivation curve shapes. Efficacy seemed not to be dependent on fluence rate for E. coli stationary cells. Sensitivity to mild heat was observed above a temperature of 45°C for E. coli, Salm. Typhimurium and Sh. flexneri, while V. cholerae was already susceptible above 40°C. Conclusions: Salmonella Typhimurium was the most resistant and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The capsule polysaccharide structure and biogenesis for non-O1 Vibrio cholerae NRT36S. T2 - Genes are embedded in the LPS region. AU - Chen, Yuansha. AU - Bystricky, Peter. AU - Adeyeye, Jacob. AU - Panigrahi, Pinaki. AU - Ali, Afsar. AU - Johnson, Judith A.. AU - Bush, C. A.. AU - Morris, J. G.. AU - Stine, O. C.. PY - 2007/4/13. Y1 - 2007/4/13. N2 - Background. In V. cholerae, the biogenesis of capsule polysaccharide is poorly understood. The elucidation of capsule structure and biogenesis is critical to understanding the evolution of surface polysaccharide and the internal relationship between the capsule and LPS in this species. V. cholerae serogroup O31 NRT36S, a human pathogen that produces a heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST), is encapsulated. Here, we report the covalent structure and studies of the biogenesis of the capsule in V. cholerae NRT36S. Results. The structure of the capsular (CPS) polysaccharide was determined by high resolution NMR spectroscopy and shown to be a ...
Vibrio cholerae is a bacterium causing the disease cholera. It is part of the genus Vibrio, in the family Vibrionaceae. Like all Proteobacteria, it is gram negative. V. cholerae can respire aerobically if oxygen is present and can switch to anaerobic respiration if oxygen is not present (fermentation).. ...
Vibrio cholera survival in an aquatic environment depends on chitin utilization pathway that requires two factors, chitin binding protein and chitinases. The chitinases and the chitin utilization pathway are regulated by a two-component sensor histidine kinase ChiS in V. cholerae. In recent studies these two factors are also shown to be involved in V. cholerae pathogenesis. However, the role played by their upstream regulator ChiS in pathogenesis is yet to be known. In this study, we investigated the activation of ChiS in presence of mucin and its functional role in pathogenesis. We found ChiS is activated in mucin supplemented media. The isogenic chiS mutant (ChiS-) showed less growth compared to the wild type strain (ChiS+) in the presence of mucin supplemented media. The ChiS- strain also showed highly retarded motility as well as mucin layer penetration in vitro. Our result also showed that ChiS was important for adherence and survival in HT-29 cell. These observations indicate that ChiS is ...
Vibrio cholera survival in an aquatic environment depends on chitin utilization pathway that requires two factors, chitin binding protein and chitinases. The chitinases and the chitin utilization pathway are regulated by a two-component sensor histidine kinase ChiS in V. cholerae. In recent studies these two factors are also shown to be involved in V. cholerae pathogenesis. However, the role played by their upstream regulator ChiS in pathogenesis is yet to be known. In this study, we investigated the activation of ChiS in presence of mucin and its functional role in pathogenesis. We found ChiS is activated in mucin supplemented media. The isogenic chiS mutant (ChiS-) showed less growth compared to the wild type strain (ChiS+) in the presence of mucin supplemented media. The ChiS- strain also showed highly retarded motility as well as mucin layer penetration in vitro. Our result also showed that ChiS was important for adherence and survival in HT-29 cell. These observations indicate that ChiS is ...
Vibrio cholera, causing acute watery diarrhea known as cholera disease, affects all ages and both genders. Cholera infection outbreaks in Iraq have been reported for several years. The recent cholera outbreak, emerged throughout 2015, was investigated using bacteriological laboratory tests, singleplex and multiplex PCR technique for the detection of V. cholera from stool samples. Furthermore the toxigenic potential coupled with the antibiotic susceptibility test for cholera and other bacteria were also investigated. The stool samples were collected from 5698 patients admitted to Al-Yarmouk Teaching hospital and health care centers in Baghdad/Al-Karkh, Iraq, from the 1st of August to the 30th of December 2015. The V. cholera was isolated from 194 cases (3.4% of the cases age between 21 - 50 years). In addition, other enteric infections: Salmonellosis and Shigellosis 7 and 21 respectively, protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica 2 and 43 cases respectively were also reported. High
Vibrio cholerae is a human pathogen that causes mild to severe diarrheal illnesses and has major public health significance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of antimicrobial activity of the gold nanoparticles on Vibrio cholera. Gold and Silver nanoparticles are chemically synthesized. Standard strain of Vibrio cholerawas cultured in a nutrient broth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by micro dilution.
Abstract. Multiple Vibrio cholerae infections within the same household are common. Household contacts of patients with cholera were observed with daily clinical assessments and collection of rectal swab cultures for nine days after presentation of the index case. During the follow-up period, 71 (24%) of 294 household contacts developed a positive V. cholerae rectal swab, signifying bacterial shedding. The average length of bacterial shedding was 2.0 days (95% confidence interval 1.7-2.4). However, 16 (5%) of 294 contacts shed V. cholerae for ≥ 4 days. In a multivariate analysis, malnutrition was predictive of long-term shedding (odds ratio = 1.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-13, P = 0.02). High rates of V. cholerae infection and bacterial shedding among household contacts of cholera patients represent an opportunity for intervention to reduce V. cholerae transmission.
Background: In V. cholerae, the biogenesis of capsule polysaccharide is poorly understood. The elucidation of capsule structure and biogenesis is critical to understanding the evolution of surface polysaccharide and the internal relationship between the capsule and LPS in this species. V. cholerae serogroup O31 NRT36S, a human pathogen that produces a heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST), is encapsulated. Here, we report the covalent structure and studies of the biogenesis of the capsule in V. cholerae NRT36S. Results: The structure of the capsular (CPS) polysaccharide was determined by high resolution NMR spectroscopy and shown to be a complex structure with four residues in the repeating subunit. The gene cluster of capsule biogenesis was identified by transposon mutagenesis combined with whole genome sequencing data (GenBank accession DQ915177). The capsule gene cluster shared the same genetic locus as that of the O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biogenesis gene cluster. Other than V. ...
Gila River Vibrio cholerae Investigation Upper Gila Watershed Graham, Greenlee, and Gila Counties Conducted jointly by Arizona Department of Environmental Quality Arizona Department of Health Services February 5, 2007 Publication Number OFR 07-02 1 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 BACKGROUND INFORMATION .................................................................. 4 2.0 METHODS AND RESULTS............................................................................ 5 2.1 OVERVIEW .................................................................................................... 5 2.1.1 August Sample Collections.................................................................. 5 2.1.2 September Sample Collections ............................................................ 7 2.1.3 October Sample Collections ................................................................. 8 3.0 DISCUSSION ................................................................................................. 9 3.1 Vibrio ...
This study characterizes 28 Vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from seawater from the Seacoast of Monastir (Khenis; Tunisia). V. alginolyticus were isolated using the TCBS modified agar plates and the biochemical activities were tested using RapID NF plus Strips. Proteases activities, hemolysis, antibiotics susceptibility, and adhesion to fish mucus and epithelial cell lines (Hep-2 and Caco-2) were also investigated. Eight Vibrio cholerae virulence genes (toxR, toxS, toxRS, toxT, ctxA, vpi, ace, zot) were investigated by PCR in genomes of V. alginolyticus strains. Most of the studied strains were β-haemolytic and produce many proteolytic enzymes. All isolates described here were resistant to several antibiotics tested. Six strains were able to adhere strongly to both Hep-2 and Caco-2 cell lines. The PCR investigation of V. cholerae genes showed a large distribution among the genomes of all V. alginolyticus strains. The toxR operon was found in 9 V. alginolyticus strains out of 28 studied. ...
Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells.
In the present study, we identified and characterized five flagellin genes in the human pathogen V. cholerae. Many flagellated bacterial species contain just one or two flagellin genes, which code for the structural subunit of the flagellar filament, so the presence of five separate genes in V. cholerae is puzzling, especially since the five predicted gene products have significant homology to each other (61 to 82% identity). In this respect, V. cholerae is similar to other Vibrio spp., notably the human pathogen V. parahaemolyticus (four polar flagellin genes [33]) and the fish pathogen V. anguillarum (five polar flagellin genes [34]), which has an identical arrangement of flagellin genes with the highest homology to those from V. cholerae.. Phenotypes of V. cholerae flagellin mutants revealed that the FlaA protein is essential for motility and that flaAstrains are nonflagellated. Expression of the other four flagellins in a flaA strain remains high, indicating that although highly homologous, ...
The bacterial human pathogen Vibrio cholerae contains three sets of chemotaxis proteins (I, II, and III). Interestingly, both membrane anchored and cytoplasmic arrays are formed in V. cholerae. The main difference between membrane-bound and cytoplasmic arrays is that in cytoplasmic chemoreceptor arrays, two layers of receptors are stacked head-to-head, sandwiched between two layers of CheA and CheW chemotaxis proteins, whereas in the membrane anchored arrays, one layer of membrane anchored receptors associate with one layer of CheA and CheW chemotaxis proteins. Using fluorescence microscopy and electron cryotomography, the research groups of Simon Ringgaard and Grant Jensen were able to show that V. choleraes cytoplasmic chemoreceptor array only consists of the cluster I proteins and forms independently of cluster II and III proteins. Formation of this cytoplasmic array was also found to depend on DosM, the only cytoplasmic receptor in cluster I.. Using subvolume averaging within a ...
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Many mathematical models have been made from the cholera outbreak in Haiti, but our model is unique because it incorporated empirical data on the isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 from surface waters in the Ouest Department of Haiti. We noticed that while the weekly reported cases seemed to be declining in the third and fourth years of the outbreak, the frequency of isolation of toxigenic V. cholerae in the environment was actually increasing. Under the current dogma of cholera transmission models, V. cholerae shed by humans into the environment only exists in a transient state governed by a constant rate of decay. The assumption is that although V. cholerae is an aquatic pathogen, it lacks the ability to replicate and survive for prolonged periods in surface waters. Given our understanding of V. cholerae biology, this is likely an oversimplification which precluded the possibility for an increase in environmental concentrations during a period where cholera incidence was infrequent or declining, ...
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Glycophorins are the most abundant sialoglycoproteins on the surface of human erythrocyte membranes. Genetic variation in glycophorin region of human chromosome 4 (containing GYPA, GYPB, and GYPE genes) is of interest because the gene products serve as receptors for pathogens of major public health interest, including Plasmodiumsp., Babesiasp., Influenza virus, Vibrio cholerae El Tor Hemolysin, and Escherichia coli. A large structural rearrangement and hybrid glycophorin variant, known as Dantu, which was identified in East African populations, has been linked with a 40% reduction in risk for severe malaria. Apart from Dantu, other large structural variants exist, with the most common being deletion of the whole GYPB gene and its surrounding region, resulting in multiple different deletion forms. In West Africa particularly, these deletions are estimated to account for between 5 and 15% of the variation in different populations, mostly attributed to the forms known as DEL1 and DEL2. Due to the lack of
After last years Ebola scare and the recent outbreak of the measles, many might not recall much earlier stories of the cholera epidemics so severe they led to infrastructure reforms. Multiple scares between the epidemics and after sent residents and military groups fleeing from the city. Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. According to Promises to Keep, a history of the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word in San Antonio, the death toll reached 600 by the epidemics end, out of a population of 5,000. After the epidemic, the Board of Health recommended reforms in San Antonio, such as paving the sidewalks and grading the streets to provide gutters that would drain stagnant waters.
Chitin concentrations greater than 0.04% (wt/wt) protected cholera vibrios against killing at low temperature. This protective effect was detected with both the soluble form of chitin, glycol chitin, and the insoluble particulate form of chitin. Some amino acids or peptides also showed the same protective effect. ...
Chitin concentrations greater than 0.04% (wt/wt) protected cholera vibrios against killing at low temperature. This protective effect was detected with both the soluble form of chitin, glycol chitin, and the insoluble particulate form of chitin. Some amino acids or peptides also showed the same protective effect. ...
Summary Applied routinely to 1081 recently isolated cultures, the phenol-induced slide-agglutination test (standard procedure) with flagellar antiserum correctly identified 98-9% of Vibrio cholerae strains of O type-I and NAG serotypes; 10% of cultures were unstable in phenol-saline. The incidence of instability and other types of defect was higher (7-3%) in older stock cultures. The majority of such strains were successfully tested by one of the three modified procedures. No cross-reactions were observed in 47 cultures of other species including the halophilic vibrios. Only one out of the 1205 cultures of V. cholerae tested by all procedures reacted negatively; this strain was found to lack functional flagella. These results establish the significance of flagellar specificity as a classificatory determinant in V. cholerae, and the fidelity and utility of the phenol test in routine bacteriology.
