Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Haptophyta: A group (or phylum) of unicellular EUKARYOTA (or algae) possessing CHLOROPLASTS and FLAGELLA.Tissue Survival: The span of viability of a tissue or an organ.Pinctada: A genus of pearl oysters in the family Pteriidae, class BIVALVIA. Both cultured and natural pearls are obtained from species in the genus. They are distinct from the distantly related, edible true oysters of the family OSTREIDAE.Lithostathine: The proteinaceous component of the pancreatic stone in patients with PANCREATITIS.Isopoda: One of the largest orders of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 10,000 species. Like AMPHIPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Amphipoda, they possess abdominal pleopods (modified as gills) and their bodies are dorsoventrally flattened.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.SvalbardOceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Flounder: Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Antacids: Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Cephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.PolyaminesBicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary: Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Trypan Blue: A diazo-naphthalene sulfonate that is widely used as a stain.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Genes, Essential: Those genes found in an organism which are necessary for its viability and normal function.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Semen Preservation: The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.ThiazolesNeutral Red: A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Cell SeparationCell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Myocardial Stunning: Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Formazans: Colored azo compounds formed by the reduction of tetrazolium salts. Employing this reaction, oxidoreductase activity can be determined quantitatively in tissue sections by allowing the enzymes to act on their specific substrates in the presence of tetrazolium salts.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, Inbred C57BLSeeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
... cell line LoVo cells, compared with other three colorectal cell lines SW480, HT29 and Caco-2. Overexpression of miR-26b ... Overexpression of miR-26b impairs viability and triggers apoptosis of human breast cancer MCF7 cells. SLC7A11 is identified as ... "Human embryonic stem cells and metastatic colorectal cancer cells shared the common endogenous human microRNA-26b". J Cell Mol ... mir-26a is strongly downregulated in melanoma cells compared with primary melanocytes. Treatment of melanoma cell lines with a ...
... difficile cells in colorectal cells, and thus prevent Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea. Due to more than a century of safe use, ... bulgaricus strains to Caco-2 Cells" There are also numerous studies that outline the antimicrobial activity of L. bulgaricus ... maintaining its viability: "Survival of Yogurt Bacteria in the Human Gut" and "Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ... Adherence to mucus and human epithelial cells and cell lines and the ability to reduce pathogen adhesion to surfaces is ...
Also, the sodium pump is necessary for viability of all cells, and this explains the fact that palytoxin affects all cells. ... mechanistic and cytomorphological effects of palytoxin in human intestinal cells (Caco-2) explain its lower-than-parenteral ... The breakthrough research which is seen as proof for the sodium pump mechanism was performed in yeast cells. These cells do not ... Because palytoxin can affect every type of cell in the body, the symptoms can be very different for the various routes of ...
The neutralization of CaCO3, or balancing the concentration of CaCO3 on the seafloor, land and in the ocean, can be measured on ... The nitrogen to iron ratio in a typical algae cell is 16:0.0001, meaning that for every iron atom added to the ocean a ... "Long-term viability of carbon sequestration in deep-sea sediments". Science Advances. 4 (7): eaao6588. Bibcode:2018SciA.... ... 2. ). 2. +. H. 2. O. →. u. r. e. a. s. e. NH. 3. +. NH. 2. COOH. {\displaystyle {\ce {CO(NH_2)_2 + H_2O -,[urease] NH_3 + NH_ ...
For example, hopanoids are just parts of the bacterial cell wall present in oil as contaminant. Nickel (Ni), vanadium (V), lead ... ISBN 3-540-18995-5. Price, Leigh C. (1997). "Origins, Characteristics, Evidence For, and Economic Viabilities of Conventional ... CaCO_{3}\rightarrow CH_{4}+CaO+2H_{2}O} } Note that CaO (lime) is not a mineral species found within natural rocks. Whilst this ... Experiments in diamond anvil high pressure cells have resulted in partial conversion of methane and inorganic carbonates into ...
Cell Number and Viability Determinations.. Caco-2 cells were removed from the monolayer by treatment with trypsin (∼1500 units/ ... For all cell types, viability was determined by the percentage of cells able to exclude the trypan blue dye. ... ras-transfected cells to 5 mm DFMO had a much more pronounced effect on cell survival than that exhibited by the parental Caco- ... Preparation of Whole-Cell Lysates of Caco-2 Cells.. Whole-cell lysates of Caco-2 cells were prepared according to commercially ...
MTT cell viability assay was performed on Caco-2 cells. The well-diluted samples (200 to 1000-fold dilutions) proved to be non- ... MTT cell viability assay was performed on Caco-2 cells. (Figure 3a,b) Compositions 1-8 were diluted by Hanks balanced solution ... MTT cell viability test was used [34]. Cells were seeded on flat bottom 96-well tissue culture plates at a density of 104 cells ... Figure 3. (a) Cell viability evaluation following MTT assay on Caco-2 cells treated with compositions 1-8 in the function of ...
Attaching naproxen to the surface of the dendrimer increased the IC50 of the resulting prodrugs towards Caco-2 cells. The ... The permeability of naproxen across monolayers of Caco-2 cells was significantly increased by its conjugation to either G3 or ... assay indicated that the G3 dendrimer conjugates had a concentration dependent toxicity towards Caco-2 cells. ... Table 4. The effect of G3-naproxen conjugates (LyG3-(deg-NAP)x) and L-G0-deg-NAP on the viability of Caco-2 cells as determined ...
