An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.
The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
Pathological processes of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which contains the essential apparatus of hearing (COCHLEA) and balance (SEMICIRCULAR CANALS).
Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.
The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.
The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.
The part of the membranous labyrinth that traverses the bony vestibular aqueduct and emerges through the bone of posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) where it expands into a blind pouch called the endolymphatic sac.
Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.
A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
An accumulation of ENDOLYMPH in the inner ear (LABYRINTH) leading to buildup of pressure and distortion of intralabyrinthine structures, such as COCHLEA and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS. It is characterized by SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; and sometimes VERTIGO.
The fluid separating the membranous labyrinth from the osseous labyrinth of the ear. It is entirely separate from the ENDOLYMPH which is contained in the membranous labyrinth. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1396, 642)
A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
One of the three ossicles of the middle ear. It transmits sound vibrations from the INCUS to the internal ear (Ear, Internal see LABYRINTH).
The lymph fluid found in the membranous labyrinth of the ear. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Fenestra of the cochlea, an opening in the basal wall between the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR, leading to the cochlea. It is closed by a secondary tympanic membrane.
The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.
Pathological processes of the ear, the hearing, and the equilibrium system of the body.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
A disease of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is characterized by fluctuating SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; episodic VERTIGO; and aural fullness. It is the most common form of endolymphatic hydrops.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The lower chamber of the COCHLEA, extending from the round window to the helicotrema (the opening at the apex that connects the PERILYMPH-filled spaces of scala tympani and SCALA VESTIBULI).
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.
An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
Elicitation of a rotatory nystagmus by stimulating the semicircular canals with water or air which is above or below body temperature. In warm caloric stimulation a rotatory nystagmus is developed toward the side of the stimulated ear; in cold, away from the stimulated side. Absence of nystagmus indicates the labyrinth is not functioning.
Vestibular nucleus lying immediately superior to the inferior vestibular nucleus and composed of large multipolar nerve cells. Its upper end becomes continuous with the superior vestibular nucleus.
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
Tumors or cancer of any part of the hearing and equilibrium system of the body (the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR).
The blind pouch at the end of the endolymphatic duct. It is a storage reservoir for excess ENDOLYMPH, formed by the blood vessels in the membranous labyrinth.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A plant family of the order Hydrocharitales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that facilitate NEUROTRANSMITTER reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. They may play a role in regulating the intensity and duration of neurotransmission.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.
The surgical creation of a new opening in the labyrinth of the ear for the restoration of hearing in cases of OTOSCLEROSIS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Pathological processes of the snail-like structure (COCHLEA) of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which can involve its nervous tissue, blood vessels, or fluid (ENDOLYMPH).
Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A mobile chain of three small bones (INCUS; MALLEUS; STAPES) in the TYMPANIC CAVITY between the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and the oval window on the wall of INNER EAR. Sound waves are converted to vibration by the tympanic membrane then transmitted via these ear ossicles to the inner ear.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Inflammation of the inner ear (LABYRINTH).
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A synthetic nondepolarizing blocking drug. The actions of gallamine triethiodide are similar to those of TUBOCURARINE, but this agent blocks the cardiac vagus and may cause sinus tachycardia and, occasionally, hypertension and increased cardiac output. It should be used cautiously in patients at risk from increased heart rate but may be preferred for patients with bradycardia. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p198)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An illusion of movement, either of the external world revolving around the individual or of the individual revolving in space. Vertigo may be associated with disorders of the inner ear (EAR, INNER); VESTIBULAR NERVE; BRAINSTEM; or CEREBRAL CORTEX. Lesions in the TEMPORAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE may be associated with FOCAL SEIZURES that may feature vertigo as an ictal manifestation. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp300-1)
A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.
A spiral tube that is firmly suspended in the bony shell-shaped part of the cochlea. This ENDOLYMPH-filled cochlear duct begins at the vestibule and makes 2.5 turns around a core of spongy bone (the modiolus) thus dividing the PERILYMPH-filled spiral canal into two channels, the SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA TYMPANI.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A spiral thickening of the fibrous lining of the cochlear wall. Spiral ligament secures the membranous COCHLEAR DUCT to the bony spiral canal of the COCHLEA. Its spiral ligament fibrocytes function in conjunction with the STRIA VASCULARIS to mediate cochlear ion homeostasis.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.
A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.
The shell-like structure projects like a little wing (pinna) from the side of the head. Ear auricles collect sound from the environment.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A number of tests used to determine if the brain or balance portion of the inner ear are causing dizziness.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
An order of the class MAMMALS that consists of one family, TUPAIIDAE (tree shrews), 5 genera (one of which is TUPAIA), and 16 species. Their recent distribution is from India to the Philippines, southern China to Java, Borneo, Sumatra, Bali, and other islands in those regions.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.
A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.
Collection of granular epithelial cells in the uterine muscle beneath the placenta that develop during pregnancy in certain species of animals.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A small bony canal linking the vestibule of the inner ear to the posterior part of the internal surface of the petrous TEMPORAL BONE. It transmits the endolymphatic duct and two small blood vessels.
Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.
The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.
Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.
A mass of KERATIN-producing squamous EPITHELIUM that resembles an inverted (suck-in) bag of skin in the MIDDLE EAR. It arises from the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE) and grows into the MIDDLE EAR causing erosion of EAR OSSICLES and MASTOID that contains the INNER EAR.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
Sensorineural hearing loss which develops suddenly over a period of hours or a few days. It varies in severity from mild to total deafness. Sudden deafness can be due to head trauma, vascular diseases, infections, or can appear without obvious cause or warning.
Cells forming a framework supporting the sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS in the organ of Corti. Lateral to the medial inner hair cells, there are inner pillar cells, outer pillar cells, Deiters cells, Hensens cells, Claudius cells, Boettchers cells, and others.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
A site on an enzyme which upon binding of a modulator, causes the enzyme to undergo a conformational change that may alter its catalytic or binding properties.
A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.
Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Distortion or disfigurement of the ear caused by disease or injury after birth.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Ventilation of the middle ear in the treatment of secretory (serous) OTITIS MEDIA, usually by placement of tubes or grommets which pierce the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.
The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.
... described the vestibule, semicircular canals, and cochlea of the osseus labyrinth of the internal ear, demonstrated the ... Cotunnius' aquaeduct: The aqueduct of the inner ear. Cotunnius' columns: The columns in the osseus spiral lamina of the cochlea ...
The vestibule is the central part of the bony labyrinth in the inner ear, and is situated medial to the eardrum (tympanic ... Vestibule visible at center right.) Internal liquid structures of the cochlea and semicircular ducts, vestibule at centre. This ... Right osseous labyrinth (lateral view). The cochlea and vestibule (view from above). Chain of ossicles and their ligaments, ... The vestibule is somewhat oval in shape, but flattened transversely; it measures about 5 mm from front to back, the same from ...
The three major parts of the bony labyrinth are the vestibule of the ear, the semicircular canals, and the cochlea. The ... The inner ear (internal ear, auris interna) is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear. In vertebrates, the inner ear is ... Human ear anatomy. Brown is outer ear. Red is middle ear. Purple is inner ear. Ear labyrinth Inner ear Temporal bone Right ... The labyrinth can be divided by layer or by region. The bony labyrinth, or osseous labyrinth, is the network of passages with ...
... which fills the membranous labyrinth. The endolymph is situated in two vestibules, the utricle and saccule, and eventually ... internal carotid artery, and the artery of the pterygoid canal. The inner ear is supplied by the anterior tympanic branch of ... The human ear consists of three parts-the outer ear, middle ear and inner ear. The ear canal of the outer ear is separated from ... In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts-the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. The outer ear ...
Position of the right bony labyrinth of the ear in the skull, viewed from above. ... its opposite end opens at the upper and back part of the vestibule. The lateral canal of one ear is very nearly in the same ... The internal ear, with "semicircular ducts" at left. Inner ear illustration showing semicircular canal, hair cells, ampulla, ... interconnected tubes located in the innermost part of each ear, the inner ear. The three canals are the horizontal, superior ...
... which is lined with respiratory epithelium The vestibule of the ear is the central part of the inner ear labyrinth, as used in ... If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.. ... vestibule is a small space or cavity at the beginning of a canal. The vulval vestibule is the posterior 2/3 of the labia minora ... Vestibule or Vestibulum can have the following meanings, each primarily based upon a common origin, from early 17th century ...