Author Summary Multi-drug resistant bacteria continue to emerge and there is a pressing need for the development of new antibiotics. Here, we carried out a cell-based high throughput screen to identify inhibitors of RctB, the initiator of replication of the second chromosome found in all the species of the Vibrionaceae. This family of bacteria includes several human pathogens, including Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, as well as several species that damage economically important marine organisms. We identified a compound-designated vibrepin-that has potent cidal activity against V. cholerae and inhibited growth of all vibrio species tested. Vibrepin blocked RctB unwinding of the origin of replication of the second V. cholerae chromosome, apparently by promoting the formation of large non-functional RctB complexes. Vibrepin represents a new class of antibiotic that specifically targets a particular family of microorganisms (the Vibrionaceae). Such targeted agents will not engender resistance in
Cholera epidemics have been a problem throughout history, but this year there were several outbreaks that sparked global concern. Cholera is caused by ingesting food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It can cause severe watery diarrhea and dehydration, and kill within hours if left untreated. However, many people have mild or no symptoms and recover with supportive care and treatment with oral rehydration solutions. The disease is highly contagious and spreads rapidly in areas with poor sewage infrastructure and inadequate hygiene.. The largest cholera outbreak this year occurred in Yemen, and since the outbreak began in October there have been 862,858 suspected cases and 2,177 deaths - but those numbers are expected to rise before the year …read more Via:: Health Topics by BuzzFeed. ...
Cholera epidemics caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 occur regularly in Bangladesh and India and sporadically in many parts of the world. In 1993, a total of 296,206 new cases of cholera were reported in South America after about a century, involving more than 15 countries. The outbreaks of cholera that have occurred during the past decade originated in coastal areas. From our previous work, V. cholerae attaches to plankton in the aquatic environment, providing the vehicle for dispersal. The organism attaches preferentially to zooplankton, particularly copepods, but it also attaches in lower numbers and without reproduction onto some species of phytoplankton. Phytoplankton provide the main food source for zooplankton so the two forms of plankton are tightly linked in space and time. Under adverse conditions of temperature and nutrients V. cholerae enters a dormant, non-culturable state which makes it difficult to detect. Although V. cholerae cannot be detected in any state by remote sensing ...
At The Mortenson Center blog, we are pleased to continue our series of posts by students of the Center. Cholera is a waterborne illness that is mainly caused by poor sanitary conditions that expose individuals to the bacterium vibrio cholerae. In many rural parts of the world, flooding at the start of the rainy season…
Cholera, a devastating diarrheal disease, has swept through the world in recurrent pandemics since 1817. The seventh and ongoing pandemic began in 1961 when the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae O1 emerged in Indonesia. This pandemic spread through Asia and Africa and finally reached Latin America early in 1991 (1). After explosive epidemics in coastal Peru, it spread rapidly and continues throughout Latin America (Figure). Because of underreporting, the more than 1,000,000 cholera cases and 10,000 deaths reported from Latin America through 1994 (Table 1) (2) represent only a small fraction of the actual number of infections. Molecular characterization of V. cholerae O1 strains from Peru has shown that they do not match strains from anywhere else in the world; therefore, the source of the Peruvian epidemic strains remains unknown (3). Moreover, other strains have since appeared in Latin America. At least one of these, a strain resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs, was first identified in ...
Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the severe watery diarrhoeal disease known as cholera, a major public health concern in most developing countries.. More than 200 serogroups have been described on the basis of different somatic O antigens [1], but only serogroups O1 and O139 have the ability to cause harsh epidemics. Serogroup O1 is further divided into two main biotypes, Classical and the 7th pandemic El Tor. Beside their phenotypic characteristics, differences in specific genetic markers, such as toxin structure, confer distinct features to these biotypes.. Pathogenic V. cholerae strains carry the genes encoding the cholera toxin (CT) on the CTXΦ prophage. Different CTXΦ arrangements have been described within the O1 serogroup [2]. These arrangements depend on the genotype of the CT gene ctxB and on the organization and chromosomal location of several gene clusters of phage origin, namely the core, RS2, and RS1 [2]. Although the Classical biotype is considered extinct, new El Tor ...
A team of biologists at the University of York has made an important advance in our understanding of the way cholera attacks the body. The discovery could help scientists target treatments for the globally significant intestinal disease which kills more than 100,000 people every year.. The disease is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is able to colonise the intestine usually after consumption of contaminated water or food. Once infection is established, the bacterium secretes a toxin that causes watery diarrhea and ultimately death if not treated rapidly. Colonization of the intestine is difficult for incoming bacteria as they have to be highly competitive to gain a foothold among the trillions of other bacteria already in situ.. Scientists at York, led by Dr Gavin Thomas in the University´s Department of Biology, have investigated one of the important routes that V. cholera uses to gain this foothold. To be able to grow in the intestine the bacterium harvests and then eats a ...
The world has experienced 7 cholera pandemics since 1817. The first six were caused by the classic biotype of the O1 serogroup of Vibrio cholerae. The 7th pandemic which began in 1961 and is still ongoing (with spread to Haiti and Mexico) is due to the less virulent El Tor biotype of O1 V.cholerae. In a project, my colleagues and I estimated global cholera costs as exceeding $3 billion annually. It was in 1849 during the 2nd pandemic that Dr. John Snow made his pathbreaking epidemiological discovery regarding the role of water in the spread of the cholera microbe--yet to be identified (see The Ghost Map and The Strange Case of the Broad Street Pump). During that pandemic, Dr. John Neill of Philadelphia preserved an intestine from a patient for further study.. The New England Journal of Medicine just published the results of a successful attempt to extract the cholera microbe from that over-a-century old specimen. The bacterium recovered was of the classical biotype (as predicted) and had a ...
Cholera is an often severe and potentially fatal diarrheal disease caused by toxin-producing strains of the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. It is spread by food and water that is contaminated by the feces of an infected person.
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is molecular machine used by a wide range of Gram-negative bacterial species to transport proteins from the interior (cytoplasm or cytosol) of a bacterial cell across the cellular envelope into an adjacent target cell. The T6SS was first identified in 2006 in Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera. Since then, Type VI secretion systems have been found in a quarter of all Proteobacterial genomes, including pathogens of animals, plants, and humans, as well as soil, environmental or marine bacteria. While most of the early studies of Type VI secretion focused on its role in the pathogenesis of higher organisms, it is now known to function primarily in interbacterial antagonism. The T6SS is thought to resemble an inverted phage extending outward from the bacterial cell surface. It consists of 14 proteins that assemble into three sub-complexes: a phage tail-like tubule, a phage baseplate-like structure, and cell-envelope spanning membrane complex. These three ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C3LNU9 (MSRB_VIBCM), Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase MsrB. Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 (strain M66-2)
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Russo explains that both strains of K. pneumoniae can be deadly, but the classical strain is more likely to infect patients with underlying disease, or who are immune-compromised and hospitalized.. By contrast, the hypervirulent strain can infect healthy, young people in the community, causing sudden, life-threatening complications, ranging from liver or brain abscesses to flesh-eating infections. While its currently less likely to be antibiotic resistant, these strains continue to evolve. Classical strains are more likely to be antimicrobial resistant.. Whats increasingly concerning is the growing number of reports that describe strains of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae that are antimicrobial resistant, said Russo. A bug thats both hypervirulent and challenging to treat is a bad combination.. An antimicrobial-resistant hypervirulent strain can develop in one of two ways, he explained: either by acquiring antimicrobial-resistance genes, or when an antimicrobial-resistant classical strain ...
Vibrio alebo vibrión[1] je rod patriaci do čeľade Vibrionaceae. Najdôležitejšími druhmi sú Vibrio cholerae a Vibrio El Tor (dnes považované skôr za variant v rámci druhu V. cholerae), pôvodcovia cholery. Okrem nich existujú ďalšie patogénne druhy, ktoré môžu vyvolať ochorenia tráviaceho traktu i celkové ochorenia človeka. Typickým znakom rodu je rast tejto skupiny vo vode a citlivosť na koncentrácie solí v nej.. ...
Bacteria can monitor their population density through the perception of molecules secreted by other local bacteria. This phenomenon leads to changes in bacterial behavior and changes in gene expression, and is termed quorum sensing. Quorum sensing in Vibrio cholerae, a major pathogenic bacterium in humans, is known to exist, but the gene targets of the sensing pathway are unknown. Zhu et al. found that a two-component signal module that includes the intracellular response regulator LuxO regulates virulence genes in V. cholerae. Vibrio mutants that lacked functional LuxO produced greatly decreased amounts of virulence-associated gene products, suggesting that LuxO was important for the expression of the virulence genes. The expression of HapR, which negatively regulated the expression of virulence genes, was decreased in a LuxO-dependent manner, suggesting one mechanism by which LuxO may increase virulence gene expression indirectly. HapR was expressed in luxO mutants, but not in wild-type ...
This project is complete.. Goals. Several strains of Vibrio species will be sequenced under this project. The goal is to identify the specific genes and/or polymorphisms that are correlated with expression of virulence and disease via comparative genomic analysis. This work will increase our knowledge of the virulence of this understudied biothreat pathogen and provide a foundation for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic countermeasures. Several strains of Vibrio cholerae and closely related Vibrio species have been approved for sequencing under this project.. Data Release. Chromatogram Files: We will submit all sequences and trace files (chromatograms) generated under this project to the Trace Archive at NCBI. These data will also include information on templates, vectors, and quality values for each sequence.. Genome Assemblies:We will assemble and release the sequences for the three Vibrio strains being sequenced to 8X at the 3X coverage. A second data release will occur once 8X ...
Vibrios are facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are metabolically similar to the Enterobacteriaceae. They are ubiquitous to oceans, coastal waters, and estuaries. The best known species is Vibrio cholerae, which can cause severe diarrheal illness in humans.The genus Vibrio consists of Gram-negative straight or curved rods, motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Vibrios are capable of both respiratory and fermentative metabolism.Classic cholera is characterised by an abrupt onset of vomiting and profuse watery diaorrhea. Fluid losses can be significant (up to 20 L/day) and hypovolemic shock and metabolic acidosis can cause death within a few hours of onset, especially in children. Mortality, in untreated cases, is as high as 60%. In the past 180 years, 7 pandemics were reported, usually of Bengali origin, with the latest pandemic originating in Indonesia in 1961 and moving to the Western hemisphere. In 1991, a cholera outbreak in Peru and 20 other countries in the Western hemisphere ...
Monotrichous bacteria have a single flagellum (e.g., Vibrio cholerae). Lophotrichous bacteria have multiple flagella located at ... In some Vibrio spp. (particularly Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and related proteobacteria such as Aeromonas, two flagellar systems ... Atsumi T, McCarter L, Imae Y (January 1992). "Polar and lateral flagellar motors of marine Vibrio are driven by different ion- ... Kim YK, McCarter LL (July 2000). "Analysis of the polar flagellar gene system of Vibrio parahaemolyticus". Journal of ...
The cause of cholera (ingesting the Vibrio cholerae bacterium from contaminated water) and the best treatment for cholera ... Waldor, Matthew; Ryan, Edward (2011). "Vibrio Cholerae". Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ... Spread by cholera bacteria in fecal contaminated water, cholera caused massive diarrhea, leading to dehydration and death. In ... Cholera was responsible for taking many lives. As a fecal-oral disease, it commonly resulted from consuming food or water ...
Thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar enhances growth of Vibrio spp., including Vibrio cholerae. Bile esculin agar is ... and Vibrio. Xylose-lysine-deoxycholate agar is used for the culture of stool samples and contains two indicators. It is ...
Vibrio cholerae, and Yersinia pestis. Many viral agents have been studied and/or weaponized, including some of the Bunyaviridae ...
Vibrio cholerae (causative agent of cholera); Clostridium perfringens (common causative agent of food poisoning as well as gas ... "Small-molecule inhibitor of Vibrio cholerae virulence and intestinal colonization". Science. 310 (5748): 670-674. doi:10.1126/ ...
It was first isolated from Vibrio cholerae. The components of vibriobactin are three 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), two ... Keating, Thomas A.; Marshall, C. Gary; Walsh, Christopher T. (2000). "Vibriobactin Biosynthesis in Vibrio cholerae: VibH Is an ... a Siderophore from Vibrio cholerae". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 259 (1): 383. ...
Her dissertation was about developing vaccines for new classes of Vibrio cholerae involved in cholera epidemics across India ... Bik, Elisabeth M (1996). Cholera: vaccine development and evolution of epidemic Vibrio cholerae strains (Dissertation). Utrecht ... Mooi, F. R.; Gouw, R. D.; Bunschoten, A. E.; Bik, E. M. (1995-01-01). "Genesis of the novel epidemic Vibrio cholerae O139 ... ISBN 90-90091-73-4. Bik, Elisabeth M.; Mooi, Frits R. (1997-04-01). "The evolution of epidemic Vibrio cholerae strains". Trends ...
... as Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal and for his contributions on describing a cell-rounding factor from strains of Vibrio cholerae. ... in recognition and appreciation for his outstanding contribution to Public Health Education for Vibrio cholerae and Cholera in ... He has been working on enteric pathogens with particular emphasis on Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease ... 2008). Vibrio cholerae: Genomics and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-33-2.. ...