Id say that ~80% of the time the pectin reduces cell proliferation ~(according to the assays). Because th... ... Protocols and Techniques Forums → Tissue and Cell Culture → cell viability assay for caco-2 and pbmc Started by prollic, 06 Jun ... Protocols and Techniques Forums → Tissue and Cell Culture → SHSH5Y cells Started by Prake, 25 Jul 2015 MTT assay * 1 reply ... Protocols and Techniques Forums → Cell Biology → MTT, Proliferation and Cytotoxicity Assay → Different drug treating time ...
... posted in Cell Biology: Hello, Ive frozen whole blood. Is it possible to isolate PMBC from frozen samples? Thanks for your ... Protocols and Techniques Forums → Tissue and Cell Culture → cell viability assay for caco-2 and pbmc Started by prollic, 06 Jun ... PBMC cell stimulation? Started by Cyanide, 15 Aug 2014 PBMC, Blood draw, stimulation * 1 reply ... Protocols and Techniques Forums → Tissue and Cell Culture → PBMC and granulocyte isolation from human whole blood Started by ...
LDH cell viability assay.Cell viability was determined with a commercial kit (Sigma-Aldrich Co., St. Louis, MO). At 72 hpi, the ... Virus-Cell Interactions. Identification of Host Cell Factors Associated with Astrovirus Replication in Caco-2 Cells. Andrea ... Cells, virus, and reagents.Cells of the colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cell line, obtained from the American Type Culture ... 4). The viability of the cells, determined by an LDH activity release assay, was not affected, and the reduction in gene ...
... and the percentage of blue-stained cells was ,5%. Results indicate that orange juice did not affect the viability of caco-2 ... LLC-PK1 cells (porcine kidney epithelial cell line) and LLC-GA5-COL300 cells (a transformant cell line derived by transfecting ... The trypan blue exclusion test was performed to evaluate the viability of the cells. There was no change in the viability of ... 105 for LLC-PK1 cells and 3.125 × 105 for LLC-GA5-COL300 cells. The cells were grown for 3 days, and the culture medium was ...
Cell Viability. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) conversion ... Figure 5: Proteasomal activities measured in cell lysates upon exposure to ELF-EMFs. Caco cells were treated or not with 0.1 M ... and essentially no change in cell viability, as measured by the MTT reduction assay. Viability in exposed cells was not less ... Exposing Caco cells to 1 mT, 50 Hz ELF-EMFs, resulted in a time-dependent increase in cell proliferation rate compared to ...
Adherence and viability of intestinal bacteria to differentiated Caco-2 cells quantified by flow cytometry Charlotte Grootaert ... secretion and structure of the fasting-induced adipose factor in gut epithelial cell lines Charlotte Grootaert (UGent) , Tom ... Chemopreventive effects from prebiotic inulin towards microbial 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine bioactivation ... Bacterial monocultures, propionate, butyrate and H(2)O(2) modulate the expression, ...
To ensure cell viability during the permeability experiments, viability of cells was directly measured using an MTT test to ... For transport experiments, the cells were seeded at a density of 1 × 105 cells/ml on polycarbonate membranes of cell culture ... a higher cell viability of more than 90% indicated that the compounds at the concentrations were nontoxic to the cells. The ... 19] reported that rhein was devoid of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) at 0.1-10 μg ...
... of the Sijunzi decoction attenuate tumor necrosis factor-α-induced damage to the barrier function of a Caco-2 cell monolayer ... The effect of TPSJ on cell viability was measured using the MTT assay; B: TNF-α-damaged Caco-2 cells were incubated with 150 μg ... Cell viability was determined using a MTT reduction assay. Cells were seeded into 96-well plates in DMEM + 10% FBS + 1% NEAA at ... Cell culture. Caco-2 human colon adenocarcinoma cells were obtained from the Cell Culture Unit of Shanghai Science Academy ( ...
Colon cell line (Caco-2) was used in in vitro experiment to determine the AFB1 toxicity in the intestine. AFB1 significantly (P ... 2014) found FB1 decreased the cell viability and proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. A possible mechanism has ... Studies using intestinal epithelial cells showed that ZEA induced cell death without altering the cell integrity as indicated ... Using intestinal cell lines (IPEC-1, Caco-2, and HT29), Minervini et al. ( ...
Cell viability and proliferation were measured using Promegas CellTiter-Blue(®) Cell Viability assay, DAPI staining and ... In order to investigate the effects of silver nanoparticles on human intestinal cells, we used the Caco-2 cell line and peptide ... 22615588 - Molecular analysis of men1 expression in mcf7, t47d and mda-mb 468 breast cancer cell l.... 1576428 - Primary b-cell ... Exposure of proliferating Caco-2 cells to silver nanoparticle induced decreasing adherence capacity and cytotoxicity, whereby ...