... which fills the membranous labyrinth. The endolymph is situated in two vestibules, the utricle and saccule, and eventually ... internal carotid artery, and the artery of the pterygoid canal.[8] ... The human ear consists of three parts-the outer ear, middle ear and inner ear.[2] The ear canal of the outer ear is separated ... In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts-the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. The outer ear ...
... and pain in the ear. In addition, lesions of the internal auditory canal may be associated with facial weakness on the same ... the vestibule (utricle and saccule), and the vestibular nerve is called "peripheral", "otologic", or "vestibular" vertigo. The ... and vasospasm of the blood vessels supplying the labyrinth or central vestibular pathways resulting in ischemia to these ... This is often found to provoke inner ear decompression sickness, as the ear seems particularly sensitive to this effect. A ...
... internal capsule internal carotid artery internal cerebral vein internal ear internal iliac artery internal iliac vein internal ... vesicle vesiculae seminales vestibular folds vestibular ganglion vestibular membrane vestibular nuclei Vestibule of the ear ... bipolar cells of the retina bitemporal heminopia blastomere blood blood brain barrier body bone bone marrow bony labyrinth ... jugular vein internal laryngeal nerve internal medullary lamina internal oblique muscle internal thoracic artery internal ...
The vestibule of the ear is the central part of the inner ear labyrinth, as used in the vestibular system *The ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Vestibule. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ... Look up vestibule in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. Vestibule or Vestibulum can have the following meanings, each primarily ... The vestibule of larynx is between the epiglottis and rima glottidis. *The aortic vestibule is the part of the left ventricle ...
The middle ear includes the tympanic cavity and the three ossicles. The inner ear sits in the bony labyrinth, and contains ... Internal carotid artery - Internal iliac vein - Internal jugular vein - Internal medicine - Internship (medicine) - ... The area between the inside of the cheek and the teeth and gums is called the vestibule or buccal pouch or buccal cavity and ... In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts-the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. The outer ear ...
The temporal bone is ossified from eight centers, exclusive of those for the internal ear and the tympanic ossicles: one for ... vestibule, superior semicircular canal, and medial wall of the tympanic cavity. A second (opisthotic) appears at the promontory ... formed from the fusion of a number of bones surrounding the ear of reptiles. The delicate structure of the middle ear, unique ... The temporal bones are overlaid by the sides of the head known as the temples, and house the structures of the ears. The lower ...
Labyrinth Organ of balance located in the inner ear. The labyrinth consists of three semicircular canals and the vestibule. ... Papillomavirus Group of viruses that can cause noncancerous wart-like tumors to grow on the surface of skin and internal organs ... Inner ear Part of the ear that contains both the organ of hearing (the cochlea) and the organ of balance (the labyrinth). ... Middle ear Part of the ear that includes the eardrum and three tiny bones of the middle ear, ending at the round window that ...
Inner ear/. (membranous labyrinth,. bony labyrinth). Auditory system/. Cochlear labyrinth. General cochlea. *Vestibular duct ... This travels in parallel with the vestibular nerves through the internal auditory canal, through which it connects to the ... inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ... The cochlear nerve carries auditory sensory information from the cochlea of the inner ear directly to the brain. The other ...
The inside of the ear is composed of an organ called the vestibular labyrinth. The vestibular labyrinth includes semicircular ... Treatment is therefore geared toward moving the canalith from the lateral canal into the vestibule. The roll maneuver or its ... Internal Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 115. ISBN 9780323287173. Archived from the original on 15 August 2016. ... Within the labyrinth of the inner ear lie collections of calcium crystals known as otoconia or otoliths. In people with BPPV, ...
Inner ear/. (membranous labyrinth,. bony labyrinth). Auditory system/. Cochlear labyrinth. General cochlea. *Vestibular duct ... This process, called nociception, usually causes the perception of pain.[13] They are found in internal organs, as well as on ...
Outer ear[edit]. Main article: Outer ear. The outer ear includes the pinna, the visible part of the ear, as well as the ear ... Middle ear[edit]. Main article: Middle ear. The middle ear consists of a small air-filled chamber that is located medial to the ... Cerumen (ear wax) is produced by ceruminous and sebaceous glands in the skin of the human ear canal, protecting the ear canal ... There are three main components of the human auditory system: the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. ...
The labyrinth organ helps the oxygen in the inhaled air to be absorbed into the bloodstream. As a result, labyrinth fish can ... When they contract the rib cage's internal volume is increased to a far greater extent than can be achieved by contraction of ... Labyrinth fish are not born with functional labyrinth organs. The development of the organ is gradual and most juvenile ... Thus Lungfish possess one or two lungs, and the labyrinth fish have developed a special "labyrinth organ", which characterizes ...
... the inner portion of the ear, involved in hearing and balance, consisting of a bony labyrinth that is composed of a vestibule, ... semicircular canals, and a cochlea and that encloses a membranous labyrinth. See more. ... internal ear. internal cerebral vein, internal clock, internal conflict, internal conjugate, internal conversion, internal ear ... the part of the ear that consists of the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canalsAlso called: inner ear, labyrinth ...
... and the internal ear or inner ear, or labyrinth, which includes the semicircular canals, vestibule, and cochlea.. http:// ... The external ear includes pinna and eardrum. Sources. auris externa --,. external ear. Which includes the auricle and the ... The outer ear consists of the ear flap and extends just up to the eardrum. ... The outer ear comprises (kann man das sagen?) the auricle (leo nennt 5 Alternativen, ist das die richtige?) and almost reaches ...
The vestibule is the central part of the bony labyrinth in the inner ear, and is situated medial to the eardrum (tympanic ... Vestibule visible at center right.) Internal liquid structures of the cochlea and semicircular ducts, vestibule at centre. This ... Right osseous labyrinth (lateral view). The cochlea and vestibule (view from above). Chain of ossicles and their ligaments, ... The vestibule is somewhat oval in shape, but flattened transversely; it measures about 5 mm from front to back, the same from ...
... bony labyrinths explanation free. What is bony labyrinths? Meaning of bony labyrinths medical term. What does bony labyrinths ... Looking for online definition of bony labyrinths in the Medical Dictionary? ... labyrinth. /lab·y·rinth/ (lab´ĭ-rinth) the internal ear, made up of the vestibule, cochlea, and canals. labyrin´thine Labyrinth ... bony labyrinth the bony part of the internal ear. Labyrinth. (A), Anterior view of the bony labyrinth (labyrinthus osseus). (B ...
... be out on ear explanation free. What is be out on ear? Meaning of be out on ear medical term. What does be out on ear mean? ... Looking for online definition of be out on ear in the Medical Dictionary? ... and the internal ear or inner ear, or labyrinth, which includes the semicircular canals, vestibule, and cochlea. See also: ... Inner ear, Lop ear, Malrotated ear, Middle ear, Mozart ear, Outer ear, Outstanding ear, Satyr ear, Swimmers ear, Third ear. ...
Browse fuzing.com to find New style giant ear model sellers, suppliers, wholesalers, companies, manufacturers, exporters, ... 3. Internal ear: showing the vestibule, cochlea and the three semicircular canals of the osseous labyrinth. This model is ... New style giant ear model. You May Also Be Interested In: ear model labyrinth A giant model of the ear, for elementary science ... middle ear, internal ear) and the position of the equilibrium organ of human body. 1. External ear: Showing the shape of the ...
The bony structure of the inner ear that houses the membranous labyrinth (i.e., the cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals, ... vestibule, and cochlea. (from American Heritage Dictionary online) (NCI) * internal ear; the essential part of the organ of ... VESTIBULE; and COCHLEA) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth, lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of ... PSY) * The inner ear, containing the essential parts of the organ of hearing. It consists of two labyrinthine compartments. The ...
... described the vestibule, semicircular canals, and cochlea of the osseus labyrinth of the internal ear, demonstrated the ... Cotunnius aquaeduct: The aqueduct of the inner ear. Cotunnius columns: The columns in the osseus spiral lamina of the cochlea ...