In the fellow gammaproteobacterium Vibrio cholerae, a different RNA regulatory system is used. Here, a sRNA named 'tfoR' ... Encoding a Positive Regulator of Natural Competence in Vibrio cholerae". Journal of Bacteriology. 193 (8): 1953-1965. doi: ... 2 induces natural competence in Vibrio cholerae through transcriptional and translational activation of a positive regulatory ... "Chitin induces natural competence in Vibrio cholerae". Science. 310 (5755): 1824-1827. doi:10.1126/science.1120096. PMID ...
This modification is a target for the powerful toxins of disparate bacteria, e.g., Vibrio cholerae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae ...
Robert Koch isolates Vibrio cholerae, the cholera bacillus. Osborne Reynolds popularizes use of the Reynolds number in fluid ...
It has also been used against Vibrio cholerae. International Drug Names Bougoudogo F, Fournier JM, Dodin A (1994). "[In vitro ... sensitivity of Vibrio cholerae serotype 0:139 to an intestinal antiseptic tiliquinol-tilbroquinol combination]". Bulletin de la ...
... (formerly known as A10) is a small non-coding RNA found in Vibrio cholerae. It was given the name MicX as it has a ... Davis BM, Waldor MK (July 2007). "RNase E-dependent processing stabilizes MicX, a Vibrio cholerae sRNA". Molecular Microbiology ... Page for MicX Vibrio cholerae sRNA at Rfam. ... "A new Vibrio cholerae sRNA modulates colonization and affects ... MicX was identified through a bioinformatics screen of V. cholerae having been previously predicted. Levels of transcription of ...
"LPLUNC1 modulates innate immune responses to Vibrio cholerae". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 204 (9): 1349-57. doi: ... lung and nasal epithelium clone 1 is associated with cholera in a Bangladeshi population" (PDF). Genes and Immunity. 10 (3): ...
"NTPase [Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar El Tor str. N16961]". National Center for Biotechnology Information. pTarget Archived 2009-06 ... The DUF84 region is found in the genome of a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae. The region consists of approximately 183 amino ... V. cholorae causes cholera and stomach flu in humans. The DUF84 region alone is about 160 amino acid residues. It is the only ...
Outer Membrane Protein OmpW Is the Receptor for Typing Phage VP5 in the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Biotype. J Virol. Ziebell K, ... Turbadkar SD, Ghadge DP, Patil S, Chowdhary AS, Bharadwaj R (April 2007). "Circulating phage type of Vibrio cholerae in Mumbai ...
Val ME, Soler-Bistué A, Bland MJ, Mazel D (December 2014). "Management of multipartite genomes: the Vibrio cholerae model". ... bacillus, from Latin baculus, stick). Some bacteria, called vibrio, are shaped like slightly curved rods or comma-shaped; ... Robert Koch, a pioneer in medical microbiology, worked on cholera, anthrax and tuberculosis. In his research into tuberculosis ... However, several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, ...
Filippo Pacini, an Italian anatomist, discovers Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera. Louis Pasteur begins ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Frerichs, Ralph R. (2001-08-05). "Who first discovered Vibrio cholera?". UCLA School of ... April-May - Dr John Snow traces the source of one outbreak of cholera in London (which kills 500) to a single water pump, ... validating his theory that cholera is water-borne, and forming the starting point for epidemiology. November - Florence ...
Hugh, Rudolph (1965). "Nomenclature and taxonomy of Vibrio cholerae Pacini 1854 and Vibrio eltor Pribam 1933". Public Health ... On page 191, he mentions the characteristic comma shape of Vibrio cholerae: "Im letzten Berichte konnte ich bereits gehorsamst ... Howard-Jones, N. (1984). "Robert Koch and the cholera vibrio: a centenary". British Medical Journal. 288 (6414): 379-381. doi: ... Lippi, D.; Gotuzzo, E. (2014). "The greatest steps towards the discovery of Vibrio cholerae". Clinical Microbiology and ...
Mekalanos JJ (1983). "Duplication and amplification of toxin genes in Vibrio cholerae". Cell. 35 (1): 253-63. doi:10.1016/0092- ... 2006). "Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model ... was focused on studying the genetic and biochemical analysis of the cholera toxin secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... a new approach to the isolation of tox mutants of Vibrio cholerae". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 75 (2): 941-5. doi:10.1073/pnas. ...
Worden AZ, Seidel M, Smriga S, Wick A, Malfatti F, Bartlett D, Azam F (2006). "Trophic regulation of Vibrio cholerae in coastal ... led to her work that overturned the idea that Vibrio cholerae existed primarily attached to copepods in aquatic systems. This ...
5) suppressors of copper sensitivity (TC# 5.A.1.5.1; copper tolerance proteins) of Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae ...
VqmR small RNA was discovered in Vibrio cholerae, a bacterium which can cause cholera, using differential RNA sequencing (sRNA- ... "The small RNA chaperone Hfq and multiple small RNAs control quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae". Cell. 118 (1 ... Bardill JP, Zhao X, Hammer BK (June 2011). "The Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing response is mediated by Hfq-dependent sRNA/mRNA ... Papenfort K, Förstner KU, Cong JP, Sharma CM, Bassler BL (February 2015). "Differential RNA-seq of Vibrio cholerae identifies ...
Vibrio cholerae produces a similar protein called the Cholix toxin (Q5EK40). It inhibits elongation factor-2. It does so by ADP ... a novel ADP-ribosylating factor from Vibrio cholerae". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283 (16): 10671-8. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
McDonald CE (2009). "A Two-Step Synthesis of Virstatin, A Virulence Inhibitor of Vibrio cholerae". J. Chem. Educ. 86 (4): 482. ... Hung DT, Shakhnovich EA, Pierson E, Mekalanos JJ (October 2005). "Small-molecule inhibitor of Vibrio cholerae virulence and ... Virstatin is a small molecule that inhibits the activity of the cholera protein, ToxT. Its activity in cholera was first ...
Mazel, D.; Dychinco, B; Webb, VA; Davies, J (1998). "A Distinctive Class of Integron in the Vibrio cholerae Genome". Science. ... to the integron with a long cassette array on the small chromosome of Vibrio cholerae. The term has since been used for ...
It also regulates sRNA in Vibrio cholerae, a specific example being MicX sRNA. In Salmonella typhimurium, Hfq has been shown to ... Davis BM, Waldor MK (July 2007). "RNase E-dependent processing stabilizes MicX, a Vibrio cholerae sRNA". Mol. Microbiol. 65 (2 ...
This region coincided with a peptide product generated by Vibrio cholerae. The eight amino acid sequence in this region was ... Larazotide is an octapeptide whose structure is derived from a protein (zonula occludens toxin) secreted by Vibrio cholerae. It ... Larazotide acetate is a synthetic peptide based on a Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin called zonula occludens toxin that decreases ...
Watnick, P. I.; Kolter, R. (November 1999). "Steps in the development of a Vibrio cholerae El Tor biofilm". Molecular ... Vibrio cholerae, and Bacillus subtilis. Microbial biofilms have since become a major field of microbiology, recognized as a ... "A role for the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin in biofilm formation by Vibrio cholerae El Tor". Journal of Bacteriology. 181 ( ...
In tropical areas analysis of Vibrio cholerae is also routinely undertaken. MacConkey agar is culture medium designed to grow ...
A00.0: Cholera zapríčinená Vibrio cholerae 01, biovar cholerae (klasická cholera). *A00.1: Cholera zapríčinená Vibrio cholerae ... ktorej pôvodcom je gramnegatívna baktéria Vibrio cholerae, najčastejšie biotypy Vibrio cholerae a Vibrio El Tor. ... Kapitola Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1. (po anglicky). *. Swerdlow DL, Mintz ED, Rodriguez M, Tejada E, Ocampo C, Espejo L, ... Vibrio cholerae produkuje enterotoxín choleragén, ktorý je príčinou vodnatých hnačiek - človek tak môže strácať až 25 litrov ...
... such as cholera bacteria (Vibrio cholerae), and causative agents of harmful algal blooms are often transported via ballast ...
... using the cholera vibrio, discovered ten years before by Robert Koch, as an antigen, Richard F. J. Pfeiffer introduced it in ... the abdomen of a guinea pig already vaccinated against this disease, and was able to observe the destruction of the vibrio in ...
Vibrio cholerae *Cholera. *Vibrio vulnificus. *Vibrio parahaemolyticus. *Vibrio alginolyticus. *Plesiomonas shigelloides. ...
Scanning electron microscope image of Vibrio cholerae. This is the bacterium that causes cholera. ...
100-1 billion bacteria cells Vibrio cholerae (Cholera): 1000-100,000,000 bacteria cells Typically, stomach acids can kill ...
Kategori ini digunakan untuk mendata artikel-artikel. Halaman yang ada di kategori ini berasal dari penggunaan templat {{Bakteri-stub}} ...
Vibrio cholerae *Cholera. *Vibrio vulnificus. *Vibrio parahaemolyticus. *Vibrio alginolyticus. *Plesiomonas shigelloides. ...
... - Vibrio cholerae infection-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. *‹See Tfd›. "Cholera" . Encyclopædia Britannica ... "Cholera's seven pandemics". CBC. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2018.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ... "Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection , Cholera , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2017-05-16. Retrieved 2018-04-04.. ... Ramamurthy T (2008). "Antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae". Vibrio cholerae: Genomics and molecular biology. Caister ...
"Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio, Campylobacter and Helicobacter". Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12- ...
Vibrio cholerae (diff). *Mama (diff). *Club Santos Laguna (diff). *Deportivo Toluca (diff) ...
N-acetyl-perosamine is found in the O-antigen of Gram-negative bacteria such as Vibrio cholerae O1, E. coli O157:H7 and ... "Expression and identification of the RfbE protein from Vibrio cholerae O1 and its use for the enzymatic synthesis of GDP-D- ...
Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.[19][20] These were identified when mutations in the Hcp and VrgG genes in Vibrio ... such as cholera toxin in pathogenic bacteria for example Vibrio cholerae) from across the interior (cytoplasm or cytosol) of a ... "Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system" ... It is like a molecular syringe through which a bacterium (e.g. certain types of Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Vibrio) can ...
Vibrio cholerae is a bacterium causing the disease cholera. It is part of the genus Vibrio, in the family Vibrionaceae. Like ... V. cholerae can respire aerobically if oxygen is present and can switch to anaerobic respiration if oxygen is not present ( ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vibrio_cholerae&oldid=5001515" ...
Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera, was the bacterium of choice, and was used in China in Baoshan in 1942, and in northern ... cholera, salmonellosis,[46] bacillary dysentery,[47] tuberculosis, anthrax, ophthalmia,[48] and pyogenic cocci, making them ...
... of polymerase chain reaction-generated amplicons to identify three types of cholera toxin subunit B in Vibrio cholerae O1 ...
Bacteriophages specific to the species now known as C. coli and C. fetus (previously Vibrio coli and V. fetus), were isolated ... A cholera-like enterotoxin was once thought to be also made, but this appears not to be the case. The organism produces diffuse ... Fletcher, R. D. (1965). "Activity and morphology of Vibrio coli phage". American Journal of Veterinary Research. 26 (111): 361- ... Firehammer, BD; Border, M (1968). "Isolation of temperate bacteriophages from Vibrio fetus". American Journal of Veterinary ...
... the term endotoxin at the beginning of the 20th century to denote the pyrogenic principle associated with Vibrio cholerae. It ...
Vibrio cholerae. Cholera. Could be spread by contaminating water supplies[9]. Shigella dysenteriae;. Some species of ... Vibrio cholerae (cholera). Contaminated food & water. Japan to attack China[9]. 2001. Bacillus anthraces (anthrax). Mailed ...
Common fecal-oral transmitted pathogens include Vibrio cholerae, Giardia species, rotaviruses, Entameba histolytica, ... Diarrheal diseases are caused by many different organisms, including cholera, botulism, and E. coli to name a few. See also: ... In the mid-19th century John Snow and William Budd did important work demonstrating the contagiousness of typhoid and cholera ... Both are credited with decreasing epidemics of cholera in their towns by implementing measures to prevent contamination of ...
Bacteria (for example Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Vibrio cholerae),. *Viruses (for example hepatitis A, rotavirus, ...
... para saVibrio cholerae).[12] ... Charles, RC; Ryan, ET (2011 Oct). "Cholera in the 21st century ... Sinclair, D; Abba, K, Zaman, K, Qadri, F, Graves, PM (2011 Mar 16). "Oral vaccines for preventing cholera". Cochrane database ...
Vibrio cholerae (കോളറ) · Vibrio vulnificus · Vibrio parahaemolyticus · Vibrio alginolyticus · Plesiomonas shigelloides. ...
"Upregulation of human mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 in intestinal epithelial cells is modulated by Vibrio cholerae ...
Teks tersedia di bawah Lisensi Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa Creative Commons; ketentuan tambahan mungkin berlaku. Lihat Ketentuan Penggunaan untuk lebih jelasnya ...
The Vibrio cholerae cytolysin[10] also forms a heptameric pore, however Staphylococcus aureus γ-hemolysin[11] forms a pore that ... "Crystal structure of the Vibrio cholerae cytolysin heptamer reveals common features among disparate pore-forming toxins". Proc ... Thermostable Direct Hemolysin (TDH; InterPro: IPR005015) produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus is now being studied in the field ... Hemolysins can be secreted by many different kinds of bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli or Vibrio ...