EPA and DHA inhibited cholesterol absorption in Caco-2 monolayer might be caused by down-regulating NPC1L1 mRNA and protein ... on cholesterol uptake and transport in human enterocytes Caco-2 cells, and on the mRNA expression levels of NPC1L1, others ... dose-dependently inhibited cholesterol uptake and transport in Caco-2 monolayer, while saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and ... Fatty acids have been shown to modulate intestinal cholesterol absorption in cells and animals, a process that is mediated by ...
by International Journal of Morphology; Biological sciences Antibodies Research Cancer research Cell differentiation Colon ... Rosiglitazone Role in the Expression of KLF6 Caco-2 Colon Cancer Cells/Rol de Rosiglitazona en la Expresion de KLF6 en Celulas ... For viability and cell count Trypan Blue was used and an automated cell counter, Bio-Rad Tc 20 Automated cell counter. DPBS ( ... Management cell culture. Cell lines Caco-2 were incubated for 24 hours, then the cells were seeded in an amount of 1X 10 6 ...
23494528 - Involvement of polyamines in iron(iii) transport in human intestinal caco-2 cell lines.. 10562708 - The role of t- ... Lycopene treatment inhibited in 25% and 30% cell viability of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, respectively. The lowest cell viability ... Lycopene promoted also cell cycle arrest followed by decreased cell viability in majority of cell lines after 96 h, as compared ... Cell viability assay The status of cancer cell lines viability was determined by MTT assay (Amresco, USA). Exponentially ...
Effects of chitosan on cell viability and the cytoskeleton of Caco-2 cells  ... Effect of the Tumor Microenvironment Factor S100A4 on Malignant Melanoma Cells  Nguyen, Hong Diem (Master thesis / ... Effect of Phenolic Compounds from Elderflowers on Glucose- and Fatty Acid Uptake in Human Myotubes and HepG2-Cells  ... Effects of Oxaliplatin and Pregabalin in Mice and PC-12 CellsRestricted Access  ...
Viability in Caco-2 cells was measured 18 h or 48 h postintoxication with Cell-Titer-Glo (Promega). For HeLa cells, viability ... 2005) Inhibition of cell movement and proliferation by cell-cell contact-induced interaction of Necl-5 with nectin-3. J Cell ... Viability Assays.. Cells were seeded at a density of 2,500 cells per well in a 384-well plate for 16 h and incubated with ... The E19 cells were resistant to cell death relative to wild-type Caco-2 when measuring ATP as a viability indicator, and ...
1] The combination of idelalisib and GS-9973 synergistically inhibits CLL cell viability and further disrupts chemokine ... GS-9973 shows good bidirectional permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro. In cells, GS-9973 also shows excellent ... Cell Lines. Assay Type. Concentration. Incubation Time. Formulation. Activity Description. PMID. human MV411 cells ... J Cell Mol Med, 2018, 10.1111/jcmm.13935 PubMed: 30353642 (. click the link to review the publication ) ...
... cells were trypsinized and cell viability was assessed using a trypan blue exclusion assay. Cell viability was always high (,90 ... Cell line and culture conditions.The human colon cancer cell line Caco-2 (ATCC HTB-37) was cultivated according to standard ... Cells were grown in 12-well plates until confluent monolayers formed and cells differentiated into small intestinal cells ... cells treated with AFB1 for 72 h; 3, cells treated with AFB1 and GG (1 × 1010 CFU/ml); 4, cells treated with AFB1 and GG (5 × ...
Cell viability will be measured using a spectrophotometer-based method. Additionally, high-performance liquid chromatography ... Caco-2 cells will be cultured in the lab and incubated with the test compounds. ... Cyanidin-3-glucoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside (anthocyanins) will be used to inhibit Caco-2 cell viability in the absence or ... Inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase in colon cancer cells to enhance the anti-cancer activity of food-derived ...
Luteolin also decreased the cell viability of human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 (30). In the present study, we found that ... Cell viability assay. Cell proliferation ability was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay kit (Beyotime Institute of ... The cells were washed with PBS three times to rinse off the detached cells. Cells were incubated for 48 h in 2% FBS medium ... Luteolin has been found to inhibit CRC cells proliferation, induce cells apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation (13-15). Liu et ...
L. fermentum UCO-979C significantly inhibited H. pylori-induced IL-8 production in AGS cells and reduced the viability of H. ... Caco-2 and gastric adenocarcinoma human cells (AGS) cells; showed an efficient colonization in Mongolian Gerbils; and potently ... Protein concentration, cell count and cytokines (TNF-α and IL-8) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lung wet-to-dry weight ... Objective In this study, we evaluated whether budlein A modulates the activation of innate and adaptive immune cells such as ...
... reduction in K562 viability, and 11%, 15% and 12.7% in SH-SY5Y. No cytotoxicity was observed in CaCo-2 cells under the same ... Cell proliferation was inhibited in K562 and SH-SY5Y cells in the first 48 h at 500 μg mL−1 but slowly resumed after 72 h. A ... viability and ROS protection was investigated towards K562, CaCo-2 and SH-SY5Y human cancer cell lines. ... Even at the lowest concentrations (50 μg mL−1), the extract was efficiently able to protect human cells against t-BHP-induced ...
... and cell viability was determined. The inset shows the dose-dependent effects of Stx2 on Caco-2 cell viability. Data are ... Cell culture.Caco-2 cells were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA) and were maintained in ... cell viability after a 2-day incubation. Biotin-PPP-tet had a dose-dependent protective effect almost identical to that of Ac- ... a human colon epithelial cell line. As shown in Fig. 4, Ac-PPP-tet efficiently protected Caco-2 cells against the cytotoxic ...