... located in the bony labyrinth of the internal ear and enclosing the three semicircular ducts that open into the vestibule. They ... that extend from the vestibule of the labyrinth in the inner ear. The semicircular canals are the bony shells that contain the ... The open tubular canal from the pinna (auricle) of the ear to the tympanic membrane (ear drum). It is lined by thin, sensitive ... internal auditory canal. The canal in the petrous portion of the temporal bone through which the vestibulocochlear and facial ...
... ears are cool. Face it, microphones are neat, but they suck compared to ears. If you ask me, ears are even cooler than eyes, ... the middle ear, drum, or tympanum; and the internal ear, or labyrinth. The middle ear is a cavity connected by the Eustachian ... The bony labyrinth consists of a central cavity, the vestibule, into which three semicircular canals and the canal of the ... By the ears, in close contest; as, to set by the ears; to fall together by the ears; to be by the ears. -- Button ear (in dogs ...
The vestibule (d), internal auditory canal (e), and ossicles (f) are visible. View Media Gallery ... Normal Anatomy of the Inner Ear. The inner ear is housed in the bony labyrinth, which is well demonstrated on CT scans. The ... The vestibule lies posterior to the cochlea, abutting the internal auditory canal medially. The stapes footplate transmits ... The inner ear forms the medial wall of the middle ear. The largest anatomic structure of the medial wall is the promontory of ...
... both the external and internal part is understood by the term. The external ear is a cartilaginous funnel, attached, by ... Ear [ EAR, n. [L. auris, whence auricula; audio.]1. The organ of hearing; the organ by which sound is perceived; and in ... The bony labyrinth consists of a central cavity, the vestibule, into which three semicircular canals and the canal of the ... By the ears, in close contest; as, to set by the ears; to fall together by the ears; to be by the ears. -- Button ear (in dogs ...
The internal ear is highly complex. The essential component of the inner ear for hearing is the membranous labyrinth where the ... The bony labyrinth has three parts: a central cavity (the vestibule), semicircular canals (which open into the vestibule) and ... The middle ear cavity also contains a chain of 3 little bones (ossicles) that connect the ear drum to the internal ear. The ... Picture of Ear. Ear: The hearing organ. There are three sections of the ear, according to the anatomy textbooks. They are the ...
External ear. Tympanic cavity; auditory ossicles.. Internal ear: bony labyrinth, membranous labyrinth, vestibule, saccule, ...
Labyrinth. The internal ear, comprising the semi-circular canals, vestibule and cochlea.. Lamina. The flattened or arched part ... The internal base of the skull.. Posterior Lumbar Spinal Fusion. Spinal fusion done from the back using the lamina, the facets ... A gland of internal secretion lying on the upper surface of the sphenoid (wedge shaped) bone.. Hypothalamus. A collection of ... Posteriorly placed internal fixation device.. Vertebra. One of the 33 bones of the spinal column. A cervical, thoracic, or ...
internal ear * osseous labyrinth * cochlea * spiral organ of Corti * semicircular canal * vestibule ...
internal ear * osseous labyrinth * cochlea * spiral organ of Corti * semicircular canal * vestibule ...
External ear. Tympanic cavity; auditory ossicles.Internal ear: bony labyrinth, membranous labyrinth, vestibule, saccule, ... External ear. Tympanic cavity; auditory ossicles. Internal ear: bony labyrinth, membranous labyrinth, organ of Corti ... cranial and spinal nerves with particular reference to the facial and vestibule-cochlear nerves). Auditory and vestibular ...
... that consists of a system of interconnected cavities and canals in the internal ear that enclose the membranous labyrinth. ... or osseous labyrinth, otic capsule, latin: labyrinthus osseus) is a bony capsule ... The vestibule is the central part of the bony labyrinth that encloses the membranous sacs - saccule and utricle. ... The bony labyrinth (or osseous labyrinth, otic capsule, latin: labyrinthus osseus) is a bony capsule that consists of a system ...
Since the labyrinth makes up the inner ear, labyrinthitis can also be referred to as otitis interna or internal otitis and must ... The vestibular system comprising the semi-circular canals and vestibule are involved in balance while the cochlea is ... The labyrinth is a secured compartment and lies deep in the skull compared to the outer or middle ear. It is therefore ... Inner Ear Infection, Inflammation (Labyrinthitis, Otitis Interna). Posted by Dr. Chris. The inner ear has several structures ...
The vestibule of the bony labyrinth is a small oval chamber that contains the _____ and _____. ... The internal surface of the tympanic membrane is innervated by the a. auricular nerve.. b. tympanic nerve.. c. chorda tympanic ... All of the following are the contents of the middle ear, EXCEPT. a. malleus.. b. incus. c. stapes. d. modiolus ... The auditory ossicles transmit the sound wave from ____ to ____ leading to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth. ...
The Internal Ear, called from its complex construction the labyrinth, is divided into three parts; namely, the 50 vestibule, ...
... and the internal ear or labyrinth; of these the latter is the essential one.... The Internal Ear, Or Labyrinth. The Internal ... The middle chamber, called the vestibule (V, Fig. 95), has an opening, the oval foramen, o, .... The Localization Of Skin ... 95) consists of three portions, known respectively as the external ear, the middle ear or tympanum, ... Internal Structure Of Human Bones. If the humerus were divided lengthwise we would find that its shaft was hollow; the space is ...
... also inner ear, latin: auris interna) is an essential part of the auditory and vestibular system consisting of cavities and ... The bony labyrinth of the internal ear is comprised of the vestibule, semicircular canals and cochlea. The membranous labyrinth ... The internal ear (also inner ear, latin: auris interna) is an essential part of the auditory and vestibular system consisting ... The structures of the internal ear are located within the petrous part of the temporal bone and is composed of two parts - the ...
The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. ... Inner ear ... The inner ear is the bony labyrinth, a system of passages comprising two main functional parts: the organ of hearing, or ... the oval window which is adjacent to the vestibule of the inner ear. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... An MRI ... The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. ... The ...
The morphology and development of the mammalian inner ear are very complex in nature. The major structures of the internal ear ... The membranous labyrinth of the inner ear first begins to form from the otic cyst and is visible in mice at E10.75. By E17.5 ... Although Gfi1-deficient mice initially specify inner ear hair cells, these hair cells are disorganized in both the vestibule ... Because we found Gfi1 to be expressed in the developing ear, we chose to focus our analysis on the developing ear to test ...
Many neuroradiologists may be familiar with the imaging appearance of the middle and inner ear, internal auditory canal, and ... 4 Endolymph is the fluid within the membranous labyrinth, including the vestibule, semicircular canals, and scala media of the ... Imaging of the mastoid, middle ear, and internal auditory canal after surgery: what every radiologist should know. Neuroimaging ... Implantable Active Middle Ear Acoustic Implants. Implantable active middle ear acoustic implants (AMEI) are alternatives to ...
The internal dosage ear consists of osseous labyrinth containing membranous labyrinth, and is made up of vestibule, cochlea and ...
Study Eyes And Ears flashcards from Zeth Renae Raquedan ... vestibule. canals 171 clear fluid where memrbranoius labyrinth ... the middle ear contains what that transmits vibrations of the tympanic membrane to the perilymph of the int. ear ... the the floor of the middle ear separates the middle ear from ... Eyes And Ears Flashcards Preview MedAnatomy , Eyes And Ears , ... part of the middle ear that is approxiamtely parallel to the tympanic membrane ...
Internal Ear: Showing the vestibule, cochlea and the three semicircular canals of the osseous labyrinth. ... A giant model of the ear, shows the three main structural parts of the hearing organ (external ear, middle ear, internal ear) ... This model helps the students to understand the external and internal structures of the nasal cavity.. Product Details:. *1. ... External Ear: Showing the shape of the auricle and the primary features of the external auditory meatus. ...