ISBN 1-4292-3413-X. Henderson DP, Payne SM (Nov 1994). "Vibrio cholerae iron transport systems: roles of heme and siderophore ... In the closed apo state (from V. cholerae MsbA), the NBDs are aligned and although closer, have not formed an ATP sandwich, and ...
Vibrio cholerae (Cholera): 1000-100,000,000 bacteria cells. Typically, stomach acids can kill bacteria below the infectious ...
Cholera toxin is an infectious toxin composed of a protein complex that is secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Some ... For the cholera toxin, the principal glycolipid receptor for the cholera toxin is ganglioside GM1. After endocytosis to the ... Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. After their B subunit binds ... Cholera toxin, shiga toxin, and SubAB toxin all have B subunits that are made up of five identical protein components, meaning ...
Smith erroneously believed he had found the causative agent of hog cholera.[8] ... "Some morphological and biological characters of the Spirilla (Vibrio fetus, n. sp.) associated with the disease of the fetal ...
... caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae, is rare in the United States and other industrialized nations. However, globally, ... cholera cases have increased steadily since 2005 and the disease still occurs in many places including Africa, Southeast Asia, ... Cholera, caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae, is rare in the United States and other industrialized nations. Cholera can be ... Cholera Prevention Steps. If you live in or are visiting an area where cholera is occurring or has occurred, follow the five ...
Copepods and cholera in untreated water Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961 Genome Page [hmepage] Type strain of Vibrio cholerae at ... NCBI: Vibrio cholerae O1 (serogroup) NCBI: Vibrio cholerae O139 (serogroup) Harris, Jason B.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Qadri, ... Biology portal Drinking water Haiti cholera outbreak Cholera vaccine "Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Vibrio cholerae ... colonies of Vibrio cholerae on TCBS agar. Transmission electron microscope image of Vibrio cholerae that has been negatively ...
Vibrio cholerae pathogenesis. V. cholerae causes the development of an acute diarrheal illness known as cholera. To survive in ... Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) is a human pathogen that utilizes quorum sensing to colonize a host and produce its toxin. ... Quorum Sensing in Vibrio cholerae. Quorum signaling is controlled by two opposing pathways: the CqsS/CqsA pathway (produces and ... Vibrio cholerae, Gram-negative bacteria. 3D illustration of bacteria with flagella. Image Credit: ktsdesign / Shutterstock ...
In molecular biology, Vibrio cholerae ToxT activated RNAs are small RNAs which are produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Richard AL, Withey JH, Beyhan S, Yildiz F, DiRita VJ (December 2010). "The Vibrio cholerae virulence regulatory cascade ... "A genome-wide approach to discovery of small RNAs involved in regulation of virulence in Vibrio cholerae". PLoS Pathogens. 7 (7 ... "Non-coding sRNAs regulate virulence in the bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae". RNA biology. 9 (4): 392-401. doi:10.4161/rna. ...
Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the γ ... PFGE of SfiI-digested V. cholerae DNA. λ concatamers (lane 1), O139 V. cholerae strain AI1837 (lane 2), El Tor V. cholerae ... PFGE of undigested versus I-CeuI-digested V. cholerae DNA. O139 V. cholerae strain AI1837 (lane 1) and classical V. cholerae ... A) O139 V. cholerae strain AI1837 (lane 1), El Tor V. cholerae strain E7946 (lane 2), classical V. cholerae strain 395 (lane 3 ...
Peptide deformylase from Vibrio cholerae.. Osipiuk, J., Mulligan, R., Papazisi, L., Anderson, W.F., Joachimiak, A.. To be ... Vibrio cholerae. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: def, def2, VC_A0150. EC: 3.5.1.88. ... Find proteins for Q9KN16 (Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 (strain ATCC 39315 / El Tor Inaba N16961)) ...
Vibrio eltor. ›Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar EI Tor. ›Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar eltor. ›Vibrio cholerae biovar El Tor. ›Vibrio ... Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar El Tor. Taxonomy navigation. › Vibrio cholerae O1. Choose one. > Vibrio cholerae B33. > Vibrio ...
In Vibrio cholerae, which has two chromosomes (chrI and chrII), replication initiation is controlled by DnaA in chrI and by ... Chromosome I controls chromosome II replication in Vibrio cholerae.. Baek JH1, Chattoraj DK1. ... ChIP-chip profiles in the WT V. cholerae strain, N16961 (CVC209) in regions where the binding was considered above background. ... A) Growth was monitored by colony size of WT V. cholerae cells (CVC209) transformed with either an empty vector (pBR322 ...
Architectural transitions in Vibrio cholerae biofilms at single-cell resolution Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Architectural transitions in Vibrio cholerae biofilms at single-cell resolution. Knut Drescher, Jörn Dunkel, Carey D. Nadell, ... Vibrio cholerae biofilm growth program and architecture revealed by single-cell live imaging ... Exopolysaccharide protects Vibrio cholerae from exogenous attacks by the type 6 secretion system ...
Vibrio cholerae and Cholera: Molecular to Global Perspectives. Washington DC: ASM Pr. ... Vibrio cholerae merupakan bakteri gram negatif, berbentuk koma (batang yang melengkung) dan bersifat motil (dapat bergerak), ... Simple procedure for rapid identification of Vibrio cholerae from the aquatic environment. Appl Environ Microbiol 68: 995-8. ... Spesies Vibrio kerap dikaitkan dengan sifat patogenisitasnya pada manusia, terutama V. cholerae penyebab penyakit kolera di ...
we are working on isolation and identification ,, and biochemical characterization of Vibrio cholera . we would approciate ,, ... Microbiology] Re: a question about vibrio cholerae. Sharad Sharma Sharad1982 at comcast.net Sun Sep 24 22:59:57 EST 2006 * ... Vibrio , , Vibrio usually occurs in areas where there is salt water. You need special , media, TCBS, to isolate it out of feces ... Previous message: [Microbiology] Re: a question about vibrio cholerae *Next message: [Microbiology] transposon mutagenesis of B ...
Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar El Tor str. N16961. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: nanH, VC_1784. EC: 3.2.1.18. ... Find proteins for P0C6E9 (Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 (strain ATCC 39315 / El Tor Inaba N16961)) ... and bacterial Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCNA). Compared to the positive controls, all tested polyphenols displayed a weak ...
Here we report that VieA represses transcription of Vibrio exopolysaccharide … ... we identified VieA as a two-component response regulator that contributes to activating expression of cholera toxin. ... While studying virulence gene regulation in Vibrio cholerae during infection of the host small intestine, ... Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) regulates Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation Mol Microbiol. 2004 Aug;53(3):857-69. doi: 10.1111/j. ...
Vibrio cholerae is a bacterium causing the disease cholera. It is part of the genus Vibrio, in the family Vibrionaceae. Like ... V. cholerae can respire aerobically if oxygen is present and can switch to anaerobic respiration if oxygen is not present ( ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vibrio_cholerae&oldid=5001515" ...
Vibrio cholerae Outbreak in Italy. by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Cholera Case studies ... Study reveals sari cloth filtration reduces cholera. (Environmental Intelligence).. Reemergence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae ... Phage attack: antibacterial virus might suppress cholera.. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae diarrhea, ... S.v. Vibrio cholerae Outbreak in Italy.." Retrieved Apr 04 2020 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Vibrio+cholerae+Outbreak+in ...
Vibrio choleraeImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ... tr,A0A0H5ZA02,A0A0H5ZA02_VIBCL Beta-hexosaminidase OS=Vibrio cholerae OX=666 GN=nagZ PE=3 SV=1 ...
Biofilm formation - Vibrio cholerae [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description , User ... The quorum sensing (QS) pathway of Vibrio cholerae activates the expression of VpsR, VpsT and AphA (the main activators of ... The QS pathway also leads to induction of virulence factors such as toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CTX), ... At low cell density, biofilm genes, including Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) biosynthesis genes and the major extracellular matrix ...
Identification of a mannose-binding pilus on Vibrio cholerae El Tor.. Jonson G1, Holmgren J, Svennerholm AM. ... The mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) that is associated with Vibrio cholerae strains of El Tor biotype is identified as a ... In immunoelectron microscopy, a monoclonal antibody against MSHA that inhibited El Tor vibrio-mediated mannose-sensitive ...
... gamma-Proteobacterium Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961 to be 4,033,460 base pairs (bp). The genome consists of two circular ... DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae Nature. 2000 Aug 3;406(6795):477-83. doi: 10.1038/ ... Here we determine the complete genomic sequence of the gram negative, gamma-Proteobacterium Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961 to be ... the small chromosome may have originally been a megaplasmid that was captured by an ancestral Vibrio species. The V. cholerae ...
Vibrio cholerae; genomics and molecular biology.(Brief article, Book review) by SciTech Book News; Publishing industry ... cholerae%3b+genomics+and+molecular+biology.-a0184353561. *APA style: Vibrio cholerae; genomics and molecular biology.. (n.d.) > ... Vibrio cholerae; genomics and molecular biology. Ed. by Shah M. Faruque and G. Balakrish Nair. Caister Academic Press 2008 218 ... S.v. Vibrio cholerae; genomics and molecular biology.." Retrieved Jul 26 2021 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Vibrio+ ...
the vibrio will continue to survive independently in the environment. It is likely that the environment is the source of ... cholerae is a normal inhabitant of esturine and riverine waters. This means that even if the disease can be eliminated from ... environment associated bacteria Bangladesh Barua caused cells challenge cholera patients cholera toxin cholera vibrio cholerae ... Cholera and the Ecology of Vibrio cholerae. B.S. Drasar,B.D. Forrest. No preview available - 2011. ...
S. Rudra, R. Mahajan, M. Mathur, K. Kathuria, and V. Talwar, "Cluster of cases of clinical cholera due to Vibrio cholerae 010 ... K. C. Klontz, "Fatalities associated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae non-O1 infections in Florida (1981 to ... K. K. Tan, K. S. Sin, A. J. Ng, H. Yahya, and P. Kaur, "Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae septicaemia: a case report," Singapore Medical ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Non-O1 and Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Infections, US Department of Health and ...
Matson J.S. (2018) Preparation of Vibrio cholerae Samples for RNA-seq Analysis. In: Sikora A. (eds) Vibrio Cholerae. Methods in ... Liu JM, Livny J, Lawrence MS, Kimball MD, Waldor MK, Camilli A (2009) Experimental discovery of sRNAs in Vibrio cholerae by ... RNA-Seq-based monitoring of infection-linked changes in Vibrio cholerae gene expression. Cell Host Microbe 10:165-174CrossRef ... Here, we describe the sample preparation (based on Illumina technology) used for transcriptomic analysis of V. cholerae cDNA ...
... a new study in PLOS Pathogens reveals that a minor pilin protein elicits pilus retraction in the cholera bacterium, Vibrio ... "If Neisseria gonorrhoeae can pull roughly 100,000 times its bodyweight, Vibrio cholerae barely makes it to 1,000 times of its ... Researchers discover new mechanism for Type IV pili retraction in Vibrio cholerae. The City University of New York ... Researchers discover new mechanism for Type IV pili retraction in Vibrio cholerae ...
present a high-resolution crystal structure of the master virulence activator ToxT of Vibrio cholerae in the presence and ... Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to validate a structural model of an open ToxT dimer bound to the cholera toxin promoter ... The results presented here provide a detailed structural mechanism for virulence gene regulation in V. cholerae by the UFA ... the gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes the diarrheal disease cholera. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) found in bile ...
The pathogenic agent of cholera is Vibrio cholerae , a Gram-negative, curved-rod shaped bacterium (Figure 1). There are many ... The small RNA chaperone Hfq and multiple small RNAs control quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae. Cell. (United ... 10] D. S. Katzianer, H. Wang, R. M. Carey, J. Zhu, Quorum non-sensing: social cheating and deception in Vibrio cholerae. Appl ... Presence of cholera toxin (red color) in infant mouse intestines. Prior to infection with V. cholerae , mice were treated with ...
Seas, C, Gotuzzo, E, Yu, V, Weber, R. "Vibrio cholerae (Cholera)". Antimicrobial Therapy and Vaccines. 2003. ... Seas, C, Gotuzzo, E, Mandel, GL, Bennett, JE, Dolin, R. "Vibrio cholerae". Mandell, Douglas and Bennetts Principles and ... The life cycle of Vibrio cholerae allows the bacterium to live for years in an aquatic environment, its natural reservoir, ... "Cholera, diarrhea and dysentery update 2012, Cuba". "Cholera annual report 2011". Wkly Epidemiol Rec. vol. 87. 2012. pp. 289- ...
Genetic analysis of Vibrio cholerae reveals that deficiencies in quorum sensing are coming in V. cholerae; however, it is less ... Vector: The pathogenic agent of cholera is Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative, curved-rod shaped bacterium. There are many ... Cholera is most commonly spread by water supplies contaminated with stools infected with Vibrio cholerae. It can be difficult ... Vibrio cholerae must contend with two distinct environmental conditions: free-floating in the environment and attachment to a ...