  • It was demonstrated that luteolin had no effects on CRC cells proliferation while inhibited cells migration and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • GS-9973 shows good bidirectional permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro. (selleckchem.com)
  • In this study we investigated the potential of GG to reduce AFB 1 availability in vitro in Caco-2 cells adapted to express cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4, such that both transport and toxicity could be assessed. (asm.org)
  • For in vitro studies, the exposure of NPs to Caco-2 cells had no effect on cell viability and membrane integrity. (ovid.com)
  • The effects of piperine extract on cell viability, pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibition, and immunomodulation on inflammatory genes were evaluated in vitro using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory model in Caco-2 cells. (academicjournals.org)
  • Treatment further inhibited U251MG or MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, colony formation, and migration in vitro while only moderately or weakly affecting MCF7 cells or normal mouse astrocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In an in vitro study, sedanolide, a natural phthalide from celery seed oil, showed protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))- and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH)-induced toxicity in HepG2 and CaCo-2 cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In vitro infection set-ups using human skeletal muscle and colon cell lines were designed to assess the antiviral effect of the probiotic bacteria during entry and post-entry steps of the infection cycle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Meanwhile, the overexpression of miR-26a in the A549 human lung cancer cell line dramatically inhibits cell proliferation, blocks G1/S phase transition, induces apoptosis, and inhibits cell metastasis and invasion in vitro.Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a potential target of miR-26a. (wikipedia.org)
  • FW from T2D patients decreased Caco-2 cell monolayer integrity when compared to the healthy controls and in the T2D patients, FW activity in vitro correlated with biological markers of T2D severity measured in vivo. (bl.uk)
  • Finally, GOS anti-cytotoxic activity was also assessed in vitro using cell viability assays and the anti-cytotoxic effect of GOS was time and concentration dependent. (bl.uk)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the polyphenol compounds, the antioxidant capacity and the anticancer activity of MH subjected to an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion in human HCT-116 colon cancer cells. (blogspot.com)
  • In this study, in vitro antioxidant (DPPH, H2O2, Fe2+ chelating and reducing power), apoptotic and anti-proliferative activities of zerumbone were investigated in human cancer cells. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Pharmacologic inhibition of HSP90, using structurally divergent small molecules currently in clinical development, induced proteasome-mediated degradation of STK33 in human cancer cells of various tissue origin in vitro and in vivo, and triggered apoptosis preferentially in KRAS mutant cells in an STK33-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, Gal/GalNAc lectin, an immunologic surface molecule expressed on the plasma membrane of amoebae, is important for their adherence to host cells in vitro and their subsequent death [ 4 , 5 ]. (parasitol.kr)
  • Using Caco-2 monolayer culture as the in vitro adhesion model, the significant reduction of adherence after thermal treatment, digestion with pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin, and bile salts were observed. (media.pl)
  • This study investigated the effect of citrus flavanones on β-carotene (Bc) bioavailability using four experimental models: in vitro digestion procedure, synthetic mixed micelles, Caco-2 cell monolayers, and gavage experiments in mice. (usda.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS In an in vitro model of wounded colonic epithelium, u-PAR promotes cell migration through mechanisms that are not exclusively dependent on u-PA binding. (bmj.com)
  • 3 4 The catalytic activity of u-PA is known to regulate the metastasis of cancer cells (reviewed by Andreason and colleagues 5 ) and migration of normal corneal epithelial cells over their native matrix in vitro. (bmj.com)
  • Migration of a range of cell types over an artificial substratum in vitro is dependent on the binding of u-PA but not on its proteolytic activity. (bmj.com)
  • The in vitro anti-proliferative activities of the extract were tested against eight cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. (medcapsules.com)
  • In this work, we investigated the influences of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (o-MWCNT) on macrophages that are resting in the normal subcutis tissue or in the tumor microenvironment in vivo as well as on the macrophage cell line of RAW 264.7 treated with combination of IL4, IL10 and IL13 in vitro. (thno.org)
  • As a novel in vitro system for the evaluation of drug absorption, we characterized a human small intestinal epithelial cell (HIEC) monolayer that differentiated from adult ISCs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Probiotics have been shown to induce various epithelial cell responses by competing with pathogenic bacteria for host adhesion binding sites, improving epithelial cell barrier function, and stimulating the host immune response in general ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • To explore these genes further, targeted non-polar insertional mutants 'civT and 'civR were generated and tested for their role in intestinal epithelial cell interactions. (usda.gov)
  • In this study, the authors used DNA microarray to compare and identify genes induced by HER2 in mammary epithelial cell line with ectopic HER2 overexpression and breast cancer cell lines derived from patients with different level of HER2 expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AIM To examine the role of u-PA and its receptor (u-PAR) in colonic epithelial cell migration. (bmj.com)