  • The membranous labyrinth is divided into two parts: the cochlear labyrinth, which includes the perilymphatic space and the cochlear duct, and the vestibular labyrinth, which includes the utricle , saccule , and semicircular canals . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cochlear labyrinth the part of the membranous labyrinth that includes the perilymphatic space and the cochlear duct. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The cochlea of the bony labyrinth encloses the membranous cochlear duct. (anatomynext.com)
  • The membranous labyrinth, which is enclosed by the bony labyrinth, forms small sacs (saccule and utricle) and tubules (semicircular ducts and cochlear duct). (anatomynext.com)
  • Within each structure, and filling only a fraction of the available space, is a corresponding portion of the membranous labyrinth: the vestibule contains the utricle and saccule, each semicircular canal its semicircular duct, and the cochlea its cochlear duct. (britannica.com)
  • This is a bony, and spiral shaped chamber containing the cochlear duct of the membranous labyrinth. (drtbalu.in)
  • and the cochlear duct , which is the only part of the inner ear involved in hearing. (britannica.com)
  • In the cochlea, both the bony labyrinth and the cochlear duct are coiled in a shape resembling that of a snail shell. (britannica.com)
  • The vestibule is the central part of the bony labyrinth in the inner ear, and is situated medial to the eardrum (tympanic cavity), behind the cochlea, and in front of the three semicircular canals. (wikipedia.org)
  • It transmits a small vein and contains a tubular prolongation of the membranous labyrinth, the endolymphatic duct, which ends in a cul-de-sac between the layers of the dura mater within the cranial cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cochlea is a fluid filled cavity in the inner ear . (everything2.com)
  • The most complex of these spaces is the middle ear cavity, or tympanum. (medscape.com)
  • The floor of the middle ear cavity is located further inferiorly than the lowest extent of the tympanic membrane, creating a space, the hypotympanum. (medscape.com)
  • The middle ear consists of the ear drum (the tympanum or tympanic membrane) and, beyond it, a cavity. (medicinenet.com)
  • The middle ear cavity also contains a chain of 3 little bones (ossicles) that connect the ear drum to the internal ear. (medicinenet.com)
  • The membranous labyrinth is lodged within a cavity called the bony labyrinth. (medicinenet.com)
  • The bony labyrinth has three parts: a central cavity (the vestibule), semicircular canals (which open into the vestibule) and the cochlea (a snail-shaped spiral tube). (medicinenet.com)
  • The labyrinth lies adjacent to the mastoid cavity separated by a thin layer of bone. (healthhype.com)
  • The cavity in the membranous labyrinth is filled with a fluid Endo lymph. (biozoomer.com)
  • The middle ear is a cavity connected by the Eustachian tube with the pharynx, separated from the opening of the external ear by the tympanic membrane, and containing a chain of three small bones, or ossicles, named malleus, incus, and stapes, which connect this membrane with the internal ear. (landak.com)
  • The essential part of the internal ear where the fibers of the auditory nerve terminate, is the membranous labyrinth, a complicated system of sacs and tubes filled with a fluid (the endolymph), and lodged in a cavity, called the bony labyrinth, in the periotic bone. (landak.com)
  • The bony labyrinth consists of a central cavity, the vestibule, into which three semicircular canals and the canal of the cochlea (spirally coiled in mammals) open. (landak.com)
  • The inner ear is located a cavity formed by the prootic or equivalent portion of the braincase in close association with the otic region of the brain and the VIIIth cranial nerve. (palaeos.com)
  • The first is the round window which consists of a thin membranous partition that separates the perilymph of cochlear chambers from the air filled middle ear cavity. (drtbalu.in)
  • Spiral-shaped cavity in the inner ear that contains the receptors for hearing in the organ of Corti. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Slender air passage between the middle ear cavity and the pharynx, which equalizes air pressure on the two sides of the eardrum. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Superior wall or "roof" is thin plate of bone separating the tympanic cavity from the cranium Inferior wall or "floor" is a thin bone that separates the tympanic cavity from the internal jugular vein. (slideplayer.com)
  • In the tympanic cavity of the middle ear, a small fossa inside the epitympanic recess, in which the short process of the incus fits and is attached by tiny ligaments. (tabers.com)
  • Behind this cavity connects with the tubes of the semicircular canals, on the side wall of the vestibule has two holes. (medicalj-center.info)
  • The middle ear cavity is like a small box with lateral, medial, anterior and posterior walls, a floor and a roof. (blogspot.com)
  • If visualizing the middle ear cavity in three dimensions is difficult, print out the following image and make the proper folds. (blogspot.com)
  • In general, vestibule is a small space or cavity at the beginning of a canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bony labyrinth , a cavity in the temporal bone, is divided into three sections: the vestibule , the semicircular canals , and the cochlea . (britannica.com)
  • it forms part of the cochlea, vestibule, superior semicircular canal, and medial wall of the tympanic cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • it forms the floor of the tympanic cavity and vestibule, surrounds the carotid canal, invests the lateral and lower part of the cochlea, and spreads medially below the internal auditory meatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Right osseous labyrinth (lateral view). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many neuroradiologists may be familiar with the imaging appearance of the middle and inner ear, internal auditory canal, and lateral skull base after common surgical procedures such as ossiculoplasty, tympanomastoidectomy, cochlear implantation, and vestibular schwannoma resection. (ajnr.org)
  • What nerve runes can be found near the lateral wall of the middle ear, running over the malleus? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • At the lateral end (underside) of the internal acoustic meatus, 2 roots connect to create the trunk of the facial nerve. (earthslab.com)
  • The bulge of the tympanic segment of the facial canal is viewed in the medial wall of the middle ear above the promontory and fenestra vestibuli and below the bulge created by the lateral semicircular canal. (earthslab.com)
  • It lies anterolateral to the posterior cranial fossa, wtih the medial wall of the middle ear (promotory) forming its lateral wall. (drtbalu.in)
  • 16 Tympanic Membrane Umbo- most distal point of attachment of the inner TM to the malleus bone in middle ear The handle/manubrium attaches to the TM along its length, terminating with the lateral process. (slideplayer.com)
  • What does the lateral 2/3 of the ear canal contain? (cram.com)
  • Lateral 2/3 of ear-cartilagenous or bone? (cram.com)
  • The technique of transmastoid partial labyrinthectomy has recently been described as a means of providing access to lesions of the medial skull base by removing part of the labyrinth and at the same time attempting to preserve hearing and vestibular function of the lateral semicircular canal (LSCC) and otolithic organs. (ent-review.com)
  • Semicircular canals start from the vestibule: front, rear and lateral. (medicalj-center.info)
  • The lateral superior olive (LSO) is believed to be involved in measuring the level difference of sounds between the ears (the interaural level difference or ILD). (bionity.com)
  • Two muscles attached to the ossicles contract when loud noises strike the tympanic membrane, limiting its vibration and thus protecting it and the inner ear from damage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. Middle ear: showing the tympanic membrane, the three auditory ossicles (hammer, anvil, stirrup) and the eustachian tube. (fuzing.com)
  • The auditory ossicles transmit the sound wave from ____ to ____ leading to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth. (brainscape.com)
  • Not all bones are interconnected directly: There are six bones in the middle ear called the ossicles (three on each side) that articulate only with each other. (statemaster.com)
  • The report revealed that middle ear ossicles were identified in the liquid without signals and in the normal configuration. (entcase.org)
  • The CT of the temporal bone was interpreted as a lesion without contrast at the level of the right attic, extending to the mesotympanum and slightly eroding the surrounding bony configuration without leading to any impairment in the integrity of the inner ear ossicles. (entcase.org)
  • The middle ear, separated from the outer ear by the eardrum, contains three small bones, or ossicles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The sound waves are concentrated by passing from a relatively large area (the eardrum) through the ossicles to a relatively small opening leading to the inner ear. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The auditory ossicles of the right ear, seen from the front. (usf.edu)
  • Function of the major derivatives: vibrations reach the vestibule via the bony ossicles and set up vibrations in the perilymph of the scala vestibuli. (lifemapsc.com)
  • The ossicles are the three smallest bones in the human body, contained within the middle ear and serving to transmit sounds to the fluid-filled cochlea. (wikipremed.com)
  • The middle ear contains ossicles, nerves and muscles (stapedius and tensor tympani). (appliedradiology.com)
  • the inner portion of the ear, involved in hearing and balance, consisting of a bony labyrinth that is composed of a vestibule, semicircular canals, and a cochlea and that encloses a membranous labyrinth. (dictionary.com)