Vibrio cholerae is a natural inhabitant of aquatic ecosystems. Some strains of V. cholerae can colonize human hosts and cause ... Environmental Role of Pathogenic Traits in Vibrio cholerae. S. Nazmus Sakib, Geethika Reddi, Salvador Almagro-Moreno ... Environmental Role of Pathogenic Traits in Vibrio cholerae Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal ... Environmental role of pathogenic traits in Vibrio cholerae. J Bacteriol 200:e00795-17. https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.00795-17. ...
  • Some strains of V. cholerae are pathogenic to humans and cause a deadly disease cholera, which can be derived from the consumption of undercooked or raw marine life species. (wikipedia.org)
  • V. cholerae O139 Bengal strains appear to have El Tor-type tcpA genes. (nih.gov)
  • While the role of TcpA in cholera vaccine preparations remains unclear, the data strongly suggest that TcpA-containing vaccines directed at O1 strains need include only the two forms of TcpA, and that such vaccines directed at (O139) Bengal strains should include the TcpA of El Tor biotype. (nih.gov)
  • These strains harbor genes encoding fluorescent proteins at the chromosomal lacZ site in wild-type V. cholerae N16961, under the control of the constitutive P tac promoter. (pnas.org)
  • Some strains of V. cholerae can colonize human hosts and cause cholera, a profuse watery diarrhea. (asm.org)
  • In early 1993, similar epidemics began in Calcutta (with more than 13,000 cases) and in Bangladesh (with more than 10,000 cases and 500 deaths) caused by similarly atypical strains of V. cholerae (3,4). (cdc.gov)
  • These strains could not be identified as any of the 138 known types of V. cholerae and have been designated as a new serogroup, O139 (5). (cdc.gov)
  • Although the extent of the ongoing epidemic in southern Asia is unclear, this strain is now associated with epidemic cholera-like illness along a 1000-mile coastline of the Bay of Bengal (from Madras, India, to Bangladesh) and appears to have largely replaced V. cholerae O1 strains in affected areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Until 1993, the only recognized causes of epidemic cholera were V. cholerae strains that were part of serogroup O1. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera is a severe, water-borne diarrhoeal disease caused by toxin-producing strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (harvard.edu)
  • We generated growth curves for two different V. cholerae biotype strains, O395 and C6706, and showed that virstatin did not inhibit growth (50 μM) ( Fig. 1B ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Strains of the O1 and O139 serogroups cause cholera, whereas non-O1/non-O139 strains cause human infections through poorly defined mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • C holera is a severe, life-threatening diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae strains of the O1 and O139 serogroups. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, non-O1, non-O139 strains of V. cholerae are primarily associated with isolated cases of extra-intestinal infection or gastroenteritis. (pnas.org)
  • It is secreted by most of the pathogenic strains of the intestinal pathogen V. cholerae . (mdpi.com)
  • Owing to its potent membrane-damaging cell-killing activity, VCC is believed to play critical roles in V. cholerae pathogenesis, particularly in those strains that lack the cholera toxin. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, CL biotype strains isolated from areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1983 and 1997 were characterized in terms of major phenotypic and genetic traits and compared with CL biotype strains isolated in Bangladesh between 1962 and 1989. (asm.org)
  • According to sero- and biotyping data, all V. cholerae strains tested had the major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics specific for the CL biotype. (asm.org)
  • Genetic similarity with epidemic strains is evaluated and the importance of V. cholerae surveillance in the Amazon is emphasized. (scielo.br)
  • Vibrio cholerae is a ubiquitous bacterium of aquatic ecosystems and some of its strains are the etiological agents of the Asian cholera disease. (scielo.br)
  • V. cholerae O1 strains from the El Tor biotype - the lineage determinant of the seventh cholera pandemic - were isolated and characterized from clinical cases since the beginning of the epidemic (3, 4). (scielo.br)
  • Two distinct V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains were also identified from cholera-like diarrhea in the Brazilian Amazon during the 1991 - 1996 epidemic: a non-toxigenic strain called the Amazonia variant (5) and a sucrose late fermenting variant (6). (scielo.br)
  • Although it doesn´t harbor the major V. cholerae virulence determinants - cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-corregulated pilus (TCP) - LMA 3984-4 strain could potentially express several toxins with well described biological functions and identified in several clinical V. cholerae strains, as those coded by the hly and rtx genes. (scielo.br)
  • In order to determine the genetic similarity of the LMA 3984-4 strain with other epidemic V. cholerae O1 strains, NotI digested genomic DNA was separated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and analyzed as previously described (10, 11). (scielo.br)
  • Tracks the global spread of cholera by genetically defining individual strains. (asmscience.org)
  • Typically, strains of V. cholerae ferment glucose and sucrose without producing gas. (asmscience.org)
  • When water becomes contaminated with toxigenic strains of V. cholerae O1 and is then used by other individuals for drinking or in food preparation, the result is often widespread disease. (asmscience.org)
  • A total of five newly isolated phages lytic to V. cholerae O139 strains were used for the development of this phage typing scheme. (asm.org)
  • With this scheme, 500 V. cholerae O139 strains were evaluated for their phage types, and almost all strains were found to be typeable. (asm.org)
  • These strains emerged abruptly in the south Indian coastal city of Madras and rapidly spread to other areas of India and neighboring countries where cholera is endemic ( 15 , 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Among the several typing methods, phage typing is one of the important and useful methods for the identification and differentiation of V. cholerae strains. (asm.org)
  • A total of 500 V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from different areas in India where cholera is endemic between 1993 and 1998 were included in the phage typing study. (asm.org)
  • Additionally, V. cholerae O1 biotype E1 Tor strain MAK 757 (ATCC 51352), 10 E1 Tor strains (ATCC 51610 to ATCC 51619) that had been phage typed ( 19 ), and classical biotype strains V. cholerae 154 and 569B were also used in this study. (asm.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae consists of pathogenic strains that cause sporadic gastrointestinal illness or epidemic cholera disease and nonpathogenic strains that grow and persist in coastal aquatic ecosystems. (asm.org)
  • Previous studies of disease-causing strains have shown V. cholerae to be a primarily clonal bacterial species, but isolates analyzed have been strongly biased toward pathogenic genotypes, while representing only a small sample of the vast diversity in environmental strains. (asm.org)
  • The article discusses a study which investigated the coexistence of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor and O139 Bengal strains in Bangladesh. (ebscohost.com)
  • We sequenced a 705-bp fragment of the recA gene from 113 Vibrio cholerae strains and closely related species. (asm.org)
  • This observation is consistent with the idea that there is horizontal transfer of O-antigen biosynthesis genes among V. cholerae strains. (asm.org)
  • Pandemic strains of Vibrio cholerae have acquired the major virulence factors cholera toxin and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) by lysogeny ( 14 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • In order to better understand this event and in hopes of predicting future events, we have begun to generate multilocus sequencing (MLS) genotypes of various strains of V. cholerae . (asm.org)
  • Sequencing of aldA and the cholera toxin genes, ctxA and ctxB , has proven useful in studying the epidemiology of pandemic strains but is limited to toxigenic isolates ( 12 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • In this brief communication, we report our results from sequencing a 705-bp fragment of the recA gene from 107 strains that had initially been designated V. cholerae and 5 strains of other Vibrio species. (asm.org)
  • strains are from our collection at the University of Maryland and include strains representative of known outbreaks, as well as serogroup type strains from the Smith Vibrio Reference Laboratory collection ( 22 ) of non-O1 V. cholerae . (asm.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae O1 prototype El Tor and classical strains coexist with altered El Tor strains (1991 to 1997). (asm.org)
  • Although cholera outbreaks occurred rarely in Mexico prior to the 1990s, genetically diverse V. cholerae O1 strains were isolated between 1991 and 2008. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we have applied whole-genome sequence analysis to a set of 124 V. cholerae strains, including six Mexican isolates, to determine their phylogenetic relationships. (asm.org)
  • We then performed a metabolomic study on multiple strains of V. cholerae, finding new potential metabolic targets of NO. In particular we found that substrates of iron-sulfur cluster-containing proteins accumulated in strains lacking nnrS, and that aconitase activity was decreased in cell-free extracts of nnrS mutants. (upenn.edu)
  • As a result of these studies, it has been suggested that altered forms of V. cholerae in specific association with plankton organisms are the most plausible reservoir from which epidemic, fully virulent strains could spring ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • V. cholerae O1 classical strains ATCC 14034 (Inaba serotype) and ATCC 14035 (Okawa serotype) ( 15 ) were used throughout this study. (asm.org)
  • Karaolis D, Johnson J, Bailey C et al (1998) A Vibrio cholerae pathogenicity island associated with epidemic and pandemic strains. (springer.com)
  • Karaolis D, Lan R, Kaper J et al (2001) Comparison of Vibrio cholerae pathogenicity islands in sixth and seventh pandemic strains. (springer.com)
  • Nursin S, Khan G, Bhuiyan N, Ansaruzzaman M et al (2004) Diverse CTX phages among toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 strains isolated between 1994 and 2002 in an area where cholera is endemic. (springer.com)
  • Pathogenic serogroups produce cholera toxin (CT) while non pathogenic strains may or may not produce this toxin Footnote 2 . (canada.ca)
  • Recently, V. cholerae serougroup O75 strains possessing the cholera toxin gene were isolated from patients with severe diarrhoea, and serogroup O141 has been associated with sporadic cholera-like diarrhoea and bloodstream infections in the United States Footnote 4 Footnote 5 . (canada.ca)
  • Vibrio cholerae O139 strains possess a thin capsule and have been found to be partially serum resistant in a previous study. (asm.org)
  • Similarly, V. cholerae O139 strains produce opaque colonies ( 10 ), are serum (complement) resistant ( 10 , 12 , 19 ), and cause septicemia at least in debilitated, immunocompromised patients ( 4 , 8 , 11 ). (asm.org)
  • The V. cholerae O139 strains were clinical isolates cultured from the stools of cholera patients treated at the hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), located in Dhaka, by standard methods ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains were from our culture collection. (asm.org)
  • Thus, the reduced virulence of KFV101 makes it a prototype for multi-toxin deleted vaccine strains that could be used for protection against V. cholerae without the adverse effects of the accessory cholera toxins. (rupress.org)
  • These results suggest that V. cholerae strains that do not produce CT induce a more inflammatory diarrhea, rather than the noninflammatory disease associated with CT-producing strains. (rupress.org)
  • 2005). Domestic and farm animals have been shown to be carriers of V. cholerae strains, contributing to their sustained presence in the area (Visser et al. (scielo.org.za)
  • 2007). More than 95% of the strains belonging to serogroups O1 and O139 produce the cholera toxin (CT), which is central to the disease process (Chakraborty et al. (scielo.org.za)
  • Cholera, caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae , is rare in the United States and other industrialized nations. (cdc.gov)
  • Vibrio cholerae, Gram-negative bacteria. (news-medical.net)
  • To survive in the acidic environments of the stomach, V. cholerae assembles into a biofilm, which consists of the bacteria in a matrix of protein and sugars. (news-medical.net)
  • Vibrio cholerae is a species of Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe and comma-shaped bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacteria that causes cholera was first identified in 1854, and has continued to be investigated since then. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Although pathogenic bacteria often rely on a specialized molecular motor to retract their pili, a new study in PLOS Pathogens reveals that a minor pilin protein elicits pilus retraction in the cholera bacterium, Vibrio cholerae . (eurekalert.org)
  • demonstrates that the bacterium that causes cholera powers a nanomachine required for infection differently than other disease causing bacteria," said Dr. Hank Seifert, Professor of Biomedical Sciences at Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, who was not involved with the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • Considering taking medication to treat infection+due+to+the+bacteria+vibrio+cholerae? (webmd.com)
  • Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of infection+due+to+the+bacteria+vibrio+cholerae. (webmd.com)
  • Colorized light micrograph showing Vibrio cholerae bacteria, the causative agent of cholera, an infectious and contagious disease characterized by brutal diarrhoea. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Scanning electron microscope image of Vibrio cholerae bacteria, which infect the digestive system. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Some of the statements made in the final paragraphs are in disagreement with the official epidemiologic records and the characteristics of the Vibrio bacteria that occurred in Brazil during the 1990s epidemic ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Vibrio cholerae is the pathogenic agent of the diarrhoeal disease cholera and the major determinant of the disease is the elaboration by the bacteria of the potent enterotoxin cholera toxin (CT). (bl.uk)
  • Using a combination of genetics and molecular physiology approaches we have demonstrated that NCDAAs target different cellular processes which may function as part of a cooperative strategy in vibrio communities to protect non-producing members from competing bacteria. (diva-portal.org)
  • Overall, our estimated recombination rate in V. cholerae of 6.5 times the mutation rate is similar to those of other sexual bacteria and appears frequently enough to restrict selection from purging much of the neutral intraspecies diversity. (asm.org)
  • Focuses on the Vibrio cholerae bacteria. (ebscohost.com)
  • The tcpA gene, encoding the structural subunit of the toxin-coregulated pilus, has been isolated from a variety of clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae, and the nucleotide sequence determined. (nih.gov)
  • The data presented allow the selection of primer pairs to help distinguish between clinical and environmental isolates, and to distinguish El Tor (and Bengal) biotypes from classical biotypes of V. cholerae. (nih.gov)