  • Intestinal epithelial cell death following rotavirus infection is associated with villus atrophy and gastroenteritis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We further examined the death mechanisms induced in epithelial cell lines following rotavirus infection or inactivated rotavirus exposure. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We evaluated the effects of the major sulfide and sulfone metabolites of sulindac and DFMO alone, or in combinations, on the growth and survival of Caco-2 colon cancer-derived cells and in clones of these cells transfected with an activated K- ras oncogene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Rosiglitazone Role in the Expression of KLF6 Caco-2 Colon Cancer Cells/Rol de Rosiglitazona en la Expresion de KLF6 en Celulas Caco-2 de Cancer de Colon. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The purpose of this project is to test if entacapone can enhance intracellular levels and anti-cancer activity of anthocyanins in the Caco-2 colon cancer cell line by inhibiting COMT. (csub.edu)
  • Influence of combinations of digitonin with selected phenolics, terpenoids, and alkaloids on the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein in leukaemia and colon cancer cells. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • a) Immunoblots of lung cancer (NCI-H520, A549), colon cancer (Caco-2, HCT-116), breast cancer (BT-20, MDA-MB-231), and AML (HL-60, SKM-1) cell lines incubated with increasing concentrations of PU-H71 or 17-AAG for 24 h. (b) Caspase 9 activity in KRAS mutant (mut) and KRAS WT cancer cell lines incubated with 0.5 µM PU-H71 for 24 h. (nih.gov)
  • So, in the current study, we illustrated the tumor suppressive effects of the newly identified Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079 cell-free pentasaccharide against colon cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • METHODS Migration was assessed over 24 hours in circular wounds made in confluent monolayers of LIM1215 and Caco-2 human colon cancer cells. (bmj.com)
  • Additional studies in colon cancer cells showed that experimentally restoring the α6A/α6B balance in favor of α6B caused a decrease in cellular S-phase entry and repressed the activity of c-Myc. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The findings that the α6Bβ4 integrin is expressed in quiescent normal colonic cells and is significantly down-regulated in colon cancer cells relative to its α6Aβ4 counterpart are consistent with the anti-proliferative influence and inhibitory effect on c-Myc activity identified for this α6Bβ4 integrin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taken together, these findings point out the importance of integrin variant expression in colon cancer cell biology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cellular proteins associated with this membrane population in infected and mock-infected cells were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. (asm.org)
  • Gene ontology and protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that groups of proteins with roles in fatty acid synthesis and ATP biosynthesis were highly enriched in the fractions of this population in infected cells. (asm.org)
  • In this work, we provide evidence that astrovirus RNA replication and virus assembly occur in contact with cell membranes potentially derived from multiple cell organelles and show that membrane-associated cellular proteins involved in lipid metabolism are required for efficient viral replication. (asm.org)
  • These observations suggest that lycopene may alter cell cycle regulatory proteins depending on the type of cancer and the dose of lycopene administration. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Fatty acids have been shown to modulate intestinal cholesterol absorption in cells and animals, a process that is mediated by several transporter proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Morris MC, Depollier J, Mery J, Heitz F, Divita G (2001) A peptide carrier for the delivery of biologically active proteins into mammalian cells. (springer.com)
  • ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are transmembrane proteins, which can transport a wide variety of compounds across cell membranes utilizing the energy from ATP hydrolysis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Since CRC comprises heterogeneous tumors with predominant hypoxic components, we investigated effects of an inhibitor of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (ABT-737) in combination with an mTOR inhibitor (AZD8055)-collectively referred to as combo-Rx, in hypoxic CRC cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The concurrent inhibition of anti-apoptotic proteins and mTOR-mediated signaling in hypoxic KRAS/PIK3CA -mutant CRC cell lines resulted in pro-survival responses in parallel with the intended anti-proliferative effects, a finding that should be of note if considering combinatory targeting of multiple pathways in this CRC entity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, incubation with amoebae resulted in marked degradation of STAT proteins (STAT3 and STAT5) and NF-κB (p65) in Caco-2 cells. (parasitol.kr)
  • Entamoeba -induced cleavage of STAT proteins and NF-κB was partially inhibited by pretreatment of cells with a cell-permeable calpain inhibitor, calpeptin. (parasitol.kr)
  • Pathogenic strains of this bacterium possess two Type III Secretion Systems (TTSS) that deliver effector proteins into host cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TTSS effector proteins are injected from the cytosol of bacterium directly into the cytoplasm of the host cell by means of a syringe-like delivery apparatus [ 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Once inside the host cells the effector proteins modify the activity of eukaryotic cell signalling pathways leading to changes in host cell behaviour that favour the colonization and persistence of bacteria in the host [ 18 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that coating an implant with a pH buffering agent can induce the attachment of platelets, proteins, and cells to the implant surface. (bvsalud.org)
  • 7-10 Several studies have indicated that u-PA binding activates several signalling molecules implicated in the control of cell migration, such as focal adhesion kinase, 11 protein kinase C (PKC), 8 extracellular signal regulated kinase, 11 12 Janus associated kinases, 13 14 src family tyrosine kinases, 15 and G proteins. (bmj.com)
  • Therefore, PrP C may protect against Htt toxicity in neuronal cells by increasing cellular defense proteins, decreasing ROS and increasing proteasome activity thereby increasing Htt degradation. (biologists.org)
  • Cyanidin-3-glucoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside (anthocyanins) will be used to inhibit Caco-2 cell viability in the absence or presence of entacapone. (csub.edu)