  • The vestibule sits between and connects the cochlea and semicircular canals and helps to maintain equilibrium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bony portion of the labyrinth ( osseous labyrinth ) is composed of a series of canals tunneled out of the temporal bone. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • lab·y·rinth/ ( lab´ĭ-rinth ) the internal ear, made up of the vestibule, cochlea, and canals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Disorders of equilibrium may be caused by imperfect functioning of the semicircular canals or from labyrinthitis , an inflammation of the inner ear. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 3. Internal ear: showing the vestibule, cochlea and the three semicircular canals of the osseous labyrinth. (fuzing.com)
  • The bony structure of the inner ear that houses the membranous labyrinth (i.e., the cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals, utricle, and saccule). (bioontology.org)
  • MSH) * The portion of the ear located within the temporal bone that is involved in both hearing and balance and includes the semicircular canals, vestibule, and cochlea. (bioontology.org)
  • In the same year his anatomical dissertation De aquaeductibus auris humane internae, following the work of Guichard Joseph Duverney and Antonio Maria Valsalva and anticipating that of Hermann von Helmholtz, described the vestibule, semicircular canals, and cochlea of the osseus labyrinth of the internal ear, demonstrated the existence of the labyrinthine fluid, and formulated a theory of resonance and hearing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of several canals located in the bony labyrinth of the internal ear and enclosing the three semicircular ducts that open into the vestibule. (tabers.com)
  • The other main parts of the labyrinth are the semi-circular canals and cochlea . (healthhype.com)
  • The vestibular system comprising the semi-circular canals and vestibule are involved in balance while the cochlea is responsible for the sense of hearing. (healthhype.com)
  • labyrinthus osseus ) is a bony capsule that consists of a system of interconnected cavities and canals in the internal ear that enclose the membranous labyrinth. (anatomynext.com)
  • The semicircular canals are three bony canals situated behind the vestibule and arranged in three mutually perpendicular planes. (anatomynext.com)
  • The semicircular canals of the bony labyrinth contain perilymphatic fluid and enclose the membranous semicircular ducts. (anatomynext.com)
  • The bony labyrinth of the internal ear is comprised of the vestibule, semicircular canals and cochlea. (anatomynext.com)
  • 4 Endolymph is the fluid within the membranous labyrinth, including the vestibule, semicircular canals, and scala media of the cochlea. (ajnr.org)
  • The internal dosage ear consists of osseous labyrinth containing membranous labyrinth, and is made up of vestibule, cochlea and three semicircular canals. (buychay.ir)
  • such as, the internal ear or the auris interna which is the labyrinth, consisting of the vestibule, cochlea, cochlear, vestibular aqueducts, semicircular canals and the mastoid bone . (passionateinknowledge.com)
  • The ampullae of the anterior and the external canals lie close together towards the anterior end of the ear. (biozoomer.com)
  • Canals of the inner ear are what kind of labrynith? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • books.google.com - In order to show the position the organs of hearing and balance as accurately as possible, the author fenestrated the bony walls of the cochlea, vestibule and semicircular canals so that the different parts of Corti's spiral organ, the utricle and ampullary crests can be seen. (google.com)
  • Each ear has three semicircular canals. (wikibooks.org)
  • The bony labyrinth consists of a central chamber called the vestibule, the three semicircular canals, and the spirally coiled cochlea. (britannica.com)
  • It consists of two structures of the bony labyrinth, the vestibule and the semicircular canals, and the structures of the membranous labyrinth contained within them. (britannica.com)
  • The vestibular portion of the membranous labyrinth consists of two sacs, the utriculus and sacculus, connected by a narrow tube, into the former of which three membranous semicircular canals open, while the latter is connected with a membranous tube in the cochlea containing the organ of Corti. (landak.com)
  • The semicircular canals or semicircular ducts are three semicircular , interconnected tubes located in the innermost part of each ear , the inner ear . (wikipedia.org)
  • The semicircular canals are a component of the bony labyrinth . (wikipedia.org)
  • The ampullae open into the vestibule by five orifices, one of the apertures being common to two of the canals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Findings from a 2009 study demonstrated a critical late role for BMP 2b in the morphogenesis of semicircular canals in the zebrafish inner ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The volumetric percentage of the vestibular apparatus (vestibule plus semicircular canals) of aquatic mammals is smaller than that calculated for terrestrial relatives of comparable body size. (utexas.edu)
  • The fluid filled chambers within the vestibule are continuous with that of semicircular canals. (drtbalu.in)
  • In group I, 3D MRI showed good visualization of the membranous labyrinth, cochlea, vestibule, the semicircular canals and the endolymphatic duct and sac in all patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • The 3D MRI showed good visualization of the endolymphatic sac, the semicircular canals, the internal auditory canal and the vestibular aqueduct. (bvsalud.org)
  • It holds the cochlea, vestibule and the semi-circular canals. (geekymedics.com)
  • The semi-circular ducts, within the semi-circular canals, have three individual parts that connect together at the utricle (located anteriorly to the saccule in the vestibule) (Figure 1). (geekymedics.com)
  • In addition to the structures used for hearing, the inner ear contains the semicircular canals and the utriculus and sacculus, the chief organs of balance and orientation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The vestibular nerve arises from the receptors of the macules of the inner ear, specifically the utricle and the saccule , in addition to the receptors of the semicircular canals of the membranous labyrinth. (smartdaily.net)
  • The vestibule is the region of the inner ear where the semicircular canals converge, close to the cochlea (the hearing organ). (wikidoc.org)
  • The labyrinth is a complex system of canals in the inner ear. (vetinfo.com)
  • It consists of the vestibule, semicircular canals and the cochlea. (vetinfo.com)
  • The vestibule and semicircular canals help the dog to maintain posture, balance and coordination. (vetinfo.com)
  • Compared to Moschognathus , we reconstruct Anteosaurus as an agile terrestrial predator based on the enlarged fossa for the floccular lobe of the cerebellum and semicircular canals of the inner ear. (pan.pl)
  • I paid particular attention to the vestibule bone with its 2 windows, the cochlea and the semicircular canals. (embodi3d.com)
  • For the orientation in space of the responsible semicircular canals and the vestibule. (medicalj-center.info)
  • Perform this function semicircular canals and the vestibule, they have a very complex system. (medicalj-center.info)
  • The membranous part includes the vestibule and semicircular canals for equilibrium and the cochlea for sound. (blogspot.com)
  • The inner ear comprises both: the organ of hearing (the cochlea) and the labyrinth or vestibular apparatus, the organ of balance located in the inner ear that consists of three semicircular canals and the vestibule. (statemaster.com)
  • Understand how the vestibule and semi-circular canals within the inner ear detect motion and position of the body with respect to gravity. (wikipremed.com)
  • The inner ear consists of the cochlea, vestibule and semicircular canals encased in the bony otic capsule. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The other divisions of the inner ear-the vestibule and the semicircular canals-are involved in the sense of equilibrium. (britannica.com)
  • It lies anteromedial to the vestibule and semicircular canals, where it is embedded in the petrous part of the temporal bone adjacent to the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery , facial nerve , geniculate ganglion, internal acoustic meatus , and semicircular canals. (thejns.org)
  • The stapes causes a membrane in the oval window to vibrate, and the vibrations are transmitted to the inner ear. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The longest and heaviest bone in the body is the femur and the smallest is the stapes bone in the middle ear. (statemaster.com)
  • The stapes or stirrup is the stirrup-shaped small bone or ossicle in the middle ear which attaches the incus to the fenestra ovalis, the oval window which is adjacent to the vestibule of the inner ear. (statemaster.com)
  • On each side, the medial wall of the middle ear was flat and the stapes was absent. (ajnr.org)
  • CT scans similarly showed bilateral inner ear aplasia associated with absence of the stapes. (ajnr.org)
  • transmits motion of stapes to fluid of internal ear. (brainscape.com)
  • Bones of the ear: Malleus, Incus and Orbiculare, Stapes. (usf.edu)
  • As sound vibrations travel through the stapes and push the oval window into the inner ear, fluid waves are created in the inner ear that travel through the cochlea to dissipate at the round window. (appliedradiology.com)
  • When sound waves are conducted across the bones of the middle ear, they cause the oval window (a membranous opening between the middle and inner ears) to move in and out along with the stapes of the middle ear, to which it is attached. (britannica.com)