  • cholera in Kenya, we analyzed the genetic relationships however, these estimates are thought to be substantially among 170 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates at 5 loci containing underestimated because many countries where cholera is variable tandem repeats. (cdc.gov)
  • Published epidemiologic studies used the best methods and subcultured (37°C, 18-24 h) on thiosulfate-citrate-bile available at the time to differentiate isolates of V. cholerae salts-sucrose agar (HiMedia Laboratories Ltd., Mumbai, in Kenya. (cdc.gov)
  • After the specimens were subcultured, putative V. pulsed-fi eld gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to characterize the cholerae isolates were examined for sucrose fermentation. (cdc.gov)
  • genetic relatedness of the isolates responsible for cholera Suspicious colonies were subcultured (37°C, 18-24 h) outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O141 carry the CTX phage and the genes encoding the toxin-coregulated pili," Journal of Clinical Microbiology , vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 4086-4092, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • V. cholerae isolates from other serogroups (i.e., non-O1) were recognized as causes of sporadic diarrheal and invasive infections but were not considered to have epidemic potential. (cdc.gov)
  • To better explore the genetic ancestry of the Haiti outbreak strain, we acquired 23 whole-genome Vibrio cholerae sequences: 9 isolates obtained in Haiti or the Dominican Republic, 12 PFGE pattern-matched isolates linked to Asia or Africa, and 2 nonmatched outliers from the Western Hemisphere. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Isolates of V. cholerae serogroups other than O1 or O139 are occasionally associated with sporadic diarrheal illness, limited outbreaks of diarrhea, and extraintestinal infection. (asmscience.org)
  • In this study, we characterized homologous recombination and structure among 152 environmental V. cholerae isolates and 13 other putative Vibrio isolates from coastal waters and sediments in central California, as well as four clinical V. cholerae isolates, using multilocus sequence analysis of seven housekeeping genes. (asm.org)
  • Recombinant regions were identified by at least three detection methods in 72% of our V. cholerae isolates. (asm.org)
  • Elsewhere, non cholera-toxin producing, non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae have been described from blood cultures and ascitic fluid, although they are exceedingly rare isolates. (ebscohost.com)
  • we also identified isolates which resembled V. cholerae biochemically but which did not cluster with V. cholerae . (asm.org)
  • Studies using the pattern of IS 1004 insertions and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) have also looked at only limited numbers of non-O1 V. cholerae isolates ( 5 , 6 ). (asm.org)
  • One CTX − isolate is ancestral to the 6th and 7th pandemic CTX + V. cholerae isolates. (asm.org)
  • Two CTX + El Tor isolates possessing intact Vibrio seventh pandemic island II (VSP-II) are related to hybrid El Tor isolates from Mozambique and Bangladesh. (asm.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis indicated the six V. cholerae O1 isolates belong to five phylogenetic clades: i.e., basal, nontoxigenic, classical, El Tor, and hybrid El Tor. (asm.org)
  • We applied whole-genome sequencing to a temporal series of V. cholerae isolates from Haiti to gain insight into the mode and tempo of evolution in this isolated population of V. cholerae O1. (asm.org)
  • Consistent with this, the 12 Haiti isolates tested by laboratory HGT assays were severely impaired for transformation, although unlike previously characterized noncompetent V. cholerae isolates, each expressed hapR and possessed a functional quorum-sensing system. (asm.org)
  • Phenotypic and molecular analyses results confirmed the V. cholerae isolates to be toxigenic and belonging to serogroup O1 biotype El Tor (ET) possessing cholera toxin of classical biotype (altered ET). (frontiersin.org)
  • Together, these assays are used for reliable biotype characterization of V. cholerae clinical (and environmental) isolates. (springer.com)
  • Son M, Megli C, Kovacikova G et al (2011) Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype variant clinical isolates from Bangladesh and Haiti, including a molecular genetic analysis of virulence genes. (springer.com)
  • At low cell densities (i.e. low concentration of autoinducers), V. cholerae expresses virulence genes that allow this bacterial species to colonize the small intestine. (news-medical.net)
  • But the DNA does not directly code for the toxin as the genes for cholera toxin are carried by CTXphi (CTXφ), a temperate bacteriophage (virus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biotype-specific tcpA genes in Vibrio cholerae. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report that VieA represses transcription of Vibrio exopolysaccharide synthesis (vps) genes involved in biofilm formation by a mechanism independent of its phosphorelay and DNA-binding activities. (nih.gov)
  • At low cell density, biofilm genes, including Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) biosynthesis genes and the major extracellular matrix genes RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1, are expressed. (genome.jp)
  • Genomic characterization of non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae reveals genes for a type III secretion system," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 102, no. 9, pp. 3465-3470, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Like E. coli , Vibrio cholerae also possesses relA and spoT genes. (springer.com)
  • Upregulation of virulence genes promotes Vibrio cholerae biofilm hyperinfectivity. (jcvi.org)
  • We show that vas genes are required for cytotoxicity of V. cholerae cells toward Dictyostelium amoebae and mammalian J774 macrophages by a contact-dependent mechanism. (pnas.org)
  • In order to successfully colonise a host V. cholerae must co-ordinately regulate the expression of genes necessary for survival and virulence. (bl.uk)
  • The sequence of a sensor gene 40% similar to envZ from E. coli has been identified downstream of the V. cholerae gene indicating that the two genes may form part of a two-component regulatory system. (bl.uk)
  • Preliminary studies in V. cholerae however, show that the genes do not control porin expression under the conditions analysed. (bl.uk)
  • ToxT directly activates the expression of the genes that encode the toxin-coregulated pilus and cholera toxin, and also positively auto-regulates its own expression from the tcp promoter. (iucr.org)
  • We studied two genes in V. cholerae, hmpA and nnrS, which encode a flavohemoglobin and a protein of unknown function, respectively, both predicted to be under control of the NO-responsive transcription factor NorR. (upenn.edu)
  • Cholera toxin genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction in broth enrichments of samples collected in all visits except March 2012. (ajtmh.org)
  • There is evidence to suggest that V. cholerae O139 derived from V. cholerae O1 El Tor through a process of genetic exchange whereby the genes responsible for O-antigen synthesis in V. cholerae O1 were replaced by novel genes which encode O139 antigen specificity ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Intranasal administration of an El Tor O1 V. cholerae strain deleted of cholera toxin genes ( ctxAB ) caused diffuse pneumonia characterized by infiltration of PMNs, tissue damage, and hemorrhage. (rupress.org)
  • The virulence factor predominantly responsible for this watery diarrhea is cholera toxin (CT), * a powerful enterotoxin encoded by the ctxA and ctxB genes carried on the transmissible prophage CTXΦ ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • The DNA was screened for the presence of the sodB, rfb, FlaE, 16S rRNA and ctxA genes associated with V. cholerae, V. cholerae O1, V. cholerae O139 using 2 multiplex polymerase chain reactions (m-PCR). (scielo.org.za)
  • 2003) reported that 2 genes, rfb and wbe , are associated with the synthesis of the O-antigen in V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 and can be used to distinguish the 2 serogroups from each other. (scielo.org.za)
  • The genes coding for the cholera toxin can also be used to distinguish between toxigenic and non-toxigenic V. cholerae . (scielo.org.za)
  • Testing at CDC identified the isolate as toxigenic V. cholerae serogroup O139, resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. (cdc.gov)
  • V. cholerae O1, which is the predominant pandemic serogroup to date, is further differentiated into two well-established biotypes, namely, the classical (CL) and El Tor (ET). (asm.org)
  • The ongoing cholera seventh pandemic, as well the previous one, and most of the cholera epidemics up to date, is due to V. cholerae from the O1 serogroup. (scielo.br)
  • In October 1992 the scenario of cholera that had existed changed because of the emergence of a new etiologic serogroup of cholera, which is now known as O139 Bengal ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Fatal bacteremia due to immotile Vibrio cholerae serogroup O21 in Vientiane, Laos -- a case report. (ebscohost.com)
  • In many instances, V. cholerae serogroup designations did not correlate with phylogeny, as reflected by recA sequence divergence. (asm.org)
  • The V. cholerae belonged to the non-O1 serogroup. (www.gov.uk)
  • Classical and El Tor are two main biotypes that make up the V. cholerae O1 serogroup, which each display unique genotypic and phenotypic characteristics that allow for reliable biotype characterization. (springer.com)
  • The raw Florida oysters that sickened at least 11 people during March and April were contaminated with an unusual but mild strain of cholera. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • V. cholerae 395, a classical Ogawa strain, and V. cholerae E7946, an El Tor Ogawa strain were from collections at the Center for Vaccine Development and have previously been demonstrated to produce cholera in volunteers ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • V. cholerae AI1837, an O139 Bengal strain, was isolated from a Bangladeshi patient with severe cholera in early 1993 (a gift of M. J. Albert, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh) and also has been shown to produce cholera in volunteers ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • V. cholerae S-21, a non-O1 clinical isolate and Vibrio mimicus strain 2031 were a gift of J. Powell, Division of Hospital Epidemiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore. (pnas.org)
  • ChIP-chip profiles in the WT V. cholerae strain, N16961 (CVC209) in regions where the binding was considered above background. (nih.gov)
  • Acute gastroenteritis caused by a Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strain harboring a genetic region homologous to the VpaI-7 pathogenicity Island," Revista Chilena de Infectologia , vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 470-473, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • The origin of the Haitian cholera outbreak strain," The New England Journal of Medicine , vol. 364, no. 1, pp. 33-42, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • This report documents the first case of cholera imported into the United States that was caused by this organism, the newly described toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O139 strain. (cdc.gov)
  • In October 1992, an epidemic of cholera-like illness began in Madras, India, associated with an atypical strain of V. cholerae (2). (cdc.gov)
  • We constructed a screening strain of the classical biotype strain O395 that carries a chromosomally integrated tetracycline resistance gene ( tetA ) controlled by the cholera toxin ( ctx ) promoter. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using Dictyostelium discoideum as a model host, we have identified a virulence mechanism in a non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae strain that involves extracellular translocation of proteins that lack N-terminal hydrophobic leader sequences. (pnas.org)
  • According to the official figures of the Brazilian Ministry of Health ( 2 ), 168,598 cases of cholera caused by a V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain occurred in Brazil from 1991 to 2001. (cdc.gov)
  • The official records state that the cholera epidemic in Brazil was caused by an El Tor O1 strain ( 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The last case of cholera recorded in the state of Pará was in 1995, since then no other clinical or environmental V. cholerae O1 strain was isolated in the Brazilian Amazon. (scielo.br)
  • By September 2007, in the context of environmental monitoring (8), a V. cholerae O1 strain was isolated from a superficial water sample. (scielo.br)
  • The use of bacteriophages as a method of strain differentiation has contributed greatly to the understanding of the epidemiology of the disease cholera. (asm.org)
  • The recent appearance of the O139 epidemic strain of V. cholerae probably occurred via acquisition of a new surface polysaccharide through a horizontal gene transfer event ( 5 , 8 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • One CTX + isolate was phylogenetically placed with the sixth pandemic classical clade and the V. cholerae O395 classical reference strain. (asm.org)
  • Strain 6A is a Tn phoA mutant of V. cholerae O139 AI-1837. (asm.org)
  • The presence of this organism in faecal samples, taken close to water sources used by the villagers, raises the possibility that the causative V. cholerae O1 strain of the most recent outbreak in South Africa was present in the area 6 months prior to the outbreak. (scielo.org.za)
  • Vibrio cholerae , the etiologic agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the γ subdivision of the family Proteobacteriaceae. (pnas.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae is a bacterium causing the disease cholera . (wikipedia.org)
  • The AraC/XylS-family transcriptional regulator ToxT is the master virulence activator of Vibrio cholerae , the gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes the diarrheal disease cholera. (nature.com)
  • The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae is an important human pathogen that causes the pandemic disease Cholera. (europa.eu)
  • Until 1992, Vibrio cholerae O1 was considered the sole causative agent of the disease cholera. (asm.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of a severe diarrheal disease (cholera) which continues to devastate many developing countries ( 12 , 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae is a motile gram-negative bacterium found in brackish water and the etiological agent of the fecal-oral disease cholera. (springer.com)
  • Vibrio cholerae causes human infection through ingestion of contaminated food and water, leading to the diarrheal disease, cholera. (upenn.edu)
  • Here, we discover lysis inhibition in the etiological agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae, infected by ICP1, a phage ubiquitous in clinical samples. (elifesciences.org)
  • Tracking the products around the world was difficult, but we learned that at least some had come from Far East countries where cholera is endemic. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In western Kenya during January-April 2008, a This fi nding is consistent with the simultaneous emergence cholera outbreak affected 10 administrative districts in of multiple distinct genetic lineages of V. cholerae from Nyanza Province (adjacent to Lake Victoria), resulting endemic environmental reservoirs rather than recent in 790 cases and 53 deaths (case-fatality rate 6.7%) ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera is endemic in 50 nations around the world (1). (kenyon.edu)
  • The oral vaccine is available for individuals travelling to countries where cholera is endemic, and has recently started to be used during outbreaks of the disease. (kenyon.edu)