  • Liu et al also reported that luteolin was able to inhibit CRC cells epithelial to mesenchymal transition by suppressing CREB1 expression ( 16 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 2007). Substances that completely, or partly, inhibit P-gp function and/or expression may prevent the undesirable efflux of anticancer agents from MDR cancer cells. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The copper (Cu) dependence of MEK1/2 dysfunctional signalling is an important target to inhibit tumour cells with BRAF or KRAS mutations [ 1 , 2 ]. (ecancer.org)
  • 2 Plasminogen activator inhibitors 1 and 2 (PAI-1, PAI-2) inhibit u-PA function by forming a u-PA/PAI/u-PAR complex which results in the degradation of u-PA/PAI and recycling of u-PAR. (bmj.com)
  • Assessment of cell survival by colony-forming assays indicated that these two agents acted in an additive manner when combined. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Through three different toxicity assays, the STNPs tested, which have a strong tendency to aggregate in complex media, showed no toxic effect in Caco-2 cells after exposures to STNPs up to 100 μg/mL over 4 h, 24 h and 72 h. (duke.edu)
  • Cell viability was assessed using the MTT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and Trypan Blue assays. (ul.ie)
  • A 24-h treatment with DFMO caused a dose-dependent decrease in the colony-forming ability of cells expressing an activated K- ras but had no effect on the viability of the parental Caco-2 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Casein hydrolysates b, c and f had an inhibitory effect on the viability and growth of both cell lines. (ul.ie)
  • Even at the lowest concentrations (50 μg mL −1 ), the extract was efficiently able to protect human cells against t -BHP-induced oxidative damage. (rsc.org)
  • The present study was initiated to investigate the antioxidantion functioning property of Enterococcus faecium 1 (EF1) to Caco-2 cells under oxidative stress condition. (scialert.net)
  • The cells were cultured and randomly divided into 4 groups, the control group (T 0 ), the oxidative stress group (T 1 ), Tert-Butyl Hydroquinone (TBHQ) with addition of H 2 O 2 (T 2 ) and EF1 with combination of H 2 O 2 (T 3 ). (scialert.net)
  • The findings revealed that Enterococcus faecium 1 could increase the antioxidation functioning activity of Caco-2 cells under oxidative stress condition. (scialert.net)
  • Antioxidant analyses of B. racemosa using cellular model has never been conducted and information obtained from such study can provide useful data particularly with regards to their ability to protect cells against oxidative damage. (peerj.com)
  • The uptake of [ 3 H]vinblastine, a substrate of P-gp, by Caco-2 cells was measured. (aspetjournals.org)
  • No significant effect on the uptake of 3- O -[ 3 H]methylglucose or [ 14 C]phenylalanine by Caco-2 cells was found, compared with the control. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The ethyl acetate extract of orange juice and these methoxyflavones also increased steady-state [ 3 H]vinblastine uptake by LLC-GA5-COL300 cells (a cell line transfected with human MDR1 cDNA). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially for EPA and DHA, dose-dependently inhibited cholesterol uptake and transport in Caco-2 monolayer, while saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) had no inhibitory effects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GG reduced AFB 1 uptake and protected against both membrane and DNA damage in the Caco-2 model. (asm.org)
  • Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and disulfiram (DSF) are copper (Cu) chelators in cancer clinical trials partly because Cu chelation: a) restricts the activity of Cu-binding MEK1/2 enzymes which drive tumourigenesis by KRAS or BRAF oncogenic mutations and b) enhances uptake of oxaliplatin (OxPt), clinically used in advanced KRAS-mutant colorectal carcinomas (CRC). (ecancer.org)
  • It has been reported that PrP C functions in cell survival, signal transduction, cell adhesion, copper-dependent antioxidant activity, and copper uptake and sequestration ( Roucou and LeBlanc, 2005 ). (biologists.org)
  • The bacteria cause cytoskeletal and membrane rearrangements that result in their uptake by the host cells ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • The combination of idelalisib and GS-9973 synergistically inhibits CLL cell viability and further disrupts chemokine signaling. (selleckchem.com)
  • The study concludes that piperine from P. chaba inhibits LPS-induced inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells by modulating cytokine gene expression via down regulation of IκB-α/NF-κB signaling pathway. (academicjournals.org)
  • In proof-of-concept studies, the inhibition of persistently active Stat3 by genetic or pharmacologic approaches blocks tumor cell growth, promotes tumor cell death, and inhibits tumor growth in vivo ( 15, 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Laboratory studies demonstrate that silymarin stabilizes cellular membranes, stimulates detoxification pathways, stimulates regeneration of liver tissue, inhibits the growth of certain cancer cell lines, exerts direct cytotoxic activity toward certain cancer cell lines, and possibly increases the efficacy of certain chemotherapy agents. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • In BRAF-(V600E)-mutated melanoma, pharmacological Cu sequestration with a clinically used copper chelator, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) inhibits MEK1/2 kinase activity and reduces mutant BRAF-driven growth in melanoma cell lines resistant to BRAF or MEK1/2 inhibitor [ 3 ]. (ecancer.org)
  • The extracts when tested up to 100 μg/ml did not significantly reduce the viability of L. plantarum , L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus and L. casei . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation miRNA-26a is found to be significantly upregulated during SMC differentiation and downregulated in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In hypoxic conditions, combo-Rx suppressed viability of 13 of the cell lines, albeit ABT-737 did not significantly potentiate the inhibitory effect of single-agent AZD8055 in six of the models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The supernatant of cells cultured at 12 h significantly improved the SOD, GSH-Px activities and GSH contents in T 3 . (scialert.net)