  • membranous labyrinth a system of communicating epithelial sacs and ducts within the bony labyrinth, containing the endolymph. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The membranous labyrinth is a system of communicating sacs and ducts (tubes) filled with fluid (the endolymph). (medicinenet.com)
  • These two parts of the labyrinth are separated by a fluid ( perilymph ) and the membranous labyrinth also contains a fluid known as the endolymph . (healthhype.com)
  • Although the physiology is debated, the endolymphatic sac (ELS) is thought to maintain hydrostatic pressure and endolymph homeostasis for the inner ear, and its dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease. (ajnr.org)
  • A fluid called perilymph fills the space between the bone and the membranous labyrinth, while another one called endolymph fills the inside of the tubes spanned by the membranous labyrinth. (wikibooks.org)
  • Because the membranous labyrinth is a closed system, the endolymph and perilymph do not mix. (britannica.com)
  • Endolymph fluid is found within the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear, while perilymph is found within the osseous (bony) labyrinth. (hubpages.com)
  • Membranous labyrinth contains fluid which is known as the endolymph which is rich in potassium. (drtbalu.in)
  • Endolymph - clear, viscous substance circulates in the membranous labyrinth. (medicalj-center.info)
  • The volute channel is a fluid, endolymph, perilymph makes the ladder of the vestibule and drum the stairs. (medicalj-center.info)
  • The entire inner ear is bathed in a cushioning fluid, called the endolymph when it lies within the membranous labyrinth and the perilymph when it separates the bony and membranous labyrinths. (britannica.com)
  • Internal liquid structures of the cochlea and semicircular ducts, vestibule at centre. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structures of the internal ear are located within the petrous part of the temporal bone and is composed of two parts - the bony and the membranous labyrinth. (anatomynext.com)
  • The cartilaginous, bony, and muscular structures of the ear develop from the mesenchyme surrounding these early epithelia. (guwsmedical.info)
  • What are the major structures of the medial wall of the middle ear? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • What are the major structures associated with the anterior wall ear? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • The medial wall of the middle ear is flattened ( arrow ), being in close contact with the infratentorial nervous structures. (ajnr.org)
  • By the help of the external ear the sonorous vibrations of the air are concentrated upon the tympanic membrane and set it vibrating, the chain of bones in the middle ear transmits these vibrations to the internal ear, where they cause certain delicate structures in the organ of Corti, and other parts of the membranous labyrinth, to stimulate the fibers of the auditory nerve to transmit sonorous impulses to the brain. (landak.com)
  • All these structures subsequently travel into the internal acoustic meatus . (earthslab.com)
  • When a sound reaches the ear, the sound waves impinge on the internal structures of the ear causing them to vibrate. (smartdaily.net)
  • Ear preparations for medical treatments or cleaning of the ear can also cause damage if they come in contact with sensitive structures of the internal ear. (vetinfo.com)
  • The structures within the ear also contribute to the sense of balance or equilibrium. (usf.edu)
  • To exhibit all bony labyrinth I eliminated the middle ear structures, but I kept the hammer, the incus and the facial nerve canal. (embodi3d.com)
  • The temporal bones are overlaid by the sides of the head known as the temples , and house the structures of the ears . (wikipedia.org)
  • A fluid called perilymph fills the space (perilymphatic space) between the osseous and membranous labyrinths. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At some points the membranous labyrinth is attached to the bony labyrinth and at other points the membranous labyrinth is suspended in a fluid (the perilymph) within the bony labyrinth. (medicinenet.com)
  • Surrounding the membranous labyrinth and filling the remaining space is the watery fluid called perilymph . (britannica.com)
  • The membranous labyrinth does not completely fill the bony labyrinth, but is partially suspended in it in a fluid (the perilymph). (landak.com)
  • The distal end of the cochlear canal drains its perilymph via the cochlear aqueduct and the cochlear canaliculus into the subarachnoid space just inferior to the internal acoustic meatus in the anterior segment of the jugular foramen. (drtbalu.in)
  • The sound wave then passes into the perilymph of the scala tympani, where it causes a second membrane-covered opening into the middle ear, the round window, to bulge outward and dampen the wave in the perilymph. (britannica.com)
  • The long process of the incus ( arrow ) leans against the medial middle ear wall. (ajnr.org)
  • Firstly, the first middle ear bone attached to the eardrum is rather short (the incus). (hubpages.com)
  • The incus creates force and the malleus creates leverage, which increases the sound energy as it moves through the middle ear. (hubpages.com)
  • passing between the long process of incus and the handle of malleus and makes the middle ear by going into the anterior canaliculus (on the anterior wall of the middle ear). (earthslab.com)
  • The incus is the anvil-shaped small bone or ossicle in the middle ear. (wikipremed.com)
  • A myringotomy is a surgical procedure in which a tiny incision is created in the eardrum (tympanic membrane) to relieve pressure caused by excessive buildup of fluid, or to drain pus from the middle ear. (passionateinknowledge.com)
  • This fluid closely resembles CSF in its composition and flows between the bony and membranous labyrinths. (drtbalu.in)
  • (B), Posterior view of the membranous labyrinth (labyrinthus membranaceus), which is contained within the bony labyrinth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Name the feature, which communicates the vestibule to the posterior cranial fossa. (brainscape.com)
  • Brain Blood Flow- Brain is a huge amount of the mass of body (in relation to many other body organs) (makes up about 2% of total body weight) (makes up about 20% of blood supply to brain) brain is a huge consumer- 20% of oxygen/glucose (energy) -Arteries- oxygenated blood- red -Internal carotid artery- large supply of blood to brain (anterior portion of brain) -Vertebral arteries- supply posterior portion of brain. (scribd.com)
  • while the superior canal of one ear is nearly parallel to the posterior canal of the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • the opposite end joins with the upper part of the posterior canal to form the crus commune , which opens into the upper and medial part of the vestibule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The posterior canal is part of the bony labyrinth and is used by the vestibular system to detect rotations of the head in the coronal plane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computed Tomography (CT) scan shows the bony labyrinth anatomy, and an axial CT with 1.5-mm sections generally provides the best view of the vestibular aqueduct from the vestibule to the posterior surface of the petrous bone [ 8 , 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The tympanic segment of the facial canal runs horizontally backward in the medial wall of the middle ear till it reaches the junction of the medial and posterior wall of the middle ear. (earthslab.com)
  • The mastoid section starts at the junction of the medial and posterior wall of the middle ear and enters vertically downward in the posterior wall of the middle ear till it reaches the stylomastoid foramen at the base of the skull. (earthslab.com)
  • The ampullae of all three scc's open into the vestibule independently. (drtbalu.in)
  • The article reviews the anatomy of the middle ear space and surrounding bone and presents radiographic imaging in both axial and coronal views, with labeled salient features and relevant text. (medscape.com)
  • There are three sections of the ear, according to the anatomy textbooks. (medicinenet.com)
  • . Mastoid obliteration with reconstruction of the bony external ear canal recreates the normal anatomy to avoid such morbidity. (passionateinknowledge.com)
  • Designed to be original and educational, this atlas will reduce the long hours of tedious study and make the anatomy of the ear easier to master. (google.com)
  • Therefore, it makes some sense to digress into the anatomy and physiology of the ear as a phylogenetic and functional unit. (palaeos.com)
  • Dissection of the ear is difficult in the lab and usually takes too much time in most anatomy courses, but, you should have some understanding of what makes up the ear. (blogspot.com)
  • The external ear includes pinna / auricle and eardrum / tympanic membrane. (leo.org)
  • The outer ear consists of the auricle or pinna and the external acoustic meatus . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1. External ear: Showing the shape of the auricle and the primary features of the external auditory meatus. (fuzing.com)
  • The open tubular canal from the pinna (auricle) of the ear to the tympanic membrane (ear drum). (tabers.com)
  • It consists of the pinna or auricle (the visible projecting portion of the ear), the external acoustic meatus (the outside opening to the ear canal), and the external ear canal that leads to the ear drum. (medicinenet.com)
  • 4 OUTER EAR THREE BASIC COMPONENTS Pinna or Auricle- It serves as a collector of sound to be processed at deeper levels. (slideplayer.com)
  • The outer ear consisting of the auricle and the external auditory canal. (medicalj-center.info)
  • The outer ear is composed of the auricle and external auditory canal (EAC). (appliedradiology.com)
  • All of the following are the contents of the middle ear, EXCEPT a. malleus. (brainscape.com)