  • In the present study the bacteriophages were isolated from raw sewage water samples collected from different areas in India where cholera is endemic. (asm.org)
  • An outbreak of cholera occurred in 1991 in Mexico, where it had not been reported for more than a century and is now endemic. (asm.org)
  • These data and others suggest that an episode of severe cholera protects against symptomatic disease for several years, but reexposure to the organism occurs frequently in an endemic area, with immunological boosts beginning as early as 6 months after severe disease. (ajtmh.org)
  • Repeated exposures to V. cholerae in endemic areas may be a necessary component for long-lasting protection against severe disease. (ajtmh.org)
  • In endemic areas, 75% of cases are asymptomatic, 20% are mild to moderate, and 2-5% are severe forms like cholera gravis Footnote 3 . (canada.ca)
  • There are several million cases of cholera each year and in endemic areas, these tend to be most common in children aged 2-9 and in women who are of child-bearing age Footnote 3 Footnote 12 . (canada.ca)
  • V. cholerae O139 infection is now endemic in many countries of South and Southeast Asia. (asm.org)
  • Hence, expanding our knowledge could allow for better treatments and preventative measures against V. cholerae infection. (news-medical.net)
  • While studying virulence gene regulation in Vibrio cholerae during infection of the host small intestine, we identified VieA as a two-component response regulator that contributes to activating expression of cholera toxin. (nih.gov)
  • She did not report risk factors for cholera infection, except having eaten seafood salad on June 5 in the canteen of her work place. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Mandlik A, Livny J, Robins WP, Ritchie JM, Mekalanos JJ, Waldor MK (2011) RNA-Seq-based monitoring of infection-linked changes in Vibrio cholerae gene expression. (springer.com)
  • 1). However, other medical conditions such as co-infection with parasites and Vitamin A deficiency increase susceptibility to cholera infection. (kenyon.edu)
  • Although the mechanism of cholera infection has been well-studied, it remains a problem, especially in developing countries. (kenyon.edu)
  • Descriptions of the symptoms associated with V. cholerae O139 infection suggest it is indistinguishable from cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 and should be treated with the same rapid fluid replacement (7). (cdc.gov)
  • Influence of relative humidity in Vibrio cholerae infection: A time series model. (ebscohost.com)
  • Vibriocidal antibody is a marker of recent exposure to Vibrio cholerae O1 infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • This information is relevant to defining the potential of V. cholerae O139 to cause disseminated infection. (asm.org)
  • Thus, in addition to stimulating fluid secretion through activation of adenylate cyclase activity ( 4 ), CT suppresses induction of inflammation during V. cholerae infection. (rupress.org)
  • The QS pathway also leads to induction of virulence factors such as toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CTX), essential for colonization of the host and enterotoxicity, respectively. (genome.jp)
  • Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae causes disease by producing the primary virulence factors cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin coregulated pilus (TCP). (nature.com)
  • In vitro biofilm-grown cells activate expression of the virulence cascade, including the toxin coregulated pilus (TCP), and are able to acquire the cholera toxin-carrying CTXФ phage. (jcvi.org)
  • By inhibiting the transcriptional regulator ToxT, virstatin prevents expression of two critical V. cholerae virulence factors, cholera toxin and the toxin coregulated pilus. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cholera is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium V. cholerae , which elaborates two major virulence factors, cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Dixon Ng et al, The Vibrio cholerae Minor Pilin TcpB Initiates Assembly and Retraction of the Toxin-Coregulated Pilus, PLOS Pathogens (2016). (phys.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal was identified as the second etiologic agent of cholera when it caused outbreaks of cholera in the Indian subcontinent in 1992 to 1993 and subsequently spread to several neighboring countries ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • There are more than 200 distinct serogroups of V. cholerae , but only O1 and O139 are recognized as being responsible for epidemic and pandemic cholera ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Of the more than 200 serogroups identified, based on the variations of "O" antigenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), V. cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 which possess CT can cause epidemic cholera. (frontiersin.org)
  • Yamai S, Okitsu T, Shimada T et al (1997) Distribution of serogroups of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 non-O139 with specific reference to their ability to produce cholera toxin and addition of novel serogroups. (springer.com)
  • Serogroups O1 (classical and El Tor biotypes) and O139 are primarily responsible for cholera outbreaks Footnote 1 Footnote 3 . (canada.ca)
  • 1974). Among the 193 currently recognised O serogroups of V. cholerae , only O1 and O139 have caused epidemics of cholera (Fraga et al. (scielo.org.za)
  • Subsequently, the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) in Rome confirmed isolation of toxinogenic V. cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa, from stools from the index patient. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. (asm.org)
  • Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1991 and 1997. (asm.org)
  • Basu and Mukerjee ( 4 ) proposed a phage typing scheme for V. cholerae O1 biotype E1 Tor which was efficiently used to study the spread of the E1 Tor biotype of V. cholerae O1. (asm.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae O1 Classical (CL) biotype caused the 5th and 6th, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the 7th pandemic in Asia in the 1970's by completely displacing the CL biotype. (umd.edu)
  • Differences in whole-genome expression patterns between the classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1 were determined under conditions that induce virulence gene expression in the classical biotype. (jcvi.org)
  • V. cholerae O1 classical biotype caused the first six out of seven cholera pandemics before being replaced with the El Tor biotype which has been responsible for the ongoing seventh pandemic since 1961. (frontiersin.org)
  • While treatment for cholera is much the same despite the causative strain's biotype, such classification can be imperative for laboratory experiments and may have broader impacts in the biomedical field. (springer.com)
  • Nair G, Faruque S, Bhuiyan N et al (2002) New variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor with attributes of the classical biotype from hospitalized patients with acute diarrhea in Bangladesh. (springer.com)
  • Travelers, public health, medical professionals, and outbreak responders should be aware of areas with high rates of cholera, know how the disease spreads, and what to do to prevent it. (cdc.gov)
  • An Italian physician, Filippo Pacini, while investigating cholera outbreak in Florence in the late 1854, identified the causative pathogen as a new type of bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae Outbreak in Italy. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • S.v. Vibrio cholerae Outbreak in Italy. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The identification of this cholera outbreak is a sentinel episode confirming (1,2) that, if not adequately monitored, food preparation and distribution can cause serious infectious diseases in industrialized countries. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In July 2012, a cholera outbreak began in Cuba, despite the fact that cholera was thought to have been eradicated in this country. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Cholera was absent from the island of Hispaniola at least a century before an outbreak that began in Haiti in the fall of 2010. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • VL - 17 IS - 11 N2 - Cholera was absent from the island of Hispaniola at least a century before an outbreak that began in Haiti in the fall of 2010. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Vibrio cholerae, which was discovered in 1884 by Robert Koch during a diarrheal outbreak in Egypt. (scribd.com)
  • Gives an in-depth and analytical approach to the epidemiology of cholera that includes outbreak investigations, case-control studies, and surveillance functions. (asmscience.org)
  • Albert J, Siddique A, Islam M et al (1993) Large outbreak of clinical cholera due to V. cholerae non-O1 in Bangladesh. (springer.com)
  • A range of flavan-3-ols, ellagitannins and chemically defined proanthocyanidin fractions was evaluated in comparison to oseltamivir carboxylate and zanamivir for their inhibitory activities against viral influenza A (H1N1) and bacterial Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCNA). (rcsb.org)
  • The V. cholerae genomic sequence provides a starting point for understanding how a free-living, environmental organism emerged to become a significant human bacterial pathogen. (nih.gov)
  • Evidence that such correspondence occurs is provided for Vibrio cholerae, establishing a critical role for environmental parameters in bacterial diversity. (umd.edu)
  • Here we report the identification of a small molecule inhibitor of Vibrio cholerae virulence regulation and demonstrate its ability to inhibit bacterial colonization in an animal model of cholera. (sciencemag.org)
  • The crystal structure of full-length ToxT from epidemic V. cholerae serotype O1 El Tor (ToxT EPI ) was determined previously 20 and was the first full-length structure to be reported for an AraC/XylS-family member with a domain arrangement similar to AraC. (nature.com)
  • Homologous recombination can be an extremely important force of evolution in some microorganisms and has been implicated in the evolution of virulent Vibrio cholerae serotype O139 ( 12 , 39 ). (asm.org)
  • The article describes cases of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa in patients with diarrhea in Yangon, Myanmar from February 2012-June 2013. (ebscohost.com)
  • Presents a study which examined the change in serotype and appearance of tetracycline resistance in Vibrio cholerae O1 in India. (ebscohost.com)
  • In molecular biology, Vibrio cholerae ToxT activated RNAs are small RNAs which are produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera, caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and disputed results that triggered periods of protest, violence, characterized by a profuse watery diarrhea, has been public transportation disruption, and work stoppages a serious public health problem since the fi rst recorded throughout the country. (cdc.gov)
  • The bacterium Vibrio cholerae , like other human pathogens that reside in environmental reservoirs, survives predation by unicellular eukaryotes. (pnas.org)
  • However, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, produces D-amino acids which are released to the environment at millimolar concentrations. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here we report two replication-control mechanisms mediated by a chromosome segregation protein, ParB2, encoded by chromosome II of the model multichromosome bacterium, Vibrio cholerae. (epfl.ch)
  • Hays and Seed set out to understand how the timing of lysis can impact the bacteriophage, using the bacterium Vibrio cholerae - which causes cholera - and its bacteriophage called ICP1. (elifesciences.org)
  • A comprehensive Vibrio cholerae genetic map has been unattainable because of the relative paucity of efficient genetic exchange systems for this organism. (pnas.org)
  • Epidemics of cholera-like illness caused by a previously unrecognized organism occurred recently in southern Asia (1). (cdc.gov)
  • The recent emergence of toxigenic V. cholerae O139 has prompted us to conduct a search for bacteriophages for V. cholerae O139 and to develop an effective phage typing scheme for this organism. (asm.org)
  • A blood culture was positive and the isolated organism was identified as a nonagglutinating vibrio, Heiberg type II. (annals.org)
  • Methods of enhancing the isolation of V. cholerae 01 have been developed and optimized, primarily by taking advantage of the organism's rapid generation time under certain conditions and its tolerance to alkali. (asmscience.org)
  • 16 of 53 (30%) patients had a fourfold or greater increase in vibriocidal titer between 6 and 12 months after an episode of severe cholera, suggesting reexposure to the organism. (ajtmh.org)
  • These findings may explain the relative rarity of V. cholerae O139 bacteremia in cholera caused by this organism. (asm.org)
  • Expression of unrelated V. cholerae c-di-GMP synthetase or phosphodiesterae proteins also modulated c-di-GMP concentration and vps gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • The results presented here provide a detailed structural mechanism for virulence gene regulation in V. cholerae by the UFA components of bile and other synthetic ToxT inhibitors. (nature.com)
  • Although like in E. coli , the spoT gene function was found to be essential in V. cholerae relA + background, but unlike E. coli , several V. cholerae Δ relA Δ spoT mutants constructed in this study accumulated (p)ppGpp under glucose starvation. (springer.com)
  • Since these phenotypes of Δ relA Δ spoT mutants could be reverted back to Δ relA phenotypes by providing SpoT in trans , it appears that the spoT gene function is crucial in V. cholerae . (springer.com)
  • Haralalka S, Nandi S, Bhadra RK (2003) Mutation in the relA gene of Vibrio cholerae affects in vitro and in vivo expression of virulence factors. (springer.com)
  • To capture within-patient diversity, we isolated multiple (8 to 20) V. cholerae colonies from each of eight patients, sequenced their genomes and identified point mutations and gene gain/loss events. (harvard.edu)
  • Much of the gene content variation appeared to be due to gain and loss of phage and plasmids within the V. cholerae population, with occasional exchanges between V. cholerae and other members of the gut microbiota. (harvard.edu)
  • The proteins in the family share a high degree of similarity which was exploited in the design of degenerate primers that were used successfully to amplify four response regulator gene fragments from the V. cholerae chromosome. (bl.uk)
  • Differences in gene expression between the classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1. (jcvi.org)
  • The samples were analysed for the presence of V. cholerae O1 and O139 using culture methods, the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a single-primer pair for the ompW gene and a semi-nested PCR selecting for the ctxA gene, encoding subunit A of cholera toxin. (scielo.org.za)
  • The V. cholerae sodB gene was detected in 74 of the 230 samples tested. (scielo.org.za)
  • Hays and Seed also found that the Vibrio cholerae cells can defend themselves against lysis inhibition using a single gene called lidI . (elifesciences.org)
  • In collaboration with researchers from Dartmouth College and Simon Fraser University, Dr. Nicolas Biais, Assistant Professor of Biology at Brooklyn College, City University of New York (CUNY), developed an assay in his laboratory that revealed for the first time the V. cholerae Type IV pilus can retract without this molecular motor, and that retraction is necessary for these pili to function. (eurekalert.org)
  • Recently, the Blokesch lab visualised a DNA uptake pilus extending from the outer membrane of V. cholerae and determined the minimal known components needed for its assembly. (europa.eu)