  • The comparative findings of T 3 to T 2 supernatant and lysate of cells at 48 h showed significant increase in T-AOC, CAT, SOD, GSH-Px activities and GSH contents of supernatant and in lysate POD activity and GSH contents significantly increased. (scialert.net)
  • However, the safety of the NP has provoked some scientific concerns, which debates from their properties that circuiting the protections of mucus and exhibiting strong interaction with cell membrane. (ovid.com)
  • 4 hBDs exert their effect by contacting and permeabilizing the cell membrane structure of microorganisms, and inhibiting DNA synthesis and deranging metabolism turnover. (dovepress.com)
  • Cells displayed many of the properties that characterize enterocytes, such as apical microvilli, basolateral basement membrane, and glycogen. (cdc.gov)
  • shermanii Js, and the combination inhibited H. pylori -induced cell membrane leakage. (asm.org)
  • The casein hydrolysates did not negatively affect the membrane integrity of both Jurkat and Caco-2 cells. (ul.ie)
  • Overall, casein hydrolysates had no effect on membrane integrity while they had varied effects on mitochondrial activity and DNA synthesis in the different cell lines. (ul.ie)
  • Al‐zagameem AS, El‐Abadelah MM, Zihlif MA, Naffa RG, Al‐Smadi ML, Mubarak MS (2016) Synthesis and bioassay of novel substituted pyrano[2,3‐ f ]cinnoline‐2‐ones. (springer.com)
  • Although no CPE could be detected on RRV-infected MDCK cells, the infection caused a transmembrane leak that totally abolished the electrical resistance at 18 to 24 h postinfection. (asm.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of lycopene on cell cycle and cell viability in eight human cancer cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RESULTS: Our data showed a significant decrease in the number of viable cells in three cancer cells lines (HT-29, T84 and MCF-7) after 48 h treatment with lycopene, and changes in the fraction of cells retained in different cell cycle phases. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Lycopene promoted also cell cycle arrest followed by decreased cell viability in majority of cell lines after 96 h, as compared to controls. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2005). Furthermore, studies on the expression of SV1 in Prostate Cancer lines found lowered expressions of p21 and increased cell growth (Narla et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of TAp73 expression on oxaliplatin and cetuximab-based chemotherapy in colorectal cancer cell lines with different K-Ras and B-Raf mutational status. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TAp73 was analyzed in three colorectal tumor cell lines HT-29, SW-480 and Caco-2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Low expression of TAp73 in colorectal cancer cell lines with mutated B-Raf may be involved in the lack of response to oxaliplatin in monotherapy or combined with cetuximab. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hilgendorf C, Spahn-Langguth H, Regårdh CG, Lipka E, Amidon GL, Langguth P (2000) Caco-2 versus Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultured cell lines: permeabilities via diffusion, inside- and outside-directed carrier-mediated transport. (springer.com)
  • Internalization of K. pneumoniae in three different human colonic cell lines was visualized by confocal microscopy and three-dimensional (3D) imaging. (asm.org)
  • aromadendrene,13-sitosterol-0-glucoside, and 13-carotene), and alkaloids (glaucine, harmine, and sanguinarine) were evaluated as potential P-gp inhibitors (transporter activity and expression level) in P-gp expressing Caco-2 and CEM/ADR5000 cancer cell lines. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • By leveraging recent functional screening data of cancer cell lines we identify Werner syndrome helicase (WRN) as a novel specific vulnerability of microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) cancer cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • We demonstrate that WRN inactivation selectively impairs the viability of MSI-H but not microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal and endometrial cancer cell lines. (elifesciences.org)
  • we identify WRN helicase as a selective dependency in MSI-H cancer cell lines. (elifesciences.org)
  • Although with varying degrees, a significant growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effect was observed on all three cancer cell lines. (springer.com)
  • Compounds 3a , 3b , 3c , 3d , and 3m , showed significant growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effect against the aforementioned cancer cell lines. (springer.com)
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma miR-26a is commonly downregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma samples and cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast cancer There is downregulation of miR-26a in breast cancer specimens and cell lines, and it has been shown to functionally antagonise human breast carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-26a is found to be downregulated in primary human Burkitt lymphoma and MYC-driven lymphoma cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, in hypoxic KRAS -mutant LoVo (devoid of PIK3CA mutation), BRAF/PIK3CA -mutant RKO, and wild-type Colo320DM cell lines (all with high endogenous Mcl-1 expression and being resistant to the additional effect of ABT-737 to AZD8055), combo-Rx did not elicit apoptotic or pro-survival responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When loaded in the developed PLGA nanoparticles, no differences were recorded for the tested concentrations in the same cell lines. (ub.edu)
  • The extract exhibited a strong antiproliferative activity against all cancer cell lines tested. (medcapsules.com)
  • A relative decrease of α6B expression was also identified in primary colon tumors and adenocarcinoma cell lines suggesting that the α6A/α6B ratios may be linked to the proliferative status of colonic cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of unhydrolysed/intact casein and eight different sodium casein hydrolysates (a-h) on the viability and growth of human cancer cell lines. (ul.ie)
  • For instance, the highest concentration of the extract (100 μg mL −1 ) decreases ROS generation by about 30% in SH-SY5Y and 70% in CaCo-2 and K562 cells. (rsc.org)
  • The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol was higher than that of halocynthiaxanthin, with the effective concentration for 50% scavenging (EC 50) being 164.60, 153.78, and 826.39 microM, respectively. (lifeextension.com)