  • A small dehiscence of the medial wall of the middle ear ( arrowhead ), located at the IAM, probably corresponds to the entrance of the facial nerve. (ajnr.org)
  • Here it's essential to notice the backside or fundus of the internal acoustic meatus creates the medial wall of the bony labyrinth of the internal ear . (earthslab.com)
  • The labyrinthine segment of the facial canal is located above the vestibule of bony labyrinth and bends to get to the anterosuperior part of the medial wall of the middle ear (tympanum) near the processus cochleariformis. (earthslab.com)
  • Axons from the medial geniculate nucleus form the acoustic radiation of the brain , which passes through the internal capsule and ends at the superior temporal gyrus and the transverse temporal gyrus (Brodmann areas 41 and 42). (smartdaily.net)
  • The petrous apex is removed and the medial end of the internal auditory canal is exposed. (ent-review.com)
  • The medial superior olive (MSO) is a specialized nucleus that is believed to measure the time difference of arrival of sounds between the ears (the interaural time difference or ITD). (bionity.com)
  • T he cochlea is the most anterior and medial part of the vestibulocochlear labyrinth. (thejns.org)
  • vestibular labyrinth the part of the membranous labyrinth that includes the utricle and saccule and the semicircular ducts. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The membranous labyrinth of the vestibular system (centre), which contains the organs of balance, and (lower left) the cristae of the semicircular ducts and (lower right) the maculae of the utricle and saccule. (britannica.com)
  • The outer ear comprises (kann man das sagen? (leo.org)
  • The outer ear consists of the ear flap and extends just up to the eardrum. (leo.org)
  • The middle ear is separated from the outer ear by the eardrum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The middle ear is also connected with the cells in the mastoid bone just behind the outer ear. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We'll work our way in from the outer ear , and I'll talk about form as we go. (everything2.com)
  • Okay, the outer ear is the part of the ear that you see. (everything2.com)
  • The outer ear looks complicated but it is the simplest part of the ear. (medicinenet.com)
  • What is the name for an infection of the outer ear? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • What is the blood supply of the outer ear? (brainscape.com)
  • What is the innervation to the outer ear? (brainscape.com)
  • Sound is collected by the outer ear, travels down the air-filled ear canal, and hits the eardrum. (hubpages.com)
  • Thin membrane at the end of the outer ear that vibrates when sound waves strike it. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The bony labyrinth is comprised of cavities in the petrosal part of the temporal bone. (geekymedics.com)
  • The external ear includes pinna and eardrum. (leo.org)
  • These three small bones form a chain across the middle ear from the eardrum to the oval window. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An exception is myringotomy , incision of the tympanic membrane, which is sometimes necessary to relieve pressure behind the eardrum and allow for drainage from an inflammatory process in the middle ear. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At the end of the ear canal is the tympanic membrane , commonly known as the eardrum . (everything2.com)
  • Sound waves travels through the ear canal and into the eardrum, which is also known as the tympanum . (everything2.com)
  • The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. (statemaster.com)
  • A small plastic tube inserted into the eardrum to keep the middle ear aerated for a prolonged period of time . (passionateinknowledge.com)
  • Eventually, most will move out of the eardrum (extrude) and fall out into the ear canal. (passionateinknowledge.com)
  • Tympanoplasty is the surgical operation p erformed for the reconstruction of the eardrum (tympanic membrane) and/or the small bones of the middle ear. (passionateinknowledge.com)
  • The sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate, which in turn causes the middle ear bones to vibrate. (hubpages.com)
  • Also called the ear canal, the tunnel in the ear between the pinna and eardrum. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The tympanic membrane, colloquially known as the eardrum, is a thin membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear. (wikipremed.com)
  • Compression at the internal acoustic meatus would affect which nerves? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • The internal acoustic channel, facial nerve channel and jugular foramen were natural. (entcase.org)
  • The cochlea, vestibule, internal acoustic channel, mastoid and labyrinth segments of the facial nerve appeared to be natural. (entcase.org)
  • The facial nerve enters the facial canal in the petrous temporal bone through its opening in the fundus of the internal acoustic meatus. (earthslab.com)
  • 400px]] Membranous labyrinth and acoustic complex model reconstructed from week 8 human embryo (CRL 30 mm). (edu.au)
  • Section of the facial and acoustic nerves within internal acoustic meatus (the separation between them is not apparent in the section). (wikidoc.org)
  • The canal followed by the internal carotid artery and its accompanying sympathetic nerves as it passes through the bone of the skull. (tabers.com)
  • It basically serves as a reflector, either reflecting sound directly into the ear canal, or off of the tragus and into the ear canal. (everything2.com)
  • Notice that your pinna is much bigger than your ear canal (duh). (everything2.com)
  • Okay, now we move through the ear canal and into the middle ear . (everything2.com)
  • A progressively enlarging, benign tumor, usually within the internal auditory canal or hearing nerve. (markhowardmd.com)
  • It communicates with the middle ear at the round and oval window and with the subarachnoid space through the cochlear aqueduct and internal auditory canal. (healthhype.com)
  • The cochlea is a bony canal that forms a spiral making 2.5 turns and lies in front and medially of the vestibule. (anatomynext.com)
  • This review illustrates key imaging findings after surgery for Ménière disease, superior semicircular canal dehiscence, temporal encephalocele repairs, internal auditory canal decompression, active middle ear implants, jugular bulb and sigmoid sinus dehiscence repair, and petrous apicectomy. (ajnr.org)
  • It also protects the outer part of the ear canal because it repels water . (passionateinknowledge.com)
  • The surgery is typically performed through the ear canal. (passionateinknowledge.com)
  • Anterior wall- separating middle ear from carotid canal. (brainscape.com)
  • Exocrine glands in the skin of the auditory canal of the ear that secrete earwax or cerumen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is primarily made of a cartilagenous framework External Auditory Meatus- ear canal. (slideplayer.com)
  • Name the entrance to the ear canal. (cram.com)
  • What innervates the bottom of the ear canal? (cram.com)
  • I also left in place the internal auditory canal and the internal auditory meatus where are visible the facial cochlear and vestibular nerves openings with the bony eminences that separate them (Bill's Bar, Crista falciformis). (embodi3d.com)
  • Tumor (arrows) has invaded the petrous apex (PA), internal auditory canal (IAC), facial nerve (F), middle ear (ME), and mastoid (M) (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification ×7). (jamanetwork.com)
  • This can be seen with presbycusis, internal auditory canal (IAC) and cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumors, labyrinthitis and CNS pathology. (appliedradiology.com)
  • A giant model of the ear, for elementary science classes, shows the three main structural parts of the hearing organ (external ear, middle ear, internal ear) and the position of the equilibrium organ of human body. (fuzing.com)
  • The middle ear is connected to the nasopharynx by the eustachian tube , through which the air pressure in the middle ear is equalized with the air pressure in the nose and throat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • More superiorly, the eustachian tube, tensor tympani, and cochleariform process can be observed along the anterior margin of the middle ear. (medscape.com)
  • The endodermal component of the first pouch gives rise to the tubotym-panic recess, which ultimately develops into the auditoiy tube (Eustachian tube) and the middle ear and its epithelial lining. (guwsmedical.info)
  • Air reaches the middle ear through the Eustachian tube Eustachian tube [for Bartolomeo Eustachi], a hollow structure of bone and cartilage extending from the middle ear to the rear of the throat, or pharynx, technically known as the pharyngotympanic or auditory tube. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Eustachian tube is a tube that links the pharynx to the middle ear. (wikipremed.com)
  • The vestibule is the central part of the bony labyrinth that encloses the membranous sacs - saccule and utricle. (anatomynext.com)
  • ii) If there be symptoms of inflammation of the mastoid process, or of internal-ear or of intracranial suppuration. (dictionary.com)
  • Middle ear infections can sometimes spread to the mastoid air cells. (brainscape.com)
  • The floor of the middle ear is primarily composed of the bone covering the jugular bulb. (medscape.com)
  • The external ear is a cartilaginous funnel, attached, by ligaments and muscles, to the temporal bone. (mshaffer.com)
  • It has a passage known as the labyrinth which can be divided into the a bony part which lies in the temporal bone of the skull and a membranous part that runs within the bony labyrinth. (healthhype.com)
  • Remember that the roof of the middle ear is composed of the petrous part of the temporal bone. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Temporal bone separating middle ear from internal jugular. (brainscape.com)