  • Upon entry into the host, a tightly regulated circuit coordinates induction of two major virulence factors: cholera toxin (CT) and a toxin co-regulated pilus (TCP). (upenn.edu)
  • Reporting his discovery before the Società Medico-Fisica Fiorentina (Medico-Physician Society of Florence) on 10 December, and published in the 12 December issue of the Gazzetta Medica Italiana (Medical Gazette of Italy), Pacini stated: Le poche materia del vomito che ho potuto esaminare seconde e terzo caso di cholera. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] V. cholerae ditemukan pertama kali oleh ahli anatomi dari Italia bernama Filippo Pacini pada tahun 1854. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research on how Type IV pili function not only advances our understanding of V. cholerae pathogenesis, but will also aid in developing future prevention and treatment strategies for cholera. (eurekalert.org)
  • Pathogenesis: The infectious dose of V. cholerae is between 105 and 108 for humans (1). (kenyon.edu)
  • Salles CA , Momen H , Vicente AC , Coelho A . Vibrio cholerae in South America: polymerase chain reaction and zymovar analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Vibrio cholerae was detected using culture, polymerase chain reaction, and direct viable count methods (DFA-DVC). (ajtmh.org)
  • Worldwide, diarrhoeal disease, caused by cholera and many other pathogens, is the second leading cause of death for children under the age of 5 and at least 120,000 deaths are estimated to be caused by cholera each year Footnote 12 Footnote 13 . (canada.ca)
  • Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae , is a severe epidemic diarrhoeal disease which continues to devastate many developing countries where socioeconomic conditions are poor, sanitary systems and public hygiene are rudimentary, and safe drinking water is not available (Chen et al. (scielo.org.za)
  • During the third global pandemic of cholera (1852-1859), there were several scientific research to understand the etiology of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1991, the seventh cholera pandemic reached South America by the Pacific coast, spreading to Brazil in the same year ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Vibrio cholerae , the causative agent of cholera, is one of the most successful emerging and reemerging pathogens that has both human and environmental components in its life cycle ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • ToxT is an AraC-family transcriptional activator protein that controls the expression of key virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae , the causative agent of cholera. (iucr.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae ( V. cholerae ), the causative agent of cholera, has been responsible for various outbreaks worldwide and may be associated with animal faeces. (scielo.org.za)
  • The major pathogenicity factors and virulence regulators of V. cholerae are encoded either in mobile genetic elements acquired in the environment (e.g., pathogenicity islands or lysogenic phages) or in the core genome. (asm.org)
  • Regulatory mechanisms governing pathogenicity of Vibrio cholerae. (unc.edu)
  • V. cholerae has 2 major biotypes: classical and El Tor, which was first isolated in Egypt in 1905. (scribd.com)
  • Ghosh-Banerjee J, Senoh M, Takahashi T et al (2010) Cholera toxin production by the El Tor variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 compared to the prototype El Tor and classical biotypes. (springer.com)
  • To the Editor: On 16 June, the microbiology unit of the Hospital of Lodi communicated to the local public health unit that Vibrio cholerae had been isolated and identified by standard biochemical tests in stool samples of an outpatient whose clinical data were unknown. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • S. Rudra, R. Mahajan, M. Mathur, K. Kathuria, and V. Talwar, "Cluster of cases of clinical cholera due to Vibrio cholerae 010 in east Delhi," Indian Journal of Medical Research , vol. 103, pp. 71-73, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • Most commonly isolated from clinical specimens are- V. cholerae, V. parahemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus & V. alginoliticus. (scribd.com)
  • Of diagnostic and clinical significance, there is a paucity of anatomic pathology in the intestines of patients with cholera ( 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • The scenario of cholera that existed previously changed in 1992 and 1993 with the emergence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O139 in India. (asm.org)
  • Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae Ol in Food and Water, p 27-39. (asmscience.org)
  • Epidemic cholera was reported in Haiti in 2010, with no information available on the occurrence or geographic distribution of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in Haitian waters. (ajtmh.org)
  • The pathogenic agent of cholera is Vibrio cholerae , a Gram-negative, curved-rod shaped bacterium (Figure 1). (kenyon.edu)
  • Mutation of the V. cholerae ompR/ envZ homologues will show what proteins are regulated by this system in response to varying environmental signals and whether they play any role in virulence. (bl.uk)
  • Several V. cholerae matrix proteins played complementary architectural roles during biofilm development. (sciencemag.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae biofilms contain exopolysaccharide and three matrix proteins RbmA, RbmC and Bap1. (diva-portal.org)
  • the existence of chitin-binding proteins (CBPs) in Vibrio alginolyticus ( 3 , 21 ) has recently been shown. (asm.org)
  • This results in the expression of virulence factors that allow V. cholerae to colonize the small intestine, proliferate, and produce cholera toxin (CT). (news-medical.net)
  • However, those that survive travel to the small intestine where they begin to produce cholera toxin (CT), which is the main virulence factor of V. cholerae . (kenyon.edu)
  • Serotypes that do not produce cholera toxin can still cause illness in humans (i.e. enteritis) Footnote 8 . (canada.ca)
  • 1994. Vibrio cholerae and Cholera: Molecular to Global Perspectives . (wikipedia.org)
  • Wachsmuth IK , Evins GM , Fields PI , Olsvik O , Popovic T , Bopp CA , The molecular epidemiology of cholera in Latin America. (cdc.gov)
  • These results point to VrrA as a molecular link between the sigma(E)-regulon and biofilm formation in V. cholerae. (diva-portal.org)
  • Kaper J, Bradford H, Roberts N et al (1982) Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae in the U.S. Gulf Coast. (springer.com)
  • An English physician John Snow was the first to give convincing evidence in London in 1854 that cholera was spread from drinking water - a contagion, not miasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC responds to cholera outbreaks across the world using its Global Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) expertise. (cdc.gov)
  • Two serotypes called O1 and O139 are responsible for cholera outbreaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, Kenya has had numerous outbreaks of cholera since geographic differentiation of the clonal complexes occurred. (cdc.gov)
  • Our analyses showed that multiple genetic lineages of V. outbreaks of cholera were documented during 1971-2010 cholerae were simultaneously infecting persons in Kenya. (cdc.gov)
  • New outbreaks keep emerging, even in areas where no case of cholera has ever been reported, which highlights the need of new measures to prevent and control great pandemics. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Nontoxigenic" variants of V. cholerae that do not carry the integrated CTXΦ prophage also cause disease, including sporadic outbreaks of watery diarrhea and isolated incidences of extraintestinal infections, septicemia, and inflammatory enterocolitis ( 2 , 6 - 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • A new phage typing scheme was subsequently developed at the National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases for V. cholerae O1 ( 7 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Some serotypes may serve as a reservoir for the cholera toxin phage genome Footnote 6 Footnote 7 . (canada.ca)
  • The Gram-negative pathogen Vibrio cholerae uses variety of regulatory molecules to modulate expression of virulence factors. (diva-portal.org)
  • Background & objectives: Spread of cholera in West Bengal is known to be related to its ecosystem which favours Vibrio cholerae. (ebscohost.com)
  • Isolation and genetic characterization of an environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Amazon is reported. (scielo.br)
  • 2. Monsur's gelatin taurocholate trypticase tellurite agar (G.T.T.A)-ph-8.5, useful for cholera and other vibrios isolation from stool. (scribd.com)
  • Although V cholerae O1 grows on a variety of commonly used agar media, isolation from fecal specimens is more easily accomplished by use of a selective plating medium. (asmscience.org)
  • Cholera in Lima, Peru, Correlates with Prior Isolation of Vibrio cholerae from the Environment. (ebscohost.com)
  • Sambhu Nath De isolated the cholera toxin and demonstrated the toxin as the cause of cholera in 1959. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterium responsible for cholera was isolated in pure culture by Robert Koch in 1850. (kenyon.edu)
  • There was no cholera in Haiti until October 2010, when epidemic cholera swept the country. (cdc.gov)
  • The emergence of this new cause of epidemic cholera represents an important shift in the epidemiology of this infectious disease (6). (cdc.gov)
  • They are regulated by the transcriptional activator ToxT and may play a role in V. cholerae virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1.65 Å resolution structure of the AraC-family transcriptional activator ToxT from Vibrio cholerae Jiaqin Li, Graham Wehmeyer, Scott Lovell, Kevin P. Battaile, Susan M. Egan Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun. (ku.edu)
  • Cholera causes large epidemics, and pandemics around the globe. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Continued monitoring of V. cholerae in Haiti will illuminate the processes influencing the origin and fate of genome variants, which will facilitate interpretation of genetic variation in future epidemics. (asm.org)
  • The quorum sensing (QS) pathway of Vibrio cholerae activates the expression of VpsR, VpsT and AphA (the main activators of biofilm formation) at low cell density and HapR (the main repressor) at high cell density. (genome.jp)
  • Regulation of biofilm formation in V. cholerae at high and low cell densities. (kenyon.edu)
  • 2002. Simple procedure for rapid identification of Vibrio cholerae from the aquatic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The life cycle of Vibrio cholerae allows the bacterium to live for years in an aquatic environment, its natural reservoir, where it survives adherent to crustaceans, algae and zooplankton. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Within the aquatic environment, V. cholerae is found in close association with planktonic species ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • It has been shown that the persistence of V. cholerae in the aquatic environment is facilitated by its ability to colonize various substrates, including zooplankton surfaces (i.e., copepods) and detrital chitin ( 4 , 5 , 8-10 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • The scientific literature suggests that V. cholerae transmits fecal-orally through contaminated water ( Snow, 1855 ) following a "slow" human-to-aquatic environment-to-human pathway ( Morris, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The findings of the study provided in situ evidence for V. cholerae O1 and O139, predominantly as viable but non-culturable cells in the aquatic environment of Beira. (scielo.org.za)
  • The authors utilized a recently developed DNA probe technique to obtain quantitative data on occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in samples collected monthly from 12 environmental sites in Lima, Peru, from November 1993 through March 1995. (ebscohost.com)
  • The occurrence of Salmonella and Vibrio cholerae in brackishwater ponds was monitored over a 2-year period in one of the major prawn exporting countries in Southeast Asia. (www.gov.uk)
  • 2004) and the occurrence of V. cholerae in water sources can be linked to faecal pollution (Cox et al. (scielo.org.za)
  • The present study investigated the occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in animal faecal samples collected in rural areas in the Vhembe region of the Limpopo Province in South Africa using 2 multiplex PCRs. (scielo.org.za)
  • The growth laws and global morphology of V. cholerae wild-type biofilms. (pnas.org)
  • V. cholerae also forms biofilms upon colonization on their copepod symbionts. (kenyon.edu)
  • It can be difficult to detect the presence of V. cholerae in water sources, due to the bacterium's ability to aggregate in biofilms of conditionally viable environmental cells (CVECs) (3). (kenyon.edu)
  • The formation of these biofilms is postulated to be evolutionarily beneficial because it could help Vibrio cholerae persist in the environment as well as minimize the energetic cost of osmotic stress. (kenyon.edu)
  • Vibrio cholerae biofilms were observed to have three distinct levels of spatial organization: cells, clusters of cells, and collections of clusters. (sciencemag.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae biofilms displayed three distinct levels of spatial organization: cells, clusters of cells, and collections of clusters. (sciencemag.org)
  • The isolate produced cholera toxin by Y-1 adrenal cell assay and latex agglutination in the California State Public Health Laboratory. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera associated with food transported from El Salvador--Indiana, 1994. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • From 1994 to 2001, the official records report 68,583 cases of cholera in Brazil (51,324 of these in 1994, the second major year of cholera incidence). (cdc.gov)
  • While the sucrose late fermenting variant spread quickly all over the region accounting for most of the cholera cases registered during 1994 to 1995. (scielo.br)
  • Shimada T, Arakawa E, Itoh K et al (1994) Extended serotyping scheme for Vibrio cholerae . (springer.com)
  • This scheme comprising five newly isolated phages would be another useful tool in the study of the epidemiology of cholera caused by V. cholerae O139. (asm.org)
  • Morphology of viable but non-culturable Vibrio cholerae was monitored for 2 years by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. (umd.edu)
  • Vibrio cholerae merupakan bakteri gram negatif , berbentuk koma (batang yang melengkung) dan bersifat motil (dapat bergerak), memiliki struktur antogenik dari antigen flagelar H dan antigen somatik O, gamma-proteobacteria, mesofilik dan kemoorganotrof , berhabitat alami di lingkungan akuatik dan umumnya berasosiasi dengan eukariot . (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we determine the complete genomic sequence of the gram negative, gamma-Proteobacterium Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961 to be 4,033,460 base pairs (bp). (nih.gov)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, enteric, facultatively anaerobic, curved (comma-shaped) rod prokaryote. (sciencephoto.com)
  • For instance, Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that naturally exists within an aquatic reservoir and infects human beings. (asm.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae is a gram negative, non-spore forming, curved rod that is oxidase positive Footnote 1 Footnote 2 Footnote 3 . (canada.ca)
  • Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease with ancient origins, with Sanskrit accounts of the disease from the Indian subcontinent dating to the fifth century B.C. (1). (kenyon.edu)