  • 6 However, two problems remain: (1) its release behavior cannot be controlled and (2) there are fluctuations in the plasma concentration. (dovepress.com)
  • However, in the Y-79 cell line, a decrease on cell viability was observed when testing the lowest concentration of both free triterpene mixtures, and after their loading into PLGA nanoparticles. (ub.edu)
  • Cell viability was not affected by UCB over the 5-200 nmol/L concentration range. (elsevier.com)
  • Results together suggest that the modulation of Stat3, CyclinB1, Alk, ezrin, merlin, and Erk1/2 functions contributes to the antitumor effects of 15α-MP against glioblastoma and breast cancer progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Macrophages are one of the most important types of immune effector cells and are closely associated with tumor progression and metastasis. (thno.org)
  • Aggressive or metastatic tumor cells can produce attractants to draw macrophages into the tumor microenvironment and then educate them to promote tumor progression [ 3 ]. (thno.org)
  • Luteolin has been reported to display a wide range of bioactive properties, such as anti-virus ( 1 , 2 ), hepatoprotective ( 3 ), anti-inflammatory ( 4 ) and anti-diabetic effects ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The immune cells are responsible for inflammatory response by such as macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and epithelial cells (Cheng et al. (academicjournals.org)
  • 2006). These inflammatory stimulators activate innate and acquired immune response from immune cells residing in the gut wall, or intestinal epithelial cells lining intestinal mucosa, resulting in mucosal inflammation. (academicjournals.org)
  • Dose-dependent proteolytic degradation of type 1 pili was observed in the presence of active meprins, but not with heat-inactivated meprins, and pretreatment of AIEC bacteria with meprins impaired their ability to bind mannosylated host receptors and led to decreased secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 by infected T84 cells. (plos.org)
  • Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by Vk2/E6E7 cells treated with both the plant extracts were within the non-inflammatory range. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ileal lesions in Crohn's disease (CD) patients are colonized by pathogenic adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) able to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), and to survive within macrophages. (plos.org)
  • In the tissue, macrophages differentiate from circulating monocytes and are one of the most types of important immune effector cells. (thno.org)
  • In another recent review of the full spectrum of macrophage activation, it was suggested that macrophages should be classified into three major populations, including classically activated macrophages, wound-healing macrophages, and regulatory macrophages, because the M2 group has rapidly expanded to include essentially all macrophages that are not classically activated [ 2 ]. (thno.org)
  • By destroying the infected M cells ( 29 ), the bacteria gain access to the mesenteric lymph follicles, where they encounter and infect macrophages. (asm.org)
  • Complementation of the gene-trap or CRISPR mutants with PVRL3 resulted in restoration of TcdB-mediated cell death. (pnas.org)
  • A microarray-based gene transcription screen to identify genes differentially regulated during C. jejuni interaction with tissue culture cells revealed the up-regulation of a two gene operon termed civRT (Campylobacter Intercellular Viability Regulator/Transporter). (usda.gov)
  • Previous work has shown that changes in gene regulation occur upon C. jejuni interaction with host cells. (usda.gov)
  • However, clonogenic survival, measured 2 weeks after drug treatment, was the same in both Caco-2 and ras -transfected Caco-2 cells treated with sulindac metabolites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Patients with glioblastoma have a poor prognosis and a median survival of approximately 15 months ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast to the previously described tumor-suppressive role of WRN, we demonstrate in this study that WRN possesses a context-dependent critical pro-survival function for cancer cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • These pathways converge at the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which regulates cell growth and survival [ 6 ] and makes the mTOR complex an attractive target for CRC therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results showed that PZH inhibited Caco-2 cell viability and survival in a dose- and/or time-dependent manner. (weebly.com)
  • Lu Y, Li L, Zhang JW, Zhong XQ, Wei JA, Han L. Total polysaccharides of the Sijunzi decoction attenuate tumor necrosis factor-α-induced damage to the barrier function of a Caco-2 cell monolayer via the nuclear factor-κB-myosin light chain kinase-myosin light chain pathway. (wjgnet.com)
  • By regulating a variety of target genes in cancer cells, miRNAs act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Irinotecan is a widely used anticancer pro-drug that is converted in the liver into the active form, but when it gets into the gut, the normally benign microbial flora can convert it into the toxic form, which kills the rapidly multiplying gut epithelium as it would kill rapidly dividing tumor cells, and thus causes diarrhea. (sciencemag.org)
  • Targeted cancer therapy is based on exploiting selective dependencies of tumor cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Defects in components of the DNA repair machinery, such as BRCA1/2 mutations or impaired DNA mismatch repair (MMR), are a common characteristic of tumor cells, accelerating the accumulation of DNA mutations or chromosomal aberrations that are required for neoplastic growth and transformation ( Kinzler and Vogelstein, 1997 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • However, targeted therapies directly exploiting the MMR-deficient status of tumor cells do not exist. (elifesciences.org)
  • Overexpression of miR-26a in glioma primarily results from amplification at the miR-26a-2 locus, a genomic event strongly associated with monoallelic PTEN loss.miR-26a-mediated PTEN repression in a murine glioma model both enhances de novo tumor formation and precludes loss of heterozygosity and the PTEN locus. (wikipedia.org)