  • Highlights contain microanatomy and endoscopic photographs of the temporal bone, human embryonic specimens demonstrating the histology of the constructing ear, and scanning electron micrographs of the organ of Corti and the vestibular receptors. (nicklaslj.se)
  • The walls of the bony labyrinth are continuous with that of the surrounding temporal bone. (drtbalu.in)
  • The bony walls of the labyrinth consists of dense bone everywhere except for 2 small areas near the base of the cochlea. (drtbalu.in)
  • Inside is membranous labyrinth, it is perfectly follows the shape of bone, but smaller in size. (medicalj-center.info)
  • Dr Jackler has authored over 150 peer reviewed papers, over 35 textbook chapters, numerous editorials, published three books Neurotology (1994, 2004), Atlas of Neurotology & Skull Base Surgery -(1996, 2008), and Tumors of the Ear and Temporal Bone - 2000). (stanford.edu)
  • Nylen CO Cancer metastasis in the temporal bone simulating acute inflammation in the middle ear. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Before we move on, dry off your ears and notice the complex shape of the pinna. (everything2.com)
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), especially on T2-weighted images, allows visualization of the membranous labyrinth [ 13 , 14 , 19 ] and is the only imaging technique that enables visualization of the extraosseous portion of the endolymphatic sac. (hindawi.com)
  • The ear is a three-chambered sensory organ that functions as an auditoiy system for sound perception and as a vestibular system for balance. (guwsmedical.info)
  • The ear is the most frequently damaged sense organ. (medscape.com)
  • The ear is a complex organ of the human senses. (medicalj-center.info)
  • The external and middle ear collect and conduct sound energy to the internal ear, where auditory sensory receptors convert that energy into electrical impulses. (guwsmedical.info)
  • The sensory receptors of the vestibular system are also located in the internal ear. (guwsmedical.info)
  • The sensory epithelia of the membranous labyrinth that originates from the otic vesicle link with cranial nerve VIII, which is an outgrowth of the central nervous system. (guwsmedical.info)
  • Although the sensory organs-particularly the attention and ear-are of serious medical significance, the lecture time allotted to them within the anatomical curricula is restricted as a result of their nice nomenclatural and physiological complexity. (nicklaslj.se)
  • All of these issues are significantly related to the ear and its sensory functions. (palaeos.com)
  • Some text writers (as well as earlier portions of these Notes) have persisted in the naive description of the ear as the sensory home of "hearing. (palaeos.com)
  • The special sensory receptors for sight and hearing are located in large, complex sensory organs - the eyes and the ears. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It receives the stimulation that the sensory receptors located in the membrane of the auditory labyrinth capture. (smartdaily.net)
  • A sensory receptor is a structure that recognizes a stimulus in the internal or external environment, and in response, initiates sensory transduction by creating graded potentials or action potentials in the same cell or in an adjacent one. (wikipremed.com)
  • The membranous labyrinth also has a vestibule which consists of two sacs (called the utriculus and sacculus) connected by a narrow tube. (medicinenet.com)
  • Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth that consists of small sacs and tubules which contain receptors for hearing, movement of the head and position of the head. (anatomynext.com)
  • The otolith organs of both ears are located in two membranous sacs called the utricle and the saccule which primary sense horizontal and vertical accelerations, respectively. (wikibooks.org)
  • The two membranous sacs of the vestibule, the utricle and the saccule , are known as the otolith organs . (britannica.com)
  • The vestibulocochlear nerve is responsible for sending information from the cochlea and vestibule to the brain , stimuli which will be interpreted in the form of sound and balance. (smartdaily.net)
  • After exiting the cochlea, the nerve enters the internal meatus where it joins the vestibular nerve, forming the vestibulocochlear nerve itself. (smartdaily.net)
  • The styloid, from the Greek stylos , is a phallic shaped pillar directed inferiorly and anteromedially between the parotid gland and internal jugular vein . (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgical procedures involving plastic reconstruction of the small bones of the middle ear are extremely delicate and have been made possible by the development of special instruments and technical equipment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The sound waves cause the tympanum to vibrate and the three small bones of the middle ear , the anvil, hammer and stirrup , transfer the vibrations of the tympanum to the oval window of the Cochlea . (everything2.com)
  • By this time the tympanum and middle ear have amplified the vibrations by a factor of 40. (everything2.com)
  • The middle ear space is shaped somewhat in the form of a red blood cell stood on end. (medscape.com)
  • The roof of the middle ear space is formed by the tegmen tympani. (medscape.com)
  • This structure separates the middle ear space from the middle cranial fossa. (medscape.com)
  • The labyrinth is a secured compartment and lies deep in the skull compared to the outer or middle ear. (healthhype.com)
  • Direct infiltration of bacteria from surrounding sites, like with otitis media (middle ear infection), meningitis (infection of the brain lining) or mastoiditis and it is then known as suppurative labyrinthitis . (healthhype.com)
  • Compression caused by benign growths of the middle ear like a cholesteatoma. (healthhype.com)
  • A stapedectomy is a surgical procedure of the middle ear performed in order to improve hearing . (passionateinknowledge.com)
  • The middle and external ears are absent. (biozoomer.com)
  • Each of the three divisions of the ear, the external ear, middle ear, and internal ear, is an essential part of the auditory system (Fig. 24.1). (guwsmedical.info)
  • What seperates the middle ear from the external ear? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • What are two important regions of the middle ear (especially when talking about infenction)? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • What is the part of the middle ear that opens into the nasopharynx? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • What are the bones of the middle ear? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • What forms the roof of the middle ear? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • What critical structure can be affected when the roof of the middle ear has a bad enough fracture or infection? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • What important structure sits just below the floor of the middle ear? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Schwannomas of the middle ear may originate from the facial nerve, tympanic chord, tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (Jacobson nerve) or auricular branch of the vagal nerve (Arnold nerve). (entcase.org)
  • There were pale-colored tissues on the promontorium in the middle ear extending to the epitympanum. (entcase.org)
  • Joins pharynx with middle ear. (bankofbiology.com)
  • B, Coronal CT scan shows a normally developed external and middle right ear. (ajnr.org)
  • The TM has three layers and external epithelium, middle connective tissue and internal epithelium, what are they derived from? (brainscape.com)
  • What is the function of the middle ear? (brainscape.com)
  • What does it seperate the middle ear from? (brainscape.com)
  • 1.Cartilaginous and membranous tube connecting middle ear and nasopharynx. (brainscape.com)
  • The middle ear bones amplify sound as they transmit it through the air-filled middle ear space. (hubpages.com)
  • At the end of the EAM is the Tympanic Membrane which is the structure separating the outer and middle ear. (slideplayer.com)
  • If the dog has displayed signs of outer or middle ear infection and is given persistent treatment, otitis interna and the associated labyrinthitis can be prevented. (vetinfo.com)
  • Diagram of the Middle and Internal Ear. (usf.edu)
  • The tympanic membrane (TM) is located at the end of the EAC and separates the EAC from the middle ear. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Strictly speaking, in microtia, there is some degree of malformation of the external ear (± narrowing or absence of the external auditory meatus) in contrast to a 'small ear' which is normally formed, as seen in Down's syndrome . (patient.info)
  • The external ear helps concentrate the vibrations of air on the ear drum and make it vibrate. (medicinenet.com)
  • And the external ear has only to concentrate air vibrations on the ear drum and make the drum vibrate. (medicinenet.com)
  • It protects and transmits vibrations to the membranous labyrinth. (biozoomer.com)
  • No facial or external ear malformations were found. (ajnr.org)
  • Its thin images and high contrast allow detection of small lesions inside the IAC and any membranous labyrinth malformations. (bvsalud.org)
  • When the entire labyrinth is affected (pan-labyrinthine), the cochlea is also involved and then hearing may be affected to varying degrees (sensorineural hearing loss). (healthhype.com)
  • and behind this depression is an oblique ridge, the crista vestibuli, the anterior end of which is named the pyramid of the vestibule. (wikipedia.org)
  • (A), Anterior view of the bony labyrinth (labyrinthus osseus). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recently, the role of otic capsule formation on mesenchymal differentiation was reported as well as the impact of the genetic deletion of the homeobox gene on the development of the ear, cranial nerves, and hindbrain. (ajnr.org)